Portal field news

Portal field news


🌏 | EU demands Russia to ease tensions No plans to evacuate families of diplomats in Ukraine


EU demands Russia to ease tensions No plans to evacuate families of diplomats in Ukraine

If you write the contents roughly
Borrell, High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security of the European Union (EU), said he has no plans at this time to issue an evacuation order to the families of diplomats stationed in Ukraine.

[Brussels, XNUMXth Reuters] – The European Union (EU) is at the Council of Foreign Ministers on the XNUMXth, by Russia ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Borrell High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security

European Union

European Union
Bulgarian:Европейски съюз
Spanish:European Union
Czech language:European Union
Danish:Den Europæiske Union
German:European Union
Estonian:Euroopa Liit
Greek:European Union
English:European Union
French:European Union
Irish:AntAontas Eorpach
Croatian:European Union
Italian:XNUMX-XNUMX business days
Latvian:Eiropas Savienība
Lithuanian:Europos Sąjunga
Hungarian:European Union
Maltese:Unjoni Ewropea
Dutch:European Union
Polish language:The European Union
Portuguese:European Union
Romanian:European Union
Slovak:Európska únia
Slovenian:European Union
Finnish:Euroopan unioni
Swedish:Europeiska unionen
European Union flag
(European flag)
European Union Motto: In varietate concordia[2]
(Latin: Unity in diversity)
European Union song: Symphony No. 9 4th movement"Song of delight'
European Union range
Official terminology
Base cityブ リ ュ ッ セ ル
Luxembourg City
Member countries
European CommissionChairmanUrsula von der Lyen
European ParliamentChairRoberta Metsola
European CouncilChairCharles Michel
- Roman TreatyEffective
- Maastricht TreatyEffective

1958/May 1
1993/May 11
- Grand total
-Water area rate
World No. 7[4]
- 4,233,262 km2
- 3.08%
-Total (2020)
- The population density
World No. 3[4]
- Grand total
-Per person
2020/ [6]
-20 trillion 366 billionUS dollar
-US$ 45,541
GDP (nominal)
- Grand total
-Per person
2020 (IMF)[7]
-US$16 billion
-US$ 35,851
Time zoneUTC ±0 to +2
(STD: +1 to +3)
  1. ^ The official names are those of the official languages ​​of the European Union.
  2. ^ There are notations in each official language of the European Union, but hereLingua FrancaOnly Latin notation is used.
  3. ^ About the official language of the European UnionEuropean Union languagesSee.
  4. ^ a b Ranking when the European Union is counted as a single country.
  5. ^ "Population on 1st January by age, sex and type of projection". Eurostat. 2020/2/1Browse.
  6. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 2020/2/1Browse.
  7. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 2020/2/1Browse.

European Union(Let's learnEU; British: European Union,Buddha: European Union,alone: European Union) IsEuropeAround27 countriesIs an economic and political coalition to which[1][2][3][4]..The total area is 4,233,255.3 square kilometers (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and the total population is estimated to be about 4 million. The EU has standardized these matters to apply to all Member States only if they agree to act together.Legal systemThrough this, we have developed a single market in the region. EU policy ensures the free movement of people, goods, services and capital in the regional markets[5], Enacted judicial and domestic affairs, trade[6],Agriculture:[7],Fishery:And aims to maintain a common policy on regional development[8].Schengen areaFor travel within, passport management has been abolished[9].Monetary unionWas established in 1999 and was fully enforced in 2002,Euro currencyUse19 EU member statesIt is composed of.

EU andEuropean citizenshipOf the 1993Maastricht TreatyEstablished by the enforcement of[10].. Its origins were established by the 1951 Paris Treaty and the 1957 Roman Treaty respectivelyEuropean Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) andEuropean Economic Community It is in (EEC).European Economic CommunityThe first members to become known as Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,West GermanyThere were 6 countries.The community and its successorsJoining a new countryThe scale was expanded by adding the policy field to the authority, and the power was expanded. A recent major revision to the EU's constitutional foundationLisbon TreatyCame into effect in 2009.

United KingdomIt is,2020/EU in JanuaryWithdrawalBecame the first member state to2016 referendumAfter that, he expressed his intention to withdraw and negotiated a withdrawal agreement.The UK was in transition until 2020 December 12, during which time it was subject to part of EU law and the EU Single Market and Customs Union.[11]So far, the only thing that has left the EU and its predecessors isFrench Algeria(1962, upon independence),Greenland(Result of referendum in 1985),Saint BarthelemyThere were only three countries / regions (2012).

The EU will account for about 2020% of the world's population in 5.8 and will be nominal in 2017 (including the United Kingdom).GDP (GDP) was about $ 20 trillion, accounting for about 25% of the world's nominal GDP.[12]. Also,United Nations Development ProgramAccording to the EU countries, it is very highHuman development indexhave. 2012 EU won the Nobel Peace Prize[13].Common foreign and security policyThrough the EUForeign relationsとdefenseHas developed a role in.United Nations, World Trade Organization (WTO), G7,G20The European Union (EU), which has permanent overseas missions around the world and is global influential, is said to be an emerging superpower.[14].


Basic Treaty of the European UnionThe full text of the European Union Treaty is written in 23 languages, so the official name of the European Union is written in 23 languages. As an abbreviation,EnglishTook the initials of the notation EU There,JapaneseAlso uses this abbreviation. HoweverFrench,Spanishな どadjectiveIn the language that follows UE Is used. AlsoIrishThen. AE,EstonianThen. EL,LatvianとLithuanianThen. ES,CyrillicuseBulgarianThen. EC,Greek scriptuseGreekThen. EU Becomes

In Japanese,JapanOf the representatives of the European Union in Japan and the Japanese GovernmentEuropean UnionIs used. Also in someEuropean UnionAlso uses the name[Note 1].

However, in Japan,Soviet UnionSome Japanese researchers like the name problem[15]Argues that it is inappropriate to use the translation "union" in Union. Was also the largest parliamentary member of the European ParliamentEuropean Socialist PartyHowever, once the Japanese researcher pointed out, I submitted a questionnaire about changing the Japanese notation to "European Union",[16], The side of the European CommissionResearch societyExamples of English-Japanese dictionaries, "United Kingdom (United Kingdom) "and"United Nations (United Nations) ”, he replied that there was no need to change.


Yusef PiustsukiThe intermarine (Intermarium,Richard Kudenhof-Kalergie OfInternational Pan-European Union,Nazi GermanyThe new europe (Das neue Europa,Winston ChurchillThere have been many attempts to integrate Europe, such as the United States Concept of Europe, but in common with them,USSRTheVirtual enemyAndAnti-communismwas there.

America was founded in 1948(English edition)Has provided funding to promote European integration through. For example, in 1958, 53.5% of the funding of the European movement, which was the cornerstone of European integration, came from this commission.[17].

Robert SchumannOn July 1950, 5Schumann DeclarationIn which the joint management of important resources in the economy and the military was raised,European Coal and Steel Community Establishment TreatyFormulated on July 1952, 7European Coal and Steel Community (British: ECSC) Was established.

The European Coal and Steel Community was established to promote integration in the economic sector and joint management in the energy sector in 1957.Roman TreatyWas signed the following yearMay 1ToEuropean Economic Community (British: EEC) WhenEuropean Nuclear Community (British: Euratom) Was launched.Initially, these three communities were operating in individual institutions and frameworks, but in 3, in order to promote the integration of Europe by achieving their respective objectives under one operating body.Brussels TreatyWas signed in 1967European Communities (British: EC), The integration was deepened by putting three communities in one framework.

Until January 1973, 1France,West Germany,Italy, Netherlands,Belgium,LuxembourgIn addition to 6 countries,United Kingdom,Ireland,DenmarkJoins the European Communities. Also on January 1981, 1GreeceBut on January 1986, 1SpainとPortugalRespectively join the European Communities. During this time, the agenda was how to promote economic integration. Differences in policies and legal systems between member countries have hindered trade liberalization, which has become an obstacle to global market competition.Single marketThe establishment of is coming up. In 1984, he was a member of the European Parliament in Italy.Artiero SpinelliThe European Parliament's approval of the draft European Union Treaty submitted by[18].. To respond to thisDrroll CommitteeIn 1986Single European ProtocolWas signed, and the Treaty of Rome was significantly amended, and the European Economic Community will supervise the policy on economic fields in principle.Common marketThe establishment was raised. In addition, the Schengen Agreement was signed in 1985 in order to ensure freedom of movement of people, goods and services in the region, and it included the removal of barriers to borders between member states.

In 1989, Rettinger's latter half prophecy hit the mark.Democratization of PolandStarting with[Original research?][Source required],Eastern European countriesInPolitical changeThe iron curtains were drastically removed as they continued to appear on November 1989, 11.Berlin Wall Collapsed, October 10 of the following yearGermany reunifiedWas done. This timeEast GermanyThe five states that were revived in West Germany were transferred to West Germany, and the European Communities expanded the area to the former East Germany. Eastern European countriesCommunismThe collapse of the system also has a significant impact on European communities,Liberal campIt is expected that the European integration will strengthen cooperation in the field of politics. So on February 1992, 2European Union TreatyWas signed, and the European Union was established on November 11, the following year.

In the European UnionTransnational personalityhaveEuropean CommunityIn addition to the framework of common foreign and security policies,Judicial and internal cooperationA new framework for cooperation between member nation governments calledthe ATLAS projectUnder the structure, further integration of Europe was achieved, and the European Community Convention and the European Union Treaty, which were renamed from the European Economic Community Convention, came into effect in 1999.Amsterdam TreatyEffective in 2003Nice TreatyWas revised and integrated, and the integration was deepened.

1995/May 1ToAustria,Sweden,FinlandBut,2004/May 5In 10 countries, including the Eastern European countries of the former socialist camp,2007/May 1ToルーマニアとBulgariaJoin the European Union[19][20]..Regarding future expansionNorthern Macedonia,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euJoined in 2005, etc.スロベニアAnd joined in 2013CroatiaOther than oldYugoslaviaMember countries andアルバニア,ジ ョ ー ジ ジ,ウクライナSuch asRussiaEastern European countries distant from the country, part of the country belongs to EuropeTurkeyAt the same time, discussions on the pros and cons of membership and practical negotiations for actual membership are under way.

