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🌏 | US President Joe Biden conducts medical examination and temporarily delegates authority to Mr. Harris


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US President Joe Biden makes a medical examination and temporarily transfers authority to Mr. Harris

 
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As the US president is the oldest in history, his health is being watched.
 

[Bethesda (Maryland, USA) XNUMXth Reuters] – US President Joe Biden is part of a regular health checkup on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

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President of the United States

President of the United States(American Presidential Name: Official Name:US President-British: President of the United States, Abbreviation:POTUS) IsThe United States of America OfHead of stateIsExecutive directorThe official official position. Conducted every 4 yearsPresidential electionElected by.Incumbent2021 May 1More 46'sJoe Biden(Democratic Party).

For successive presidentsList of other itemsSee.

Qualifications/Licenses

United States presidential election OfRight to voteIs "ConstitutionAccording to the provisions of Article 2 Section 1Over 35 years oldAnd the period of stay in the United StatesMore than 14 yearsso,United States Citizenship Holder by BirthIt is. This "citizenship holder by birth" means "I was born in Japan, (Adopted by the United States)Place of birthPerson who acquired nationality based onOrThose who were born abroad with US citizens as their parentsIt is.

That is, if you are not a US citizen at the time of birth, you are not eligible for presidential candidate.As a transition ruleConstitutionThose who were citizens of the United States at the time of enactment (13 coloniesResidents from that time) are supposed to qualify, and the first to ninth and twelfth presidents are qualified under this provision.

In addition to this, there is a provision that at least one out of two votes must be cast on a person in another state when a presidential elector votes, so the same candidate for the vice president is the same.StateIf you are registered in, there will be problems during elections. Since it is possible to move the address most conveniently, it is not a practical problem.[Annotation 2].

Election

The presidentConstitutionAccording to the provisions of Article 2, Section 1Once every four yearsPeople OfvoteNewly elected byOrReappointmentTherefore, the term of office is four years per term.According to the provisions of Amended Article 1Not allowed to be elected more than once(3 selections prohibited).In other words, in principle, the same person can serve the longest for 2 terms and 8 years.[Annotation 1]..It should be noted that the revised Article 22 has returned to the election at the end of the first term after losing the election and does not prevent him from being elected in the second term. Not in.

Presidential electionIs formallyIndirect electionAndElectoral groupIt is an election system in which the president and the vice president are elected in pairs. However, generalVotersEffectively vote for the Vice Presidential candidateDirect electionIt also has a personality close to.If none of the candidates can win a majority of electors,Congress OfHouse of Representativesas well as the SenateElections the President and Vice President, respectively.

Authority

Executive power (administrative power)

Legislative powers

  • Right to recommend legislation and other measures considered appropriate to Congress (“textbook”Message Say.The best known is the beginning of the yearGeneral textbook speech(State of the Union Address) ”.There are also budget textbooks and special textbooks (war textbooks).In recent years, the State of the Union has becomeJoint meeting of both housesBegan to make a speech at.The president does not have the authority to submit bills and instead uses textbooks to request Congress to enact the law.Also, since the president does not have the right to attend parliament, the textbook is originally served as a document.Each time a textbook speech is given, it must be specifically invited by Congress.
  • To the bill that passed the Houses of CongressVeto..Both houses must be re-passed by a majority of more than two-thirds in order for the bill remanded to Congress to become a law without the signature of the president.The president can influence the deliberations of the bill by hinting at the veto.[10].

In some cases, the system of all legislation being initiated by members of the Diet is strictly adhered to, and in the past, the president did not usually take the initiative in policy unless it was an emergency.But,Second World WarIt can be seen that later presidents are actively involved in policy, especially in domestic affairs, and even try to enact the law they desire by moving the members of the political party to which they belong.In addition, there are movements to clarify their thoughts on the bill that is likely to be controversial to the public and to lead the parliament in a way that moves public opinion.

Military command

The presidentarmy(army-Navy-air force-Marines-Coast Guard-Space army)ofHQ Commander(Commander-in-Chief) AsCommand authority(State command authority) Hold.Declaration of war TheParliamentIt is the authority of the parliament to recruit and organize troops.Today, however, the president has this command because there is a danger that a preemptive attack will be impossible if he waits for the declaration of war by the parliament, or conversely, a preemptive attack will be received from a hostile country. It is customary to be able to start a war without declaring war on the basis of.

The United States actually declared war officially after the Constitution was enacted.1812 war-American ink war-US-West War-World War I-Second World WarThere are only 5 times1941 May 12(Hawaii time)ofAttack on Pearl HarborTriggered byJapan-Germany-Italy kingdomAnd otherAxis powersWhat was done to the side was the last formal declaration of war to date,Korean War-Vietnam Warな ど1945 Since then, no declaration of war has been made by Congress.[11].

