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🌏 | Austria, Vaccine Mandatory for 18+ Houses Passed Bill


Austria, Vaccine Mandatory for 18+ Houses Passed Bill

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After the fourth lockdown (city blockade) ended last month, the number of infected people with the highly infectious Omicron strain increased to record levels.

[Vienna, XNUMXth Reuters] -The Austrian House of Representatives will be over XNUMX years old from February XNUMXst, the new Coronawi ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

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Lockdown (policy)

Lockdown(British: lockdown) IsDangerImminent threatriskAn urgent situation in which you cannot freely enter or leave a specific area or building, or move within it (one or more of them) for reasons such as[1]..It is usually a directive with legal punishment from a public institution,Martial lawHas a personality close to.Therefore, if it violates it, it is quite dangerous.Governments and local governments basically force people to move and outdoor activities禁止Sometimes it means to[2]. Also,EmergencyInMovement of people-Corporate activityThere is a view that the restrictions will be imposed by legal punishment.HoweverJapanFor the purpose of controlling the flow of people inEmergency declarationThere is a view that it is different from the measures of "request for self-restraint"[3][4][5][6].cityIf you want to block the whole thing, in JapanCity blockadeAlso called,JapaneseThere is no description in the dictionary of, and currently there is no definition[7][8]. "Full lockdown"" Refers to a situation in which people are required to stay in their current location and stay still, and are prohibited from entering or leaving.


Emergency lockdownとPreventive lockdownThere is[9].

Preventive lockdown

Preventive lockdown is a precautionary measure that addresses worst-case scenarios and system vulnerabilities with the aim of avoiding all possible dangers to ensure safety.

If preventive lockdown is not planned, loss of life etc. may rapidly escalate.[9].

Emergency lockdown

Emergency lockdown is performed when there is an imminent threat or risk to human life.Against intruders from the outsideDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularThe emergency lockdown procedure in should be short and simple. Simple procedures can be disseminated with regular practice instead of prolonged training[9].

1999/ OfColumbine High School Shooting IncidentSince then, some American schools have different emergency lockdown procedures, some follow standard procedures, and some recommend a proactive approach to threats.[10].

刑 務 所

In English speaking, the term lockdown is generally刑 務 所Controlling the movement of prisoners in.

Full lockdown in prisoner riots[11].


hospitalUnited States guidelines for lockdowns inpower failure,Earthquake,洪水,fire,bomb,hostageActive shooters such as threats and shootings byactive shooter) Etc. are listed[12][13].. In addition, contamination by substances that may be harmful,Riot, Children, etc.KidnappingThe case is also taken into consideration[12][13].

Manufacturing industryThen refers to stopping and improving manufacturing to identify problems that prevent it. Lockdown event (lockdown event).


American terrorist attacks

2001/ToAmerican terrorist attacksPrivate whenAirspaceWas blocked for three days.

Cronara Riot (Sydney)

2005/ToAustralia OfSydneyAnd between Lebanese youth and white (European) youthCronara RiotThere has occurred.New South WalesThe government authorized police to lock down certain areas and roads in the state in case of an emergency.Sutherland ShireLocked down.

2008/May 1,University of British Columbia (UBC) threats occurRoyal Canadian Mounted PoliceLocked down for 6 hours, staff and students waited inside the building[14][15][16].

Boston Marathon Bomb Terrorism

2013/ OfBoston Marathon Bomb TerrorismThen.Boston CityThe entire area was locked down and a search for terrorists was made.[17][18][19].

Paris terrorist attacks

2015/ OfParis terrorist attacksIn case ofBelgiumThe lockdown continued for two days. same year,Los Angeles Unified School DistrictWas blocked by the threat of terrorism.