In the field of economics,Currency integrationIs advanced,1998/May 5ToEuropean Central BankLaunched on January 1, the following year, a single currencyEuroWill be introduced. In the field of foreign affairs, under the common foreign and security policy,North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationIn cooperation withYugoslavia conflictI have dealt with such as. further2000/Has issued the European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights.

In such a situation, the European Union is required to establish a system for accepting new member states, whilemechanismAs a result, the efficiency of the organization has decreased due to the bloat of the organization.European Constitution TreatyWas signed and the treaty was signed on October 2004, 10. However, the fear that the sovereignty of individual member states might be threatened by the transnational nature of the European Constitution TreatyEuropean skepticismHappens and treatyApproveAs a result of the referendum asking whether or not the NetherlandsThe intention to oppose ratification was shown.

The referendum, which asks citizens of each country what to do, was interrupted in response to the rejection of the European Constitution Treaty. Meanwhile, it was agreed to create a new basic treaty to take over the contents of the European Constitution Treaty, and in December 2007Lisbon TreatyWas signed as

The Treaty of Lisbon has been ratified in its member countries with the aim of entering into force in January 2009, but the public questioning the pros and cons of the constitutional amendment necessary to accept the Treaty of Lisbon, which was implemented in Ireland in June 1. The result of the vote was that the negative votes exceeded the positive votes.The Lisbon Treaty, which requires ratification by all member states for its entry into force, was also in dire straits and was opened shortly afterwards.European CouncilWhile it was confirmed that ratification proceedings in other member states would proceed, France, which chaired the latter half of 2008, called on Ireland to hold a referendum again.Then, at a meeting of the European Council in December 2008, Ireland announced that it would hold another referendum by the fall of 12, and the European Council hoped that the Lisbon Treaty would come into effect by the end of 2009. It was agreed to proceed with the remaining procedures.After that, in the referendum held again in October 2009, the approval of Ireland far exceeded the negative vote, and it was decided to amend the constitution and ratify the treaty.Member states that had not completed ratification procedures also completed the necessary procedures by November of the same year, and the Lisbon Treaty came into effect on December 2009, the same year.

This Lisbon TreatyPresident of the European CouncilTo redefineEU President). Since December 2009, 12Belgium OfHermann van RompauWas appointed as the first chairman. Hometown of Sikorski and Rettinger since 2014 December 12Poland OfDonald TuskWas appointed as the second chairman.

August 2016, 6,National referendum asking whether Britain should leave the European UnionThe majority of the withdrawal support votes in. As a result, the United Kingdom notified the European Council of withdrawal on March 2017, 3, and commenced the withdrawal procedure for a period of two years.

ブ リ ュ ッ セ ル
Paris Agreement
Single protocol
European Communities (EC)European Union (EU) Three pillar structure
European Nuclear Community→
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)Expired in 2002, community disappearedEuropean Union (EU)
  European Economic Community (EEC)European Community (EC)
Judicial and internal cooperation
 Police/criminal justice cooperation←
European political cooperation→Common foreign and security policy←
Organization not establishedWestern Union  
Suspension of treaty in 2010

European Union history history

If the history of the European Union's integration is divided by time, it can be divided as follows.[21]

  • 1945-1949 year

European Economic Cooperation Organization (OEEC),North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO),European Council An era of organizing international European partnerships, as symbolized by the establishment of the Council of Europe.The United States led this move.

  • 1950-1958 year

The age of consolidation and frustration. In 1952European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) is born[22], Which has started the movement of international sector integration. On the contrary,European Defense Community (EDC)European Political CommunityWas proposed, but neither came to fruition. However, the Messina Conference/Spark Report restarted the integration,European Economic Community (EEC) andEuropean Nuclear Community (EURATOM) was established.

  • 1958-1969 year

FrenchCharles de GaulleAn era when the influence of the president is great. An era in which the United Nations character of European integration was strengthened.

  • 1970-1985 year

1970 yearsEuropean political cooperation Inauguration of (EPC),Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) trials and 1979European currency system Establishment of (EMS) and accompanyingEuropean currency unit As seen in the installation of (ECU), although progress in European integration has been seen, it has been done twice.Oil crisisThere was also a time when each European nation was inward.

  • 1985-2005 year

The White Paper on the Regional Market was adopted in 1985, and the Single European Act was signed in 1986.A huge market was born due to the elimination of non-tariff barriers, and free competition in the huge market appeared in Europe. With the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the European Union (EU) was born.

Rejection of the European Constitution Treaty in France on May 2005, 5 and June 29, 2016Leaving Victory in the European Union Withdrawal Referendum in the United KingdomThe age of questioning the quality of expanding European integration as seen in.

Member countries

The European Union, the predecessor of the European Union, was initially established in six countries. Since then, the number of member countries has increased, and with the addition of Croatia in July 6, the number of member states of the European Union has grown to 2013.2020/Britain has left, and now 27 countries are members of the European Union.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIs not included.SwitzerlandAlsoNeutralNot affiliated to keep.AlsoGreen lineIs not fixed.GreenlandLeft in 1985.Faroe IslandsIs not included in the European Union in principle.In addition to the above, there are places in overseas territories that have special positions.Special territories of European Union member statesSee.

Article 49 of the Maastricht Treaty states that the country wishing to join the European Union is a European country,自由,Democracy,human rightsRespect for theRule of lawIt is mentioned that they respect such an idea. In practice, it was shown in 1993.Copenhagen standardNeed to meet. Besides thisAki communaireIt is required that legislation is in place to acceptEuropean CommissionHas conducted a survey of countries wishing to join the group to meet these criteria and submitted its report to the European Council. Based on the report, the European Council decides whether to hold concrete consultations as a candidate country. If it becomes a member, the signatory countries sign the signing treaty with the existing member states, not with the European Union, and formally join when the treaty comes into effect.

List of member countries
CountrycapitalMembership datePopulation (2019)areaThe population densityEuropean ParliamentQuantity
Austrian flag AustriaVienna1995/1/18,858,77583,855 km 2106 / km 219
Belgian flag Belgiumブ リ ュ ッ セ ルFounder11,467,92330,528 km 2376 / km 221
Bulgarian flag BulgariaSophia2007/1/17,000,039110,994 km 263 / km 217
Croatian flag CroatiaZagreb2013/7/14,076,24656,594 km 272 / km 212
Cyprus flag CyprusNicosia2004/5/1875,8989,251 km 295 / km 26
Czech flag Czech RepublicPrague2004/5/110,649,80078,866 km 2135 / km 221
Danish flag DenmarkCopenhagen1973/1/15,806,08143,075 km 2135 / km 214
Estonia flag ã‚¨ã‚¹ãƒˆãƒ‹ã‚¢Tallinn2004/5/11,324,82045,227 km 229 / km 27
Finnish flag FinlandHelsinki1995/1/15,517,919338,424 km 216 / km 214
French flag FranceParisFounder67,028,048640,679 km 2105 / km 279
German flag GermanyBerlinFounder83,019,214357,021 km 2233 / km 296
Greek flag GreeceAthens1981/1/110,722,287131,990 km 281 / km 221
Hungarian flag HungaryBudapest2004/5/19,797,56193,030 km 2105 / km 221
Irish flag IrelandDublin1973/1/14,904,22670,273 km 270 / km 213
Italian flag ItalyRomeFounder60,359,546301,338 km 2200 / km 276
Latvian flag ãƒ©ãƒˆãƒ“ã‚¢Riga2004/5/11,919,96864,589 km 230 / km 28
Lithuanian flag ãƒªãƒˆã‚¢ãƒ‹ã‚¢Vilnius2004/5/12,794,18465,200 km 243 / km 211
Luxembourg flag LuxembourgLuxembourg CityFounder613,8942,586 km 2237 / km 26
Malta flag MaltaValletta2004/5/1493,559316 km 21,562 / km 26
Dutch flag  NetherlandsAmsterdamFounder17,282,16341,543 km 2416 / km 229
Polish flag PolandWarsaw2004/5/137,972,812312,685 km 2121 / km 252
Portugal flag PortugalLisbon1986/1/110,276,61792,390 km 2111 / km 221
Romanian flag ãƒ«ãƒ¼ãƒžãƒ‹ã‚¢Bucharest2007/1/119,401,658238,391 km 281 / km 233
Flag of Slovakia Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euBratislava2004/5/15,450,42149,035 km 2111 / km 214
Flag of Slovenia ã‚¹ãƒ­ãƒ™ãƒ‹ã‚¢ãƒª ュ ブ リ ャ ナ2004/5/12,080,90820,273 km 2103 / km 28
Spanish flag SpainMadrid1986/1/146,934,632504,030 km 293 / km 259
Swedish flag SwedenStockholm1995/1/110,230,185449,964 km 223 / km 221
Total 27446,834,5794,233,262 km 2106 / km 2705

Also until 2020United KingdomWas also a member, but withdrew.[11]


European Union
European Union flag
European Union politics


The highest decision-making body of the European Union is of all member statesHead of governmentとEuropean Commission ChairAnd also equivalent to the presidentPermanent chairbyEuropean CouncilIs.The European Council holds at least four formal and informal meetings a year, where it decides on the overall policy and policy of the European Union.The Standing Chair, along with the President of the European Commission, will represent the European Union externally.On the other hand, it is the ministers of member countries who determine the details of individual and specific policies.European Union Council(Also known as the Ministerial Board, or simply the Board).The Council of the European Union is divided into policies in each area and is attended by the ministers in charge of each.

The policy proposals put together by the Council of the European Union areEuropean ParliamentTo be consulted. The European Parliament is once every five years by European Union citizensDirect election(General election) Selected by[Note 3]It consists of members of the Diet. Effective in 2009Lisbon TreatyBy the European ParliamentJoint decision procedureWill be applied to almost all policy areas with some exceptions. However, in some areasAdvisory procedureIs applied. Moreover, the European Parliament has not onlyEuropean Union budgetYou will also gain new general authority.

