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📊 | Seven-Eleven adds a function to select "strength" for counter coffee


The coffee machine of the photo "Seven Cafe" has a function that allows you to select from three types of strength: "light", "normal", and "dark".

Seven-Eleven adds a function to select "strength" for counter coffee

 
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From July 7, the company raised the prices of hot coffee and iced coffee at Seven Cafe by about 4 to 10%.
 

Seven-Eleven Japan will use a coffee machine to extract counter coffee "Seven Cafe" on July 7th ... → Continue reading

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    coffee

    coffee(Dutch: coffee[2] / ˈKɔfi / Nl-koffie.ogg Coffey[HELP/File],English: coffee) IsCoffee beans(Coffee treeSeeds)RoastAnd groundpowderFrom hot water orWedExtracted the ingredients withBeverage..Appearance in historyliqueur,teaBehind the scenes, but all over the world[3][4]It is a favorite drink that is loved in Japan.It is drunk at home, restaurants, and workplaces, and there are many coffee shops.The powder before extraction and the one before crushing are also sometimes called coffee.The kanji notation in Japanese is "coffee'[5].

    Places to serve coffee around the worldA coffee shop(Coffee house,Café,Cafe) Has played a major cultural role as a gathering place for artists from various fields such as modern times, intellectuals, literature, and art.caffeineBecause it contains pharmacologically active ingredients typified byMedical science-PharmacyIt has been the subject of research in terms of.In addition, the scale of trade is largePrimary productIs[Source required]Therefore, it is also regarded as important economically.

    CoffeeTropic of CancerTropic of CapricornBetween (Coffee belt) Is produced in about 70 countries, and coffee plantations are cultivated and fruits are harvested at the coffee plantations.Further on,Green beansTake out (Namame, Kimame, coffee beans before roasting)Refining coffee beansEven the processing work called is often done at coffee plantations.The refined raw beansCountry of originIt is collected in Japan, sorted and graded, and then exported to consuming countries.Raw beans are used to produce the unique flavor of coffee in the area of ​​consumption.RoastAnd in some cases mixed multiple roasted beansblendWill be done.afterwardsCrushingAfter being made into a finer powder, with water or hot waterExtractionThe coffee is ready for drinking.

    History

    It is not clear when coffee was used by humans.fruit(Coffee cherry) redpulpCan be eaten sweetlyseedGiven that there were many opportunities to learn about the benefits of this, it is no wonder that wild species have been used since prehistoric times.In fact, Arabica is the place of originエチオピアThere is a theory that it has been used for a long time, and the Coffea liberica speciesWest AfricaEven before Europeans "discovered" on the coastCultivation・ It was used.The outline of cultivation history is "Coffee treeSee.

    The "coffee extracted from roasted beans" that can be seen today has appeared13st centurySeems to be after.

    At first, it was a religious elixir used only by some monks, and it used the juice of boiled raw leaves and beans.But by roastingLuxury goodsIf it has the features of, it will spread to the general public,1454Is officially approved for drinking by the general publicMiddle East-Islamic worldExpanded to the whole area.Ottoman EmpireからBalkan countries,EuropeTo16st centuryTransmitted to1602 OfRomeSince then, it has spread throughout Europe during the 17th century.North AmericaTo1668, Introduced by immigrants from Europe.

    JapanAt the end of the 18th century NetherlandsBrought in by a person, the first record is1804 OfOta NanuneEssay by "Keiho Yutetsu"[Note 1].

    The extraction method has also been devised, and the ground coffee beans are boiled and the supernatant is drunk.Turkish coffeeFrom the method of brewing the formula, first strain with a cloth (1711 France) Was developed and became the prototype of.As a device for pouring hot water into this, a pot of de belois (1800Around France) was invented, leading to the current drip pot.Besides this,Percolator(1827 France),Coffee siphon(1830s Germany),espressoMachine (1901 Italy), (1908 Germany), etc. have been developed, and various ways of drinking have become possible.

    • In the Islamic world for a long timeIslam OfCommandmentIn connection with this, the allegations that the general public was not allowed to drink continued. In 1454FatwaEven after the issue was issued, dissenting opinions persisted, and in 16 he was a strict Islamic discipliner when the custom of coffee being served in the social gathering of the general public began around the 1511th century.MeccaThere is a Mecca case in which the governor-general banned coffee as a "poison that corrupts the masses" and ordered it to be burned.
    • In the Ottoman Empire that came from that Mecca,17st centuryThe world's first modern at the beginningCoffee houseIs the capitalIstanbul(Old nameConstantinople) Opened.The coffee house has become a social space for the upper middle class, and the destination of coffeeヴ ェ ネ ツ ィ アSimilar coffee houses opened in Europe and Rome and spread throughout Europe.
    • In the UK1650ToOxfordIn the 17th century after the opening of the first coffee house inUKThe coffee house has flourished as a place for socializing, discussion, and information exchange.LloydsThe predecessor of is also a coffee house.The rise of this British coffee houseBlack teaIt continued until the middle of the 18th century, when it became obsolete due to the spread of.
    • In France1669Ambassador to TurkeyLouis XVIIt became popular in the high society as a result of the offering to the public, and it spread to the general public, and many cafes were created. Around 1867, it was customary to drink coffee with milk and sugar at breakfast.[7].
    • In Vienna1683By the Ottoman EmpireSecond siege of ViennaWhen the Ottoman army failedTrenchThe coffee beans left in(English editionIs said to have started as a booty and opened the first coffee house in Vienna.
    • in JapanEdo PeriodからNagasakiAlthough it was imported as a trade item through, it was expected to be more effective as a medicine than a luxury item.EdemaWas said to be effective.This is included in coffeevitaminIt is considered to be the utility of.1807 OfSakhalin troopsThen, the edema disease of soldiers due to the inability to eat vegetables became a problem.ShogunateIt is said that precious coffee beans were provided by.1855At that time, there were many hardships due to the cold weather.Hirosaki DomainThere is also a record that the shogunate prepared coffee for medicinal purposes.[8].. 1867,World ExpoTo attendTokugawa AkitakeVisited Paris as a member ofEiichi Shibusawa"After meals, the beans are decocted with hot water, and the sugar milk is mixed to refresh the heart." The oldest description[7]..In addition, Akitake's "Tokugawa Akitake Bakumatsu European Diary" contains a description of drinking multiple coffees.Red SeaI saw on the movemochaThere is a place that says "It is an excellent coffee producing area" about the city of[7].18884/13,TokyoShimotaniThe first coffee shop "Kanachakan" opens inMeijiFrom the end of the eraTaishoOver time (1911 -),CafeCoffee shops called are popular all over the country. In 1889 in TokyoRock sugarWholesaler with coffee green teaSugar cubeWas put on the market and dissolved in hot water or milk and drunk.

    Today, it is often drunk all over the world.International Coffee OrganizationAccording to the country, the top countries in annual per capita consumption in 2017アイス ランド(9.26kg),Norway(8.84kg),SwitzerlandBosnia and Herzegovina(Both 6.33 kg),Canada(6.29kg),BrazilIn the order of (6.26 kg), Japan is 3.64 kg (12th place).[9].

    2014 years,International Coffee OrganizationSince 201510/1ToInternational coffee dayDecided to[10].

    Etymology

    "Coffee"ArabicMeans coffeeArabic(Arabic: قهوة: Qahwa)TransgressionIt was done.originallyWineThe etymology of the word Kafuwa, which meant, was devoted to coffee, which has a wakefulness effect similar to wine.One theory is that coffee is produced in Ethiopia.CaffeIt is also said that (Kaffa) was incorporated into Arabic.