Global pandemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)

People's Republic of China(Hereafter, China)Hubei ProvinceWuhanで2019/Occurred at the endSARS coronavirus 2byEpidemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)Then.2020/Since enteringPandemicCaused (global epidemic), China,United Kingdom,EU,Malaysia,The United States of America OfCalifornia,New York State,north korea OfGaeseong,IndiaLockdown measures were implemented in[20][21][22][23][24]..Also at the same timeEmergency declarationHowever, since the number of infected people was decreasing, economic activities were prioritized and some of them were eased.However, since then, the number of infected people has increased rapidly, and the United Kingdom[25][26]And Germany[27],France[28]Lockdown was executed again in Europe etc.[29][30][31][32].Corona shockMany countries have implemented more relaxed lockdowns than the first time because of the global economic difficulties that have been called.

Partial lockdown/partial blockage (partial lockdownIn (), some activities of residents are restricted.CurfewIs an example[33][34].

Full blockade, full lockdown limits most of the people's activities, but is the basis of societyinfrastructure(So-called in Japanlife line[Note 1]) Does not stop functions such as[35].. Pharmacy, pharmacy, grocery store, daily necessities store, public market, gas station, repair shop, hospital, clinic, bank, securities company, insurance company, security company, public transportation, mail, logistics, telecommunications, news agency, Agriculture, livestock, fisheries, food production, pharmaceuticals, daily necessities production, electric power companies, gas companies, garbage disposal, burial grounds, police, fire departments, national defense, border security, coastal security, customs, public offices, etc. even during the lockdown period As an exception, take measures to prevent the spread of infection and maintain the function. In-store eating and drinking is not permitted at restaurants, but take-out and delivery may be permitted.

About implementation in Japan

In Japan after 2020Spread of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)In April 2020Shinzo AbeAmendment by the Prime Minister (hereinafter referred to as Prime Minister Abe)New influenza measures special measures lawFirst based onEmergency declarationIssued[36]did.However, there is no lockdown in Japan that imposes behavioral restrictions like those of other countries and punishes violators.Japanese GovernmentFrom "Refrain from going out(Request) ”, with no penalties or coercion[8].

At the House of Councilors settlement committee on April 2020, 4, Prime Minister Abe said, "The state of emergency is not an immediate lockdown. If we can do the lockdown (in Japan) that France does, we can't." Said[37]. Also,Yoshii KanThe Prime Minister said, "The law that restricts going out is difficult without the understanding of the people." "It is not the decisive factor for infection control, and each country is regaining its daily routine by promoting vaccination." Showing attitude[38].. On the other handNational Governors' Association[39][40],Sanae Takaichi[41],Taro Kono[42]Insists that legislation including lockdown should be considered.

Regarding whether or not measures such as lockdown with compulsory force can be taken under the Constitution of Japan, Yamato UniversityIwata Atsushi(Iwata Atsushi) Associate Professor (Political Science) said, "In the Constitution of Japan, from the standpoint that measures with compulsory force cannot be taken in Japan.National emergency right[Note 2]"The background is that is not stipulated," he said. "From the perspective of constitutionalism, it is necessary to make a careful judgment on the restriction of private rights." There can be a situation where this is the case, and we should take this opportunity to discuss the provision of an exceptional emergency clause in the Constitution. "On the other hand, Tokyo Metropolitan UniversityKimura KusataProfessor (Kimura Souta) (Constitution) expressed the idea that "strong measures can be taken without changing the Constitution," and the current Constitution prohibits measures against infectious diseases that have scientific grounds and consider basic human rights. He argued that he had not done so, saying, "It is better to maintain the constitutional rights of individuals and the rules of the governing body, and then to improve the law and regulate the behavior. It is different from the debate on the revision of the constitution."[43]


Psychological effects

PsychiatristBoris CyrulnikLockdown is a necessary measure for survival, but it puts a terrifying pressure on people's minds, especially those who were originally mentally ill, in their childhood.traumaThe damage is great to those who have a problem, those who grew up in a disadvantaged environment, those who have disagreements in the family, those who are financially unstable, etc.panic disorderPointed out that there were cases of recurrence or acute confusion.[44]..The cause is sensory deprivation that makes it impossible to work on the environment from the environment, which is also experienced by prisoners in solitary confinement, submarine crews, researchers staying in Antarctica for a long time, and ocean voyage sailors. By thatAnxiety disorderTo fall into[44].

