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📢 | Released "Royal Ice Cream", a high-class ice cream that focuses on quality and taste.Departure from online shopping ...


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Released "Royal Ice Cream", a high-class ice cream that focuses on quality and taste.Departure from online shopping ...

 
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In addition, "Aichi Prefecture Gelato", which uses abundant local ingredients such as figs, Akihime Strawberries, Satsuma Mandarin, and Nishio Matcha, has been released as a "local sweets series".
 

H & F Company Co., Ltd., which provides the long-established Western confectionery brand "Belherald", has released high-class ice cream. … → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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    Aichi gelato

    Unshu mandarin

    Unshu mandarin(Satsuma mandarin,scientific name : Citrus unshiu) IsRutaceae OfEvergreenShrubOr thatfruitThat.citrusA kind of[2]..variousCultivarAnd the fruits are edible.

    Name

    "Mikan" in modern times usually refers to Unshu mandarin[3][4]: 21.. Japanese nameUnshu mandarinThe name ofSangokushi performanceIn Zhejiang Province, China, which is said to be the production center of mandarin orangesWenzhou cityTaken from and named in the latter half of the Edo period[5], It comes from the myth that it is a variety made by sowing seeds from Wenzhou in Japan.[6]However, the origin of this species is JapanSatsumaRegion (currentKagoshima)ofNagashimaIt is believed that it did not come from Wenzhou.2010Maternal species are based on genetic studies conducted in the generationsSmall oranges, Patrilineal speciesKunomboHas become clear[5][7].

    "Mikan" came to refer exclusively to Satsuma mandarinMeijiAfter that[3].Edo PeriodIt was smaller than this species that was popular inSmall oranges(KishuTangerine)Citrus kinokuniIs[4]: 21, What represented "Mikan"Small orangesMet[3].

    About “Tangerine” and “Mikan”

    "Mikan" is sweet like honeyTangerineWith the meaning, it was written in the kanji as "Mitsukan", "Mitsutachi", "Kashikan", etc.[3].

    The first appearance of the word "mandarin orange" in historical materialsMuromachi Period Of1418(Oei26 years)Fushimimiya Sadanari(Gosokoin) Diary "Nursing Diary], Muromachi Palace (Yoshikazu Ashikaga) And Sendong (Emperor Gokomatsu) To "Mandarin" (Small orangesIs considered to be)[3].. The year is estimated to be around 1540,Iyo countryOmishima OfMt. Ooyama Gion ShrineGreat celebrationLord for fruits presented by Mr. MishimaToshinao KonoAlthough two thank-you notes are left, one is written as "Mitsukan" and the other is written as "Mitsukan", which is considered to be the transitional period of pronunciation from "Mitsukan" to "Mitsukan".[3].

    In the Edo period, the variety of sweet citrus fruits increased, and the case of writing "tachibana" meaning "tangerine," or citrus (KojiThe name is confusing, such as the case where the sweet thing of) is called mandarin orange (citrus), and the case of "citrus" means "citrus".[8].

    About "Wenzhou"

    Southern Song DynastyIn 1178, a specialized book on citrus fruits written in, says that citrus fruits are produced in various places, but "all must be done on Wenzhou's."[3].. Japan also"Japanese and Chinese three-year-old drawing society(1712), "Wenzhou Tachibana is tangerine. What is Wenzhou?"浙江"It is a citrus producing area in the south of Japan", and "Keizono Tachibana" (1848) also states that the deliciousness of "Wenshu Tachibana" is "excellent in tachibana".[3].. Wenzhou was recognized as a source of fine and sweet citrus[3].. Speculation holds that a person familiar with the classics named "Wenzhou" for this sweetly sweet species.[3]But there is no proof.

    "Japanese and Chinese three-year-old drawing society"(1712)" lists five varieties of "tangerine", "red tangerine", "summer tangerine", "unshu tachibana", "nuclear seedless tangerine" and "tangerine tangerine".[4]: 25.. “Tenshu tachibana” and “nuclear seedless mandarin orange” may be unshiu mandarin oranges today, but “tatsubachi tachibana” referred to here is characterized by “skin-rich succulent acid scent” and is the same species. It is difficult to determine[4]: 25.. You can also see the notation "Unshu mandarin orange"[4]: 21, "Revised Shoshu Shiho", which was established after the middle of the 19th century, says "Unshu honey cit.[4]: 25.

    From 1874 (Meiji 7), nationwide production statistics have been taken ("Meiji 7 Prefectural Product List").[4]: 27.. Initially, statistics were obtained without unifying the names of citrus fruits that were different in each region, but in the process of unifying the names, the species called small mandarin oranges were called "ordinary mandarin oranges" and Mrs. Lee. It was said that the seeds that had been stored became "Wenzhou mandarin oranges"[3].. From the middle of the Meiji period, Wenzhou mandarin oranges spread nationwide and became superior to other citrus fruits.[4]: 29.Abe Kumanosuke"Japanese tangerine" (1904) includes three types of tangerine: "Kishu tangerine", "Wenshu tangerine" and "Kyuko tangerine".[4]: 33.

    English expression

    In English, this species is satsuma mandarin と 呼 ば れ る[3].. In Europe and America, names such as "Satsuma" and "Mikan" are common.

    The name "satsuma" was given to this species in 1876 (Meiji 9).KagoshimaSatsumaDue to the introduction from rural areas to Florida, USA[3].. In addition, after that, this seed was transferred to the United States from the seedling production area in the Owari region of Aichi Prefecture, and they became known as "Owari satsuma".[3].

    タ ン ジ ェ リ ン (Tangerine) ・Mandarin orange (mandarin orange) (Both scientific namesCitrus reticulata) Is a cultivated species derived from it.

    Botanical features

    Origin/Habitat

    JapaneseShiranui SeaPresumed to be native to the coast.Doctor of Agriculture OfChozaburo TanakaFrom literature surveys and field surveys, Nagashima, Kagoshima Prefecture (currently Kagoshima Prefecture)Izumi DistrictNagashima) Advocated the theory that it is the raw material of Satsuma mandarin.Small oranges were introduced to Nagashima, Kagoshima PrefectureYatsushiroClose toSengoku periodPreviously the same as YatsushiroHigo countryIt was an old tree estimated to be 1936 years old here in 300 (Pacific WarSince the discovery of (dead) inside, it has come to be considered unquestionable in this theory.The trees found have been grafted, and the first logs are estimated to have occurred 400-500 years ago.DNA testByseedParentCitrus unshiu,pollenParentKunomboWas estimated to be[9].

    Unshu MikanJapanThen mainlyKantoCultivated in warm regions south of[2]. Also,Wakayama,Ehime,ShizuokaIs a typical production area[2]..It prefers a warm climate, but is relatively cold-resistant among citrus fruits.

    Form/Ecology

    It is an evergreen small tree with a height of 3-4MetersBecome moderate[6]..Commonly used in JapanKaratachiIt grows to a height of 2-4 meters on the platform. For "table", "Graft""cutting"reference.

    The flowering season is around May, and the flower diameter is 5CentimeterAbout 5 white petalsflowerBloom[6].

    Fruits bear fruit in autumn[6].. The ripening period of fruits varies from September to December, depending on the variety, and is about 9-12 cm.OblateThe fruit of the shape changes color from green to orange-yellow as it ripens.TypicallypollenIs fewParthenocarpy resultBecause of sexPollinationEven without it, it will bear fruit.Self-compatibilityHowever, even if pollinated, it is difficult to produce seeds because it is strongly female, and it is usually seedless (nucleus-free).However, since late-maturing varieties have weak female sterility, seeds may be produced if there is a pollen source such as Amanatsu nearby.The seeds when they are born are polyembryony, and hybrid embryos rarely grow even when sown, and in most cases, nucellar embryos derived from pearl heart cells grow.Therefore, by seed breeding, it has the same trait as the mother.clone(Pearl heart seedlings) Is obtained. However, seed breeding is performed when breeding[10]..In Japan, grafting is usually used for proliferation in order to shorten the unbearing period, control tree vigor, and improve fruit quality.Trifoliate orange is often used as a rootstock,YuzuOther citrus fruits may also be used.

    As a pest,San Jose scale[11][12]and so on.

    Mandarin orange history

    Introducing citrus

    Citrus seeds are 3000 million years oldIndiaNortheasternAssamOriginating in the neighborhood, while differentiating into various speciesMyanmar,Thailand, It is said that it has spread to China and so on.It has been cultivated in China for a long time and has been cultivated for a long time.Sengoku periodReferences that are said to have been completedKouko spring and autumnTachibana Kato"(Tachibana turns into a moat. It means that the original character changes depending on the circumstances).

    in JapanTachibanaAnd to OkinawaSeekerWas native to3st centuryThe state of Japan is writtenWei ZhajinArisu Tachibana Pepper cargo Shiranui"(Ginger,Orange,Japanese pepper,Japanese gingerThere is, but I do not know to eat them), and it is considered that they were not edible.

    Citrus first appeared in Japanese literature as "Record of Ancient Matters''Japanese calligraphy], and "Emperor SurenReceived the life ofHadesWas sent toMamoru TadomaIs the current Tachibana, which brought back the fruit and branches of Tokijiku no Koka (the omission). "Tachibana" here is TachibanaDie dieIs also a small mandarin orange (Citrus unshiuIt is said that it is), and it is not certain.

    Then from ChinaKumquat,KojiVarious citrus fruits such as (Usukawa mikan) were introduced, but at that time citrus fruits were used as medicinal rather than edible.