    With the spread of coffee, this word is Turkey (Turkish: kahve),Italy(Italian: coffee), Europe (French: coffee,German: Coffee,English: coffee) Has spread all over the world.Japanese "coffee" isEdo PeriodTo NetherlandsWhen brought fromDutch: coffeeDerived from (Coffey)[2]..In the past, there was also a description in which the pronunciation of the local area (France) was written down as it was, as in the aforementioned "Kosai Diary".

    In Japan, in addition to "coffee" in kanji, characters such as "possible or not", "frameless", "kanon", and "咖啡" have also been applied.[5].

    "Coffee", which is a kanji character, is a doctor at the end of the Edo period.OrchidUdagawa RetsuIt is said that it was the first time that (Udawa Yoan) devised it and listed it in his own Ran-Wa bilingual dictionary.In addition to this, "Yes or No" (Yes / No Tea House), "Kauhii" (Ota Nanune"Keiho Yutetsu"), "Keiho Non-Otsu" (Udagawa Retsu"Non-Otsu theory")[11]Notations such as were also used in the past.

    Incidentally,ChineseEven in, there was trial and error in the 19th century regarding the translated word, and the Japanese language at that timeJapanese alphabetIs supposed to be borrowed to the present[12]..However, the kanji isMouth biasso"coffee"(kāfēi) Is written.

    生産

    About 150 billion coffee trees are 1000 million worldwideHaIt is estimated that it grows on the land of.The main production areas areBrazil,コロンビアSuch asLatin AmericaAndVietnam,Malaysia,IndonesiaSuch asSoutheast Asia,エチオピア,Tanzania,KenyaSuch as African countries.Also as a production center of famous brandsHawaii,Yemen.India,ChugokuIt is also produced in such places.Japan alsoOgasawara Islands,Okinawa IslandsAlthough it has been imported to, it has not succeeded in large-scale production.HoweverKyusyu OfKagoshimaTokunoshima,Okinoerabujima, Okinawa, Ogasawara Islands are cultivated on private farms[13][14].

    recent years[When?]In the African countries around Tanzania, where the cultivation of Robusta was the mainstream until now, (Zambia,MalawiEtc.), and the cultivation of high-quality Arabica varieties for export is flourishing.United NationsSome countries are members of the United Nations Gourmet Coffee Development Project, which is led by (Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu).Coffee from these African countries is also beginning to be distributed in Japan.

    The types of coffee beans are mainly classified by production area.The variety name isCountry(Columbia, Kenya,Costa Ricaetc),Mountain area(Kirimanjaro, Blue Mountain, Emerald Mountain, etc.),Shipping port(Mocha, Santos, etc.),Cultivation place nameNamed after (Kona, Mandelin, Java, etc.).In addition, the species name andCultivarNames with the name added (Java Lobsta, Bourbon Santos) and names with the grade at the time of sorting (Brazil No. 2, Tanzania AA) are also used.

    The concept of specialty coffee is also becoming widespread.In other words, quality control is performed on the production area, producer, post-harvest production processing method, distribution channel, and a series of roasting / extraction / provision flows.[15].

    Coffee tree 

    Coffee beans, which are the raw material for coffee, are about 3-3.5m.EvergreenIn a shrubjasmineBlooms white flowers with a scent similar toCoffee tree OffruitObtained from.

    Fruits called coffee cherries are red or purple, and some varieties are yellow hard fruits that take about 9 months to mature.Normally, one fruit contains two seeds, but the rare seeds of one fruit are called "peaberries" and are prized.Coffee beansBecomeseedだ け で な く,pulpSome partscaffeineIs included and may be edible.

    Coffee tree is derived from Tipica, which is native to Ethiopia.Arabica(Coffea arabica)When,CongoNativeRobusta(Kanefora species,C. canephora),Coffea liberica(C. liberica), And they are collectively called "the three original coffee species".

    Of these, most of the coffee trees currently cultivated are Arabica and Robusta, with 7-8% of the production being Arabica. Coffea liberica was cultivated until the first half of the 20th century, but since it is vulnerable to diseases and inferior in quality, the production volume is now less than 21% in the first half of the 1st century.The Robusta species was discovered in Gabon in 1, one year earlier than Congo, and became the official scientific name.

    Variety

    CultivarThere are more than 200 known species, mainly Arabica.BrazilコロンビアActivelybreedingIs being done.On the other hand, some people appreciate the traditional varieties for the flavor of coffee.Fair tradeIt is also linked to exercise.

    Arabica
    It is vulnerable to pests, frost, light rain, etc. and difficult to cultivate, but it has excellent flavor and richness, and there are various varieties mainly for regular coffee.Occupies about 70% of total production[16].
    In the past, Bourbon in Brazil and Tipica in Colombia were the two major varieties of Arabica and were the main varieties.Since then, replacement with varieties with excellent yield and pest resistance has progressed, and recently[When?]In Brazil, Katura, Katuai and Mundo Novo, and Colombia's Katura and Varieda Colombia are the main varieties, respectively.
    In addition, Sumatra and Mocha (BrandApart from), Blue Mountain (apart from)brand(Apart from), Kona, Maragozippe, Amarero, Geisha, etc.
    Robusta
    It has higher disease resistance than Arabica and can be cultivated even in areas with low rain and high temperature and humidity.In addition, the time required for stable harvest is as short as 3 years.Since it is easy to cultivate, the yield is high and the production volume is second.VietnamHas become the mainstay[16].
    It is easy to extract and drain, but it has a lot of caffeine and a strong bitterness and habit (Robusta odor), and it is said that the flavor alone is not as good as that of Arabica in Japan and the United States.Mainly used for instant ingredients and for increasing the amount of cheap regular coffee, so-calledVietnamese coffeeUsed for.In addition, espresso coffee, which is loved in Italy and France, uses a blend mainly composed of Robusta coffee, which is said to bring a unique richness and bitterness.[17].
    Coffea liberica
    It adapts to hot and humid climates, but is vulnerable to disease and is inferior in quality to Arabica.
    Hybrid
    It is a cross between Arabica and Robusta and is used for general regular coffee.
    There are varieties such as Hybrid de Timor, Arabsta, Katimor, and Varieda Colombia.

    Typical coffee beans

    List the tastes and characteristics of typical coffee beans.If the country of origin is not the name, add the country of origin in parentheses.The mainstream hybrids used for regular coffee are Arabica or Robusta.[Note 2].