Economic impact

LockdownEconomy,employmentHas a tremendous impact such as deterioration ofSide effectsIt is pointed out that[45].

Other usages


ComputerSuch asITAtSecurityFor strengtheningOS,ApplicationA mechanism to limit functions such as[46].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In Japanese, essential for life as a social infrastructureInfrastructure equipmentUsed as a part of the wordlife line TheJapanglish.
  2. ^ Even in Japan,Imperial Japanese ConstitutionHad a national emergency right provision,The Constitution of JapanDoes not exist in.Pacific WarIt is said that the consciousness to prevent the runaway of the nation worked from the reflection of.For this reason, Japan after the Pacific War has responded by newly establishing or amending individual laws in the event of an emergency such as a major disaster.


  1. ^ ""LOCKDOWN" (English). Cambridge Dictionary. 2020/5/15Browse.
  2. ^ Readers English-Japanese dictionary 3rd edition, Kenkyusha
  3. ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL (January 2020, 4). “Japan that cannot be locked down Forces that stand out in other countries”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2020/4/20Browse.
  4. ^ "Hitoshi Tsuji, “Japanese people are terrible” due to the decrease in the number of people in the city. “Please sleep” to the governor of Osaka Prefecture Yoshimura.”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2020/4/20Browse.
  5. ^ "No railway/road restrictions, unlike lockdown”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2020, 4). 2020/4/20Browse.
  6. ^ Company, The Asahi Shimbun. “"Lockdown" is needed right now-Tetsuhei Maeda | Ronza-Asahi Shimbun speech site”(Japanese). Ronza (RONZA). 2020/4/20Browse.
  7. ^ Kenji Morioka, Soken Tokugawa, Yoshiaki Kawabata, Akira Nakamura and Koichi Hoshino, Shueisha Japanese Dictionary, 3rd edition. Shueisha, 2012. | Yu Miyachi, Mutsuro Kai, Sugio Yamashita, Meiji Shoin Selective Japanese Dictionary. 1998. | Iwanami Shoten , Electronic Notebook: Kojien 7th edition, 7th edition. Iwanami Shoten, 2018. | Japanese Language Dictionary Second Edition Editorial Committee Shogakkan Japanese Language Dictionary Editing Department, Japanese Language Dictionary, 2nd Edition. Shogakukan, 2000.
  8. ^ a b Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “What exactly is lockdown? | Featured Articles”(Japanese). NHK Political Magazine. 2020/11/1Browse.
  9. ^ a b c Why Schools Need 2 Types of Lockdowns, campussafetymagazine.com, June 14, 2012.
  10. ^ School Safety Questioned After ShootingABC News, 16 December 2012
  11. ^ Spiegel, Sarah. "Prison Race Rights: An Easy Case for Segregation." Calif. L. Rev. 95 (2007): 2261.
  12. ^ a b Lockdown Policy from California Hospital Association. Retrieved December 2012
  13. ^ a b Lockdown Policy at Iroquois Healthcare Alliance. Retrieved December 2012
  14. ^ Cause for UBC Lockdown still uncertain but initial posting may reveal some clues
  15. ^ "Police increase presence at UBC following lockdown"
  16. ^ "Threat prompts lockdown at UBC"
  17. ^ This Is What It Looks Like When the Police Shut Down a City, The atlantic wire, 19 Apr 2013. Retrieved Jun 2013.
  18. ^ A Town Under Siege: Watertown Residents Describe Life Under Lockdown, Time, 19 Apr 2013. Retrieved Jun 2013.
  19. ^ Boston faces lockdown as police hunt for marathon bombing suspect, The Guardian, 19 April 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  20. ^ Henley, Jon; Madrid, Kim Willsher Ashifa Kassam in (March 2020, 3). “Coronavirus: France imposes lockdown as EU calls for 30-day travel ban” (English). The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/16/coronavirus-spain-takes-over-private-healthcare-amid-more-european-lockdowns 2020/3/17Browse. 