In some areas, decision-making procedures consist of representatives of local governments.Regional committeeAnd representatives of various business groups and labor organizationsEconomic and Social CouncilIs required to be involved.

Responsible for policy enforcement in the European UnionEuropean CommissionIs. The European Commission is made up of one member from each member country, and is assigned responsibility for each policy area. AlsoChairmanAttended the Council of Europe and represented the European Union externally.Major countries summitAlso attended as an observer. The European Commission has an organization equivalent to the ministry of the domestic government called the Directorate General in each policy area.

European Court of JusticeIs an organization that determines the interpretation and application of basic treaties and EU law. The European Court of Justice decides on the sanctions against default by treaties of the member states and the failure to comply with EU law,Court of first instanceHe is also involved in the appeals trial. The Court of First Instance deals mainly with complaints against corporations and individuals against the actions of European Union institutions. In addition, it deals with disputes between European Union institutions and their staff.European Union Civil Service CourtThere was, but it was closed in 2016.

European Accounting AuditorIs responsible for auditing the appropriate execution of the work and budget of European Union institutions.

The Lisbon Treatythe ATLAS projectThe structure has been abolished. This allowsCommon foreign and security policyHas also been abolished. Under the Lisbon Treaty, the Common Higher Representative of Foreign and Security Policy and the European Commission's Foreign Relations and European Neighbor Policy Commissioners have been integrated.EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security PolicyWas newly established,European External Action ServiceIs to be led.

In addition to the ones mentioned above, specialized institutions have been set up and are functioning to achieve the objectives of the Basic Treaty of the European Union.



IMFAccording to the 2010 European UnionGDPIs $16 billion (about 1068 trillion yen).AmericaSlightly above GDP, accounting for about 26% of the world total[23].. In the European Union, the Roman Convention, the Single European Protocol, and the Schengen Agreement will eliminate barriers such as border control and institutional differences between member states, ensuring freedom of movement of workers, goods, services, and capital in the region. ing. Also based on the Treaty of RomeUnique competition law systemHas been maintained. Also aimed at securing a stable supply of foodCommon agricultural policyWill allow the European Union tobudgetSpends most of the. Such economic measures are led by the European Commission, which requires the governments of the Member States to follow the decisions of the European Commission. furtherCurrency integrationIs being promoted, and the single currency euro was introduced in 1999, and by January 2014Euro areaHas spread to 18 countries. The monetary policy of the European Union is responsible forEuropean Central BankAnd of the member countriesCentral BankConsists ofEuropean Central Bank SystemIs. Regarding the currency of countries that have not introduced the euroEuropean exchange rate mechanismAs a result, the fluctuation range of the exchange rate against the euro is limited within a certain range. In addition to this, we are promoting measures to counter global warming, and in 2005Internal emissions trading systemWas introduced.

In terms of trade, exports to the outside of the region in 2005 amounted to US$1 trillion, including machinery, automobiles and aircraft. The main export destination is the United States,Switzerland,Russia,ChugokuIs mentioned. On the other hand, the import value into the region is US$1 billion, and the main import destinations are the United States, China, Russia,JapanHas become[24].

On the other hand, in the European Union, disparities within the region are also noticeable. The per capita GDP (PPP) of the member states, which was US$2007 in 32,300 as a whole, was US$1 in Luxembourg and US$80,500 in Ireland, while US$43,100 in Romania and Bulgaria. Is US$11,300, and all countries that have joined since 11,400 are below the figures for the European Union as a whole.[25].. In terms of real economic growth, Slovakia recorded 10.40%, while Hungary remained at 1.30% and the European Union as a whole at 3.00%.[26].

Burden on EU budget and policy spending of each country

The table shows the contribution from each country to the overall EU budget and the amount of expenditure to each country by executing the budget. The amount of policy spending corresponds to a "subsidy" to eliminate the EU regional disparity(English edition) Includes (EU Structural Funds).

Burden by Member States for EU Budget
Member countriesBillion euro
United Kingdom
Amount paid to member countries from EU budget (policy expenditure)
Member countriesBillion euro
United Kingdom

After Lehman shock

2008 yearsLehman shockOr later,Euro crisisThe deterioration of the unemployment rate in EU member states has been remarkable, and the average unemployment rate in the EU has exceeded 2012% since 10.The unemployment rate in non-EU countries like Norway and Switzerland is much lower than in the EU.Iceland became the default in 2008 and the unemployment rate deteriorated, but the unemployment rate has improved as the economy recovered due to the increase in exports due to the currency plunge.[27].. The unemployment rate in Iceland in 2014 is much lower than in the EU.

   EU unemployment rate (%)
   US unemployment rate (%)
   Unemployment rate in Iceland (%)
   Swiss unemployment rate (%)
   Norway unemployment rate (%)

In the United States, unemployment rose to nearly 10%,Ben BernankeLed the Fed, which has carried out large-scale monetary easing and gradually improved the unemployment rate. [28].. The unemployment rate in the United States in 2014 was about 6%, higher than Norway and Switzerland but lower than the EU. 2013, SwissWorld Economic ForumThe German Prime Minister who promoted austerityAngela MerkelExpressed concern that the US and Japan are using monetary policy as a means to boost economic competitiveness. Merkel said, "We believe that the central bank does not exist to dispel political mistakes or boost competitiveness."[29]..After that, as the economy began to recover, the ECB began quantitative easing in 2016, and deflationary pressure, which is a side effect of austerity, was alleviated.[30].

High unemployment rate

Nobel Prize economistJames MeadIt is,Central BankArgues that price stability should not be the goal of total demand management.Indirect taxThis is because the central bank's price stability policy reduces the wages of workers to zero when prices are rising due to tax increases and negative shocks to trade conditions.[31].. Since labor demand is inelastic in the short term, it is thought that unemployment will occur in all industrial fields due to price stability policies in that phase.

Unemployment Statistics for Each Country in Q2013 4[32]
Euro area average
  •   Unemployment rate (%)
  •   Number of unemployed people

According to Mead's analysis,European Central BankMember States are high due to price stability policiesUnemployment rateIs recorded. For example, the unemployment rate in Spain was 2014% in 25, and it is predicted that the unemployment rate of 20% or more will continue until 2017.[33].. Spain's youth unemployment rate for the same period was 53.8%[34].. The unemployment rate in Greece in June 2014 was 6%, and it is expected to remain around 27% by 2016 according to the OECD economic forecast.[35].. Eurozone unemployment rate was 2014% in July 7[32][34].

Citizens of member countries

言语ネ イ テ ィ ブTotal
Greek language3%4%

Survey 2012.[36]
Native: native language [37]
Total: EU citizens able to hold a
conversation in this language[38]

European Union Religion (2015)[39].
Religion, faith%
キ リ ス ト 教7272
Catholic church4545
Orthodox church1010
Other Christian Schools66
Other religions33


In 2015, about 17% of European Union people reported discomfort with working with Asians, and about 31% reported discomfort when their children began to love Asians.[40].

In addition, Spread of COVID-XNUMX infectionIt has been reported that Asians are subject to discriminatory behavior due to the influence of[41].

When it comes to reporting discrimination cases, 55% of Europeans first contact the police, 35% contact the equality agency and 27% contact the trade union.[42].

Foreign relations

European Union member statesDiplomatic cooperation between1957/ OfcommunityAt the time of establishment, it began with the fact that member states conducted international trade negotiations as one under the common commercial policy of the European Union.[43]..For broader collaboration in diplomatic relations1970/ToEuropean political cooperationWas established, establishing an informal consultation process between member states aimed at forming a common foreign policy.1987/,Single European ProtocolFormally introduced European Political Co-operation, the Single European ActMaastricht TreatyByCommon foreign and security policyWas renamed[44].

The purpose of the Common Foreign and Security Policy is to promote both the interests of the European Union itself and the interests of the international community as a whole, including international cooperation, respect for human rights, democracy and the promotion of the rule of law.[45]..The Common Foreign and Security Policy requires that all member states unanimously take appropriate policies on any issue.Under the Common Foreign and Security Policy, unanimous and difficult issues are dealt with.Iraq warThere may be disagreements such as[46].

The Coordinator and Representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy in the European UnionHigh Representative for Common Foreign and Security PolicyHe speaks on behalf of the European Union on foreign policy and defense issues, and is tasked with clarifying the positions expressed by Member States in these policy areas as a common coordinating matter.The senior representative is the first anniversary of the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty.2010/May 12It is a division unique to the European Union that has been officially implemented and operated byEuropean External Action ServiceIs in charge of[47][48]..The European External Action Service serves as the European Union's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and diplomatic corps.[49]..The international influence of the European Union can be seen through expansion as well as international policy.The benefits of becoming a member state of the European Union are considered to be an important factor contributing to the reforms of the former communist countries of Europe, acting as an incentive for political and economic reforms of countries wishing to meet the accession criteria. Have been[50]..Such influence on the internal affairs of other countries is a military "Hard powerUnlike "", generally "Soft power"It is called[51].

In addition, 2009/Permanent talks aimed at strengthening relations with Eastern European countries in MayEastern partnershipWas founded.The target country isアルメニア,アゼルバイジャン,ベ ラ ル ー シ,Georgia (former Georgia),Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ウクライナIs[52].

SwitzerlandHas an agreement with the European Union on the free movement of people2020/I was asked to vote if it would end in September[53]. But,Swiss National Party"Restoration of immigration control" was rejected by voters[54].

Security and defense

The predecessor of the European Union is for defense purposesNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganizationWas not conceived as a military alliance because was considered appropriate and sufficient.[55]..21 of the European Union member states are members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization[56], The rest of the member statesNeutral policyIs taking[57].1948/SigningBrussels TreatyWas a military alliance founded in Japan with a mutual defense clauseWestern UnionBecause its role has moved to the European Union2010/Disbanded in[58][59].

Since the departure of EnglandFranceIs officiallynuclear weaponsIt is the only member country recognized as a country andUnited Nations Security Council OfPermanent memberBut also.France, which has the largest army of the European Union and the largest national defense budget,[60], The only European Union country to have the ability to project power outside Europe[61].