    Blue mountain(Jamaica
    It has an outstanding aroma, a harmonious taste, a light mouthfeel and a smooth throat.Called the finest quality.A small portion of Jamaican coffee is branded Blue Mountain.Among them, further ranking is made[Note 3].
    Hawaii(米 国
    Kona(Island of Hawaii
    It has a very strong acidity and richness / flavor.It is said that when used in a blend, it gives a good acidity.It is the second most expensive brand after Blue Mountain.
    Molokai(Molokai
    Kilimanjaro(Tanzania
    The name of coffee from Tanzania in Japan.It features strong acidity and richness. It is often described as "full of wildness".Deep roasting has an elegant bitterness, and you can enjoy a flavor different from that of light roasting.
    mocha(Yemen,エチオピア
    It has an excellent aroma and a unique acidity, and adds sweetness and richness.It is the oldest "brand".It is the origin of coffee, and in Italy and other countries, coffee is called mocha.Yemen"Matari" from[Note 4], Ethiopian "Haller" "Sidamo" etc. are famous[Note 5].
    Guatemala
    It has excellent acidity and richness, has a good aroma, and is characterized by a gorgeous and crisp aftertaste.
    The sweetness of the aroma is light, and the acidity, richness, and bitterness are light and well-balanced.It is inexpensive and is often used as a base for blending.
    It has a strong acidity and sweetness, but it does not protrude and is well-balanced.It is inexpensive and is often used as a base for blends.The basic taste of coffee.
    Mandelin (Indonesia
    SumatraProduction.It has a bitter and rich taste, and has a unique aftertaste without sourness.in JapanBlue mountainIt was said to be the best in the world until it appeared.
    Toraja(Indonesia)
    SulawesiProduction.The taste is mainly bitter and has a very rich richness.There is no sourness.The name Karoshi Toraja or simply Karoshi is used.
    Java coffee(Indonesia)
    JavaMainly Arabica coffee.Mocha Java, which was once a large production area and blended with mocha, is said to be the first blend, but the amount of production has been low since the production area was hit hard by leaf rust and the economic crisis.Current[When?]What you get is a round and mild taste.JavaIs the main source of Robusta coffee used exclusively for iced coffee, espresso, and industry, so it is also called Java Arabica when it refers to Arabica coffee in a limited way.
    Kenya
    It features a refreshing flavor like fruit.Overall strong flavor and well-balanced.In Europe such as Germany, it is a common brand along with Tanzania.There are many deep roasts.
    Salvador(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
    There is no insistence on the taste, and the overall taste is sweet, elegant and soft.
    Costa Rica
    It is rather sour and has a modest bitterness, and has a light and clear taste.
    パ ュ ュ ニ ニ
    Light roasting has a light and less addictive flavor, and deep roasting has a strong bitterness and rich flavor.It also features a good aroma.It is a variety cultivated by transplanting Blue Mountain saplings, which are said to be of the highest quality, as they are.
    Cuba
    It features a light and well-balanced flavor similar to Blue Mountain and an elegant aroma.Dominican Republic,ハイチDomestic coffee from the islands of the Caribbean region generally has a similar tendency.
    India
    India's coffee cultivation has a history of more than 400 years, and boasts one of the longest history and traditions among coffee producing regions in the world.It is grown by organic farming while making the best use of the forest ecosystem, and blows in May-June.monsoonThe unique flavor that can be produced after about 7 weeks is the highest quality product that is loved by many countries in Europe and the United States.
    Asian region such as Vietnam
    Vietnam andネ パ ー ル,ChugokuIn recent years, in areas where Arabica varieties have been introduced for export, saplings of popular Latin American varieties have been introduced, but the same varieties have a unique flavor due to differences in climate, soil, and production technology.As a whole, it has a slightly heavier flavor than those produced in Latin America, and tends to have a modest acidity and a slightly weaker aroma.

    Japan also,Okinawa-Ogasawara-KagoshimaSo, although it is a small amount, it is cultivated[18].

    machining

    purification

    The process of extracting coffee beans from the fruits of the harvested coffee is called coffee refining.There are two main types of coffee refining: dry (dry / non-washing) and wet (washing).For simple work, coffee refining takes place in the production area.Refined coffee beans are called raw beans and are called raw beans.MoldIt is dried and stored so that the water content is 10-12% to prevent the occurrence of such substances, and it is exported to the consumption area.

    Dry type (dry type, non-flush type)
    The harvested fruits are spread flat on a drying area and dried in the sun to mechanically remove the completely dried pulp.It is often found in Mocha and Mandelin producing areas and in Brazil.
    Wet (washable)
    After mechanically removing the exodermis and pulp, the seeds (parchment coffee) are taken out by fermenting them in a water tank for a day or two.It is often done in production areas other than Brazil, such as Colombia.

    In addition, a combination of dry and wetSemi-wet(Semi-flush type) andCivetFeed animals such asshitWhat to take out fromKopi Luwak)and so on.

    Roast

    Purified rawCoffee beansNextRoastFor the first time, it actually produces the aroma and taste of coffee we eat.In many cases, this process is done in the consuming country and is done by a major coffee bean wholesaler called a roaster, as well as at coffee bean retailers and coffee shops.Home roastingWill be done.It is also possible to roast raw beans at home in recent years.[When?]There are many retailers of raw beans at specialty stores.

    In Japanese homes, frying pansRoasting(Horoku),GinnanIt may be roasted with a metal hand net used for roasting, but most professionals use a roasting machine (Coffee roaster) Is performed by a dedicated machine.These roasting methods are classified as follows according to the difference in heating principle and heat source.

    • Open fire roast
    • Hot air roasting
    • Far infrared roasting
    • MicrowaveRoast
    • Superheated steam roasting (unique to Japan)

    There is also a roasting method in which the above proceeds at the same time.

    • Semi-direct fire roasting ... Hot air roasting and direct fire roasting
    • Charcoal roasting (unique to Japan) ... Hot air roasting and far infrared roasting
    • ceramicRoasting (unique to Japan): Direct fire roasting and far infrared roasting

    When coffee is roasted, the temperature of the beans is about 200° CReach to a degree.A general roasting method requires a heating time of about 10 to 20 minutes.

    The degree of roastingDegree of roastingThe one with a low degree of roastingLight roast, HighDeep roastCalled.Lightly roasted coffee beans are light brown, and as the deep roast progresses, they turn dark brown and oil oozes out on the surface.Something between light roast and deep roast is sometimes called medium roast, but these are relative names and are not clearly defined, and differ depending on the store.In Japan, the following eight levels of roasting (light roasting → deep roasting) may be used.

    1. Light
    2. Cinnamon
    3. Medium
    4. High
    5. City
    6. Full city
    7. French
    8. Italian (Italian)

    Generally, it is said that light roasting is excellent in aroma and sourness and deep roasting is excellent in bitterness, but since it is a matter of taste, it is not particularly superior in terms of overall taste.The commonly used roasting degree is medium to Italian.

    Blend and straight

    Several types of coffee beans may be mixed depending on the purpose of consumption. thisblendCalled. Blended coffeeBlended coffeeOn the other hand, coffee consisting of only one type of roasted beansStraight coffeeCall.

    Blend mix beans before roastingPremixAnd mix after roastingAfter mixThere is.The premix has a harmonious taste and is suitable for mass production.[19]On the other hand, it is difficult to adjust the degree of roasting of individual beans.On the other hand, after-mix is ​​easy to make the best roasted beans, but it takes time to roast them separately.[20].

    Blending is a process of mixing coffees with different tastes to create a taste that cannot be achieved by straight coffee alone, according to the intention of the provider.However, the rules are not fixed, and each roaster has its own unique blend of blends.RecipesIt is done according to.In industrial production such as instant coffee, eight or more types of beans are mixed to maintain the quality such as flavor.

    On the other hand, straight may limit the coffee beans used not only by the country of origin but also by region or farm and sell them.Good compatibility with the taste and aroma of coffee that differs depending on the production areaConfectionery,CuisineThere is also a way of drinking called "food pairing" that you can enjoy in combination with[21].

    Crushing

    The roasted coffee beans are finely ground into powder before being extracted.This processCoffee grinderIt is called (grind).For crushingCoffee millOrgrinderIs used.In some casesmortar,Stone millEtc. are used.Coffee is sold as roasted beans or after being crushed at the factory.It is said that when crushed, the surface area increases and the quality deteriorates due to air oxidation, so some people grind it with a domestic coffee mill just before extraction.