    Japanese "Mikan"

    The first mandarin orange to spread in JapanSmall orangesIs.With ChinatransactionYatsushiro, Higo Province (currently Kumamoto Prefecture), which has prospered as a port for a long timeYatsushiro) To ChinaZhejiang ProvinceSmall mandarin oranges are transmitted from here and are cultivated as Takada mandarin oranges and HigoKokujiIt was also presented to the imperial court, which was Kishu Arita (currently Wakayama Prefecture) around the 15th and 16th centuries.Arita-gun) And was developed into a major industry, it was named "Kishu". AlsoEdo PeriodIs a merchant ofKinokuniya BunzaemonBut at that timeEdoIt is also famous for the legend that the mandarin oranges that had been soaring in Japan were transported from Kishu to gain wealth (it is not historical fact. For details, see the item of Kinokuniya Bunzaemon).Also in the early Edo periodTokugawa Ieyasu Sunpu CastleWhen I retired to Japan, a small mandarin orange (Kishu mikan) was presented by Kishu, and this tree planted by Ieyasu wasShizuokaIt is said to be the origin of mandarin oranges.The origin of mandarin oranges in ShizuokaFuji city(OldFujikawa Town) Has been transplanted from a foreign country by a farmer, and the history is old and the variety is different from that of Ieyasu.

    Satsuma mandarin was originally called "Nagashima mandarin" or "Tang dynasty", but it was rarely cultivated in the world of samurai because it did not produce seeds.However, from the latter half of the Edo period, cultivation began to be carried out due to its deliciousness and convenience without seeds, and from around 27, production increased and gradually replaced small oranges. It was around this time that the name "Satsuma mandarin" became popular.

    Expansion of cultivation

    In the Meiji era, not only Kishu Arida, which has been focusing on mandarin orange cultivation for a long time, but also Shizuoka prefecture andEhimeHowever, the cultivation of Satsuma mandarin is in full swing.With the expansion of production areas, market competition has begun, and cultivation techniques have been improved and management has been rationalized.alsoThe United States of AmericaFloridaStarting with the saplings sent to North AmericaKorean PeninsulaIt has also been exported to Japan, and expansion outside Japan has begun.In the early Showa periodNatsumikanOr imported from the United StatesNavel orangeIs also widely cultivated, and the growth of the citrus market reaches its first peak.afterwards,Pacific WarRushed into the area, the cultivated area decreased due to the increase in food production, leading to a shortage of materials.ConscriptionThe orchard has been devastated by the reduction of labor force caused by. During the postwar reconstruction period, the elimination of food shortages remained the top priority for a while, and the cultivated area continued to decrease, but after a few years, it began to increase and recovered to the prewar level in 1952.

    As it isHigh economic growthRiding on the wave of mandarin oranges, mandarin orange cultivation shows dramatic growth.Due to the increase in fruit consumption due to the reconstruction boom, Satsuma mandarin has become traded at high prices, and in some cases it was also called "yellow diamond". After 1960, the production was increased to an excessive amount nationwide, partly due to the support of administrative measures, and exceeded the planned production volume at the time of a good harvest in 1968.By this time, production was completely overproduced, but production continued to increase, and in 1972 it began with a good harvest.grapefruitPrices fell sharply due to the effects of import liberalization. At the peak of 1975, the production volume reached 8 million tons, which was about eight times that immediately after the end of the war.

    Recent trends

    From the United States since the 1970s in addition to overproductionOrangeThe government changed its policy to reduce the cultivation of mandarin oranges as the demand for expansion of import quotas increased.The government's policy also encouraged replanting to other species, and while the acreage of Satsuma mandarin continued to decrease year by year, the cultivation of other citrus fruits expanded.

    Japan and the United States from the 1980strade frictionIn 1991, the liberalization of orange imports began.While imports of oranges increased due to the appreciation of the yen, exports mainly to North America ceased, and mandarin orange cultivation faced a crisis.On the other hand, in each production area, production adjustment, quality improvement, switching to high-priced early-maturing and extremely early-maturing, etc. were taken, and the price of Satsuma mandarin rose temporarily as a trend.However, mandarin orange cultivation in Japan still has various problems such as a shortage of successors to farmers and diversification of fruit tree consumption.Ministry of AgricultureThe expected production volume for 2021 is 76 tons, which is 2020 tons less than the actual production in 6000.Due to the aging of farmers and other factors, the supply volume has fallen below demand, and the emergency supply and demand adjustment business will be abolished from 2020 production.The "appropriate production volume" that was announced to prevent over-cultivation was switched to the "expected production volume" that has the meaning of encouraging increased production.[13].

    In recent years, efforts have been made to expand exports outside Japan as a new sales channel, and in addition to North America, which is the main export destination,Hong Kong,TaiwanExports to Asian countries have begun.

    Main varieties and shipping time

    Extremely early Wenzhou

    It is harvested from September to October. Occurred in the 9sOil shockAs a result, research has started to be carried out with the aim of reducing oil consumption in greenhouse cultivation. In recent years, it has been overproduced.

    Miyamoto issei
    Wakayama Prefecture in 1967 as a branch of Miyagawa HayaoShimotsuke(CurrentHainan) Was discovered by Kiji Miyamoto and was registered as a breed in 1981. The fruits are flat and the yield is excellent. It matures 2-3 weeks earlier than Miyagawa Hayao. It used to be the main variety of extremely fast-growing Wenzhou, but in recent years cultivation has been drastically reduced due to its low sugar content and inferior taste compared to the extremely fast-cultivating variety that was created by subsequent breeding.
    Nichinan No. 1
    In 1978 as a sport of Okitsu HayaoMiyazakiNichinan CityIt was discovered by Akio Noda and registered as a variety in 1989.The tree is relatively strong and the bag membrane is soft.Easy to growsugar content,aciditySince both are stable, cultivation has spread, and it is now the main variety of the very early Wenzhou.
    Princess of Nichinan (Nichinan N1, New Nichinan)
    The variety was registered on March 1, 2008 as a sport of Nichinan No. 3.Since it reduces acidity and colors faster than Nichinan No. 18, it is being cultivated as an ultra-early cultivar that can be harvested from the end of August.The princess of Nichinan is Miyakonojo Daido Fruit and Vegetables Co., Ltd.Registered trademark.
    Iwasaki early life
    In 1968 as a sport of Okitsu HayaoNagasakiNishisonogi-gunSaikai Town(CurrentSaikai City) Was discovered by Denichi Iwasaki. It is one of the fastest-selling varieties of very early life.
    Sakikubo early life
    In 1965 as a sport of Hayao MatsuyamaMieMinamimuro-gunMihama TownIt was discovered by Haruo Sakikubo. The main product of Mie Prefecture.
    Ueno early life
    In 1970 as a sport of Hayao MiyakawaSagaHigashimatsuura DistrictHamatama Town(CurrentKaratsu City) Was discovered by Toshihiko Ueno and was registered in 1985. Since the acid reduction is slow, the harvest time is delayed compared to other very early cultivars, but the taste is kept longer. Another feature is that the occurrence of floating skin is small.
    Yura early life
    Wakayama Prefecture in 1985 as a branch of Miyagawa HayaoHidaka-gunYura TownIt was discovered by Kanji Yamaguchi and registered as a variety in 1995.Compared to other very early varieties, it has a high sugar content, an extremely thin sac membrane, and a multi-fruit juice, so it tastes good.Cultivation is difficult due to the weak tree vigor and the large number of small fruits.
    YN26 (Ki no Yurara)
    It was bred from early-maturing embryony seedlings by the Wakayama Prefectural Fruit Tree Experiment Station in 2001, and was registered as a variety in 2012.It has a higher sugar content than Yura early life, has faster acid reduction and coloring, and has stronger tree vigor.As with Yura Hayao, the sac is thin and has a lot of fruit juice, so it tastes good.The drawback of having a lot of small fruits is inherited from Yura Hayao.Cultivation and supply of seedlings are limited to Wakayama prefecture.Ki no Yurara is a registered trademark of the Wakayama Prefectural Agricultural Cooperative Association.

    Early life Wenzhou

    Harvested from October to December. Since the unit price is relatively high, some production areas are switching from junior high and ordinary Wenzhou.

    Aoe early life
    Around 1892 (Meiji 25)OitaTsukumiA fast-growing variety of traditional trees found in Aoe.It is said to be Japan's first early-maturing Wenzhou[14].. In 1903 (Meiji 36)HiroshimaChiefIn addition to being introduced in Japan, it has spread all over Japan.It is rarely cultivated now.
    Miyagawa Hayao
    Around 1910FukuokaSanmon DistrictCastle Village (CurrentlyYanagawaIn 1925, the branch change found in Kenkichi Miyagawa's houseChozaburo TanakaAnnounced.Since it has excellent characteristics such as easy growth and good yield, it has been widely cultivated nationwide since ancient times.Because of its good taste, it is still a typical variety of Satsuma mandarin, and is widely used for house cultivation.In addition, products that have been sacked and fully ripened on the tree over the winter are also shipped.
    Okitsu early life
    In 1940Agricultural Research Institute(Former Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Horticultural Experiment Station) was selected from the pearl-bearing embryo seedlings that Miyagawa was born to pollinate with, and the variety was registered in 1963. Coloring is about a week faster than Miyagawa Hayao, and the tree is strong. Along with Miyagawa Hayao, it is a typical variety of early-life Wenzhou.
    Taguchi early life
    Wakayama prefecture in 1978 as a branch of Okitsu early lifeArita-gunKibi-cho(CurrentAritagawa Town) Was discovered by Kosaku Taguchi and was registered in 1995. It has a higher sugar content and quicker acid reduction than Okitsu Hayao. Among the young trees, there is a drawback that they tend to be large fruits.
    Kimura Saya
    It was discovered in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1976 as a sport of Hayao Miyakawa.Compared to Hayao Miyakawa, it has a higher sugar content and a thinner mandarin orange membrane, so it tastes better.Cultivation is difficult because it tends to become large fruits and has many floating skins, and it tends to cause biennial bearings.