Most of the European Union member statesNuclear Weapons ConventionWas against[62].

1999/ OfKosovo conflictIn response, the European Council said, "The European Union has the ability to act autonomously, backed by credible military power, to respond to international crises without harming the actions of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, its use. You must have the means to decide, and the preparation for it. "To this end, various efforts have been made to increase the military power of the European Union, especially the Helsinki target.After a lot of discussion, the most concrete result wasEU BattlegroupIt is a concept and is planned to quickly deploy about 1500 people.[63].European Union forcesIt is,Central part-North africaFrom westBalkan Peninsula,West AsiaDispatched to peacekeeping missions[64]..The military activities of the European UnionEuropean Defense Agency,European Union Satellite Center,European Union Military StaffSupported by many organizations[65].FrontexProtects the European Union's foreign bordersBorder guardEstablished to manage the cooperation system ofEuropean Union specialized agencies.Illegal immigration,Human trafficking,terroristThe purpose is to detect and prevent the intrusion of.2015/ToEuropean CommissionIs a new with stronger roles and powers, along with national border control authoritiesEuropean Border and Coast GuardAnnounced the proposal. In the European Union, which consists of 27 countries, substantive security and defense cooperation is increasingly dependent on the cooperation of all member states.[66].

Humanitarian aid

Directorate General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, European Commission, Commonly known as "ECHO", from the European Union to developing countriesHumanitarian aidIt is carried out. Budget for 2012 is 8 millionEuroAnd 51% of themAfrica, 20%Asia,Latin America,Caribbean,The Pacific OceanRegion, 20%Middle Eastと地中海Assigned to a region[67].

Humanitarian aid is directly funded by the budget (70%) as part of the financial means for foreign activities, as well asEuropean Development Fund (30%) But it is covered[68]..External activity funding is divided into "geographical" and "thematic" means[68].. By "geographical" means, 95% of the budgetOfficial development assistance Assistance is provided through Development Assistance (DCI, € 169 billion, 2007-2013), which must be spent on Official Development Assistance (ODA), and the European Neighboring Partnerships (ENPI), which includes several related programs.[68]..The European Development Fund (EDF, 2008-2013 € 227 billion, 2014-2020 € 305 billion) is made up of voluntary contributions from Member States, but in line with the 0.7% target. There is pressure to integrate the European Development Fund into budgetary resources to encourage growth and strengthen European Parliament oversight.[69][68].. In 2016, the average of European Union countries was 0.4%,Denmark,Germany,Luxembourg,Sweden,United Kingdom5 countries achieved or exceeded the 0.7% target[70]..European Union member states are considered to be the largest foreign aid countries in the world[71][72].

International cooperation and development partnership

European UnionEuropean neighborhood policyAttempts to connect countries located east and south of European territory into a coalition using diplomatic means such as[73]..These countries are primarily developing countries, including those seeking to become members of the European Union someday and those seeking closer integration with the European Union. ing.The European Union provides financial support as long as its European neighbors meet the stringent requirements for government reform, economic reform and other positive changes.This process is usuallyブ リ ュ ッ セ ルSupported by an action plan agreed upon by both sides of the target country[73].

International recognition that sustainable development is an important factor is steadily rising.Its role is1992/ToBrazil OfRio de JaneiroHeld inUnited Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) ",2002/ToSouth Africa OfJohannesburgThe World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Japan and the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) held in Rio de Janeiro in 2012, three major UNs on sustainable development. Recognized at the summit[74].

Other important global agreements areParis Agreementと2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development(2015, United Nations).Sustainable development goalsIt is,(I.e.To tackle the global challenges that are essential to our survival, all nations are in the next key areas of "people" and "people".地球""prosperity""平和""partnershipWe recognize that we must arouse action in[75][76].

The development activities of the European Union2005/May 12Based on the "European Consensus on Development" approved by the Member States of the European Union, the European Council, the European Parliament and the European Commission.[77]..This agreement has been approved by Member States, Parliaments and Commissions.Potential approachIt is based on the principles of a human rights-based development approach.

Partnership / cooperation agreements refer to bilateral agreements with non-member countries[78].

Signing Partnerships and Cooperation Agreements (PCA)
Non-EU member statesPCA nameSigningAgreement Priority
アルメニアEU-Armenia Comprehensive and Strengthening Partnership Agreement[79]2018EU-Armenia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (1999)[80]
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euEU-Kyrgyzstan's Strengthened Partnership and Cooperation Agreement[81]2019-


European Union2008/Currently, it is the world's largest exporter and at the same time the largest importer of goods and services.[82]..Domestic trade between member states is facilitated by removing trade barriers such as tariffs and border controls.[83][84].Euro areaSo, most member states have no currency difference, which helps trade.[85].

The European Union's Union Agreement does the same for a wider range of countries, some of which are so-called soft approaches to influence the politics of those countries.European UnionWorld Trade Organization On behalf of all Member States in the (WTO) and acting on behalf of Member States in all conflicts.If the European Union negotiates trade-related agreements outside the framework of the World Trade Organization, subsequent agreements must be approved by the governments of each European Union member state.[85].

The European Union is with many countries in the worldFree trade agreement Has signed (FTA) and other agreements including trade elements[86], Under negotiation with more countries[87].

2020/IsGlobal pandemic of new coronavirus infectionsPartly due toPeople's Republic of China The United States of AmericaBecame the largest trading partner of the European Union[88].

Oneness and diversity

About the May 5th, when the Schumann Declaration was announced, in 9MilanAt the European Council held inEurope DayWas decided. AlsoEuropean CouncilIn 1955, he painted a flag depicting a ring of twelve stars shining golden on the blue (Reflex Blue).European flag", And promoted the use of this flag as a symbol for institutions in Europe. In 1983, the European Parliament responded, and in 1985 the European Council of Milan adopted it as the "flag of the European Union".At this time at the same timeBeethoven Symphony No. 9 4th Movement"Song of delight"ToEuropean Union songIt was also agreed to[89].

Euro banknotes have a unified design[90]..European-style buildings and maps of Europe are drawn[90].Euro coinThe surface of the is also unified in design, and all have a map of Europe.[90]..Also issued in European Union member statespassportAlso, the notation meaning the European Union is printed in the official language of the issuing country. In the European UnionEuropean Capital of CultureThrough activities such as the European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights,European Union citizensThe concept of "" is being established.

On the other hand, in the European Union In variety concordiaWith the slogan "Latin for "unity in diversity", this phrase is expressed in 23 languages, which are official languages ​​in the European Union. As can be seen from this slogan, cultural and linguistic diversity is treated as respectable even in the European Union, which has a population of about 5 million people. In addition, related organizations in the European Union produce documents and websites in multiple languages.


Latest expansion

With the addition of Bulgaria and Romania in 2007 and Croatia in 2013, the European Union has reached 28 member states. In the conventional system of the basic treaty, the members of the European Commission were supposed to be one member from each member state and not to be an appointee, so the number of members increased to 1 and the division of responsibility was repeated. .. As a result, among the departments of the European Commission whose organization has grownSectionalismBecame intensified and business efficiency declined. In order to overcome the criticism that the decision-making process of the European Union Council is advantageous in large countries in legislative proceedings, and the difficulty that decision-making takes time because there are many target areas that require unanimous agreement, Reforms were needed to strengthen the involvement of the European Parliament in key policy decisions. It was the European Constitution Treaty signed in Rome in November 2004 that incorporated such reforms, but its transnational nature was shunned and ratification was rejected in the French and Dutch referendums. After all, the treaty was abandoned. Then, in December 11, the Lisbon Treaty, which inherits the contents of the European Constitution Treaty, was signed, and the Lisbon Treaty came into effect on December 2007, 12.

Since the conventional basic treaty assumed that the upper limit of the number of member states would be 27, the Lisbon Treaty also included the purpose of developing a system for accepting new members in the future. In 2005, the European CouncilTurkeyHas been decided as a candidate country for membership, and discussions have been started towards membership. Accession negotiations between Croatia and the EU ended in June 2011, with Croatia becoming the 6th member state in 2013[91].

Nordicアイス ランドApplied formal membership on July 2009, 7 and was approved as a candidate country[92].. Although accession negotiations were in progress, the government announced that it would freeze accession negotiations until the EU referendum in fall 2014. In the end, no referendum was held, and Iceland withdrew its application for membership on March 2015, 3.[93].

Future expansion

As of 2020 month,Turkey,Northern Macedonia,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,アルバニア5 countries are certified as official candidate countries[94].

I wondered if I could share the values ​​of the European Union with Turkey,Northern Cyprus problem,Armenian massacre problemThere is. On June 2013, 6, it was decided to resume accession negotiations for the first time in about three years, but due to concerns about the government's continued hard-line stance against citizens' anti-government demonstrations, it will be postponed from October onwards. Announced the postponement of its membership negotiations.

North Macedonia became a candidate country for membership in 2006 (the name of the country at that time was "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia").For a long time with neighboring GreeceCountry name change problemHowever, the country name was changed on June 2018, 6.Northern MacedoniaAnd agreed with Greece[95], The name change came into effect on February 2019, 2 after the approval of the parliaments of both countries.[96].. March 2020, 3, EU agrees to start accession negotiations with Northern Macedonia[97][98][99][100].

Montenegro was approved as a candidate for membership in December 2010, and full-fledged accession negotiations began in October 12.[101].. Applicable as of June 2020Aki communaireNegotiations have begun in all 33 of 33 fields, of which three have been tentatively completed.[102]Therefore, it can be said that the negotiation is the most advanced among the five candidate countries.

SerbiaBosnia and Herzegovina Civil WarIs a big war criminalLatco Mladicと(English edition)Despite the appreciation of the government's detention, the improvement of relations with the government of Kosovo, which unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, and the progress of political dialogue are conditions for the initiation of accession negotiations.[101]Was not recognized as a candidate country from December 2009, 12, when the formal application was filed to February 22[103]Was approved by the EU Summit on March 2012, 3 as an official candidate country.[104]Agreed to normalize relations with Kosovo on April 2013, 4 and began accession negotiations on January 22, 2014[105].