    The crushed coffee depends on the size of the flourFinely ground,Medium grind,Coarse grindIs called.Regarding the degree of crushed particles and the extraction method, the recommended standards of the US Department of Commerce and specialized books that specify them (specific figures areCoffee millSee) and so on.However, in many cases, they are rarely followed directly, and it is thought that the degree of particle size is determined by the experience and rough hearsay of the parties concerned.The degree of these grinds is adjusted by how the coffee is extracted and what taste it wants to taste.For exampleespressoThen, it is used after being finely ground so that it becomes a powder that is almost like fine powder.Therefore, a mortar blade type coffee mill for espresso is used.

    Coffee drink

    Coffee as a drink is extracted from coffee beans immediately before drinking.Regular coffeeAnd what is industrially made from regular coffee (Instant coffee,Canned coffeeCan be roughly divided into ("regular coffee" is for instant coffee and canned coffee, etc.)Retro NimIs).The way coffee is brewed and drunk varies from region to region, and also varies greatly depending on individual tastes.

    Regular coffee

    By adding hot water or water to roasted and crushed coffee powder, the ingredients inside are extracted, and drinking coffee is completed.The extraction method at this time, that is,How to brew coffeeThere are various methods and equipment in.Each brewing method is often called by the name of the equipment used.

    The flavor of coffee varies depending on the degree of roasting, the degree of grinding (fine, coarse, etc.), the brewing method, and the equipment used.There is no best way for everyone, as it is a matter of taste and taste.However, in general, oxidation proceeds at any stage of roasting, storage of ground powder, and after extraction, so the shorter the passage of time at each stage, the better the aroma and taste.

    filtration

    Drip
    Water drip
    A method of extracting coffee with water using special equipment.DripAs the water is dropped little by little like this, it takes about 1 hours per cup as a guide.The extraction equipment is also used as an interior.In recent years, inexpensive appliances have appeared and can be enjoyed in ordinary households.Indonesia during the Dutch eraIt is also called "Dutch coffee" because it was devised to extract from Robusta coffee beans, which are very bitter in the drip type.Nowadays, it is also used for Arabica beans, and it is a method to take advantage of the delicate flavor.
    Paper drip
    Dripper (a kind offunnel), Set the filter (strained paper), add powder, pour an appropriate amount of hot water, steam for about 30 seconds, and then start extraction.If you remove the dripper before the hot water is completely drained, the coffee will have less unpleasant taste.
    The biggest advantage of this method is that anyone can brew a certain level of coffee if they follow the above procedure.The bitterness can be adjusted by raising the temperature of the hot water, and the sweetness can be adjusted by lowering the temperature.The disadvantage is that the filter is disposable each time.In addition, the odor and components of the filter are mixed, and the oil is absorbed by the paper, which may weaken the aroma, but both can be reduced by boiling the paper before extraction.
    The paper drip method is1908German Melitta Bentz (Melitta Bentz) Devised.She patented the paper drip system,MelitaWas founded.
    MelitaWith the formula (one extraction hole)KaritaThere are formulas (three of the same), and it is said that the optimum mesh (grinding condition) is different, but there are various opinions as to which grinding method is optimal.The difference in the extraction method is that the Melitta method puts the whole amount of hot water into the filter and waits for it to drip, while the Karita method keeps adding hot water in several times, so there is a big factor that the taste is blurred. ..
    The mainstream shape of the dripper is a trapezoid developed by Melita, but in recent years, a conical shape has also appeared.The trapezoid has a stable taste and aroma regardless of the arm.[22]The cone shape is said to be closer to flannel drip due to the thicker layer of powder in the vertical direction.There is no filter compatibility between trapezoid and cone,HARIOSelles both drippers and filters, but the conical shape is slightly more expensive.Melita and Carita sell only trapezoids, and Coffee Siphon Co., Ltd. sells only cones.
    As another extraction method,Matsuya styleAnd coffee vanette etc.spiralYou can extract by setting paper in a metal frame, mixing hot water and coffee powder in a container, removing the floating lye, and then filtering with paper to drink, or an outer cylinder with a filter set at one end. Mix hot water and coffee powder in the inside, and press the inner cylinder with a rubber seal to apply air pressure for filtration (Aeropress) Is also available.
    Nel drip
    Cloth as a filter (flannel) Is used for the extraction method.Due to the difference in the material of cloth and paper, the oil contained in coffee is extracted more than paper drip.Compared to paper extraction, it tends to have a mellow and bodyy taste, and is not affected by paper like paper drip.The taste and aroma are greatly influenced by the extraction method such as the temperature of hot water and the pouring method.
    Be careful when handling flannel.After use, wash the flannel immediately and store it in cold water to avoid oxidation of the coffee oil film.Do not use detergents when cleaning to avoid odor transfer.New flannel is boiled in hot water containing extracted coffee powder and used after washing.
    Other filter media
    Rocks with moisture permeability in the filter material (溶岩Etc.) orCeramics,Synthetic fiber(NylonEtc.) and metal (Stainless steelThere are some products that can be reused by cleaning them, such as nets.Some products can be set in drippers for paper filters, making them more economical.In addition, various drip methods have been devised depending on the type of filter material.
    Espresso / Makinetta
    An espresso machine that extracts at once with high temperature and high pressure,Saturated water vaporThere is a direct-fired Makinetta that uses pressure.Detail isespressoSee section.In Southern European countries such as Italy, France, Spain and Portugal, coffee generally refers to this espresso.Only about 30 ml is extracted from a cup of beans, and it has an extremely rich flavor and strong bitterness. It is usually drunk with sugar.It is also the base for coffee drinks containing various milks.

    Filtration after boiling

    Coffee siphon
    It consists of a server and a funnel. Set a flannel or paper filter in the funnel and put powder in it.Put water in the server part, heat it, and when the hot water rises in the funnel part, remove it from the heat at the right time.
    [When?],Alcohol lamp,Gas stoveIn addition to the direct flame type that uses such as, the electric heating type is also becoming widespread.
    Percolator
    Hot water is circulated in the basket-shaped part containing coffee powder to extract.Due to the simple structure of the equipment, maintenance is very easyCampHowever, it requires skill to extract deliciously.

    boiled

    Turkish coffee
    CezveNamed (Ebrick)copperMade orBrassMade ofLadleIn a small pot with a deep handle shaped like this, deep roasted finely ground powder and water,sugarPut in and put on an open flame.Boil while stirring, remove from heat just before boiling and heat again when calm.Repeat this a couple of times and pour into the cup so that the bubbles on the surface do not disappear.
    First enjoy the taste of the foam, then drink only the supernatant after the powder has settled.Since powder remains on the bottom of the cup, there is also a habit of "coffee fortune-telling" fortune-telling with this pattern.
    Generally, deep roasted beans are finely powdered with a special mill called a Turkish mill.Besides sugarcardamom,cloves,cinnamon,pepperSpices such as etc. may be added.
    Boyle
    A simple boiling method.Coarsely ground coffee powder and water in a pankettleBoil in and drink only the supernatant.rock saltMay be added.SwedenTraditional coffee break (Fika)SuchNordic,Africa[23],GreeceHow to brew as seen in.It is thought that it was influenced by Turkish coffee or that it was a way of brewing residents who did not have the equipment dedicated to coffee.