  21. ^ "Why are so many people at home even though they are actually the contents of a “lockdown life” in the UK where you can go to parks and shop?”(Japanese). PRESIDENT Online. 2020/5/4Browse.
  22. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “New Coronavirus "Lockdown" Life in Developing Countries | Special Feature Digest | NHK International Press”(Japanese). International Press 2020|NHK BS1. 2020/5/4Browse.
  23. ^ "Coronavirus: US cities put into lockdown as COVID-19 cases worldwide overtake China" (English). Sky News. 2020/3/17Browse.
  24. ^ "Reporter's Notebook: What Life Is Like In Rome Under Coronavirus Lockdown" (English). NPR.org. 2020/3/17Browse.
  25. ^ "New Corona Infection Doubles Every XNUMX Days, Increasing Calls for Lockdown in the UK”(Japanese). Bloomberg.com. 2020/11/1Browse.
  26. ^ "Britain also locks down again Loosen from last time, school does not close [New coronavirus: Asahi Shimbun Digital] ”. www.asahi.com. 2020/11/1Browse.
  27. ^ "Germany to introduce strictest regulations since national lockdown-restaurants closed”(Japanese). Bloomberg.com. 2020/11/1Browse.
  28. ^ "Breaking news / Paris latest information "Relockdown is decided all over France! Nightmare again"”(Japanese). Design Stories. 2020/11/1Browse.
  29. ^ "[New Corona] Record new infection in Germany-Hong Kong extends social distance measures”(Japanese). Bloomberg.com. 2020/10/20Browse.
  30. ^ "Madrid, the capital of Spain, locks down Strengthening measures against corona infection | Newsweek Japan official site”(Japanese). www.newsweekjapan.jp (September 2020, 10). 2020/10/20Browse.
  31. ^ Takahiro, Onishi. “Nikkei Business Electronic Edition”(Japanese). Nikkei Business Electronic Edition. 2020/10/20Browse.
  32. ^ "[New Corona] Record new infection in Germany-Hong Kong extends social distance measures (Bloomberg)”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2020/10/20Browse.
  33. ^ "Unlocking unlocks new virus "reactivates" WHO warns | News from all over the country | Risk Counter.com (Risk Counter.com) | Shinken Shimbun". Risk Countermeasures .com (Risk Countermeasures .com). 2020/5/4Browse.
  34. ^ "New corona, food problems in Africa worsen Lockdown hinders distribution (NewSphere)". NewsPicks (September 2020, 5). 2020/5/4Browse.
  35. ^ Dineros, Kevin (March 2020, 3). “COVID-19 Crisis Management and Prevention Plan". COVID-19 Crisis Management and Prevention Plan. 2020/3/21Browse.
  36. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Prime Minister Abe declared an emergency situation 7 prefectures Effectiveness Until May 5". NHK News. 2020/11/1Browse.
  37. ^ ""State of emergency = not lockdown" Prime Minister emphasizes”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun DIGITAL. 2021/9/20Browse.
  38. ^ Prime Minister, lockdown is "not a decisive factor" ... Experts are eager to limit private rights(Yomiuri Shimbun Online, January 2021, 8)
  39. ^ Governor Chairman Requests Nishimura Minister for Economic Revitalization to Consider Lockdown(Kyodo News, July 2021, 8)
  40. ^ Proposal for "nationwide expansion" of state of emergency Governor's Association expresses dissatisfaction with government(Kyodo News, July 2021, 8)
  41. ^ Mr. Takaichi considers legislation to enable lockdown(Sankei Shimbun, December 2021, 9)
  42. ^ Lockdown discussion required Mr. Kono
  43. ^ "Japan that cannot be locked down Forces that stand out in other countries”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2020/11/1Browse.
  44. ^ a b "New values ​​brought about by the new corona Psychiatrist Boris Cyrulnikcourrier.2020.4.14
  45. ^ What is lockdown? It has a huge impact on the economy and employment.Nihon Keizai Shimbun June 020, 11 20:2
  46. ^ What is LockdownIT glossary

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