Albania applied for membership in the EU on April 2009, 4 and was approved as a candidate for membership on June 28, 2014[105].. On March 2020, 3, the EU agreed to start accession negotiations with Albania[97][98][99][100].

The EU positions countries that have clear prospects for future EU accession but have not yet been officially recognized as candidates for accession as potential candidates.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euと(I.e..

Bosnia and Herzegovina applied for accession to the EU on 2016 February 2[105].

Kosovo with EU on April 2016, 4Stabilization/federation processThe agreement came into effect[106].. However, regarding the national recognition of Kosovo, the response is divided among the existing member countries.

ウクライナIn November 2022Russian aggressionIn response, I applied for membership on February 2th.Wolodimir ZelenskyThe president has requested the EU to take special steps for immediate access, and European Commission President von der Leyen also supports the country's accession to the EU, but Russia, which demands the neutralization of Ukraine as a condition of the ceasefire, It is unclear whether membership will be realized due to a fierce repulsion.[107]..In addition, on March 2022, 3ジ ョ ー ジ ジとEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euApplied for membership one after another[108].

EU membership of Western Balkans

As of March 2020, all candidate countries and potential member countries except Turkey have signed and entered into force the Stabilisaion and Association Agreement (SAA).This SAA is in the westBalkanIt is an agreement that provides countries with a vision for EU accession, support for it, and calls for necessary reforms, and is generally regarded as the first step towards EU accession.[109].

2018/May 2,European Commission TheOld YugoslaviaAnnounced a policy to strengthen support for EU accession to the six West Balkan regions, centered on the member countries. The six target countries are the candidate countries for membership.Northern Macedonia(The country name at that time was "Former Republic of Macedonia, Yugoslavia"),Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,アルバニアAnd potential candidate countriesEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euと(I.e.Is. He also showed that Serbia and Montenegro are targeting accession in 2025 at the earliest.[110].

At the EU summit meeting held on October 2021, 10, the policy of accession of Balkan countries was "reconfirmed", butEuropean Refugee Crisis 2015Anxious about the return ofGermany, NetherlandsIn consideration of each country, the leaders' declaration did not list a specific target year, which had been set for 2025 to 2030, and effectively postponed the membership issue.[111][112]..On the other hand, about the Balkan countriesCharles MichelPresident of the European CouncilStates as a region of "strategic importance"Ursula von der LyenEuropean Commission ChairAlso described as a "family", and many EU member state leadersDeveloping countriesWhile wary of the return of the European refugee crisis due to EU accession of many Balkan countries, trade and infrastructure investmentRussia,People's Republic of ChinaNot only does it increase its influence on the Balkan countries, but it is also strongly concerned about the current situation where its influence is spreading to the current EU member states.[111][112].

Turkey's EU membership

August 2015, 11,Angela MerkelHosted a pre-summit between the EU and Turkey, proposing to accept many Syrian refugees into the EU. The EU then reached an agreement to open a path for Turkey to join the EU in exchange for measures to limit the number of immigrants from Turkey. Turkish Prime MinisterAhmed DoubtallSaid it was the historic beginning of a new relationship between Turkey and the EU[113].

This agreement will make TurkeyAegean seaWill strengthen crackdowns on patrolling and human trafficking gangs and return immigrants denied acceptance by EU member states to Turkey. In return, the EU has agreed to provide Turkey with €30 billion in funding and to open a summit for public negotiations on Turkey's accession to the EU.[113].. EU leaders have made clear that Turkey has no shortcut to joining the EU, but have vowed to work hard to enable Turkish citizens to go to the EU without a visa. "During Turkey's EU accession will accelerate in 2016 and will become a reality in the near future," said Doubtall.[113].

Doubtall is calling on the EU to provide additional funding as € 30bn is not enough to address the refugee crisis. Doubtall said more sessions on funding should be held if the EU is serious about sharing the pain of the refugee crisis.[114].

Eastern partnership countries

2009/May 5, EUFormer Soviet Union6 countries that made up (アルメニア,アゼルバイジャン,ベ ラ ル ー シ,ジ ョ ー ジ ジ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ウクライナ)Eastern partnershipCreated a framework called. This aims to promote regional stabilization while strengthening regional cooperation and promoting value sharing with the EU.[109][115].

Of the six countries listed above, the three countries that have the particular goal of joining the EU in the future are Ukraine, Moldova, and Georgia.2014/May 6, EU and Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia have signed an Association Agreement (AA) that includes the establishment of a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTA).[116][117][118]. afterwards,2016/May 7Moldova and Georgia2017/May 9Ukraine has entered into a federation agreement[119][120][121]..Union agreements strengthen political, trade, socio-cultural and security ties between the EU and non-EU countries. As part of the Union Agreement, the DCFTA, in addition to the original task of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) to eliminate tariff barriers, instills EU rules in trade and economic activities between the two sides and activates the movement of people, goods and money. Is what you are trying to do[116].

As of 2020, Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia are not recognized as potential EU member countries.[Note 4][117]In recent years, the above three countries have stepped up their efforts to join the EU.

2021/May 5At the Tripartite Foreign Ministers' Meeting, he clarified his expectations for future EU accession and signed a joint memorandum of understanding.Since this meeting, the three countries have been referred to as the so-called'Associated Trio'(or'(English edition)'friend."Joint Mikuni" etc. in Japanese translation. )[122].. same yearMay 7Also adopted the "Batsumi Leaders' Declaration" which reiterated the integration into Europe.[123][124], The joint three countries are clarifying the EU membership routes, such as applying for membership in the EU as described later in the following year.[124].

Of these, on February 2022, 2ウクライナHas applied for membership.2022 Russia's invasion of UkraineIn response, Ukraine urged the EU to join immediately through special procedures to protect its country.Von de AraienThe European Commission also supported the country's accession to the EU.The Russian side is UkrainianNATOWith the accession, there is a fierce opposition to this matter.[125]..However, as a practical matterCopenhagen standardUkraine, which does not meet the requirements and cannot be a candidate for membership, is an act that disturbs the EU's order and is an act of disturbing the EU.ミ シ ェ ルOn March 3, the president expressed his understanding of Ukraine's position, but said, "It will be difficult. Each country has different opinions."[126][127]..In addition, Turkey, which has become a candidate country through formal procedures,ErdoganThe president called for the accession process to be treated in the same way as Ukraine[128].

Furthermore, in response to the movement of Ukraine, on March 2022, 3ジ ョ ー ジ ジとEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euApplied for membership one after another[129]..Want similar special treatment[130].

Country / region withdrawn

United Kingdom

Held in the United Kingdom on June 2016, 6National referendum asking whether Britain should leave the European UnionThe "Brexit" won by a small margin.EU in the backgroundpolicyDistrust of Britain againstImmigrationInflow problem (en) Is said to be[131]..This made Britain the first Brexit country.This referendum was in the 2013 general electionDavid CameronIt was the one that the prime minister had pledged.Cameron himself was a remnant of the EU, but he held a referendum in response to rising public opinion advocating Brexit.Britain is the second largest economy in Europe after Germany, and its withdrawal was expected to "decrease the EU's economic power" and "the UK would also have a negative impact on the economy."There are voices from countries outside the EU asking for these to remain as "causing turmoil in the international economy", and the G2Ise Shima SummitBut it was discussed.

The EU remnants claimed that the prosperity of Britain was brought about by free economic activity within the EU, and that it was a member of the EU. On the other hand, EU defectors argued for disadvantages such as large contributions and increased immigrants. Both sides antagonized and were in an unpredictable situation until the voting date, but both countries and markets expected that the realistic result of "residual victory, maintaining the status quo" would come out, but the result was a departure victory Met. Following this, Prime Minister Cameron announced his resignation. July 7 of the same yearTheresa MayInterior phaseBecame the new prime minister and decided to carry out a "long divorce procedure" called "procedure for leaving the EU."Mei Cabinet(Conservative party) Among MinistersMinister of Foreign AffairsWas one of the representatives of the EU secessionistBoris Johnson前UKThe mayor was appointed. Also,EU Leaving Minister(First generation:David Michael Davis) A new ministerial postAdministrative agencyAsEU secessionWas newly established.

EU leadersBerlinWe gathered in and confirmed unity. To EnglandLisbon TreatyTherefore, he demanded to give a "notification of departure" early. This is because I am afraid that a new leaving country will appear if the procedure is confused. European skeptics in EU member states have gained momentum with the departure of Britain. On the other hand, the "residuals" were predominant in Scotland and Northern Ireland, which are the constituent countries of England. for that reasonEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfNikola SturgeonThe prime ministerScotland is independentAnd suggested joining the EU. AlsoNorthern IrelandIndependently of EU member statesIreland"Integration with"Shin FeinProposed by

Although the Lisbon Treaty has provisions for leaving the EU, there is no detailed description of the specific procedures to be followed, which makes Britain's departure a leading case.

以降、2019年3月29日のEU離脱に向けてイギリスとEUは協議を続けたが、北アイルランドの国境管理問題に決着がつかないなどの理由から、4月12日、10月31日、2020年1月31日と、離脱期限は3回もの延長を繰り返した。最終的には2019 British General ElectionThe Conservative Party, which sought to leave the country, won the victory at midnight on February 2020, 2 (Belgian time, British time January 1, 0:1 pm)[132].


Related countries


NorwayIs a distance from the EU. Norway signed the Treaty of Accession to the European Union (European Communities) during its expansion in 1973 and 1995, respectively, and ratified them.ReferendumHowever, the number of votes against them all exceeded, and they did not actually join the European Union (European Communities). Also, on June 1992, 6, a referendum was held in Denmark to ratify the Maastricht Treaty, but the vote against ratification exceeded by a small margin, and further ratification was rejected by Parliament in the United Kingdom. In addition, ratification of the Nice Treaty, which amends the conventional treaty, was rejected in Ireland, where the constitution requires a referendum to amend the treaty. All of these have been dealt with by, for example, setting special cases in subsequent discussions, and ratification has been consulted and approved again.