    Wenzhou

    11 --Harvested around December.

    Fujinaka Wenzhou
    KanagawaYugawara townThis strain was discovered in the early Showa period at Mr. Fujinaka's farm in Yoshihama, and is now in Yugawara Town. Odawara cityIt is a variety cultivated mainly as a relay from early-to-late mandarin oranges to late-ripe mandarins.
    Nankan 20
    Ehime Prefecture in 1926Uwajima CityThis strain was discovered in the orchard of Tatsuo Imajo, and was named after the Nanyo Citrus Branch (currently the Nanyo Branch of the Ehime Prefectural Fruit Tree Experiment Station), which selected this species as an excellent strain.A representative variety of Wenzhou, Ehime prefecture, especiallyNanyo districtIt is considered to be the main product in. The drawback is that it has a lot of buoyancy.
    Ehime junior high school student
    Selected in 1973 from the Ehime Prefectural Orchard Experiment Station, Nanshin No. 20, which was pollinated with Parson Brown, and registered in 1994. Compared to Nankan No. 20, it is colored one week faster and has a higher sugar content.
    Mukaiyama Wenzhou
    Wakayama Prefecture in 1934Ito-gunKatsuragi TownIt was discovered by Kazuzo Mukaiyama. The tree is strong and big. Characterized by the deep red color of the peel. High sugar content and low acidity. The disadvantage is that there are a lot of skins depending on the year.
    Cucumber
    Wakayama Prefecture in 1989Arita CityIt was discovered by Kukigo of Miyahara-cho as a single-mutant individual in Mukoyama Wenzhou. 1 variety registration. Compared to Mukaiyama Wenzhou, it produces less skin and has a higher sugar content and faster acid reduction. Furthermore, it has a thin sac and has a taste similar to that of premature Wenzhou. The vigor is slightly weaker than Mukoyama Wenzhou, but it is difficult to produce every other year and the fertility is high. Cultivation and supply of seedlings are limited to Wakayama Prefecture.
    Kuno Wenzhou
    Selected by the National Research Institute of Agriculture (formerly the Horticultural Experiment Station of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry) from Nagashinu Wenzhou, which was pollinated with Joppa orange, and registered in 1971. The vigor is strong and the fruits grow large. Also used for canning.
    Seto Unshu
    Selected by the Agricultural Research Institute (former Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Horticultural Experiment Station) from Sugiyama Wenzhou, which was pollinated with trovita orange, and was registered as a variety in 1971. The fruits have less rind and the flavor is high in sugar and low in acid. Characterized in areas with low rainfall, such as Setouchi, it is cultivated mainly in Hiroshima prefecture.
    Morita Wenzhou
    Higashimatsuura-gun, Saga PrefectureNanayama VillageIt was discovered by Hirofumi Morita (currently Karatsu City) and registered as a variety in 1980.The surface is very smoothTomatoIt may be likened to.

    Normal Wenzhou

    Late November-Harvested in December. Especially for varieties that are shipped late (such as Qingdao and 11)Late night WenzhouAs distinguished.

    Qingdao Wenzhou
    Shizuoka CitySakai DistrictIt was discovered around 1935 as a sport by Fukudagaya.The fruits grow large and are less likely to float.It is a representative of high sugar varieties and can be stored for a long time.Especially in Shizuoka prefecture, it is cultivated as a main variety.The disadvantage is that the membrane is hard and it is easy to obtain biennial bearings.
    XNUMX Wenzhou
    KochiKami-gunShannan Village(CurrentKonan City) Was found in the orchard of 3 Kasho. It can be stored for a long time and will be shipped until the end of March. Many are cultivated in Tokushima Prefecture.
    Otsu No. XNUMX
    Kanagawa Prefecture in 1964AshigarashimoYugawara town OfYuu OtsuWas selected from pearl-hearted seedlings in 1977 Wenzhou. Registered in XNUMX. Along with Qingdao Wenzhou, it is cultivated in various places as a representative of high sugar varieties. The problem is that it is easy to get results every other year.
    Imamura Wenzhou
    FukuokaKurumeIt was discovered in the orchard of Yoshiki Imamura in Yoshiki, Kusanomachi.It has a rich taste and good storability, but it is said to be a difficult variety to cultivate due to its strong tree vigor and unstable fruit set.It is also called a "phantom mandarin orange" because it is difficult to cultivate and the amount of distribution is small.The logs found at that time have been cut down and do not exist.
    Kikunokunshu
    It was selected from the seedlings of the Niu system Wenzhou at the Wakayama Prefecture Fruit Tree Horticultural Experiment Station (now the Wakayama Prefecture Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center Fruit Tree Horticultural Experiment Station), and the variety was registered in 1986. It matures about two weeks earlier than the Niu system Wenzhou.
    Jutaro Wenzhou
    Spring of 1975, Shizuoka PrefectureNumazu CityNishiuraAoshima strain varieties found in a tree from Aoshima Wenzhou by Jutaro Yamada in Kuren. Kodama mandarin orange, which is smaller than Aoshima Wenzhou and is mainly M/S size. The fruit skin is thick and has a long shelf life as a Satsuma mandarin, and it has a high sugar content of 12 degrees or more and is a rich and promising variety. In recent years, the production area protection and cultivation has expired and the cultivation has been lifted.

    Agricultural products

    It was the most consumed fruit in Japan, but in recent yearsMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsHousehold consumption survey shows thatbananaOvertaken by and fell to second place, banana as of 2013,AppleIt is the third place after.However, in the vicinity of the production area, we often get a skirt from the growers.

    Production area

    The annual production of Unshu mandarin is over 10 tons in Wakayama, Ehime and Shizuoka prefectures, followed by over 5 tons in Kumamoto and Nagasaki prefectures, Saga, Aichi, Hiroshima, Fukuoka and Kanagawa prefectures. , 2 tons or more, Mie, Oita, Osaka, Kagawa, Tokushima, Kagoshima, Miyazaki more than 1 tons, Yamaguchi and Kochi more than 5000 tons ), accounting for over 2016% in these prefectures. Below, Chiba prefecture, Gifu prefecture, Hyogo prefecture, Okayama prefecture is more than 99 tons, other Ibaraki prefecture, Saitama prefecture, Tokyo Metropolitan area, Niigata prefecture, Fukui prefecture, Kyoto prefecture, Nara prefecture, Shimane prefecture, Okinawa prefecture etc. There is. In this way, Unshu mandarin cultivated on the condition that the land is warm, sunny, windy, and well drained, and most of the main production areas areThe Pacific Ocean,Seto Inland SeaIt is a coastal area facing.

    With the improvement of preservation technology in recent yearsvinyl house,温室Many house mandarin oranges cultivated in[15], Can be seen almost all year round. House mandarin oranges are mainly produced in Saga, Aichi and Oita prefectures.

    China, which is the world's largest producer outside JapanZhejiang Province OfNingbo-Fenghua City・, Besides the United StatesAlabama,Spain,Turkey,Croatia, South Korea OfJeju,PeruIt is also cultivated.

    Yield

    • Yield (2016)
      • Nationwide 80 tons (up 5,100 tons from 2015)
        1. Wakayama 16 tons (Nationwide share about 1,100%)
        2. Ehime 12 tons (Nationwide share about 7,800%)
        3. Shizuoka 12 tons (Nationwide share about 1,300%)
    • Output (FY2017)
      1. Wakayama 33500 million yen
      2. Shizuoka 24600 million yen
      3. Ehime 23500 million yen
    • Wakayama Prefecture was the leader in the first place until the early Showa era, but it fell sharply due to storm and flood damage in 1934, and Shizuoka Prefecture was the number one producer after that.
    • Ehime Prefecture has protected the number one crop for 1970 consecutive years since 34, but since 1, Wakayama Prefecture has been reversed for the 2004th consecutive year to become the leader. Taking this opportunity, Ehime Prefecture encouraged the cultivation of new citrus varieties, so the number of mandarin orange production areas (especially extremely early life) decreased relatively. As a result, the difference in national share is expanding year by year.
    • For Unshu mandarin orange, the tendency of biennial results, in which the year with a large harvest (the front year) and the year with a small harvest (the back years) alternate, is remarkable, so it is customary to compare the statistics two years ago. There is. In fact, some prefectures such as Kagawa, Saga and Kagoshima prefectures have higher yields in the back years.
    • Shizuoka Prefecture has the highest production volume of ordinary Citrus unshiu.Wakayama Prefecture has the highest number of Citrus unshiu (the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) and citrus fruits in general, including early-maturing and extremely early-maturing.[16]..In addition, Kumamoto Prefecture has the largest number of very early and early-maturing species, and Saga Prefecture has the largest number of house oranges.
    • In addition to the top three prefectures, the Kyushu region includes all prefectures in the top rank, and mandarin orange cultivation is active. Especially in Saga and Nagasaki prefectures, the multi-sheet coverage is high.
    • For the first time in 2006 years since 1963, the yield fell below 43 million tons in 100. The causes are lack of sunshine after flowering and insufficient fruit growth in summer.
    • The northern limit of cultivation is "The average temperature in the coldest month is 5"That's all. ”(The northern limit production area will be described later).