    Immersion (shinseki, shinshi)

    Coffee press
    Powder and hot water are used as equipment called plunger pots (other tea servers, cafe tiers, bona pots, etc.French press, There are various names such as meliol) and extract.A metal or nylon filter is attached to the tip of a shaft called a plunger, which is pushed down to submerge the extracted coffee grounds and transfer the supernatant to a cup.In the UK, this plunger is more popular than the paper filter type for brewing coffee.It is close to steeping.
    Cold brew
    Cold brew, also known as cold water extraction or cold pressing, is a method of immersing ground coffee in cold water for a long period of time.Soak the coarsely ground beans in water for about 12 to 24 hours.[24][25]..Cold brew coffeeJapanIt originated and has been popular as a traditional coffee brewing method for centuries.[26]..Sloppy cold brew is derived from Kyoto-style or East Asian Dutch coffee (the name of the coffee essence that the Dutch brought to Asia.[27]), Which is a process of dropping water on coffee powder over many hours at room temperature.[28]..To cold brewnitrogenCan also be infused to make nitro cold brew coffee.
    Steeping
    Simple dipping method.Add coffee powder and hot water to the cup, wait for a while, and drink only the supernatant.This method is used when tasting coffee.

    Various ways to drink

    By temperature
    Coffee is often extracted with boiling water, and the extracted coffee is either as it is or reheated.Hot coffeeIs drunk as.In the summer, cool the specially extracted coffee.iced coffeeIt is often drunk as.
    black coffee
    What to drink as it is without adding anything to the extracted coffeeblack coffee[29], Or simply called black.In many cases thissugarcreamSuch asDairy productsIs served separately.In this case, sugar (Granulated sugar,White sugarEtc.) and creams are added by the drinker according to his or her taste.
    In EnglishblackAs in Japan, it may mean that nothing is added, or coffee that does not contain dairy products with or without sugar.
    Variation coffee
    In addition to the above,milk,alcohol,spicesIt may be drunk with the addition of.They areVariation coffeeIt is called (arranged coffee).espresso,Dutch coffeeCoffee that is brewed in a special way, such as, is often included in variation coffee for the purpose of distinguishing it from the most popular drip coffee.

    Coffee variations

    iced coffee
    Cafe au lait
    Ice Cafe au lait
    espresso
    Cafe latte
    cappuccino
    Wiener Coffee
    Irish coffee
    Dutch coffee
    Cafe Royale
    Arabic coffee
    Boil lightly roasted beans in a small pot and drink without sugar.
    Turkish coffee
    Boil finely ground beans thickly (with sugar if you like) and drink only the supernatant from what you pour into a cup without straining.
    Vietnamese coffee
    On the bottom of the cupcondensed milkFrench roasted coffee is poured on top of it.Deep roasted Robusta beans are used for the beans.
    Columbia coffee
    Also called tint,brown sugarUse boiling water with the addition of, turn off the heat, add the powder, let stand for a few minutes, and drink only the supernatant when the powder sinks.
    Indian coffee
    southIndiaIndian-style cafe au lait preferred in.Use an Indian coffee filter.Put the milk in a pan and warm it, then add the coffee that was deep roasted just before the milk boiled, sugar, and a little salt. Move the two cups back and forth and whisk to drink.
    American coffee
    It is hard to say that it is a variation coffee because it is generally recognized as coffee diluted with hot water, but originally it is coffee extracted thinly from lightly roasted beans.It originated from the fact that light roasting was used for a while in the United States so that even a small amount could be drunk deliciously due to the soaring price of coffee beans.
    Green coffee
    RoastBeforeGreen beansCoffee with ingredients extracted from the state of, fragile when heatedChlorogenic acidBecause it can be ingested efficiently2011 OfIndiaSince the results of the study by MV Nagendran et al. Of Mallya HospitalAmericaAroundboomOccurs.According to the research resultsBlood glucose levelReduction effect,dietBody fatAverage of 15.8%,BMIA significant decrease of 10.3% was confirmed.Along with this, it has been commercialized so that the raw bean ingredients can be easily drunk, and it is also sold by companies such as Suma Cafe, which has plant extraction technology.[30][31].
    Sultana coffee
    Not coffee beans, but dried coffee beans that are slightly roasted and then boiled.In Yemen it is called Gisir.
    Coffee zenzai
    Azuki OfBean pasteCoffee with added.Often served with fresh cream or ice cream at the same time.Both bean paste coffee and azuki coffee.
    Oshicha(Coffee tea)
    Hong KongSeparately brewed at the ceremonyBlack teaMix with, add sugar, sweetened milk, and drink hot or iced.
    Lemon coffee
    Lemon teaLikeLemonFloat slices and drink on ice or hot.Found in southern Italy and Hong Kong.
    frappe
    GreeceIt is a kind of iced coffee that is drunk in. Add instant coffee powder, water, and condensed milk to a glass, stir with a shaker, and then add ice to drink.The feature is that the foam becomes more than half of the glass at the stage of stirring.Also, because it contains condensed milk, it is quite sweet.
    Salt coffee
    A small amount of regular coffeesaltIs added.The purpose is not to add salt to the coffee, but to suppress bitterness and sourness and make the taste mellow, so the amount of salt should be limited to a pinch.Salt coffee is one of the traditional ways to drink coffee in Ethiopia, which is known as the birthplace of coffee.In addition to Ethiopia, there are many other countries that have a custom of adding salt to coffee.[32].Adding salt (salt) to hot coffee causes chlorine in the salt to volatilize and neutralizes the organic acids in the coffee, making the coffee mellow and the minerals in the salt make the coffee.Alkaline foodThe nature of the bodyacidosisIt is a reasonable way to drink that you can improve the tendency.[Source required]
    Navy style coffee
    US NavyA type of salt coffee that is handed down to.Mix a little salt with 1.5 times the normal amount of regular coffee powder and drip.
    Draft coffee
    Iced coffeeRaw (draft) beerThrough the servernitrogenPut in and pour,Stand up and drink.Black beerLooks like[33].

    Coffee other than regular coffee

    Instant coffee, canned coffee, and liquid coffee are industrially produced for easy drinking of coffee without the trouble of extraction.

    In Japan, "coffee" labeling for canned coffee products is related to "labeling for coffee beverages, etc."Fair competition agreementAccording to the classification based on "", it is classified into the following three types according to the amount of raw beans used in the product content of 100 grams.

    coffee
    5 grams or more
    Coffee drink
    2.5 grams or more and less than 5 grams
    Soft drink with coffee
    1 grams or more and less than 2.5 grams

    If the product contains 3% or more milk solids,Ministerial Ordinance on Standards of Ingredients for Milk and Dairy Products(Ministerial Ordinance for Milk, etc.) "milk beverage"(Cafe au lait,Cafe latte,coffee milkSuch).

    Instant coffee

    A type of coffee that is melted in hot water and drunk.Under the Fair Competition Code, coffee beans are not included in the product, and the product is limited to products made only from coffee extract (if coffee beans are included in the product, it is treated as "regular coffee").For this reason, as a general term that includes products containing coffee beans during the beginning of the 2010s (especially)NestleHowever, to differentiate it from other companies, the name "Soluble Coffee" has come to be used (since it was shipped in September 2013). "Soluble" means "easy to melt".

    Canned coffee

    A type of coffee in which extracted and seasoned coffee is filled in a can.Deterioration of coffee during storage has often become a problem[34].

    Liquid coffee

    PET bottlesA type of coffee filled in a container such as a paper carton or a paper carton.Bottled coffee is also called bottled coffee.In places such as desk work in Japan, there is an increasing demand for PET bottles that can be drunk in several batches by reclosing the lid.[35]..Potion coffee is a cup of coffee divided into small portions.

    Coffee substitutes and coffee-like beverages

    Coffee substitute

    Substitute coffee is a beverage that imitates coffee made using ingredients other than coffee beans.