According to a 2015 survey, about 7% of Norwegian voters oppose joining the EU.[133]..If you join the EU, EU claims and laws (Common agricultural policy, Common criminal law, etc.).Therefore, Norway, not the EU, should exercise its sovereignty to the fullest extent.European Free Trade UnionIs a member of. EFTAPer capita income in member countries is about 1.5 times that in the EU[133].

アイス ランド

In 2015, Iceland no longer wanted to join the European UnionEuropean CommissionAnd notified the EU President[134].. Home currencyIceland KronaThe Iceland, which has a sovereignty, has enjoyed a favorable recovery from its default in 2008, benefiting from the currency crash and increasing exports. In 2007 it was CNY 1/60 Iceland, but after default, it crashed to CNY 1/125 Iceland. The depreciation of the currency has given a tailwind to Iceland's export industry, such as tourism, attracting 2011 tourists in 56, and the country as a whole recorded economic growth of over 3% due to the export-led economic recovery.[135].. In 2012, it improved the unemployment rate to 4.5%. This number is well below the EU's average unemployment rate[136].


SwitzerlandApplied for EU accession in 1992, butEEESwiss citizens choose not to join the EEA in a referendum on whether to join the[137].. Since then, negotiations to join the EU have stopped. afterwardsSwiss National PartyThe Swiss House of Representatives made a decision to withdraw the EU membership application. And in June 2016, the Swiss Senate officially declined to join the EU after the Swiss Senate decided to revoke the 6 application for membership.[137].

Criticism / skepticism

As Europe's integration progresses, criticisms and doubts that the sovereignty of member states and the powers of the European Union are superior or inferior and that the benefits enjoyed under the system of the European Union are unequal among the member states. Also exists. For integration in the political fieldEuropean Political CommunityThe concept of installation of theEuropean Defense CommunityWork was underway to establish the company. However, ratification of the establishment treaty in FranceNational Assembly, But the National Assembly rejected it.

In October 2004, the European Constitution Treaty was signed, which included improving the acceptance system for future expansion, streamlining the bloated mechanism, and simplifying policy-making procedures. ”And “Song of the European Union” were included, and it had the character of making the European Union a nation. On the other hand, the people of the member nations began to view the European Constitution Treaty as dangerous because of the fear that their nation would be replaced by the European Union. The result of a referendum asking whether to ratify is that the number of negative votes exceeds the number of positive votes. The leaders of the European Union, which was promoting the European integration in this situation, were upset, and some leaders began to question and criticize the way the European Union should be.

January 2007Berlin DeclarationWas reaffirmed, and it was reaffirmed that the integration of the European Union will be promoted. After that, it was agreed to remove the transnational element from the European Constitution Treaty and to establish a new basic treaty to promote the reform of the European Union. Positioned as the "Reform Treaty", the treaty was signed as the Lisbon Treaty in December 2007. However, even with respect to this treaty, it was criticized that it was difficult for citizens to understand the need for institutional reform, and in a referendum in Ireland held in June 12, a political party critical of the European Union was "not understood. As a result, the negative vote was 2008%, the positive vote was 6% (voting rate 53.4%), the European integration was once again deadlocked, and the leaders of the countries that have promoted the Lisbon Treaty are European Union. I was once again keenly aware of the existence of the harsh view of citizens. Furthermore, in Poland and the Czech Republic, the President continued to refuse to sign the Lisbon Treaty, which was ratified by the Parliament.

In the latter half of the 1990s to the 2000s, the United Kingdom took part in the introduction of the euro with the participation of the European exchange rate mechanism in 1990, despite the fact that it was willing to integrate Europe under the European Union.Pound crisisThe negative attitude is seen from the experience. This negative attitude of Britain led to the departure from the EU in 2016. In addition, Sweden, which is obliged to introduce the euro in the basic treaty, voted for accession to the European Union in 1994, although 53% of the people voted for membership. Declaring the shelving of the government, and then a referendum on the introduction of the euro in 2003 showed that opposition accounted for 56%.

Germany-centered policy

EconomistPaul KrugmanCriticizes Germany for adversely affecting the European Union's economic policy as follows. According to Krugman, Germany, the largest economic power in the European Union, hates inflation, and the European Central Bank has adopted a policy strongly influenced by Germany.[138], Is the source of low inflation in Europe. Southern European countries such as Spain and Portugal are forced to reduce wages in order to bridge the labor cost gap with large countries such as Germany. Of course, the gap can be closed if Germany allows high labor costs, that is, high inflation.[139][140].. But Germany, which does not favor inflation, does not allow it. As a result, unemployment rates in those Southern European countries will remain high due to the downward rigidity of nominal wages. In addition, Germany tends to impose Germany's 1990s economic values ​​on other EU Member States and impose austerity policies on them, Krugman said.[141]. Also,European ParliamentIs not authorized toEuropean CommissionThe European Union becauseFourth EmpireSometimes

Opposition to the ECB

BritishLabor PartyBelongingJeremy CorbinIt is,EuroI thought that would impose "bankers' Europe" on member countries. 1993Maastricht TreatyPrior to coming into effect, CorbinECBThe establishment predicted that the European state would weaken its ability to take its own policies[142].

"At the heart of the Maastricht Treaty is the establishment of the ECB. The ECB, which is independent of the nation and the national economy, is run by bankers and only price stability is the ECB's policy. The Maastricht Treaty will guide member states in the opposite direction, rather than on the road to a federal government like the United States. The Commission will impose foreign policy on Member States and fight for them."[142].

Dissonance due to expansion

Since 2000, it has continued to expand into the former communist bloc member countries.However, since 2010, a powerful government that can be said to be a dictatorship has been born in these countries, and they have begun to act outside the "rule of law".[143].HungaryThen.Alburn victorHas built a long-term government and has repeatedly confronted the EU over intervention in the judiciary, media and educational institutions, refusal to accept Syrian refugees, and banning homosexuality.[144].PolandThen in 2015, "Law and justiceWhen "[PiS]" won the election and came to power, it enacted laws suspected of violating the Constitution one after another and proceeded to seize the Constitutional Court (Constitutional Court) that exercises the right to examine unconstitutional law.[145]..In response, the European Commission has filed a lawsuit with the EU Court of Justice.The court ordered the member state Poland to pay 1 million euros a day to the European Commission.[146]..Furthermore, on October 2021, 10, the Polish Constitutional Court ruled that some provisions of the EU Treaties on the judicial system were "incompatible" with the Constitution of the country. The situation where EU law restricts national sovereignty and the Constitution is not treated as the highest domestic law is also unconstitutional.Von de AraienThe European Commission has suggested that funding will be suspended, saying that it is a "head-on challenge to the unity of the EU's legal order" in Poland.Mateusz MoravieckiThe prime minister replied that he was "threatening"[147].. From 2022, rules have been enacted that allow measures such as suspension of EU budget execution to member countries in the event of a violation of the principle of rule of law by member countries, which was also approved by the EU Court of Justice.[148].

Meanwhile, by Russia in 2022Ukraine invasionIt has been pointed out that when Poland raises anti-Russia, Western leaders praise Poland's dictatorship and begin to strongly support it.[149].

Nobel Peace Prize

Efforts to stabilize and coordinate routes in the European region were highly evaluated, and in 2012Nobel Peace PrizeAward.


Second World WarIt is thought that the EEC, EC, and EU have maintained peace in Europe since then, but in the Cold War era, it was actually due to the nuclear forces deployed in both East and West camps.Nuclear deterrenceHas prevented armed conflict. In 1948Berlin blockade, In 1953East Berlin Riot, In 1956Hungarian uprisingThe EEC did not exist yet when the happened. In 1968Spring in pragueThere was an EC when theCommon agricultural policyWas only established[150].

Basque dispute(1959-2011),Northern Ireland problem(1968-1998), Turkish invasion of Cyprus (1974), none of EEC, EC, EU took action[151].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ "Junior High School Society Geography Area Manabu" (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology certified textbook for junior high school social studies Publisher: Kyoiku Shuppan Co., Ltd. Certified on March 23, 3. Printed on January 30, 27. January 1 Published on March 10. 27 Education Geography 1) p 20 states, "On the contrary, there are some places like the European Union (EU) that are aiming for regional integration." "New Social Citizens" (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology certified textbook for junior high school social studies Publisher: Tokyo Shoseki Co., Ltd. Certified on March 17, 722. Printed on January 10, 23. February 3, 30 Issued .27 Tosho Citizens 1) p 20 ​​states, "The European Union (EU) was established in 27, and European countries are strengthening their ties with each other."I am using the European Union.However, "History of Junior High School Students in Social Studies: History of Japan and Movements in the World" (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology certified textbook for junior high school social studies Publisher: Teikoku Shoin Co., Ltd. Certified on March 2, 10. January 2 Printed on 921th. Published on January 154, 1993. 23 Imperial History 3) p 30 states, "The European Union (EU), which was established in 27, tried to lower the barrier of its nation and cooperate with each other in East Europe. It has been expanded to ".", Using the European Union.Therefore, textbooks may use either the European Union or the European Union.
  2. ^ However, the fact that 2005 is regarded as one break is according to Toshiro Tanaka (2007) p.17.
  3. ^ As a provisional measure following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, 2009 parliamentarians and 6 observers were elected in the June 736 elections. Eighteen observers formally become lawmakers after taking necessary measures. As a result, the European Parliament will consist of 18 members, up to the limit set by the Basic Convention until the expiration of their terms in 18.
  4. ^ The EU is focusing its current expansion policy on the Western Balkans that have signed and entered into SAA. The potential candidate countries that the EU positions are those of the Western Balkans that are not yet candidates, so Ukraine, Moldova, and Georgia, which have signed and entered into the Union Agreement, do not usually fall under this.