On the other hand, CongressVietnam WarFrom the reflection on the expansion and swamping due to the circumstances inWar authority lawHas set certain restrictions on the commanding power of the president. Although it is slightly out of command, it is owned by the US military.nuclear weaponsThe president also holds the authority to use nuclear weapons, and the use of nuclear weapons will be permitted only when the president issues a use order.

日常

  • Working hours are not fixed by regulation,You just have to work as much as you needIt is said that.
  • The first morning of the president's morning begins with listening to a "daily report." In this reportChief of Staff-Secretary of State-Secretary of State InformationWill report the information gathered from all over the world.
  • My daily work isOval officeIs called (inside the roomellipseIt is held in the presidential office. Position is White HouseWaist wingInside.
  • Just in casenuclear weaponsEquipment required for use ("Nuclear football, "Nuclear Button", an attache case with a function to send to the Joint Chiefs of Staff.It carried a code certifying that it was an executive order, a list of military actions to be instructed in retaliation, and a list of shelters in the event of a nuclear attack.OfficerWill accompany you anywhere.
  • RegularPress conferenceAlthough not specified, it is usually conducted at least once a month. In addition, the president sometimes speaks directly to the people on TV if necessary.
  • A regular radio speech is given every Saturday morning. A message of about 5 minutes is read, and the current situation and issues currently underway are explained.
  • On holidays, it is a villa exclusively for the president.Camp DavidI spend with.
  • 2007 Currently, the president’s salary isDollar(Approximately 4,300 millionYen)[Annotation 4], The necessary expenses of 5 dollars (about 550 million yen), travel expenses of 10 dollars (about 1,100 million yen), and entertainment expenses of 1 dollars (about 9,000 million yen) will be paid as needed.
  • The call sign used when boarding an aircraft for outdoor travel is given by the affiliation of the aircraft.Air force one: Air force aircraft (usually a dedicated aircraftVC-25),Executive one: Civilian aircraft,Coast Guard One: Coast Guard aircraft,Navy one: Navy aircraft,Marine One: Marines,Army one: Army aircraft.
  • When traveling by air, basically board a presidential plane or an American military plane.Business jetThere is a restriction that even if you own it, you cannot use it while you are in the presidential office.[12].. This limit comes from a businessmanDonald TrumpGained attention when he became president on January 2017, 1.

Relations with Congress

The United States has a thorough separation of powers, the president does not have the right to dissolve the parliament, and the parliament does not have the power to vote no confidence in the president.Also, members of parliament cannot be cabinet members of the Cabinet of the United States while still in office.[13].

In late January every yearCongressPresident of theGeneral textbook speechIs the AmericanThree powersAlmost all of theHouse of RepresentativesIt is a big event to gather in.

HoweverCold WarTakenano1970 eraAt the end, Cheong Wa Dae aimed at the time of this State of the Union address.Eastern countriesIn anticipation of a capital attack by the capital, he was worried about the danger of all presidential successors and all members of both the House of Representatives and the House of Representatives meeting together. When attacked here, not only will there be no heirs to the legal presidency of the Constitution, but also the legislative council that will take necessary legislative measures to overcome such a constitutional crisis and the official approval of measures will be taken.Federal Supreme CourtThis is because there is a possibility that up to will disappear in an instant.

as a result1981 From the State of the Union address, one of the ministers' successors to the presidential authority was secretly "Designated survivorAnd nominate that person in the capitalWashington DCI decided to wait (that is, hide) on the day in a private place at a considerable distance from.

Furthermore, although it was an imaginary situation,9.11When the attack on the mainland of the United States became a reality, from the 2005 State of the Union address, Congress also gave a State of the Union address with four members, one from the Democratic Party and one from the Republican Party, as "designated survivors." On that day, he left the capital to allow the federal parliament, which has a chairman and members in both houses, to survive in the worst case.However, from 1 to 4, in the SenateOrder of succession of presidential authorityIs in third placeSenate ChairmanHas become one of the designated survivors of the Senate, and if it continues to be established as a custom, it is pointed out that the need to appoint designated survivors of the cabinet is lost.

Order of succession of presidential authority

1947 (English editionSection (a)(1) says, ``If both the President and the Vice President cannot fulfill their responsibilities and execute their authority due to reasons such as death, resignation, dismissal, or inability to operate, , He will do this as president after he resigns from the House of Representatives and members of the House of Representatives." Has been set up to 18th place.