    Japan's major production areas and brands

    Production prefectures

    Wakayama
    Annual yield is 14 tons-19 tons, little impact of biennial results for large production areas, and shipping adjustments are made. To the main production areaArita City,Aritagawa Town(Formerly Kibicho, former Kanayamachi),Yuasa Town,Hirokawa Town,Hainan(Former Shimotsu Town, former Hainan City),Kinokawa City(Former Kokawa town, former Naga town, former Uta town, former Momoyama town),Wakayama City,Yura Town,Hidakagawa Town(Former Kawabe Town),Tanabe City,Katsuragi Town, Kimino Town (formerly Nogami Town),Kamitomita TownSuch. The main shipping destinations are Kinki, Hokkaido, Niigata, Kanto (Tochigi, Yokohama, etc.), which occupy more than 7% of the Keihanshin market, and are highly evaluated in the Niigata, Yokohama, and Sapporo markets. Since it is close to the metropolitan area, there are many tourist farms and direct sales places. In the past, it was centered around Keihanshin, and did not place much importance on the Tokyo market, but in recent years, it has been leaning towards Ehime prefecture production on a shipment basis.
    Arita mandarin orange
    Arita RiverIt is a representative brand of Wakayama prefecture cultivated in the basin and the coast of Arita-gun, and there are three towns of Arita-city and Arita-gun (Aritagawa-cho,Yuasa Town,Hirokawa Town) Is the designated production area.It has been a famous production area since the Edo period, accounting for more than 40% of the prefecture's oranges, but the aging of mandarin orange trees is progressing, and in recent years inland production areas have become the main production area.There are more than 10 fruit sorting plants in the jurisdiction (there were more than 20 in the old days, but they were consolidated by consolidation), and they are further divided into JA direct management and regional management.The former is AQ mandarin orange (AQ is from Arida Quality. It integrates multiple fruit sorting plants located inland and has two fruit sorting plants in Aridagawa Town and a fruit sorting plant in Hirokawa Town "Marunan". Introduced the destructive acidity measuring device "Citrus Sensor").On the other hand, Miyahara co-selection (Miyahara-cho, Arida city) and Marus co-selection (Yuasa-cho Suhara. In the past, Sutani Marus co-selection was also held in Arita city Sutani, so Suhara Maru Suhara co-selection), Maru co-selection (Aridagawa-cho Sho. It is called, and is shipped only to the markets of Utsunomiya City and Ishimaki City), and there are Arida co-selection (Senda, Arida City. The ace mark in the shape of the letter "A" is a symbol, and many house oranges are produced).In these fruit sorting plants, there are "Miichi α" and "Miichi Mikan" as brands common to the association designated by JA, and they are attached to excellent products with a sugar content of 2% ​​or more, which are common to the above fruit sorting plants.In addition, at the fruit sorting plant in Arida City, there is also a uniquely selected brand called "Arita City Certified Mikan" for excellent products with a certain sugar content or higher.Apart from that, there is an individual brand selected by the shipping association, "Shindo oranges(Shindo Arita City. Shindo Mandarin Orange Shipping Association)Tamura mikan(Yuasa TownRice field《Old Tamura》. Tamura Shipping Association), "Taguchi Kyomi Mikan" (Taguchi Aritagawa Taguchi. Taguchi Kyodo Union. Also known as Taguchi Mikan, the area is the birthplace of Taguchi Wassei). There are also brands of agricultural corporations, companies, and individual farmers, and the well-known orchard (co-selected by Wasawa) is known for its success in selling high-quality tangerines as juice. Arita mandarin orange with 51 other places nationwideRegional collective trademarkWas certified as the nationwide first.
    HainanShimotsukeIs the main producing area in Wakayama prefecture, next to Arita-gun, and has been cultivated with continuous cotton and mandarin oranges since the Edo period.Kinokuniya BunzaemonIs reported to have left the ship from this Shimotsu.In contrast to Arita, which mainly consists of early-maturing species, it is usually centered on Satsuma mandarin.Due to our management strategy, we will ship the stored oranges called "Kuradashi oranges" around January-February, when the shipment of oranges will decrease at a different time from Arida oranges.By storing after harvesting, it is possible to soften the acid, increase the sugar content, and enhance the taste.Such oranges are called storage oranges and brewed oranges, and are said to be works of art.Shimotsu Town is the largest storage mandarin orange producing area in Japan, and the "Shimotsu Kuraide Mikan System" will be launched in 1.Japanese agricultural heritageWas certified as.In addition, the fruit sorting fields are concentrated in one Kuramu fruit sorting field that has the latest sugar content sensor, and branded products include "Hikaeoro" with a sugar content of 1% or more and "Hina mandarin oranges" with a sugar content of 13% or more. is there.KeihanshinIn addition,HokkaidoThere are many shipments to. As "Shitsumi mandarin orange"Regional collective trademarkRegistration.It is also cultivated in the Fujishiro area of ​​the former Kainan city area, and is shipped as "Shimotsu oranges".[17]In addition to Shimotsu, Tokushima Prefecture also has stored oranges.Katsuura Town,Shizuoka PrefectureHamamatsu cityKita Ward (formerlyMikkabi Town),Gifu PrefectureKaizu,Saga Prefecture小 城市It is also practiced in such cases.
    Kinan oranges
    JA KinamiWakayama prefecture in the jurisdictionTanabe City-Kamitomita Town-ShirahamaA generic term for mandarin orange producing regions within the JA jurisdiction under the jurisdiction of JA, cultivated in Nishimuro-gun. The climate in the Kinan region is warmer than that in the Arita region, so there are many production areas on the inland slopes. It features the early delivery of very early mandarin oranges and the fully ripe shipment of early mandarin oranges and mid-late citrus fruits that take advantage of the mild climate. As a brand of the Daibo district of Tanabe cityDaibo mikan", "Ten", a very early mandarin orange, "Kiku Mikan Ten", "Kishu Ichiban", an early mandarin orange,Decopon,Ponkan,Eight drops,Kiyomi,Navel orangeCompared to Arita and Shimotsu, the ratio of shipments to the Tokyo metropolitan area is high.
    Hidaka-gun
    In Hidaka-gun, the production of mid-night citrus such as Shiranuhi, Iyokan, Kanatsu, Seminole is more active, but there are also areas where oranges are cultivated. Facing the Pacific OceanYura TownKnown as the birthplace of Hayura early life, other than mandarin orangeLemonIt is a complex production area where Kiyomi and Kiyomi are cultivated. "Yurakko" is a branded mandarin orange produced in Yura-cho, Hidaka-gun, and has achieved a high sugar content by multi-cultivation.Also Hidakagawa Town (formerlyKawabe Town) However, mandarin oranges are cultivated, and they are collectively called Kawabe mandarin oranges. In the brand production area, there are Wakano mandarins in the Wakano district.
    Kinokawa City, Wakayama City
    Mandarin oranges are also cultivated in Kinokawa City and Wakayama City in the Santo area. Kinokawa City is under the jurisdiction of JA Kinosato, and its mandarin orange production areas are located on the southern bank of the Kino River and on the north ridge of the Ryumon Mountains. The amount of production is one of the largest in the prefecture, and it mainly focuses on the cultivation of extremely early-maturity species and Kishu mandarin oranges (Kishu small mandarin oranges), but early-mature species and ordinary species are also seen. Since it is close to Osaka, a large city, there are many tourist farms and direct sales stores. The general-purpose name is Wakayama mandarin orange, but in order to differentiate the production area, there are some cases where the name of the jurisdiction JA is called Kinosato brand mandarin orange or Kinosato mandarin orange. In addition to the mainstream fast-growing varieties in Miyazaki, Arita, the number of farmers who produce the common varieties of Nankan No. 20, which is the most common in Ehime prefecture, is increasing. In addition, the area is actively producing Hakushu, and is the largest producer in Japan in terms of production volume, shipment volume, and cultivation area. Wakayama CityWakayama Electric RailwayKishigawa LineCultivation is flourishing in the Shandong area along the line.
    Ehime
    The annual yield is 12 tons-16 tons, and the shipping value is high. In addition, they are shifting to the production of mid-night citrus, which has high market value. To the main production areaYawatahama City(Former Yawatahama City, former Honai Town),Uwajima City(Former Yoshida Town, former Uwajima City, former Tsushima Town),Seiyo City(Former Sanbe Town, former Meihama Town),Ikata Town(Former Ikata-cho, former Seto-cho),Iyo City(Former Futami Town, former Iyo City),Tobe Town,Matsuyama City(Former Nakajima Town, former Matsuyama City, former Hojo City),Imabari(Former Omishima Town, former Oura Town, former Sekizen Village, former Kikuma Town, former Imabari City, former Onishi Town),Ozu City(Former Nagahama Town) etc. Main shipping destinations are Kanto, Koshinetsu, Kinki, etc.Ehime mandarin orangeThe product is shipped outside the prefecture under the name, so the origins are distinguished by the color of the box and the trademark of the fruit selection committee.
    Nishiwa mikan
