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🌏 | FDA approves booster dose of Pfizer vaccine for 5-11 years old


FDA approves booster dose of Pfizer vaccine for ages 5-11

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A discussion by an advisory board of outside experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is scheduled for 19th, after which the CDC will decide whether or not to approve it.

[Reuters] – The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced on the XNUMXth that Pfizer Bion for children aged XNUMX-XNUMX years ... → Continue reading


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    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Institution (Law)

    lawAs a termorgan(Kikan,alone: Organ) IsGerman law,Japanese lawIn the concept ofCorporationMake one or more decisions or actions forA personTo say.Of living thingsorganIt is an expression likened to (Organ).

    Incidentally,decreeAs a term,MinistryIt is also called an "institution" to refer to an organization such asNational Administrative Organization LawHowever, this section does not deal with this term (for details, see "."Administrative agencySee).


    As a corporation is merely a legal idea, it cannot make decisions or act in a natural sense by itself.It is one or more persons with such authority who are actually responsible for this, and this is called an institution.There are two types of institutions: one with a self-reliant system (a single body) and one with a collegial system (a collegial body).

    Private law institution

    Every corporation has an institution, which is responsible for decision-making, business execution, and auditing as a corporation.For example, under Japanese lawLtd.In, as an independent institutionCEO,Statutory AuditorEtc. as a collegial bodyboard of directors,General Meeting of ShareholdersEtc. are placed.

    Voting body

    An organization that votes on basic matters of a corporation and does not execute it is called a voting organization.Under Japanese law, in a joint-stock companyGeneral Meeting of Shareholders, In other incorporated associationsGeneral meetingOr say.

    Supreme and universal institutions

    Historically, under Japanese law, it was debated whether a stock company's general meeting of shareholders was the supreme institution or a universal institution. Highest institution(oberste Organ) usually refers to an institution whose decisions are binding on all other institutions for matters belonging to its decision-making authority.In this sense, the general meeting of shareholders is the highest institution of a joint-stock company. Universal institutionRefers to an institution that has the authority to make decisions on all matters.In this sense, at least a general meeting of shareholders of a joint-stock company that does not have a board of directors is a universal institution of the joint-stock company.However, the meanings of these words were sometimes used with some differences or confusion depending on the theorists.In any case, it has been pointed out that these discussions do not lead to any conclusions, and that these discussions are a thing of the past today.

    (Business) Executive agency

    An organization that is responsible for executing business based on the decisions of the voting organization is called an executive organization or business execution organization.It may also be a board of directors.If it is a Japanese joint-stock company, the director (representative director / director in charge of business if a board of directors is established), the board of directors or executive officers, and if it is a non-profit corporation, the representative director, chairman, director, board of directors, etc. , Corresponds to this.

    Regulatory agency

    An organization that supervises the appropriateness of business execution is called a supervisory organization.If it is a Japanese corporation, it corresponds to the board of directors, and if it is a non-profit corporation, it corresponds to the board of directors.In a two-tiered joint-stock company such as Germany, the board of directors, which is the executive body, is separated from the board of corporate auditors, which is the supervisory body, and the directors are appointed by the board of corporate auditors.

    Auditing body

    An organization that audits the legality of business execution is called an auditing organization.If it is a Japanese corporationStatutory Auditor,Audit & Supervisory Board,Accounting auditor,Audit CommitteeandTreasurerBut if it's a non-profit corporationAuditors,Accounting auditorEtc. correspond to this.However, there are also views that deny the institutional nature of accounting auditors because they are outside the corporation.

    Public law institution

    Country and othersPublic corporationAs for, the institution responsible for the decision-making and actions is conceived.

    Legislative, administrative and judicial bodies

    Legislative body

    An institution whose main task is affairs related to legislative action is called a legislative institution.The Diet is the only legislative body in Japan.

    Sponsoring organization

    In Japan under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan,Imperial AssemblyWas a legislative body, but it did not have the legislative power by itself, but was positioned as a supporting body for the legislative power of the emperor.In addition, it should be notedbudgetThe same was true for.

    Administrative agency

    In the theory of administrative law, the country and othersAdministrative bodyBarrelPublic corporationInstitutions responsible for administrative affairs inAdministrative agencyThat.Administrative agency under the National Government Organization ActIt should be noted that this is a different concept.In this sense, administrative agencies are classified into six types: administrative agencies, advisory bodies, advisory bodies, auditing bodies, executive bodies, and auxiliary bodies.

    Administrative agency

    An administrative agency that has the authority to determine the legal intentions of an administrative entity and display it to the outside world.Administrative agencyThat is.It is used in the scene of exercising public authority.Especially the national government (ieGovernment officeIs the administrative agency)Administrative agencyThat.