Succession orderjob title
1Vice President
2House of Representatives
3Senate Chairman
4Secretary of State
5Treasury Secretary
6Secretary of Defense
7Attorney General
8Secretary of the Interior
9Secretary of Agriculture
10Secretary of Commerce
11Secretary of Labor
12Health and Welfare Secretary
13Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
14Secretary of Transportation
15Energy Secretary
16Education Secretary
17Veteran Secretary
18Homeland Security Secretary

However, those who are born in a foreign country and have been naturalized (acquired nationality) in the United States and who do not meet the presidential qualifications stipulated in the Constitution (to become president from immigrants must live in the United States for three consecutive generations) are within this ranking. If you are in, skip that person and move up the rank of the lower rank.In addition, the status of persons other than the Vice President is just an ex officio agent.Acting as presidentNo one can be “promoted” to the president like the Vice President.

Origin of successive presidents

Race

The President has been around for a long timeEnglishTheMother tongueageWhite(Anglo-SaxonSystem)Protestant(W)ofMaleHave been elected a lot.

But,1960 presidential electionIrish descentToCatholicIsJohn F. KennedyWas elected, which attracted attention to its roots.60 years later,2020 presidential electionThe second Catholic and IrishJoe BidenWas elected.

また2008 presidential electionThen,Barack Obama Black[Annotation 6]For the first time, he was nominated as a presidential candidate for two major political parties, and was further elected.

Anglo-Saxon system(W), but it is sometimes specified byEnglish American(Anglo-Saxon people)Scottish,Irish American,Dutch american,German americanHas been elected since the early years. A father who is not paternal in WASP1837 Inaugurated as a DutchMartin Van BurenIs the start.

Presidential election may be welcomed in the country of origin of the ancestors. For exampleRonald Reagan TheIrelandWas welcomed by Barack Obama, who was not a slave descendant, but was home to African-Americans and their fathers.KenyaIt was full of joy.By the way, because it is a multi-ethnic country, the roots of surnames are various, Washington, Lincoln, Johnson, Clinton, Bush are English, Monroe and McKinley are Scottish, Van Buren and Roosevelt are Dutch, Eisenhower and Trump are. German, Kennedy and Reagan are Irish surnames.Obama, the first African descent,SwahiliSphere ofLuoIs the surname.

Sex

There is no particular regulation. All the past presidentsMaleAnd a female president has not yet been born.

In 2016Hillary Clinton(Bill ClintonFormer Mrs. President, FormerFirst lady)ButDemocratic primaryFor the first time as a woman to be nominated as a candidate for the two major political parties,Donald TrumpGot more votes, but wonElectorI was defeated because the number was small.

Career

Many successive presidents have been elected members of parliament or governors.The most common previous job before becoming a politicianLawyerIs.Twenty-eight of the 46 presidents (28% of the presidents) are lawyers, especially from the founding of the country.Civil WarUp to, 16 out of 13 (81%) are lawyers.For the president who was a lawyerAbraham Lincoln,Franklin RooseveltThere are many people who have left remarkable historical achievements.In addition, there are many presidents with military history, mainly the Republican Party (Ulysses Grant,Theodore Roosevelt,Dwight D. EisenhowerSuch).Ronald ReaganHas a history of serving as governor of the state, although his previous job was an actor, which is related to performing arts.The 45th president who broke this practiceDonald TrumpAs a businessman for many yearsReal estateHe was the first person to develop business and had no political experience or military history, and he was the oldest president in history at the age of 70 for the first term.

After retirement

As a civil servantFederal governmentWill provide an annual pension of about $ 20, medical insurance, travel expenses for public affairs, and a private office.Also, upon request, it is customary to receive reports of confidential information at the same level as the incumbent president.[14].

In addition, to retain confidential information, etc.secret ServiceGuards last a lifetime[15].

Designation

The name of the president's (in the case of men) call is "Mr. President" (Mr. President[Annotation 7], The abbreviation is "Sir" (Sir).

If the president is a woman, this is the "Madame President" (Madam President), Abbreviation is "Mam" (Ma'am(However, there is no example of a female president being born yet).

In the United StatesRetired presidents are ceremonially treated as presidents for the rest of their livesThereforeAll former and former presidents alive also said, "Mr. President (Mr. President) ”[Annotation 8].

In addition, the presidential candidate who was elected in the presidential election in early November will be "for about two and a half months until January 11 of the following year.(English edition"(Mr. President-Elect, "Presidential election winner", "President-elect").Although Mr. President Elect is not treated as president in ceremonial terms, he has received a "daily report" to the president for the past two and a half months, which is almost the same as that for the president.secret ServiceSince he will be fully guarded by himself, he will be treated virtually as a president.

As of August 2021, the following five former presidents are still alive.