    JAEhime Prefecture under the jurisdiction ofYawatahama City, Ikata-cho, a general term for mandarin orange production areas produced in the Mikame district of Seiyo City (formerly Mikame-cho).Since the Meiji era, it has been cultivated in a lean area and developed as a mandarin orange producing area after the war.Due to the favorable conditions of the steep slopes facing south and west along the coast, it produced high-quality mikan, received high praise mainly from Tsukiji and Ota markets in the metropolitan area, and grew into a well-known brand production area mainly in the metropolitan area. ..Among them, "Hinomaru Mikan" (in the Mukainada district of Yawatahama City, the name comes from the name of the joint fruit selection subcommittee. There is a "general kid" for general household use that deals exclusively with leaf rubbed products, but this production area does not use tea boxes), "Mana Mikan" (Yawatahama City Maamiyo "Maajiro" district and Anai district) . OldManamuraIt has the nickname of Maruma in connection with the Maana Fruit Selection Subcommittee.There is "Hina no Sato" as a brand product.In addition, there are "Maajiro mandarin oranges" by Maajiro fruits and vegetables), "Kawakami mandarin oranges" (Kawakami district, Yawatahama city, formerly.Kawakami-muraIt is abbreviated as Marca due to the Kawakami Fruit-picking Committee meeting. Brand products such as "Ami Pika", "Ami Pika Kotaro", and "Kaze" are the production centers of Unshu mikan. Elsewhere elseHonai TownMitsuru co-election (formerly known as Houchi co-election. Mitsuru is due to the brand name "Mitsuru"), which consists of Kisura, Miyauchi and Hijimachi, Yawatahama city, and Yawatahama co-election (located in Yawatahama city) , Kawanoishi, Tsuneta, Awanoura, a mixed production area with three middle coastal areas in the city of Nakabankan, which produces the largest amount of crops. "Hamanohime" and "Hama Bijin" brand products Selection (combined production area with Nakabankan in four districts of Yanozaki, Senjo, Souiwa, and Kamiyama located inland in Hachimanhama. "Mizuki Mizuki" as a brand item), Sanbe Co-selection (Seiyo CitySanbe district (oldSanbe Town) Is included.New Summer OrangeA complex production area known as the production area of.Ten joint fruit selection subcommittees, such as "Shizuru" (Shizuru) for branded products, and Ikata co-selection (Ikata-cho, a complex production area centered on Satsuma mandarin, "Himasho" for branded products), have created their own brands. Building (Ikata Town (formerly)Misaki Town) Has Misaki co-selection, but this is a midnight citrus-only crop such as Kiyomi Tangor, and almost no unshu mikan is cultivated.In addition, there is also Isozu co-selection centered on Kawachi Bankan (the former Isozu district in Honai-cho), but the scale is small).Also, because of the color of the box, luxury items are commonly called black boxes, but general household items are brown boxes.In addition, JA Nishiuwa is an annual event for the Nishiuwa mandarin orange PR and campaign.Crayon Shin-chan OfShinosuke NoharaHas been adopted.
    Uwa mikan
    JA Ehime MinamiHas jurisdictionUwajima CityYoshida Town(Former Yoshida Town), a general term for mandarin oranges produced in the production center of Uwajima City. In particular, Yoshida-cho, Uwajima-shi was the second mandarin orange producing area in the prefecture after Hachimanhama, and was actively shipped to the metropolitan area for a while after the war, and was the best producing area in the prefecture surpassing Yawatahama. It is characterized by a red box, and is nicknamed the "Uwano Aka Box," which has been a brand since the Uwa Agricultural Union era. In Yoshida-cho, Uwajima-shi, there are four sorting stations, which are Ajaku, Tamazu, Kisakata, and Uwajima-shi, jointly with Uwajima. There are brand name products such as "Beautiful King" and "Obukurosan", and the Tamazu fruit selection area, which has a strong brand, sells carefully selected products under the name "tamamono". In addition to Mandarin oranges,Kanpei, Amanatsu, Ponkan, and Shiranui are also produced.
    Akehama Mikan
    Located in the middle of Yawatahama City and Yoshida-cho, Uwajima City, the Meihama area of ​​Seiyo City (formerlyAkehama Town) Mandarin oranges produced in. Only Akehama is under the jurisdiction of JA Higashi Uwa, and the color of the box is orange, which is different from the others. There are general products such as "Kaze no naughty" and branded products such as "Hamakaze mandarin orange".MutenkaIt is also a production area that is receiving attention even with such straight juice. There is also a Chachaen in the same area that grows and sells mandarin oranges using organic farming.
    Koijima mandarin orange
    Located in the western part of Matsuyama City, Ehime PrefectureKoijima(OldKoijima VillageThe mandarin oranges produced in () are known as "shima mandarin oranges". Unlike other production areas shipped outside the prefecture, it is mainly distributed in the city, so the name Ehime mikan is not used. In addition, it is a rare production area where individual fruit selection is not done because there is no joint fruit selection area. The color of the box is deep red.
    Nakajima mandarin orange
    Located in the northwestern part of Matsuyama City, Ehime Prefecture(OldNakajima Town) Mandarin oranges produced in. It used to have a sorting station and shipped to Keihanshin, the metropolitan area, etc. as the Marunaka brand, but it declined as a production center when it was merged with Matsuyama City. Later, the brand was revitalized, and it was sold as "Nakajima News" in order to differentiate it from Matsuyama city's domestic production (house mikan center in the interior). The brand name is “Nakajima News Takumi to Koku”. The color of the box is yellow-green (named to the center of JA Ehime of the JA in charge). It is also a complex production center of Iyokan, kalamandarin and other citrus fruits.
    Imabari, Ochi region
    Imabari City (including the former Ochi-gun) in the northern part of the prefecture is also a popular place for mandarin orange cultivation. It is under the jurisdiction of JA Ochiimabari, and is called the blue box from the blue box. In addition, there are also cases where the origin is called Setouchi mandarin orange. There is "SAN ACE" as a branded product, but with the production center in the Uwa region being brand-oriented, it is mainly for the general public, and there are relatively many shipments to the Keihanshin area. Cultivation of middle and late citrus is also active, and the production of Setoka, Harehime, and Kago 28, Ehime Prefecture (Red Manado) is also active.
    Matsuyama City (other than islands), Iyo City, Tobe Town
    Housed under the jurisdiction of JA Ehime Chuo and located in Chuyo, the center of the prefecture, the main production is house mandarin oranges. There is a "Dogo story" as a brand item. In addition, the whole area has been developed as the main production center of Iyokan, Setoka, Kanpei, and Ehime Prefecture Kaseki No. 28 (Red Manado).
    Shizuoka
    Annual yield is 10 tons-13 tons (big difference in biennial results). To the main producing areaHamamatsu city(Former Mikkabi Town, former Hamamatsu City, former Hosoe Town, former Inasa Town, former Hamakita City),Kosai City,Fujieda(Former Fujieda City, former Okabe Town),Shizuoka CitySakai District, Shizuoka CityShimizu Ward(Former Shimizu City, former Yui Town),Numazu City,Atami,Ito, Shimada City, Makinohara City (former Haibara Town), etc., the production areas are distributed in the east and west of the prefecture. No. 1 in ordinary Wenzhou cultivation. Especially in Hamamatsu City, mandarin orange cultivation is thrivingMikkabi Town,Hosoe Town,Inasa TownAs a result of the merger, etc., both the amount of harvest and the amount of shipment are the top in Japan as a municipality. Main shipping destinations are Chukyo area, Hokuriku, Kanto, Tohoku, etc.
    Mikkabi mikan
    Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka PrefectureKitaThree days(OldMikkabi Town). At the largest production area in Shizuoka prefectureLake HamanaThe production area spreads on the south-facing slope in the north, and it has a high brand power mainly in the Chukyo area.A girl named Mika is a trademark.In addition to those that are shipped after harvesting, many are shipped after storage, and the shipping period of the production area is long.There are "heart", "honor" of stored oranges, etc., including "" which is designated as a luxury brand and thoroughly aged on trees, and "Maruma oranges" privately selected by Hamamatsu city wholesale company Maruma is also known ( The company is famous for oranges,persimmon,PotatoesAre also branded).
    Hamamatsu city. Branded mandarin oranges produced by the Maruhama Citrus Agricultural Cooperative Association due to the Maruhama sorting plant located in the northeastern part of Lake Hamana. It is known for cultivating many varieties called Katayama mandarin orange (originally Tokushima prefecture, usually Unshu).
    Lake Hamana mandarin orange
    Mandarin oranges are concentrated on the shore of Lake Hamana around Mikkabi Town, which is popular in Hosoe Town, Inasa Town, Higashi Ward in Hamamatsu City, and Chihada District in Kosai City. In addition, it often refers to a mandarin orange in the whole area and is called Lake Hamana Mikan. Hosoe-cho, Hamamatsu City is also known as the production site of Shirayanagi Navel. JA Topia Hamamatsu, located in Hamamatsu City, also sells it under the name Topia mandarin orange, and sells multi-cultivated high sugar content mandarin oranges under the brand name "Tenka sugar one."
    Located in Numazu City, the brand's representative orange production center in the eastern part of the prefecture. The production area spreads out on the slope facing Suruga Bay, and has been an old production area. Cultivation of high-sugar varieties called Jujutaro Wenzhou has become mainstream, and there are brand names called "jujutaro premium gold" and "jujutaro premium gold" from house mandarin that have increased sugar content after storage.
    The mountains of Aoi Ward, Shizuoka City, is the birthplace of Qingdao Wenzhou. We are promoting branding by multi-cultivation, and there are brands such as "Yumecho" and "Ianbai".
    Mandarin orange