    The oldest record of coffee substitutesFriedrich IIIUnder rulePrussiaSeen at.Suppress the excess import of coffee beans and domesticbeerFor the purpose of protecting the industry1777High for coffee due to beer and coffee regulationsTariffWill be hung.As a result, it is stated that the common people began to drink coffee substitutes.Also,Civil WarIn the United States andthe first time-Second World WarAreas where coffee bean imports were delayed at that time (Japan, etc.),Cold Warof timeEastern EuropeSubstitute coffee was also drunk in each country.

    The emergence of coffee substitutes in JapanSino-Japanese warAround 1939, when the amount of coffee was intensifying, it became widespread in order to increase the amount of coffee whose imports had decreased.In Japan, we sometimes distinguish between substitute coffee (additional ingredients other than coffee to increase the amount of coffee) and imitation coffee (made by using ingredients other than coffee as the main ingredient to resemble coffee).[36].

    Substitute coffee uses various edible plantsRoastIt was mainly drunk that was powdered and extracted with hot water.The raw material isDandelionRoot,Burdock,potato,sweet potato,Lily bulb,Cherry blossomRoot,PumpkinSeeds,GrapeSeeds,Peanuts,soy,Acorn,Almond,barley,corn,chicory,brown rice,Root celery,BreadEars,cotton,OkraSeeds and the like.

    Since coffee substitutes were devised as substitutes, their consumption is small in regions and times when the stable supply of coffee continues.But most of the coffee substitutescaffeineBecause it does not contain caffeine, people who avoid caffeine may drink it instead of coffee.In addition, soybean coffee and the like are evaluated for their nutritional value and are sold as health foods.Although it is a substitute food, it is often much more expensive than real coffee.

    Even in regions and times where coffee beans are easily available, there is a food culture that enjoys similar beverages that do not use coffee beans.As an example, barley is used as a raw materialCaffe d'Orzoand so on.Even in modern Japan, soy coffeeSpainWind coffee style barley drink[37]Have been commercialized.

    Artificial coffee

    From the 2020s,Synthetic biologyIs working on an artificial coffee development project with the same molecular composition as coffee.[38].

    There is also a project to cultivate coffee trees and produce coffee[39].

    Uses other than beverages

    Coffee has many uses other than drinking.

    Food ingredients
    Other
    • dye
    • Deodorant --Use coffee bean husks.
    • Briquette --Coffee bean shellscharcoalMolded and molded.It is distributed under trade names such as Hi-Caro charcoal.
    • Coffee bath-A sand bath type bath in which roasted beans are roughly ground and naturally heated using enzymes, or a bath in which extracted drinking coffee is used as it is.There is a product for household use that makes coffee powder into a tea bag and puts it in a bathtub.
    • snails-SlugRepellent-These species are toxic even with trace amounts of caffeine[40]Therefore, coffee and coffee husks are effective.
    • Coffee enema ――There is a health therapy that claims that "skin is improved" by injecting a solution containing coffee from the anus and washing the rectum, but there is no medical basis.

    In addition, you can put the coffee fruit itself in the soup,PorridgeThe act of eating something like this was done around the 10th century.It is said that ingesting coffee by this method was effective in awakening drowsiness.

    Economy

    The global coffee market is estimated to be $ 2018 billion in retail value in 880 (United KingdomAccording to research firm Euromonitor International).NestleIs the largest with a 24.9% share, followed by Jacob Dow Egberts (10.2%) of the Netherlands.[41].

    Since the mid-2010s, global coffee bean consumption has been on the rise due to rising incomes in emerging countries and westernization of eating habits.It is expected that the increasing trend will continue in the future.Japan OfMarubeni(General trading company), The consumption (2021 bags) will exceed the world production of 2022 bags (containing 1 kilograms) from 6681 to 60.Many hand-picked farmers in Central America, etc. during the fall of the coffee bean marketCassava,fruit,CocaThe influence of the conversion is beginning to appear.AlsoClimate change(Global warming) Has pointed out the "2050 problem" in which there is a concern that the production area of ​​Arabica will be halved around 2050, but there is also the aspect that coffee can be cultivated in highlands where the temperature is currently low.[42].

    消费

    Nordic countriesIs a country with high coffee consumptionFinlandConsumption is the largest in the world, approaching twice that of Canada, which ranks 10th, and three times that of the United States.[43]..Below are the top 10 per capita annual consumption[44].

    1. Finland – 12 kg (26 lb)
    2. Norway – 9.9 kg (21 lb 13 oz)
    3. アイス ランド – 9 kg (20 lb)
    4. Denmark – 8.7 kg (19 lb 3 oz)
    5. Netherlands – 8.4 kg (18 lb 8 oz)
    6. Sweden – 8.2 kg (18 lb 1 oz)
    7. Switzerland – 7.9 kg (17 lb 7 oz)
    8. Belgium – 6.8 kg (15 lb 0 oz)
    9. Luxembourg – 6.5 kg (14 lb 5 oz)
    10. Canada – 6.5 kg (14 lb 5 oz)

    ingredient

    For green coffee beansPolysaccharideSugars, mainlyamino acid,protein,LipidBesides, it is included in coffeePolyphenolIsChlorogenic acid,alkaloidIscaffeine(About 1% of bean weight)Trigonelline,DiterpeneIt contains characteristic ingredients such as Cafestol and Kahweol.75% of coffee lipids are bound by triglycerides.Linoleic acid,Palmitic acid,stearic acid,oleic acidIs the main component, and there is no big difference from other plants.

    These ingredients undergo chemical changes when roasted, and as a result, hundreds of ingredients are contained in roasted beans.At the beginning of roasting, the water in the raw beans evaporates first, and then a series ofRoasting reactionA reaction called occurs.In this process, polysaccharides and proteins are decomposed by heating to produce low-molecular-weight sugars and amino acids, which produce various coffee tastes and aromas.The heating of chlorogenic acid with these molecules produces a brown pigment that produces the color of coffee.In addition, it is caused by heating only sugars.caramelOr by sugars and amino acidsMaillard reactionEtc. are also involved in the production of pigments.These pigmentsCoffee melanoidinCollectively called.Approximately 900 types of compounds have been identified as volatile components of coffee, which are bitter components.Phenyl indaneIs more than any other compound found in roasted coffeeAmyloid βTauIt has been found to have a function of inhibiting the accumulation of sardines in the brain.

    Among them, the following are known as ingredients that greatly contribute to the aroma of coffee.Β- with a sweet honey-like scentDamacenone, With the characteristic aroma of coffee2-Frilled methanethiol, Has a tropical fruity scent3-Methyl-3-sulfanyl butyl formate, With caramel-like scentFuraneol, Homoflaneol,Sotron, Homo sotron, with a creosote-like scentGuaiacol, 4-Vinylguaiacol, 4-Ethylguaiacol,Soy sauceHas a scent(English edition,nut2-Ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, with a vanilla-like scentVanillinAnd so on.DamascenoneCarotenoidDue to the decomposition of guaiacol and vanillinLigninIt is said that the caramel-like scented compound is produced by the decomposition of sugars, and other compounds such as pyrazine are produced by the Maillard reaction from sugars and amino acids.All of these molecules are also important in determining the taste of coffee, such as bitterness, sourness and sweetness.

    Finally, the coffee extract, which is a drink, is eluted with relatively highly water-soluble components.The extracted coffee contains about 0.04% caffeine, but many other ingredients are being studied because details are unknown.[38].

    These ingredients not only produce the complex taste and aroma of coffee, but also cause various actions of coffee such as wakefulness.

