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The above definition isDisability Rights Conventionbased on.ThatArticle 9Is "Accessibility" in English,Japanese translation provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs"Easy to use facilities and services".European Accessibility ActThe definition of is almost the same.
Accessibility on web pages
Web pageAccessibility inSenior citizensIt means that people with disabilities, people with disabilities, and different information terminals and software have abundant flexibility (or degree) in being able to acquire or transmit information.Public services guarantee the right to know even if there is a disabilityInformation securityIs important.
It is also important that computers can determine information on the Web.To create a search siteCrawlerEfficiently decrypted by, or useful for software to determine information.
Web pages for browsingWeb browserOrresolutionDesign specified,Macromedia FlashHowever, it is possible to obtain information in different environments by adding alternative information.Software for people with disabilities provides information on web pagesvoice,BrailleHowever, if there is no alternative information, the information may not be obtained.
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsAccording to the report, the Internet usage status of persons with disabilities is 53.0% who "use" and 46.9% who "do not use".By type of disability, 91.7%, 93.4%, and 82.7% of the respondents were "using" for visual, hearing, and physical disabilities, and 53.0% were "not using" for intellectual disabilities..
In order to reduce the cost of renewal to consider accessibility, plug-ins and ASP services that enhance the usability of people with disabilities are also widespread. If implementing accessibility at the HTML level is very expensive, it can be an interim method.
A major international organization for the webWorld Wide Web Consortium By (W3C)Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) has been formulated. Version 1999 (WCAG 1.0) was formulated in 1.0 and version 2008 (WCAG 2.0) was formulated in 2.0. WCAG 2.0 was released in October 2012International Standards Organization (ISO) andInternational Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) technical standard "ISO / IEC 40500: 2012 ".
Japanese Industrial Standards web accessibility
in JapanJapanese Industrial Standard It is standardized by (JIS). JIS X 2004-6 was published on June 20, 8341.
- X 8341-3: Design Guidelines for the Elderly / Persons with Disabilities — Equipment, Software and Services in Information and Communication — Part 3: Web Content
This is commonly referred to as Web Content JIS. It became JIS X 2010-8: 20 on August 8341, 3, and has been revised in line with the international standard WCAG 2010.As before the revision, it is organized into four principles: perceptibility, maneuverability, comprehension, and robustness, and 2.0 criteria are shown.
The term "web content" as used herein refers to all information and sensory experiences transmitted to users by user agents such as web browsers and assistive technologies.To enable the information processing department of Japanese Industrial Standards to perceive, understand, and manipulate web content, mainly for the elderly, people with disabilities, and people with temporary disabilities, It clearly states the matters to be considered for production and verification as a guideline.
Compliance with JIS is basically optional,Industrial standardization methodAccording to Article 67 of "The national and local governments must respect the Japanese Industrial Standards when setting technical standards for mining and industry, and when setting specifications for the mining and industrial products to be purchased ..." There is an obligation to respect.
Realization of web accessibility
Language disorderSuch,vision,Hearing,Vocalization such ascommunicationDue to the above disorders and movement disordersInformation gapTo reduce.A variety of communication that has never been possible is possible.
It should also be noted that improving accessibility reduces functionality.Accessibility is also considered as an equivalent alternative when system responsiveness and multi-functionality are required.In particular, it has been discussed in the provision of information related to human life.
You will be able to accurately obtain public information from the website.It is expected that this will expand the possibility of acquiring and transmitting information without relying on the assistance of others due to the development of technology.
- Visual impairment: blindness
- Screen readerUse software called or.voice recognition,Transliteration by synthetic speechThe issue is how to deal with.For printed matterOptical character recognitionIn the method of performing (OCR) and converting to voice, it is often impossible to read with a border.
- Visual impairment: Severe amblyopia
- Severe amblyopia (Low visionIn), the means for enlarging characters and, in some cases, the means for voice are often used properly.On a computer, the screen may be magnified with a loupe or software.If the size of the characters is small, it will be particularly difficult to read, so some parties want to design them larger.In addition, there is a device that enlarges and displays on a monitor such as in printed matter.
- The means by voice are the same as those for blindness.
- Hearing impairment
- Since the telephone is inconvenient to use, if you can handle letters, your handicap will be reduced.For inquiries, for people who have not learned key inputfacsimileIt is desirable to have the number posted.
- Upper limb movement disorder
- If there is an operational device on the web page, it is possible to browse and move from switches and links.
- Blind deafnessThen,Braille displayIs excellent, but it is too expensive, and the response such as the number of characters is not good.
- To the imageAlternate text. (
<img alt="画像が見えない場合の説明" />）
- Omission of duplicate notation: Consideration should be given to reduce the description of duplicate notation as much as possible.In addition, the list of titles and menus can be jumped using a screen reader or voice recognition (
<a href="#mainText">本文へジャンプ</a>・ ・ Title menu ・ ・ ・
- Increase the range of links (
tabindexOr use the access key)
- Character size variability: The character size can be expanded without using special software.If you define the font size as a relative size instead of an absolute size, you can enlarge it with a general-purpose browser.