    Shizuoka City Shimizu Ward is one of the most popular places in the central part of the prefecture, and we call it Shimizu Mikan and carry out public relations activities (setting a unified logo mark of Shimizu citrus fruits, forming a support unit, etc.). Taking advantage of the warm climate, Shiranui,Harumi, (Shizuoka Prefecture's unique midnight citrus),PonkanIt is a complex production center for cultivating house mandarin oranges. In addition, the orange field spreads on the flat ground, which is rare in the whole country. (It was realized because there is little rainfall in the area and the sunshine hours are long. The purpose is to make the sunshine hours uniform and reduce the burden on the elderly). Old mandarin oranges were usedcanning(Canned food is an industry that represents Shimizu.) They also exported from Shimizu overseas and earned foreign currency.
    In and around Fujieda
    Fujieda City (oldOkabe Town(Including) is one of the most popular places in central prefecture, and Okabe is said to be the birthplace of mandarin orange cultivation in the prefecture. Rarely, from the area nameShitaAlso called a mandarin orange. JA Oigawa, which is under the jurisdiction, has an export mandarin orange management association that clears strict quarantine, and serves as a base for mandarin orange export to Japan, the United States, Canada, and New Zealand. Also,ShimadaHouse mandarin oranges are popular here, and there is a brand-produced area called Kanza Mikan.
    Kumamoto
    Annual yield is 7 tons-10 tons. In 2017, it surpassed the poor Shizuoka prefecture and was the third largest crop in Japan. To the main production areaKumamoto-shi(Former Kumamoto City, former Ueki Town),Tamana City(Former Tensui Town, Former Tamana City),Uki(Former triangle town, former Shiranui town),Uto,Arao,Tamato Town, Wasui Town (formerly Mikawa Town), Yamaga City, Amakusa City (formerly Ushibuka City), etc. The production areas are concentrated in the northern part of the prefecture facing the Yatsushiro Sea. Main shipping destinations are Kyushu, Okayama, Chukyo area, etc. The production of very early species is large.
    Kawachi Mandarin
    KumamotoKawachi Town(February 1991Kumamoto-shi(Transferred to)Mt. KinpusanA general term for production areas that are often cultivated on the west side of the foot of the mountain.Mandarin orange cultivation is recommended from the late Edo period, and the Prefectural Fruit Tree Experiment Station was established in 1934.The terraced fields are made up of stone walls, and the warm climate, the reflected light from the Yashiro Sea, and the heat reflected from the stone walls make it possible to produce high-quality oranges, making it the largest production area in the prefecture.There were four fruit sorting fields in the area, but they were integrated to improve quality.Dream future orangesIt is shipped as.Brands include "Dream Megumi".
    (Small oranges)
    At the footTamana CityTensui TownThe neighborhood is one of the leading production centers in Kumamoto Prefecture.Natsume Sosekiof"Grass pillow], there is also a description, which is the origin of the branded product "Kusamakura." Also, in Tamana City, etc., it is called "Kouten mikan".
    Triangle mandarin orange
    KumamotoUkiTriangle town(February 2005UkiA brand that is cultivated in large numbers.It is also a special production area for the early-maturing species "Akari of fertilizer" and "Akebono of fertilizer".It is not a Citrus unshiu, but the Kumamoto Fruit Association has a registered trademark.DecoponBut famous.
    Nagasaki
    Annual yield is 5 tons-7 tons. The main production area isSasebo,Isahaya(Former Tarami-cho, former Konagai-cho, former Isahaya-shi, former Takagi-cho),Saikai City(Former Saikai-cho, former Nishi-hemachi),Nagasaki,Omura,Minamishimabara(Former Kita-Arima town, former Ariya town),Nagayo,Kawatana Town, Nagasaki City (formerly Kinkai Town, former Nagasaki City), Togitsu Town, Higashisonogi Town, etc. Main shipping destinations are Kyushu and Kanto. Nagasaki mandarin orange, which has a history of more than 200 years, is one of the special products representing Nagasaki Prefecture.Omura BayIt is widely produced in the prefecture, centering on the coastal area centered around. Nagasaki Prefecture is surrounded by the sea on three sidesTsushima CurrentIt is affected by, and has a mild climate throughout the year, there is light reflected from the sea, and it is very sunny due to the use of slopes.Terraced fieldsAlong with the fact that it is cultivated mainly in rice, an environment suitable for making tangerines is prepared.[18][19].. In addition, the multi-sheet coverage exceeds 50%, and along with Ehime Prefecture, the brand strategy is active.
    A nickname for mandarin oranges located on the western coast of Nishisonogi Peninsula from the southern part of Sasebo City such as Hariojima. The Saikai mandarin oranges are cultivated in the early-season variety called Sasebo Wenzhou, and branded products include "Amiko", "Amimaru" (JA Nagasaki Saikai), "Nagasaki Dream" and "Ajiroman" (JA Nagasaki Seihi). is there. Among them, "Dejima no Hana" is a brand product that guarantees a sugar content of 14 degrees or higher, and is a common brand in Sasebo Wenzhou, but it is cultivated in the Saikai area.[20].
    ・Nagayo Mikan
    Tarami Town, Isahaya City, Nagasaki Prefecture (formerlyTarami Town) Is the main production area for mandarin oranges, and Tarami Town was the largest production area in the prefecture in the old municipalities.In particular, the ones in the Ikiriki area are known, and the ones in the Ikiriki area and the ones in the Sase area have a history of being presented to the imperial family, and have become a luxury brand as Sase oranges.Mandarin orange production is also active in the neighboring Nagayo town, and it has a history of 200 years.There used to be a Nagayo fruit sorting plant in the town, and it was called Nagayo orange, but since it was integrated into the Kotoumi Ikiriki fruit sorting plant in 2011, it will be shipped and sold as Ikiriki oranges outside the prefecture. In some cases.In addition, both Igiryoku and Nagayo are under the jurisdiction of JA Nagasaki Seihi, and there is also a common brand product called "Nagasaki Amahime" by the Nagasaki Central Wholesale Market.
    It is a mandarin orange producing area centered on the Nanko Fruit and Agriculture Cooperative in Minamishimabara City, Nagasaki Prefecture, and the surrounding areas are sometimes called Shimabara mandarin oranges. The feature is that stevia leaves are used for compost (Stevia organic farming is practiced with other fruits such as peaches and melons in some areas), and it produces tangerines with high sugar content. Many house mandarin oranges are cultivated, and it is also the main production area of ​​the prefecture's common brand "Nagasaki Koi mandarin oranges". In addition, the JA brands under the jurisdiction include "Taiko-ban", "Namtaka Confidence", and "Ajinishiki".
    Prefecture
    Omura City and Kawatana Town, which are located in the central part of the prefecture on the east coast of Omura Bay, are also active in mandarin orange cultivation and are under the jurisdiction of JA Nagasaki prefecture. It is blessed with topographical conditions such as the sea surface of Omura Bay and the slopes of the western foot of Mt.
    Mandarin oranges cultivated in the Tsutsu area of ​​Tsushima City, Nagasaki Prefecture. The Mitsuto district is close to the northern limit of the mandarin orange production area and has a fairly high latitude, but the brand's mandarin oranges are cultivated using the warm climate of the Tsushima Current.
    Saga
    Annual yield is around 5 tons. To the main producing areaKaratsu City(Former Hamatama Town, former Karatsu City, former Nanayama Village),Tara Town,Kashima,Saga City(Former Yamato Town),Taku City,小 城市(Old Ogi Town), Genkai Town, Imari City, etc. Orange-belt-producing areas called orange belts are distributed in the east and west of the prefecture. "Saga Bijin" is a luxury brand common to the prefecture. The number of house mandarin oranges is the highest in Japan. Shipment destinations include Kitakyushu and Keihanshin, and the Osaka market has the second highest share of Wakayama products.
    Hamasaki, Tamashima area, Karatsu city, Saga prefecture (formerlyHamatama Town) Is one of the largest producers of mandarin oranges alongside Gamagori City, Aichi Prefecture. The production of mandarin oranges has been active since ancient times, and is shipped to the Keihanshin area between April and September. In addition, the listed area of ​​Karatsu City (formerlyChinsai Town) Produces a mandarin orange (house/open field) with a high sugar content called “Uwaba no Yume”.
    Tara mandarin orange
    Mt. TaradakeMandarin oranges produced in Tara Town at the foot of the mountain.After the war, it dominated the world as one of the largest production areas in Japan, but the production volume dropped sharply due to the social situation after that.In recent years, in the face of the crisis of fruit sorting plant integration, we launched the "Tara Mikan Revitalization Project", and the "Tara Citrus Association", which was launched by a mandarin orange farmer in the same town, disseminates information and serves the local community. And sells Tara mandarin oranges on the Tara mandarin orange mail order site "Taratta".Morita Wenshu (nicknamed tomato orange because of its smooth skin) and clementine (citrus native to Spain) are the characteristics of the production area.[21]
    Kashima
    Kashima City is a large-scale mandarin orange production area at the foot of Mt. Taradake, along with Tara Town. Kashima cityYutoku Inari ShrineIt is a town in front of, and among the “Saga Bijin,” the mandarin oranges with the highest sugar content are selected and branded as “Yutoku Mandarin Oranges”.
    Tenzan Mikan
    Towering in the northern part of the prefectureTianshanA generic term for the production areas distributed at the southern foot of the island. Yamato-cho, Ogi-shi and Taku-shi, Saga are the main cultivation areas. We have individualized in storage mandarin oranges and house mandarin oranges, and the storage brand mandarin orange "Anmitsu Hime" in Yamato-cho, high-sugar high-quality brand "Premium Tenzan" in Ogi city, "Taku city"ConfuciusNo Sato” and so on.