    Overdose

    The following are typical actions that occur within minutes to hours after ingesting coffee.These acute effects disappear within a day at the latest, and it is thought that they do not cause any particular health problems during normal times.However, if it is ingested excessively or depending on the physical condition at that time, it may cause a transient problem.Also, especially digestive disorders, high blood pressure,panic disorderDepending on the particular patient and condition, such as when there is a disease such as, these normally harmless effects may be detrimental.

    • Central nervous systemExcitatory action (mental uplifting / drowsiness prevention / anxiety / insomnia)
    • Skeletal muscleHyperkinetic effect (relieves muscle fatigue / tremor)
    • blood pressureRise
    • Diuretic effect
    • Promotion of gastric juice secretion (promotion of digestion /gastritisTo make it worse)
    • Increased blood cholesterol (LDL, TC)
    • Increased colorectal peristalsis (laxative action / diarrhea)

    For healthy adultscaffeineDo not take more than 1mg per dayHealth CanadaRecommends[45].

    Dementia due to overdose

    2021March 6 Nutritional Neuroscience In a study published by, drinking too much coffee (With or without caffeinedementiaIt turns out that the risk ofHarvard Medical SchoolRecommends stopping at a maximum of 1 liters per day. If you drink more than 1.2 litersbrainMay be harmful to. Every woman participating in the study applied SERUM to one half of her face and an identical product without the EGF cellular activator to the other half. The study ran for eight weeks, during which time participants applied the serum twice a day. To rule out any effect anticipation could have on results, the study was double-blinded, meaning that none of the women in the study, nor the scientists in charge of measuring results, knew which half was which. Efficacy was assessed by standardized photography and biophysical measurements to evaluate skin topography, density, and thickness.We arecholesterolMay increaseCafestolPointed out that may be the cause[46].

    Action on the psyche

    Coffee has been used to prevent drowsiness and awaken drowsiness from the beginning.fatigueIt has been noticed that it has actions such as recoveryMedicinal plant,PsychostimulantIs[Note 6]..On the other hand, some people point out that coffee may act as an excessive stimulant or stimulant and avoid it.

    Coffee is said to be mild.this iscaffeineIt is said that it is an action by.Caffeine is light to humans who are sensitive to its bitternessDependenceIt is said that it has a function to cause.Northwestern UniversityAccording to the research teamBitternessIt is a kind of ingredientquinine,PropylthiouracilAgainstSensitivityIs highgenePeople with coffee tend to consume less coffee, and the research team said, "Coffee drinkers learn the positive effects (stimuli) caused by caffeine and caffeine. I think I've come to like (detect) it. "[Note 7]..And the research team has that habitPsychological phenomenonPointing out that it may be included[48]..In addition, a team of genetic scientists at the university said that "people's taste for caffeine may not be due to its taste, but to its post-ingestion sensation."[Note 8][49].

    Also, for those who regularly use 300 mg or more (equivalent to 3 cups of coffee) of caffeine a day,Caffeine withdrawal headacheA kind ofwithdrawal symptomsMay appear.This is a migraine-like symptom that appears more than 24 hours after the last caffeine intake.This caffeine withdrawal headache disappears within 30 minutes after the onset of symptoms by taking caffeine, but it lasts for about 2 days if caffeine is not taken.However, these symptomsdrugKindnicotine,alcoholCompared to, it is considered to be extremely minor, and it is considered that there is no need for regulations or age restrictions.

    Health Promotion

    Even if you drink coffee for a long time, manyEpidemiologyA lot of research has been done since ancient times. By 1980, there were many reports from the perspective that "coffee is bad for the body," but many of those studies were denied in the 1990s by more accurate follow-up tests.On the other hand, since the 1990s, research has been conducted from the perspective that "coffee is good for the body."[50].

    Included in coffeeChlorogenic acidToMaltoseTheglucoseDisassemble into酵素Isα-glucosidaseInhibitory activity was observed in rats after mealsblood sugarAn inhibitory effect on the rise was observed.caffeineNo α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was observed in[51]..For those who often drink coffeeDiabetes mellitusThe risk of developing the disease tended to be lower[52].

    20155/7,JapaneseNational Cancer CenterResearch teams such as coffee andGreen TeaPeople who take the food on a daily basis die from illness compared to those who do not.riskWe have summarized the survey results that indicate thatThe survey was conducted over a 19-year follow-up on about 40 men and women aged 69-9 years across Japan, asked questions along with other lifestyle habits, and asked how much coffee and green tea they would consume each day. However, as a result, those who drank 1-1 cups of coffee a day had a 3% lower risk of death than those who drank very little (green tea = 4 cups a day for those who drank less than 24 cup a day). 1% reduction for men and 1% reduction for women. Statistical adjustments have been made so that age and exercise habits related to mortality risk are not affected). About 1 people died in 5 years.The team pointed out that polyphenols in coffee, catechins in green tea may lower blood pressure, and caffeine in both may enhance blood vessel and respiratory function.[53][54][55].

    Anti-cancer effect

    IARCIs traditionalCaffeic acidAnd coffee (Bladder CancerOnly) was described as "Group 2B: Those that may be carcinogenic"[56]However, it announced in June 2016 that there was no conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity.At the same time, 6° CThe above hot drink itselfEsophageal cancerClassified as "Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic"[57][58][59]..As a result, "coffee (drinking)" was classified into "Group 3: Carcinogenicity cannot be classified".Evaluation documents are in preparation.Caffeic acid rating remains 2B[57].

    National Cancer CenterAccording to a survey by the Prevention Research Department (, et al.) Of the Cancer Prevention and Screening Research CenterLung cancerThe inhibitory effect was confirmed.This is for about 10 men and women in their 40s and 60s over a period of about 9 years, and a total of 334 people have been diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma, statistically analyzing the relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. did.People who drink coffee on a daily basisLiver cancerThe rate of becoming is about 10 per 214 people, and about 547 people who rarely drink. Three to four cups are said to be at less risk than one or two cups a day, and the research team is included in coffeeIngredients with antioxidant activityIs the influence of[60]..However, in 2008, Research Director Shoichiro Tsugane said, "In any case, research is still underway."[61].

    • 2009年、同研究部が実施したコーヒー摂取と肝がんとの関連に関する調査(対象者18815人、13年の追跡調査)では、 「コーヒーをほとんど飲まない」人が肝がんを発生する割合を1とした場合、「1日1杯未満」の集団では0.67、「1日1〜2杯飲む」集団は0.49、「1日3杯以上」は0.54となり、癌になる割合がおよそ半減するというデータが得られた。クロロゲン酸やカフェインなどの成分が肝機能酵素活性を改善したり、肝細胞炎症を軽減させたりしたのではないか、という考えが示されている[62].
    • Tokyo University of Agriculture and TechnologyResearch groupTest tube内 のExperimentTo be included in coffeeCancer cell OfTransitionI found a function to suppress.
    • SwedenKarolinska Institute, Inc.Meta-analysisSo, it was revealed that taking two cups of coffee every day reduces the risk of developing liver cancer by about 2%.This preventive effect isliverEquivalent even if relevant[63].
    • Wakayama Medical UniversityProfessors in the chemistry class (at that time) are included in coffee by experimentChlorogenic acid Free radicalsThe mechanism that inhibits the production ofThis inhibits the production of free radicals andOxidationDue to the double barrier of preventiongunIs believed to prevent.
    • Coffee infiltrates womenColon cancerReduce the risk of[64].
    • Coffee, non-smokercaffeineThe higher the intakeBladder CancerThere is a report that the risk of[65].

