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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
It has happened that the philosophical knowledge of modern human beings is different from the philosophical knowledge of modern people about how these terms and concepts were used and how the contents they pointed to changed.Therefore, I will explain step by step.
From ancient times to early modern times
- Aristotle stage
AristotleNozomi: ὑποκείμενον English notation:Hypokeimenon I used the term Hypokeimenon.Hypo Keimenon is a word that means Hypo + Keimenon = + underneath...Aristotle also used the term antikeimemon..This means "what was placed over there". antikeimenon says "metaphysics],Plural formAppeared in, and is used to mean "things that conflict with each other",Περὶ Ψυχῆς "Peri Pushcase] InSingularAppeared in, and was used to mean "things that are opposed to the work of thought and sensation."..However, in AristotlehypokeimenonAnd antikeimemon were not particularly paired.
- Translation to Latin
Aristotle's "hypokeimenon" isattribute"Hypokeimenon" and grammaticalsubjectMeans that they are (Medieval europeso)LatinTranslated as subjectum, substance, substance, suppositum, etc...Also, "antikeimemon" in Aristotle's "Metaphysics" is translated as opposita in Latin., The singular "antikeimemon" in "Peri Pushcase" was translated as obiectum.The Latin translations subjectum and obiiectum, used from the Middle Ages to the early modern period, were not contradictory either..
- Mutually different transitions of the meanings of subiectum and obiectivus
In fact, hypokeimenon and its Latin translation, subiectum, consistently meant "hypokeimenon" (which bears the attributes) and "subject" (of the sentence) from ancient Greece to the beginning of modern Europe.,CantThe subsequent meaning of "subjective" was not included at all...In fact, until the beginning of modern times, the subjectum was self-existing outside the mind..
On the other hand, the meaning of obiectivus has changed considerably.In Aristotle, antikeimenon meant "object", but the Latin translation of obiectivus was medieval.Scholastic philosophy,ModernIn early philosophy it came to mean "the projection of the quod obiicitur intellectui intellect".
It is clear that even under Descartes and Spinoza, for example, realitas obiectiva is realitas actualis and realitas formalis (realitas formalis).FormIn contrast to the content of the event, it meant "the content of the event as long as it was commended", that is, the content of the possible event..
Therefore, from the Middle Ages to the beginning of modern times, subiectum actually meant an objective being that existed in itself, and obiectum meant a subjective representation.,This isCantThe meaning has been reversed since that time, Subjekt and Objekt, which are Latin translations of obiectum into German, now mean "subjective" and "objective" per cant, respectively (as they are now), and two terms per cant. The concepts are now treated as a pair..
Since the beginning of modern times
From the analysis that the attributes, traits, and modes of a phenomenon can change and cannot be responsible for their identity, those characteristics are placed on top like a plate, tray, or desk. The idea arises that there is something that is placed, what is placed changes, but what is placed is unchanged, and thus is the basis of the phenomenon (identity), which itself appears as a phenomenon. not,entityThe concept was established.This idea is also influenced by the grammatical structure characteristic of Indo-European languages, which is the subject and predicate.
In Descartes' skeptical, phenomenal framework, the extrinsic entity that lies beyond cognition was methodologically suspected.Instead, the Kogito (thinking self), which is located in front of recognition, was regarded as the subject of the phenomenon or idea, that is, the basis of existence that bears its identity.This tendency becomes more pronounced in Kant.
In Hegel, this subject is grasped not only in epistemological but also in the phase of practical contradictory contradiction (in linguistic philosophical expression, it shifts from the subject of the sentence to the subject of the utterance). Especially in the sensemain bodyI will receive the translation.
Here, to objectobjectiveMeaning occurred.
Objective and subjective are one of the basic frameworks widely used to capture the state of this world.As a constituent of the world, "What to see, what to know(Subject) "and"What is seen, what is known(Object) "existAdmit.
- objectIs something that can be known through the senses, so-calledObject.
- main bodyIs a sensationConsciousness.