    Main production areas (production areas for which annual statistics are taken)

    Hiroshima
    Annual yields range from 2 to 5000 tons. Until the mid-4s[22], Wakayama prefecture, Ehime prefecture, along with the three major production areas of mandarin oranges[22]After that, I dropped the ranking[22].. At that time, the islands of the Seto Inland Sea in Hiroshima were all orange islands, and when I went by boat to the Seto Inland Sea in late spring and early summer, I was comforted by the scent of orange flowers on the sea breeze.[22]. In 1954Prefectural flowerMandarin oranges were influential when deciding, but they were handed over to Ehime.MapleChose[22].. The main production area isKure(Former Toyohashi, former Toyohama, former Kurahashi, former Kamagari),Osaki Kamijima Town(Former Osaki town, former Kie town, Higashino town),Onomichi(Former Setoda Town, former Mukaijima Town, former Innoshima City, former Onomichi City),Miharaetc.Geiyo IslandsThe production was flourishing in Japan, but there are also mandarin orange producing regions in Mihara and Onomichi. Ships to Hiroshima, Okayama, Hanshin area, etc.
    (Orange mandarin orange)
    A brand production center that represents Hiroshima Prefecture. Daicho is named after the former Daicho village that belonged to Toyohmachi in Kure City (former Toyohmachi).Osaki Shimojima,Teshima(Above Hiroshima prefectureKure),Osaki Uejima(sameOsaki Kamijima Town),Okamurajima(Ehime PrefectureImabariThe mandarin oranges cultivated in )are also shipped as long-term mandarin oranges due to historical reasons. On Osaki Kamijima, there is a "daiseki mason pile" grown in a stone-walled production area.[23]
    Setoda oranges
    Setoda Town (former Setoda Town) in Onomichi City is known for producing domestic lemons and domestic navel, but it is also famous for mandarin orange cultivation. As a Setoda mandarin orange, it has grown to line up with the Ocho mandarin orange in the prefecture, and the highest-end product has the "Setoda five-star" brand.
    (Konemi mandarin orange)
    Cultivated on Takane Island in the former Setoda TownTakane orangesIs called with a logo similar to the brand logo of Takashimaya Department Store, and was shipped to the Kansai and Kanto areas in the old days. Although it is registered as a local group trademark as Takane mandarin orange, it is sometimes sold at Setoda mandarin orange (sometimes noted as Takanejima) because the brand name of Setoda has risen today.
    Ishiji mandarin orange
    Ishiji mandarin orange is a mutant found in the farmland of Kurashi, a farmer in Fushiki Ishiji. With high sugar content and rich taste, it has become a specialty of Kurahashi Island today. There is "Ishiji no Takumi" as a brand product.
    Innoshima
    OnomichiInnoshima(Former Innoshima City) It is also known as a mandarin orange production area and is called Innoshima Mandarin Orange. The area is also known as the birthplace of Hachisaku, and Hachisaku and Benpakusaku are special products.
    Aichi
    Annual yield is 2 tons-3000 tons. To the main producing areaGamagori,Mihama Town,Tokai City,Minamichita Town, Toyokawa City (formerly Mitsu Town), Chita City, Toyohashi City, etc. House mandarin orange cultivation No. 2 in Japan. Ships to Chukyo area, Kanto, etc.
    Gamagori Greenhouse Mandarin orange
    Since Gamagori City, Aichi Prefecture, has abundant hot spring resources, greenhouse cultivation using hot spring water has become popular. Gamagori greenhouse mandarin oranges are brand-name house mandarin oranges that are cultivated and are shipped mainly to the Chukyo and Tokyo metropolitan areas. Registered a regional group trademark as Gamagori Mikan.
    Chita oranges
    Chita PeninsulaThen.Mihama TownAichi Chita citrus shipping association takes the lead in this area. Branded products include "Amamikko", which is a multi-cultivated open-field mandarin orange, "" and "Sawamikko", which are house-grown.
    Tokai City
    In the past, many mandarin orange fields were found along the slopes, and it was one of the leading production areas in the prefecture. On the other hand, tourist farms can be spotted due to their proximity to the Nagoya metropolitan area.
    Fukuoka
    Annual yield is 2 to 3 tons. Chikugo region is the main production area,Miyama CityYame cityIt accounts for more than 6% of the prefecture. To the main producing areaMiyama City(Former Yamakawa Town, former Takada Town),Yame city(Former Tachibana town, former Kuroki town),Omuta City, Buzen city, Koga city, etc. Brands unified by the prefecture include "Honey Mikan," "Mild 130," and "Hakata Mild."
    Miyama City (oldYamakawa Town) Is the most famous brand production area in the prefecture, and Yamakawa mandarin oranges are marketed mainly in Kyushu as luxury products. In addition to high multi-seat coverage, we are also focusing on human resource development such as training sessions for youth groups.
    Tachibana mandarin orange
    Yame cityTachibana TownMandarin oranges made from. Tachibana is a large production area similar to Yamakawa, and there are a lot of stored mandarin oranges and greenhouse mandarin oranges in addition to open-field mandarin oranges, and the largest in Japan.KiwiAlso known as the origin. The branded items include "Hime Tachibana" and "Hana Tachibana."
    Kanagawa
    Annual yield is 2 to 3 tons. The main production area isYugawara town,Odawara city,Minamiashigara city, Nakai Town, Oiso Town, Hadano City etc. As a large-scale production area, it is located in the eastern and northernmost parts of Japan, and orchards are distributed along the Sagami Bay coast, and it is also found inland. There are many tourist farms and direct sales stores.
    Yugawara tangerines
    It's warm and it's also a hot spring areaYugawaraIs a citrus fruit producing and consuming area, so many farmers grow dozens of varieties in one field so that they can be sold all year round.Otsu No. XNUMX-Teacher's giftIs also the place of origin.
    Odawara city
    It is the largest producing area in the prefecture, and high-quality mandarin oranges are produced by the volcanic ash soil of Mt. Fuji. It produces Otsu No. XNUMX, Qingdao Wenzhou, and Shonan Gold developed by the prefecture.
    Odawara cityKatauraTangerines in the district. It used to be a brand production area called ``Western Daicho, East Kataura'', but the production area is about 10% of its peak and the survival of the production area is endangered due to residential landing and aging, etc. The Kataura mandarin orange project is promoting the sixth industrialization.
    Odawara city(I.e.Tangerines in the district. Due to the advanced farm road development, it became a site for the second national citrus competition.Toshihiko ArmizukaTo operateOvernight castleCentered on the storeAgriculture and commerce cooperationIs thriving. Various products such as dressing have been developed to establish the Hayakawa Mikan brand.[24].
    Mie
    Annual yield is around 2 tons. The main production area isMihama Town,Minamiise Town(Former Nansei Town),Kumano City,Taki Town, Kihocho, etc. Branding is being done on a prefecture-by-prefecture basis, and in July, we are shipping the extremely fast-growing seeds by open-field cultivation, ahead of the rest of the country. In addition to market shipments, sales promotion in tourist areas is also active.
    Nanki mandarin orange
    Central and southern Mie prefectures,NankiIt is a common brand of mandarin oranges grown in the region (in Wakayama prefecture, there is no confusion with the name mandarin oranges produced in the region because it is called Kinan mandarin orange, but it is named as Mie Nanki mandarin orange to emphasize that it is produced in Mie prefecture). Branded products include "Margot mandarin oranges" from Gokasho district of Minami Ise-cho, and "Mie no Ichibanboshi" which is a very early species. Also, the whole areaKalamandarinIt is also known as the production center of, and boasts one of the nation's leading production volumes.
    Oita
    Annual yield is 1 tons-3000 tons. To the main producing areaKitsuki,Kunisaki City(Former Aki Town),Hiji Town,Tsukumi,Usa City, Oita city, etc. House mandarin orange cultivation is flourishing, and it is the second largest producing area after Saga and Aichi. The shipment amount in April is the highest in the house mandarin orange market.
    Kitsuki
    The main producing area in the prefecture with the most production. It specializes in the cultivar "Beautiful Musume," which is difficult to grow, and has made it a brand. The production of Dekopon and Angkor is also active.
    Ishakuya mandarin orange
    An old open-field mandarin orange production area located in Saganoseki, Oita City.
    Miyazaki
    Annual yield is 1 tons-1 tons. To the main producing areaMiyazaki City(Former Nango Town, former Miyazaki City),Takaoka Town,Nichinan City,Hyuga CitySuch. Although it is a very early life center, the soil is suitable for mandarin orange cultivation, and because it is warm and has little rainfall, it produces high-quality mandarin oranges with high sugar content, and is one of the earliest producing regions in Japan. It is also known as the birthplace of Nichinan No. 1 which is an excellent early breeding species. Labor saving of mandarin orange The large-scale management organization "Citrus 21" was also started from a farm in Miyazaki. In the case of citrus fruits, Hinata summer production is the highest in Japan.
    Hyottoko mikan
    Mandarin oranges produced and sold in Hyuga City.HyottokoIs associated with the Hyottoko Dance, a traditional performing art that is transmitted to Hyuga City. By peeling the bark of trees and using a unique farming method that takes in a lot of sunlight, you can produce oranges with a high sugar content.
    Kagoshima
    Annual yield is 1 tons-2000 tons. To the main producing areaIzumi City(Formerly Izumi City, former Takaono Town, former Noda Town),Minami Satsuma(Former Kaseda City),Osaki Town, Akune city, etc. It is also famous for Sakurajima small mandarin orange, which is the size of a plastic bottle cap.Amami Oshima,TokunoshimaSuch asAmami archipelagoIs a tropical fruit tree and difficult to grow on the mainlandPonkan,TankanCultivation is thriving. It is an important pest in the Amami IslandsMandarin fruit flyIs infested once every few years, and it is prohibited to bring fruits out of the island in the year of occurrence.[25].
    Sakurajima small mandarin orange
    It is a plastic bottle cap mandarin orange that is cultivated in Sakurajima and Kirishima, and is registered in the Guinness Book of Records as the smallest mandarin orange in the world. It is the main crop of Sakurajima along with Sakurajima daikon, and cultivation was recommended from the early Edo period.
    Yonenotu Mandarin, Harihara Mandarin
    Izumi City.. The average climate of 17 degrees and the red soil were suitable for mandarin orange cultivation, so it became the largest mandarin orange producing area in the prefecture (close to Nagashima Town, which was the origin of Unshu mandarin in Japan). It is called Yonenotsu Mandarin (also called Harihara Mandarin in the Harihara district) from the place name. In addition to mandarin oranges, citrus fruits such as "Hayaka", sweet summer, and ponkan are also special products.
    Kagawa
    Annual yield is 1 tons-1000 tons. To the main producing areaSakaide,Mitoyo(Former Nio town, former Takase town), Takamatsu city,Kanonji(Former Onohara Town),ZentsujiSuch. The mandarin orange called Beni Ohara is well known.
    Sakaide
    A special production area of ​​Beni Ohara. Depending on the sugar content, the brand is sold as "Sanuki Beni" or "Kintoki Mandarin Orange". Also, in the Ogoshi district, it has long been known as a famous production area for mandarin oranges, and it was a branded product called Ogoshi mandarin orange. And so on, revival attempts have begun.
    Soho mandarin orange
    Mitoyo City, located on the west bank of the Shonai PeninsulaNio TownThe Soo district is the prefecture's leading brand production area. It is shipped as a luxury product mainly in the Takamatsu market.
    Tokushima
    The annual yield is around 1 tons, and the effect of the biennial results is small. To the main producing areaKatsuura Town,Tokushima,Anan City,Komatsushima,Sanagawauchi VillageSuch. House mandarin orange cultivation is also active, and the largest number of products from Tokushima prefecture is shipped in the Osaka market.
    Katsuura oranges
    Mandarin oranges produced in Katsuura Town, which is the largest mandarin orange producing area in the prefecture. It is known as a storage mandarin orange that is stored in the earthenware store after harvesting to increase the sugar content before it is shipped. In the whole area, XNUMX Wenzhou, a variety suitable for storage, is cultivated.
    Osaka
    The annual yield is around 1 tons. To the main producing areaIzumi City,Kishiwada,Chihaya Akasaka Village, Sakai City,Kaizuka City, Tomitabayashi, etc. Since it is close to a large consumption area, there are many tourist farms and direct sales places.
    Osaka mandarin orange
    Before the war, Osaka Prefecture was the second largest producer in Japan after Wakayama Prefecture. After the war, although the cultivation area was greatly reduced due to residential landing, urbanization, and competition with other areas, the main production area still exceeds 2 tons.[26] Since it is close to a large consumption area, there are many direct sales shops and tourist farms. We are also focusing on multi-cultivation and organic cultivation.LunchAlso provided toLocal productionIs recommended.
    Yamaguchi
    Annual yield is 8000 to 1 tons. To the main producing areaSuo Oshima Town(Former Tachibana town, former Kuga town, former Oshima town, former Towa town), etc. Also,Hibiki NadaCoastalShimonosekiAnd oldToyoura Town, OldToyohoku Town,Suo NadaCoastalYanai City,Hofu CityThere is also a production area.
    Yamaguchi Oshima mandarin orange
    Yashiro Island(Suo Oshima) is an island of mandarin oranges that produces over 8% of the mandarin oranges produced in the prefecture, and is called Oshima mandarin orange in the prefecture. A special product is a variety called "Natsumi" developed in the prefecture. The island is also famous for its “Mikan Nabe”, which is a pan with grilled mandarin oranges that is cooked together with the ingredients.
    Kochi
    Annual yield is 6000 tons-9000 tons. To the main producing areaKonan City(Former Kagami-cho, former Noichi-cho), etc. House mandarin orange cultivation is flourishing, and it is ranked 4th in Japan.
    Yamakita mandarin orange
    Konan City (oldKagami Town) Is the largest production area in the prefecture and accounts for more than half of the prefecture's harvest. The Yamakita mandarin oranges cultivated in the Yamakita area are branded, and because both open-field and greenhouse cultivation are conducted, mandarin oranges are produced throughout the year.