  1. ^ "Population on 1st January by age, sex and type of projection". 2022/2/13Browse.
  2. ^ "The EU in brief". European Union (September 2016, 6). 2016/6/16Browse.
  3. ^ "Institutions et autres organes de l'UE | Union Européenne". 2021/6/18Browse.
  4. ^ "Institutionen und Einrichtungen der EU | Europäische Union". 2021/6/18Browse.
  5. ^ European Commission. “The EU Single Market: Fewer barriers, more opportunities”. Europa web portal. As of October 2007, 10originalMore archives.2007/9/27Browse."Activities of the European Union: Internal Market”. Europa web portal. 2007/6/29Browse.
  6. ^ "Common commercial policy". Europa Glossary. Europa web portal. As of January 2009, 1originalMore archives.2008/9/6Browse.
  7. ^ "Agriculture and Fisheries Council”. The Council of the European Union. 2013/6/3Browse.
  8. ^ "Regional Policy Inforegio”. Europa web portal. 2013/6/3Browse.
  9. ^ "Schengen area”. Europa web portal. As of October 2011, 8originalMore archives.2010/9/8Browse.
  10. ^ Craig & De Burca 2011, p. 15.
  11. ^ a b "Brexit completes new era for Britain”(Japanese). BBC News (September 2021, 1). 2022/2/27Browse.
  12. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund (September 2018, 6). 2018/6/9Browse.
  13. ^ “EU collects Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo”. BBC News(July 2012, 12). https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-20664167 2013/6/3Browse. 
  14. ^ John McCormick (2006). The European Superpower. ISBN +978-1-4039-9846-0 
  15. ^ EU denies the European Union while heading for stronger federal powers Lisbon Treaty amendments in financial and financial sector Kodama Masami Laboratory
  16. ^ #Japanese notation change letter
  17. ^ Euro-federalists financed by US spy chiefs, The Telegraph, September 2000, 9
  18. ^ "The Founding Fathers of the EU". European Union. 2015/1/12Browse.
  19. ^ "EU Member States and Map 4th Expansion”(Japanese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2021/5/12Browse.
  20. ^ "EU Member States and Map 5th Expansion”(Japanese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2021/5/12Browse.
  21. ^ Toshiro Tanaka (2007), ``EU integration trajectory and vector"EU Annual Report of Japan, 2007, 2007 Volume 27, p.15-28,323, two:10.5135 / eusj1997.2007.15
  22. ^ europe magazine EU MAG "How was the EU established?Accessed on February 2015, 2.
  23. ^ IMF: World Economic Outlook Database
  24. ^ "EUROPEAN UNION". The World Factbook. CIA. 2011/10/21Browse.
  25. ^ CIA The World Factbook-Rank Order-GDP-per capita (PPP) Retrieved February 2008, 9
  26. ^ CIA The World Factbook-Rank Order-GDP-real growth rate Retrieved February 2008, 9
  27. ^ In European crisis, Iceland emerges as an island of recovery The Wall Streat Journal, 21 May 2012
  28. ^ Falling Prices Are Bad For You B. Powell, News Week, 26 Jan 2015
  29. ^ Merkel Takes a Swipe at Japan Over YenH. Torry and W. Boston, The Wall Street Journal, Europe, 25 Jan 2013
  30. ^ [European economy] How did the euro area rebuild its finances?| 2022-04-17
  31. ^ J. Meade, The Economic Journal, vol 88, No 351, (1978)
  32. ^ a b International Finantial Statistics, monthly Aug 2014, IMF
  33. ^ Bank of Spain says domestic demand surge likely to slow in Q3 Business recorder, Business and Economy, 24 Sep 2014
  34. ^ a b Eurozone unemployment unchanged at 11.5% in July Finfacts Ireland, EU economy, 29 Aug 2014
  35. ^ OECD Report: Greek Unemployment Will Remain at 27% D. Tsagari, GreekReporter, 4 Sep 2014
  36. ^ "Europeans and Their Languages, 2012 Report (PDF)". 2013/6/3Browse.
  37. ^ European Commission (2012). “Europeans and their Languages". Special 386. europa.eu. pp. 54–59. 2012/12/16Browse.
  38. ^ European Commission (2012). “Europeans and their Languages". Special 386. europa.eu. pp. 78–83. 2012/12/16Browse.
  39. ^ European Commission (2015). “DISCRIMINATION IN THE EU IN 2015". Special Eurobarometer 437. GESIS. 2019/9/24Browse.
  40. ^ Union, Publications Office of the European. “--Publications Office of the EU" (English). op.europa.eu. 2021/7/11Browse.
  41. ^ Stolton, Samuel (April 2020, 4). “COVID-19 crisis triggers EU racism against Asians, rights agency says" (English). www.euractiv.com. 2021/11/3Browse.
  42. ^ "Eurobarometer". europa.eu. 2021/11/13Browse.
  43. ^ ""Qualified-Majority Voting: Common commercial policy". Europa web portal. 2021/6/16Browse.
  44. ^ "EUROPA --Glossary --European political cooperation (EPC)". Europa Glossary.As of August 2007, 7originalMore archives.2021/6/16Browse.
  45. ^ European Union TreatyArticle 21 (Lisbon TreatyInserted in)thumb upAt
  46. ^ “Divided EU agrees Iraq statement” (English). British Broadcasting Corporation(July 2003, 1). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2697667.stm 2021/6/16Browse. 
  47. ^ "EU states near agreement on diplomatic service" (English). EUobserver. 2021/6/16Browse.
  48. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt --Information Service --Foreign Minister Westerwelle: European External Action Service gives Europe voice on world stage". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Federal Republic of Germany (February 2010, 12). As of February 1, 2010originalMore archives.2021/6/16Browse.
  49. ^ "About the European External Action Service (EEAS)" (English). EEAS --European External Action Service --European Commission. 2021/6/16Browse.
  50. ^ Peterson, John (2008-08). “Enlargement, reform and the European Commission. Weathering a perfect storm?” (English). Journal of European Public Policy 15 (5): 761–780. two:10.1080/13501760802133328. ISSN 1350-1763. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13501760802133328. 
  51. ^ "Europe must keep its'soft power'". Financial Times on Center for European Reform (February 2007, 6). As of February 9, 2007originalMore archives.2021/6/16Browse.
  52. ^ "EU pact challenges Russian influence in the east" (English). Guardian (September 2009, 5). 2021/6/17Browse.
  53. ^ "Swiss to vote on whether to end free movement deal with EU" (English). Guardian (September 2020, 9). 2021/6/16Browse.
  54. ^ Chazan, David (September 2020, 9). “Large majority of Swiss reject bid to rein in immigration from EU, says exit poll” (English). The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/09/27/large-majority-swiss-reject-bid-rein-immigration-eu-says-exit/ 2021/6/16Browse. 
  55. ^ Wilkinson, Paul "International relations: a very short introduction"Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007, p. 100.ISBN +978-0-19-151650-4.OCLC 177146933.https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/177146933. 
  56. ^ NATO. “Member countries" (English). NATO. 2021/6/16Browse.
  57. ^ "The EU'neutrals,' the CFSP and defense policy"Seattle, WA. (1997). http://aei.pitt.edu/2657/. 
  58. ^ "Shaping of a Common Security and Defense Policy" (English). EEAS --European External Action Service --European Commission. 2021/6/17Browse.
  59. ^ "Statement of the Presidency of the Permanent Council of the WEU”. As of May 2011, 3originalMore archives.2021/6/12Browse.
  60. ^ Brzozowski, Alexandra (April 2020, 4). “Military spending saw biggest increase in a decade in 2019" (English). www.euractiv.com. 2021/6/16Browse.
  61. ^ "Post-Brexit EU Defense Policy: Is Germany Leading towards a European Army?" (English). E-International Relations (September 2020, 7). 2021/6/16Browse.
  62. ^ "Treaty on the prohibition of nuclear weapons ─ The'Ban Treaty' --Think Tank" (English). European Parliament. 2021/6/16Browse.
  63. ^ "EU Battlegroups" (English). EEAS --European External Action Service --European Commission. 2021/6/17Browse.
  64. ^ "Overview of the missions and operations of the European Union". Europa web portal (November 2003). As of January 4, 2011originalMore archives.2021/6/17Browse.
  65. ^ "CSDP structures and instruments". Europa web portal.As of August 2013, 5originalMore archives.2021/6/17Browse.
  66. ^ "Reactions to the Russo-Georgian War: towards a European Great Power Concert --DIIS". Diis.dk.As of August 2011, 4originalMore archives.2021/6/17Browse.
  67. ^ "Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection". ec.europa.eu. European Commission.As of August 2013, 7originalMore archives.2021/6/17Browse.
  68. ^ a b c d "Financing European development cooperation: the Financial Perspectives 2014-2020 --Resources --Overseas Development Institute (ODI)". Overseas Development Institute.As of August 2011, 3originalMore archives.2021/6/17Browse.
  69. ^ Cristea, Alexandru (June 2019, 6). “Where we work" (English). International Partnerships --European Commission. 2021/6/17Browse.
  70. ^ "Development aid rises again in 2016". Economic Cooperation Development Organization. 2020/6/16Browse.
  71. ^ "Global Humanitarian Assistance Report 2014" (English). Development Initiatives. 2021/6/17Browse.
  72. ^ "Aid to developing countries rebounds in 2013 to reach an all-time high --OECD". Economic Cooperation Development Organization. 2021/6/17Browse.
  73. ^ a b Anonymous (June 2016, 12). “European Neighborhood Policy" (English). European Neighborhood Policy And Enlargement Negotiations --European Commission. 2021/6/17Browse.
  74. ^ Center, UNESCO World Heritage. “World Heritage and Sustainable Development" (English). UNESCO World Heritage Center. 2021/6/17Browse.
  75. ^ "Ministry of the Environment_XNUMX Agenda for Sustainable Development / SDGs". Ministry of the Environment. 2021/6/17Browse.
  76. ^ "The Sustainable Development Goals in 2019: People, Planet, Prosperity in Focus" (English). unfoundation.org (September 2019, 7). 2021/6/17Browse.
  77. ^ "The European Consensus on Development". ec.europa.eu.As of August 2011, 8originalMore archives.2021/6/17Browse.
  78. ^ "Partnership and cooperation agreement (PCA) --EU monitor". www.eumonitor.eu. 2021/6/17Browse.
  79. ^ "EUR-Lex – 22018A0126 (01) – EN – EUR-Lex". thumb up. 2021/6/13Browse.