Successive presidents

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ a b However, if you are promoted to president in the middle of your term, you can challenge the subsequent presidential election twice if your term is within two years (Amendment Article 2).In this case, you will be able to serve for up to 2 years.Of the 22th presidentLindon johnsonWas qualified for this, but took responsibility for the Vietnam War and did not run for the third term, so he retired in the second term.
  2. ^ 2000 United States Presidential ElectionOn the occasion,Republican PartyPresidential CandidateGeorge W. BushAnd Vice Presidential CandidateDick CheneyHave the same state registrationTexasAs a result, Cheney sold his home in the state and registered his voters and registered his driver's license.WyomingBy moving to the circumvention of regulations.
  3. ^ a b The Constitution requires a "" in the Senate, but since "advice" is interpreted as being good after a proposal, practically only "agreement," or "approval," is required.
  4. ^ As a comparative example, Japan in the same yearPrime MinisterThe basic salary of is about 2,485 million yen.However, in Japan, only the difference from the annual salary of members of the Diet is treated as the salary of the Prime Minister.
  5. ^ In addition to Washington, the General of the Colonial Army of the Revolutionary War, Jefferson, who was involved in the drafting of the Federal Constitution, and Lincoln, who declared the liberation of slaves, have traditionally left their names on many facilities such as the "Great President." It is still used for portraits of banknotes and coins. Roosevelt, as the only president who once won the Nobel Peace Prize during his tenure,When this portrait was made[When?]Was one of the "great presidents".
  6. ^ KenyaBecause he is a child of a black father of America and a white mother of AmericaSouth AmericaAnd in the past American racial classificationmulattoIs said to be.However, in the United States today, if it is apparently clear that it has black blood from historical background, it is classified as "black" (as an ethnic group).
  7. ^ "His Majesty" at the time of the inauguration of the United StatesYour Majesty) And "His Excellency" (Your Excellency) Etc. were sought, but the first presidentGeorge WashingtonIs like thisHonorific title"Mr. President" who is more familiar because he hated being called byMr. President) ”Has taken root.Warren CommitteeNotation used in official documents as in the report.In Japan, there are cases where dubbing of movies, TV dramas, etc., subtitles, etc. are translated as "His Excellency", and the official address of the diplomatic official text is "President of the United States ***".
  8. ^ This convention isWatergate caseResigned after a scandalRichard NixonWas applied without exception.

Source

  1. ^ “How To Address The President; He Is Not Your Excellency Or Your Honor, But Mr. President”. The Washington Star(July 1891, 8). https://www.nytimes.com/1891/08/02/archives/how-to-address-the-president-he-is-not-your-excellency-or-your.html 
  2. ^ "USGS Correspondence Handbook—Chapter 4”. Usgs.gov (July 2007, 7). 2012/11/15Browse.
  3. ^ "Models of Address and Salutation”. Ita.doc.gov. 2010/9/4Browse.
  4. ^ Heads of State, Heads of Government, Ministers for Foreign Affairs, Protocol and Liaison Service, United Nations.Retrieved November 1, 2012.
  5. ^ The White House Office of the Press Secretary (September 2010, 9). “Remarks by President Obama, President Mubarak, His Majesty King Abdullah, Prime Minister Netanyahu and President Abbas Before Working Dinner". . 2011/7/19Browse.
  6. ^ {https://kotobank.jp/word/%E9%96%93%E6%8E%A5%E9%81%B8%E6%8C%99-49090}
  7. ^ (2010). Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution, 1787–1788. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster. P. 433. ISBN 978-0-684-86854-7 
  8. ^ "March 4: A forgotten huge day in American history”. Philadelphia: en: National Constitution Center (September 2013, 3). 2018/7/29Browse.
  9. ^ "Presidential Election of 1789". Digital Encyclopedia. Mount Vernon, Virginia: Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, George Washington's Mount Vernon. 2018/7/29Browse.
  10. ^ Takayuki Nishiyama 2018, p. 38.
  11. ^ Naoyuki Agawa. "The 13th Gulf War and President's War Powers-Derams vs. Bush Case and President's War Powers". Contemporary American History Read in the Constitution. NTT Web Magazine Webnttpub .. 2014/8/12Browse.
  12. ^ CNN.co.jp: Mr. Trump rejects the use of private planes After taking office, he will be a presidential plane - CNN
  13. ^ Takayuki Nishiyama 2018, p. 29.
  14. ^ "Mr. Trump "should not receive" confidential reports anymore President Biden”. CNN (July 2021, 2). 2021/2/7Browse.
  15. ^ “The US President earns money after he quits.(July 2011, 1). http://www.cnn.co.jp/usa/30005433.html 2011/1/29Browse. [Broken link]

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