- Style sheetAnd the definition of the attribute corresponding to the user style sheet.
- Color blindnessConsideration for (first, second, third, all color blindness) will be given as much as possible.Web designers pay attention to red, green, yellow, light blue, etc.
It has been pointed out that the katakana translation of accessibility itself may be difficult to understand. It is also necessary to consider that even if it says "accessibility compatible", it is not easy for everyone to understand.
In the absence of clear standards, there are cases where the expression "accessibility is taken into consideration" is used even if sufficient accessibility is not ensured.In order to respond according to the actual situation, it is not only accessibility of knowledge, but improvement with persons with disabilities (feedback) Need to be done.
Accessibility of office documents
Besides web pages,Microsoft OfficeOOXML documents created by, etc.LibreOfficeThere are a large number of ODF documents created by such as, and PDF documents created by converting them.It is important that these are accessible.
For OOXML, ISO / IEC 29500-1 Annex J provides best practices for accessibility.It requires efforts by both implementations and authors to achieve accessibility.
For ODF, Appendix D of ODF 1.3 Part 3 provides accessibility guidelines.
For PDF, JIS X 8341-3: 2016 sets out the requirements for accessibility.Being able to navigate is one of the requirements, but creating such a PDF can be difficult.
Accessibility in buildings
It means that anyone, including the elderly and people with disabilities, can use the building and the route to the building without any problems.Since a building can be used only after consideration is given to urban design such as the movement route to the building, it is desirable to consider accessibility not only to the building but also to the route to the building use.However, in the process, security may be reduced, so depending on the situation, a new barrier may be set up, and in the end, the facility may not be available without the assistance of the facility manager (for example, the facility). It is not desirable to enter insideBicycleLight vehicles such asKick boardTo block the passage of playset such aswheelchairThere is a fence on the slope for prohibition of traffic and it is locked).Act on promotion of facilitation of movement of elderly people, persons with disabilities, etc.See also (New Barrier-Free Law).
Accessibility in historic buildings
Cultural property,world HeritageIsPublic natureIs high,Tourism resourcesAlthough the door should be open widely, it is actually from the viewpoint of protection.Wooden construction OfCorridor,tatami部屋Wheelchair access is restricted inBarrier-freeIs often not possible.National treasureIs also a World Heritage SiteHimeji castleThen.Castle towerThe road toCastle towerTo climbLiftIs impossible as a cultural property.Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountains OfKumano KodolikeMountain pathIs not realistic to make it barrier-free.
Especially for World Heritage Sites, restrictions on renovations, etc.There is an agreement,EuropeIn the World Heritage Site ofUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationHas begun discussions on accessibility. Also,United Kingdom-Archbishop of Canterbury OfJustin WelbyIs "believer worshipVisit to(I.e.In historical buildings includingcultural heritageWe should prioritize the improvement of accessibility over the protection of people with disabilities. ".
Accessibility in services
It means that anyone, including the elderly and people with disabilities, can use services such as subsidies and subsidies without any problems, or the degree to which they can be used.Since the benefits of using a service have a utility value only when the benefits of using the service exceed the time and effort required to enjoy it, accessibility is evaluated from the point of view of the benefits of using the service.
- kosuke_nakai "Accessibility examplesAugust 2019, 5
- Masatoshi Tanaka, "Guidelines for Designing Consideration for the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities-Devices, Software and Services in Information and Communication-Part 3: Web Content JIS X 8341-3: 2010" Japanese Standards Association, 2010
- ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications "Survey and research on the use of the Internet by people with disabilities [Summary of results] June 24" Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Information and Communication Policy Research Institute, Research and Research Department, 6.
- ^ Agency for Cultural Affairs Nagoya Castle Castle Tower Mainichi Newspaper March 2018, 6
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ Integrity and / or authenticity Agency for Cultural Affairs(Cultural heritage online)
- ^ European Symposium: Heritage and Accessibility UNESCO
- ^ Disability and accessibility over heritage, says Archbishop of Canterbury Sports Management 2018.7.18
- Rational consideration
- Rights Treaty for Persons with Disabilities
- Universal design
- Multimodal interface
- Multimodal accessibility
- Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
- Information security
- Computer accessibility
- Ubiquitous society
- Microsoft Assistive Technology Vendor Program
- Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) (Web Accessibility Initiative)
- About JIS X 8341 - National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
- Web Accessibility Infrastructure Committee (WAIC)
- Ensuring information accessibility -Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
- UI / UX / accessibility --Digital Agency
- Inspection agency accredited by the Japan Accreditation Board for Conformity (Search by keyword "accessibility")
- Website accessibility tools