We call this philosophical position that affirms this framework and thinks that one cannot be resolved by the subject and the object.On the other hand, the position that everything is a material existence or an event caused by them isMaterialismIs called.Also, all are products of consciousness, and the position of not admitting or strongly doubting the existence of the outside world or material existence isMonopoly, Called solipsism.Vedic religionIn such cases, the separation between the subject and the object may disappear, and there is also an idea that emphasizes that. "One main customer" "Braga IkyouIs called.Both positions are often constructed with the other two in mind, and the classification framework of subject and object is understood and shared to some extent, whether affirmed or denied. (HoweverBuddhism,In particularMiddle schoolIn, the binary oppositional views such as subject and object are thoroughly rejected as an audience.It was the Tang dynasty of China that was practiced on this extension.ZenTheir goal was to seek consciousness before the consciousness (mind) of "lord and guest" arose.It should also be noted that there is such a view in the de-modern tide in Europe. )
Subject and object are thus frameworks for capturing the state of the world, but similar, closely related distinctions are often used to capture the state of human beings.It is the distinction between consciousness and mind and body.Philosophically, the position that affirms and presupposes the distinction between the twoMind-body dualismCalled.
Scientific research is usually about material beings, eventsObservationIt is done through theorization.Social scienceBut suchEmpiricismTake a targeted approachLearningIs many.Mention events that cannot be observed directly, and refrain from tentative constructionActivismThere is also a position like.This epistemological attitude is generallyObjectivismCalled.The hallmark of this position is that the goal of the research is to establish objective facts about things, and that it is possible.
For it,IntrospectionThere is also a position that values introspection.Husserl'sPhenomenologyAnd its formationPsychologyPart of, also religious瞑想Etc. consider the nature of consciousness, self, understanding and intuition rather than observation in order to reach the truth of things.This is a strange approach at first glance, but it is not always meaningful because it has the effect of clarifying that things that people usually assume to be objective are not so when examined carefully. It's not always the case.
In addition, CantHuman beings can only recognize phenomena according to a specific form (time and space), and things as they are (as they are).The thing itself It is a relatively widely accepted idea even in modern times to think that it is impossible to know Dinge an sich).Not necessarily a study based on direct observation of thingsMathIs often associated with the decisive role of modern science.
Objective and subjective reality
Some traditional terminology is used in discussing subjectivity and objectiveness.Many philosophersObjective realityIs used to refer to things that exist independently of consciousness.On the contrary,Subjective realityMeans things that depend on consciousness in a broad sense.For example, the perceived colors and sounds are real as long as they are subject to consciousness.In addition to this, emotions such as happiness and grief are considered to be subjective realities.
Objective and subjective knowledge
Objective knowledgeIs literally knowledge of objective reality.On the contrary,Subjective knowledgeIs knowledge of subjective reality.
On the other hand, according to another usage, subjective knowledge is knowledge about the subjective state of an individual.Such knowledge is distinguished from knowledge about the subjective state of others and, of course, from objective knowledge.Under such a definition, the subjective knowledge of others also belongs to the objective knowledge.Because the subjective state of others is independent of my subjective state.In other words, the subjective state of others is a kind of objective from my point of view, in the sense that it does not depend on my perception.
Finally, the most well-known terminology is used in the context of the rationale of an assertion, in which case objective knowledge refers to well-founded knowledge and, conversely, subjective knowledge. Means knowledge that is inadequately or barely grounded.Judgments and beliefs supported by objectively strong arguments are also called objective judgments or beliefs, and are based on satisfactory evidence for rational beings in general.On the other hand, subjective judgment or subjective belief is based on evidence that rational existence in general is not convinced.This includes evidence that is inevitably available only to a specific person (single or multiple).
JurisprudenceIn the field of subjectivity, the subject is usually the party to the case.Agreement,TortOrcrimeIt is used to mean what kind of recognition and judgment you had in the act, and conversely, the objective was what it looked like if a third party, not the party, calmly looked at the contract or act at the time of the act. It is used in the sense of.In other words, in such terminology, the subjectivity is the judgment of the parties involved in the proceedings or the parties concerned, and the objective is the judgment of the ordinary ordinary person as an outsider.For example, the subjective and objective theories of value in defect warranty are how much the litigants value in the former and how much the market evaluates in the latter.
Also, the subjectivity in the video method (Point-of-view shot) Refers to the image taken from the viewpoint of the characters.horror film,Adult videosIt is used to give the viewer a sense of reality in video works such as.
- ^ In "Iwanami Philosophy and Thought Dictionary", articles such as "subject" and "object" are not set up, but are explained in the article "subjectivity".Heibonsha's "Philosophy Encyclopedia" also explains in the item "Subjective".
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Iwanami Philosophy and Thought Dictionary" pp.734-735 [Subjective]