    Other

    In addition to this, many effects of coffee are talked about, including empirically said utility and even the kind of rumors.Some of these are misunderstandings of research results and others are considered to be for commercial advertising purposes.Health boomAs with the information on the website, care must be taken when using it.

    • drugAddictiontobaccoPeople who want to quit coffee are said to have some relief from withdrawal symptoms by drinking coffee.
    • Recent studies have pointed out that in the case of hypertension, it works to return the blood pressure value to the normal value.Also goodcholesterolEtc.Myocardial infarctionBesides being useful for prevention ofSake liquorMay be useful in preventing an inflammatory skin disease called "shusa"[66]Is also pointed out[Note 9].
    • Canada-TorontoAccording to a research team led by Dr. Donald Weaver of the Krembil Brain Institute.Alzheimer's diseaseCompounds in coffee may suppress the formation of abnormal amyloid β clumps in the patient's brain, which may have a nerve-protecting effect.[67].
    • According to research groups such as National Defense Medical College and Osaka University, the habit of drinking coffee has been found to reduce the "risk of developing gout".[68].
    • Claims that coffee is an "alkaline beverage".This is a Japanese coffee industry group All Japan Coffee Association It seems that this is the influence of the campaign that has been running since 63.At that time, there was a tendency to think that coffee was bad for health, and there was this description in the booklet "Coffee & Health" distributed to coffee shop owners to counter it.Coffee is acidic (pH 5-6) rather than alkaline (pH XNUMX-XNUMX)Salted plumIs acidic but seems to be for the same reason as describing it as an alkaline food).
    • Some people claim that "oxidized coffee is bad for you."When storing coffee beans, quality deterioration due to oxidation of ingredients (especially lipids) becomes a problem, and if the extracted coffee is kept warm, oxidative polymerization of pigments andhydrogen peroxideSuch asFree radicalsIs known to occur, but no research reports have been made on its relationship to health.[Note 10].
    • For coffeePolyphenolIs a type ofChlorogenic acidAbundant, including kindAntioxidantIs included, and is said to have the effect of improving skin tension and preventing aging.[69].
    • In mouse and rat experiments, coffee is thought to have a stress-relieving effect[70][71].

    culture

    Quotations about coffee

    • "Good coffee is black like a devil, hot like hell, pure like an angel, sweet like love."-French politician,Talelan-Perigault
    • "Coffee must be as black as hell, as strong as death, and as sweet as love"-Turkeyproverb
    • "A mathematician is a machine that turns coffee into a theorem." HungaryMathematician,Leni Alfredo[Note 11]
    • "I have measured my life with a coffee spoon."-Poet,TS Eliot"J. Alfred Proof Rock's Love Song"

    Works on coffee

    Music

    Coffee is often featured in songs, and there are many songs with the title of coffee itself.

    Coffee cantata(Composer:Johann Sebastian Bach BWV211 "Silence quietly, don't talk" 1732)
    Secular by JS BachcantataOne of the comical works that sings the battle between a coffee enthusiast's daughter and a coffee-hating father. JS Bach himself was a coffee lover.
    From a cup of coffee(song:Kirishima Noboru+Miss Columbia, Lyrics:Ko Fujiura, Composition:Ryoichi Hattori 1939 years)
    Japanese old-fashioned song.It is also a song that tells us that coffee shop culture has taken root in Japan since before the war.
    black coffee(black coffee Lyrics: Paul Francis Webster Composition: Sony Burke 1948)
    Bluesy singing the fatigue and despair of a broken heart soaking in coffee and cigarettesjazz·Standard. In 1949Sarah vaughanRecorded for the first time and became a hit.1954 in JapanDeccaThe Peggy Lee version of the recording is known as a singer.
    Coffee rumba(Grinding coffee(English edition) Lyrics and composition: Jose Manzo Perroni 1958, Japanese lyrics Lyrics: Seiji Nakazawa)
    VenezuelanAlpaRecorded by player Hugo Blanco and a worldwide hit (1961), it has been revived many times in Japan as well because of its exoticism.The rhythm of the song is actuallyrumbais not.song:Sachiko Nishida(1961 years),Yuri Kunizane(In the name of Yuiri Kunimi, 1991),Yoko Oginome(1992 years),Inoue Yosui(2001 years),Shizuka Kudo(2002)
    How about coffee (Germany)Folk song, Lyrics:Megumi Hanaoka
    Educational Arts Company OfMusic OftextbookPublished in.

    movies

    Customs and ideas about coffee

    • In EthiopiaCoffee ceremonyThere is a custom called (Kariomon).The organizer behaves roasted, crushed, and extracted coffee to customers on the spot, and everyone swirls and drinks in Japan.tea ceremonyThere are many parts in common with.
    • In Turkey and Germany, fortune-telling is sometimes done by the pattern that the residue after drinking coffee makes on the bottom of the cup.
    • A short break of about 5 to 15 minutes taken between meetings is called a coffee break.The name was born from the habit of changing the mood of conference participants by chatting over soft drinks such as coffee.
    • The phrase "drinking dawn coffee (or morning coffee) together" is sometimes used as a metaphor for a deep relationship between men and women.
    • MormonismCoffee is forbidden[72].
    • DPR KoreaSo coffeeCapitalist societyHas been excluded as a drink.On the other hand, in the TV image of 2020,金正恩There are signs of change such as iced coffee-like drinks being placed on the chairman's table.[73].
    • HexBecause C0FFEE looks like COFFEE,programmingMay be used as in.
    • When cream is added to hot coffee, the acid contained in the coffee may coagulate the protein in the milk and make it look like oyster juice.This is called the feathering phenomenon.[74].

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ NanpoKnown as. "My main business was a straightforward official of the shogunate ... I was transferred to Doza in Osaka and the Nagasaki magistrate's office. In Nagasaki ... when foreign ships began to appear in the sea.Russian EmpireSpecial envoyNikolai Rezanov I am meeting with.I drank coffee on a Dutch ship and left Japan's first experience.However, my impression was that it was "burnt and unbearable to taste".[6].
    2. ^ The evaluation of taste shown as an explanation varies greatly depending on the state of roasting and extraction and changes in the trend of cultivars in the production area.
    3. ^ "Blue Mountain" as a brand of coffee beans has a different meaning from "Blue Mountain" as a coffee variety.
    4. ^ Singer-songwriter·Inoue YosuiIn the famous song of "Coffee rumba], But "Mokamatari" in the lyrics corresponds to this.
    5. ^ "Mocha" as a brand of coffee beans has a different meaning from "Mocha" as a coffee variety.
    6. ^ For example, selling beverages containing coffeeDy DrincoIs your ownlunch breakShort time after drinking coffeenapAnd thenSleepBy the action of coffee that has been exhibited since I woke up from there, I introduced an initiative to improve the efficiency of work in the afternoon and recommended it to other companies.[47].
    7. ^ By the way, the results of this research are from scientific journals.Scientific reportsIt is published in (Scientific Reports).
    8. ^ This research paper is published in an academic journal(German version,English editionIt is published in (Human Molecular Genetics).
    9. ^ Details of this study can be found in the medical journal(English edition,German version(JAMA Dermatology) Published in the online version (October 10th).
    10. ^ In addition, by linking coffee oxidation and "coffee is an alkaline beverage", the relationship with health is explained from the scheme of "new coffee = alkaline and good for the body" and "old coffee = oxidation =" acid "= bad for the body". Some people try.
    11. ^ Also a Hungarian mathematicianPaul ErdősLoved this word and used it a lot.Therefore, there is a deep-rooted misunderstanding that Erdős "thought" this word.

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    References

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