    Advisory body

    An administrative agency that receives advice from the administrative agency, deliberates, investigates, and expresses opinions.Advisory bodyThat is.It is usually a collegial system.VariousCouncil,Study group,Council,Subcommittee,Expert meetingSuch.The opinion of the advisory body is not legally binding, but should be respected as much as possible.

    Participating institution

    An administrative agency that makes decisions that legally bind the will of an administrative agencyParticipating institutionThat is.It is a collegial system.Radio Control Council,Prosecutor Qualification Examination Committee,Labor insurance examination committeeetc.

    Auditing body

    An administrative agency that inspects the administrative and accounting processes of an administrative agency and audits its suitability.Auditing bodyThat.Accounting Office,Audit Committeeetc.

    Enforcement agency

    Administrative agencies that enforce or immediately enforceEnforcement agencyThat is.It is necessary to pay attention to the distinction from other enforcement agencies.SDF,Police officer,Maritime Sheriff,Tax collector,Firefightersetc.

    Auxiliary organization

    Administrative agencies that carry out daily affairs to assist the duties of government agencies and other administrative agenciesAuxiliary organizationThat.Deputy Minister,Under Secretary,Secretary,ManagerMost of the general staff are applicable.However, onceHuman Resources and Benefits BureauSome, like the chief, also have the character of an administrative agency.

    Condolence organization

    Under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan, each minister or cabinet, which is an administrative agency, regards the administrative authority of the emperor.CondolenceIt was positioned as an institution. Regarding the significance of "輔弼", there was a conflict between the theocratic school, which merely assisted the emperor in exercising administrative power, and the constitutional school, which recognized the substance of binding.


    An institution whose main task is affairs related to judicial actionJudiciaryThat is.In Japan, the general public (as a court body described below)裁判 所,Bailiff,Impeachment courtand so on.Under the old lawProsecutorWas also a judicial institution.Judiciary bodies that have the authority to determine national legal decisions and display them to the outside worldJudiciary officeThat is.The term "judicial institution" is often used not in the meaning of "institution" in this section but in the meaning of an organization (that is, a court as a government office, etc.).


    trialInstitution to doCourthouseThat.裁判 所Has multiple meanings, but is often used as a judicial body.In this case, it refers to a court as a single body by one judge or a collegial body by several judges who hear a specific case in a court, and has a different meaning from a court as a government office or a court as a government building. It should be noted that there is.

    Enforcement agency

    In the sense that it is the institution that executes the trial, as opposed to the institution that conducts the trial.Enforcement agencyMay be used.Under Japanese lawCivil executionEnforcement agency裁判 所(Small-amount litigation claim executionaboutCourt clerk)WhenBailiff(Civil Enforcement Law, Article 2, Article 167-2, Paragraph 1),Civil protectionExecution bodies are courts and bailiffs (Civil Conservation Law, Article 2, Paragraph 2).

    Highest institution

    As in the case of private law institutions, an institution with decision-making authority to bind any other institutionHighest institutionSometimes called (oberste Organ).For exampleImperial Japanese ConstitutionUnderEmperor Organization TheoryIt is,National corporation theoryOn the premise ofEmperorIs positioned as the supreme institution of the nation as a corporation, and strictly speaking, the administrative agency is not an institution that directly handles the affairs of the nation (direct institution) but an institution that exercises authority under the mandate of the emperor (indirect institution). ..In addition, it should be notedArticle 41 of the Constitution of Japan The国会Is the "highest institution of state power"[Annotation 1]According to the common wisdom, this is not the meaning of the highest institution here, but is understood as a political aesthetic (political aesthetic theory).[1].

    National agency

    National institutions,National agencyAlso called (Staatsorgan).

    Government office

    country'sAdministrative agencyThat is, the institution that has the authority to determine the will of the country and display it to the outsideGovernment office".There are classifications such as independent and collegial offices, administrative and judicial offices, ordinary and special offices, and central and local offices.

    Voting and executive bodies

    in JapanOrdinary local governmentandspecial areaIs classified as a voting body and an executive body.

    Voting body

    Similar to private law institutions, institutions that vote on basic matters and do not enforce themVoting bodyThat is.Ordinary local governments and special wardsParliamentIs applicable.

    Enforcement agency

    An institution responsible for the execution of administrative affairs based on the decisions made by the voting institutionEnforcement agencyThat is.It is used to refer to the chiefs, committees and members of ordinary local public bodies and special wards (that is, the administrative agencies of ordinary local public bodies).It is almost equivalent to the above-mentioned administrative agency, but also includes audit committee members, which are auditing bodies.


    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ Historically, the GHQ draft stage presupposed British-style parliamentary sovereignty (for example, the Diet had the authority to retrial the Supreme Court's decision regarding the constitutionality of laws and regulations other than matters related to basic human rights). It is an expression derived from that.


    1. ^ Digital Daijisen. “The highest authority of state power". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2022/4/8Browse.

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