  80. ^ "EU-Armenia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement". EU External Services. European Commission. 2021/6/13Browse.
  81. ^ “EU and Kyrgyz Republic initial Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement”. European Commission. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=2046 
  82. ^ "The World Fact Book". Central Intelligence Agency.As of August 2011, 6originalMore archives.2021/6/17Browse.
  83. ^ "World Trade Report 2009". World Trade Organization. 2021/6/16Browse.
  84. ^ "EU position in world trade --Trade --European Commission". ec.europa.eu. 2021/6/17Browse.
  85. ^ a b "EU-Korea FTA Will Be a Long Process: Greek Ambassador" (English). Korea Times (September 2009, 7). 2021/6/17Browse.
  86. ^ "Access2Markets Welcome to Access2Markets to Trade Helpdesk users". trade.ec.europa.eu. 2021/6/17Browse.
  87. ^ "Negotiations and agreements --Trade --European Commission". ec.europa.eu. 2021/6/17Browse.
  88. ^ Wong, Audrye (May 2021, 5). “How Not to Win Allies and Influence Geopolitics” (English). ISSN 0015-7120. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2021-04-20/how-not-win-allies-and-influence-geopolitics 2021/6/17Browse. 
  89. ^ EUROPA-The EU at a glance(English and 22 other languages)
  90. ^ a b c Takashi Uemura. “Cross-border bills Euro banknotes (pdf) ”. Banknote and Postage Stamp Museum. 2020/12/4Browse.
  91. ^ "Croatia joins EU, expands to 28-nation system for the first time in 6 and a half years”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2013, 7). 2019/3/13Browse.
  92. ^ "Iceland applies for EU membership”(Japanese). Japan Local Government Center (JLGC): London. 2019/2/16Browse.
  93. ^ "Iceland cancels EU accession negotiations”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2015, 3). 2019/2/16Browse.
  94. ^ "Candidate Countries --Enlargement --Environment --European Commission". ec.europa.eu. 2020/12/4Browse.
  95. ^ "Agreement to change Macedonian country name, resolution of conflict in the quarter century”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2018, 6). 2019/2/15Browse.
  96. ^ ""North Macedonia" renamed effective”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2019, 2). 2019/2/15Browse.
  97. ^ a b "EU to expand again without UK”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2020, 3). 2020/3/29Browse.
  98. ^ a b Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “EU to initiate accession negotiations with Macedonia and Albania". NHK News. 2020/3/29Browse.
  99. ^ a b “European Council Approves Start of Accession Negotiations between Albania and Northern Macedonia”Japan External Trade Organization. (March 2020, 3). https://www.jetro.go.jp/biznews/2020/03/80f794156b9ed790.html 2020/5/3Browse. 
  100. ^ a b Joint statement of the Members of the European Council, Europian Union, (2020-3-26), https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/43076/26-vc-euco-statement-en.pdf 2020/5/3Browse. 
  101. ^ a b Recommendation to start EU accession negotiations with Montenegro European Commission Nihon Keizai Shimbun 2011/10/13
  102. ^ "Fifth meeting of the Accession Conference with Montenegro at Deputy level, Brussels, 30 June 2020" (English). www.consilium.europa.eu. 2020/6/30Browse.
  103. ^ “Forgotten the approval of EU and Serbia candidate countries”. Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2011, 12). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/world/news/20111209-OYT1T00720.htm 2011/12/10Browse. 
  104. ^ Serbia Approved by EU Summit Sankei Shimbun 2012/3/2
  105. ^ a b c "European Union”(Japanese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2018/6/24Browse.
  106. ^ "Republic of Kosovo”(Japanese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2018/8/8Browse.
  107. ^ "Ukrainian President Requests Immediate EU Membership". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2022/3/1Browse.
  108. ^ "Signed documents applying for accession to Georgia and Moldova EU". NHK NEWS WEB. 2022/3/4Browse.
  109. ^ a b "EU-related glossary”(Japanese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2020/4/22Browse.
  110. ^ "EU: New policy for early accession of six Western Balkan countries-Mainichi Shimbun" (Japanese). Mainichi Newspapers. https://mainichi.jp/articles/20180208/k00/00m/030/022000c 2018/6/24Browse. 
  111. ^ a b “West Balkan accession, reconfirmation of support EU summit meeting, target time not shown”. Current affairs dot com. Current events (ク ラ ー ニ(スロベニア): Jiji Press Inc.). (November 2021, 10). https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2021100600859 2021/10/7Browse. 
  112. ^ a b “EU leaders promise to join six Balkan countries, no deadline set”.Bourde (スロベニア): to Reuters(July 2021, 10). https://jp.reuters.com/article/eu-summit-idJPKBN2GW1RU 2021/10/7Browse. 
  113. ^ a b c European Union Reaches Deal With Turkey on MigrationL. Norman, The Wall Street Journal, 29 Nov 2015
  114. ^ Turkey wants more money from EU after € 3 bn migration deal, Turkish PM saysR. Akkoc, The Daily Telegraph, 22 Jan 2016
  115. ^ "10th Anniversary of Eastern Partnership with EU, Temperature Differences in Each Country (EU, Ukraine, Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Belarus, Moldova) | Business Brief-JETRO". www.jetro.go.jp. 2020/4/22Browse.
  116. ^ a b "Signing of Union Agreement including DCFTA of Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova and EU (Interview with Foreign Press Secretary)”(Japanese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2020/4/22Browse.
  117. ^ a b "EU joins three former Soviet Union nations to support economic development”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2014, 6). 2020/4/22Browse.
  118. ^ "EU Signs Union Agreement with Three Former Soviet Unions-Including FTA-European Council also Summarizes Ukraine-(EU, Ukraine, Albania, Georgia, Moldova) | Business Brief-JETRO". www.jetro.go.jp. 2020/4/22Browse.
  119. ^ "EU-Ukraine alliance agreement goes into full force in September”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2017, 7). 2020/4/22Browse.
  120. ^ "Press corner" (English). European Commission-European Commission. 2020/4/22Browse.
  121. ^ "Georgia-Trade-European Commission". ec.europa.eu. 2020/4/22Browse.
  122. ^ Makszimov, Vlagyiszlav (May 2021, 5). “Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine formalise their higher EU ambition" (English). www.euractiv.com. 2022/3/26Browse.
  123. ^ "Speech by President Charles Michel at the Batumi International Conference" (English). www.consilium.europa.eu. 2022/3/26Browse.
  124. ^ a b "Accelerating the departure of neighboring countries from Russia ... Moldova and Georgia also apply for EU membership: International: News: Yomiuri Shimbun Online". www.yomiuri.co.jp. 2022/3/26Browse.
  125. ^ "Ukrainian President Requests Immediate EU Membership". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2022/3/1Browse.
  126. ^ "Ukrainian President appeals to European Parliament to "enter EU" EU is cautious". Sankei News. 2022/3/4Browse.
  127. ^ "Cold water for EU and Ukraine membership applications". www.afpbb.com. 2022/3/4Browse.
  128. ^ "EU accession procedure, "treat like Ukraine" Turkish President". www.afpbb.com. 2022/3/4Browse.
  129. ^ "Signed documents applying for accession to Georgia and Moldova EU". NHK NEWS WEB. 2022/3/4Browse.
  130. ^ "Georgia to "immediately" apply for EU accession". www.afpbb.com. 2022/3/4Browse.
  131. ^ Britain decides to leave by EU referendum NEWSWEEK Japanese edition June 2016, 6
  132. ^ “European parliament approves UK/EU exit plan.. AFPBB News. French news agency(July 2020, 1). https://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3265796 2020/1/30Browse. 
  133. ^ a b Dear Britain, there is life outside the EUT. Aeschi and G. Thor Thordarson, The Daily Telegraph, News, 10 Jul 2015
  134. ^ Iceland drops EU membership bid BBC, News, 12 Mar 2015
  135. ^ In European crisis, Iceland emerges as an island of recovery Wall Streat Journal May 2012, 5
  136. ^ Iceland starts torecover its voice after financial crisis The Guardian, World, 23 Nov 2012
  137. ^ a b Switzerland withdraws longstanding application to join EU RT, 16 Jun 2016
  138. ^ Joseph Stiglitz: Austerity not the way to go for Europe BBC News, 4 Oct 2011
  139. ^ Revenge of the Optimum Currency Area P. Krugman, The Conscience of a Liberal 24 Jun 2014
  140. ^ DNWR in the EAP. Krugman, The Concsience of a Liberal, 13 Apr 2014
  141. ^ Germany's sinP. Krugman, The Conscience of a Liberal, The New York Times, 29 Aug 2014
  142. ^ a b Jeremy Corbyn predicted that the Euro would lead to'the imposition of a bankers' Europe'J. Stone, The Independent, 18 Sep 2015
  143. ^ ""Democracy" is rapidly collapsing in Eastern Europe | Global Eye". 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン. 2022/4/17Browse.
  144. ^ "Orban's continued throwing and sanctions against Russia-The dissonance in the EU that the Hungarian elections cast a shadow over-”. Daiichi Seimei Keizai Kenkyusho. 2022/4/17Browse.
  145. ^ "The "rule of law" crisis in Poland and the European Union”. Annual Report of the EU Society of Japan. 2022/4/17Browse.
  146. ^ "EU Court of Justice for infringement of "rule of law" ordering fines for Poland". Chunichi Shimbun Web. 2022/4/17Browse.
  147. ^ "Intensifying Conflict over "Rule of Law" EU Fund Suspension-European Commission and Poland". Current affairs dot com. 2022/4/17Browse.
  148. ^ "EU Court of Justice decides that rules permitting suspension of EU budget for violations of the rule of law are legal (EU, Hungary, Poland)". JETRO. 2022/4/17Browse.
  149. ^ "Western moral contradictions that turn around and praise the dictatorship Poland (Company Quarterly Online)". Yahoo! News. 2022/4/17Browse.
  150. ^ Comment osez-vous être contre l'Europe puisque l'Europe c'est la paix? 2010/11/11
  151. ^ I fought for Britain and I know how the EU weakens our defenses MGJ Thompson, The Daily Telegraph, 29 Feb 2016


Related item

外部 リンク




Back to Top