    The above 19 prefectures are the main producing areas, and the yields are far apart from those below, but Chiba prefecture and Hyogo prefecture also have year-to-year statistics.

    Hyogo
    Annual yield of 2,000 tons or more. To the main producing areaAwaji City(Formerly Ichinomiya Town),Minamiawaji City(Former Nantan Town, former Midori Town),Ako CitySuch. Mandarin oranges are cultivated on Awaji Island, which is called Awaji mandarin orange, and there are many tourist farms as well as a fair for brand development. In addition, mandarin oranges are cultivated in Ako City, etc. in the inland area, but the cultivated area and the yield are smaller than those in the surrounding prefectures.
    Chiba
    Annual yield of 1,000 tons or more. To the main producing areaMinamiboso(Especially oldMiyoshi Village・OldChikura Town), Kamogawa City, Tateyama City. Except for small and medium-sized production areas, it is located at the eastern end of the orange production area and is called Boshu oranges, and there are many tourist farms as well as market shipments. In particular, the former Miyoshi Village is the largest production center in the prefecture where tourist orange gardens gather.

    Other production areas

    The harvest amount is based on the 2014 version of the latest crop survey (fruit tree).

    Gifu
    To the main production areaKaizu(OldNanno Town).Yoro MountainsThe foot of the mountain is a major production area of ​​mandarin oranges, accounting for more than 9% of the prefecture, and the only inland prefecture that produces more than 1000 tons a year, and is known as one of the northernmost production areas. It is called "Nishimi mandarin oranges" or "Nanno mandarin oranges" according to the place name, and it is shipped after storing and increasing the sugar content.[27] It should be noted that the highest yields are obtained excluding the main producing areas for which annual statistics are taken.
    Okayama
    Annual yield of 1,000 tons or more. To the main producing areaSetouchi City(Formerly Oku Town),Tamano-shi,BizenSuch. Although it is located in the Seto Inland Sea and is blessed with climatic conditions, it is a small-scale production area due to the wide plains and few slopes on the coast. Setouchi CityOku TownKuroiyama is the main production area in the prefecture, and there is a production association.
    Nara
    Annual yield is around 500 tons. To the main production areaSakurai,Asuka Village.. It is a landlocked prefecture, but since mandarin oranges were planted in the Meiji era, continuous cotton and mandarin orange cultivation have been continued in the Anaji area of ​​Sakurai City. Because it is close to a residential area, it is mainly a tourist farm.
    Okinawa
    Annual yield is around 500 tons. To the main production areaNago,Kunigami Village,Motobu TownSuch. Once it’s an endemic species,Curvy-Seeker-KunomboWas cultivated and became a specialty product, but in 1919Mandarin fruit flyFruit production was regulated to prevent the invasion of the mainland, and the production volume dropped sharply. In 1982,Mandarin fruit flyWas successfully removed. After that, the fruits could be shipped to the mainland, and it became a production area for early mandarin oranges and tankans. However, pests such as orange thrips are easily generated, and the yield is greatly reduced as a production area.
    Kyoto
    Annual yield is around 400 tons.Maizuru City, Miyazu City, Ide Town, etc. are the main production areas.As will be described later, the Oura district of Maizuru City and the Yura district of Miyazu City in the Tango region have a long history of producing oranges, and are one of the northernmost production areas in Japan.On the other hand, the Yamashiro region is not so popular in cultivation, and tourist farms are scattered in the Taga district of Ide Town (called the Taga Fruit Line).

    Below, Ibaraki and Saitama prefectures have more than 100 tons annually, Fukui prefecture and Tokyo have more than 80 tons annually, Shimane prefecture has more than 50 tons annually, Gunma prefecture and Niigata prefecture have more than 20 tons annually, and the prefectures that have harvested records. As Tochigi Prefecture, Ishikawa Prefecture, Shiga Prefecture are described as (details are explained in the next section).

    Northern limit production area

    As mentioned above, Gifu Prefecture'sYoro MountainsAt the foot of the mountain or in Chiba PrefectureBoso PeninsulaIt is in the vicinity. However, there are other small-scale production areas scattered around, and each is called the northern limit production area. Due to advances in cultivation techniques, breed improvement, and changes in climatic conditions, the northern limit production areas tend to move northward year by year.

    East Japan Inland Mikan Production Center
    In general,Mt. TsukubasanThe foot of the mountain was called the orange production center of the northern limit. Ibaraki PrefectureSakuragawaMakabe TownSakayoro district (Sakeyori mikan)IshiokaYasato TownThe annual harvest of the surrounding area is over 100t. This area is famousseven spice blendCan also be the raw material ofLeatherKnown for its originFukurai(BlistersMandarin orange (strictly speakingTachibanaHas a history of being cultivated[28].. After the modern age,HikiMandarin orange production areas have spread to rural areas, and mandarin oranges have been produced using the climate of the basin. An example of a specific production area is the largest production area in the area.Yorii TownFuse/Kobayashi area[29](The annual harvest is about several tens of tons, but it is the northern limit as a production area for agricultural production such as market shipment),Tokigawa TownDaisuke district (known for Fuku mandarin, a unique variety called Fukurai mandarin)HigashichichibuThere is Ouchizawa mandarin orange. Others, TokyoMusashimurayama-shiIs also known as Sayama mandarin orange, which has been cultivated for a long time in one of the production limits called the northern limit. Later, with the development of cultivation techniques and improvement of varieties, mandarin oranges were also grown for tourism purposes in the northern Kanto region. Tochigi PrefectureNasu KarasuyamaA tourist farm has appeared in the Ogisu district since the 1980s, and it is being advertised as a mandarin orange producing area in the northern limit.[30][31].. Gunma Prefecture in 1995FujiokaOnishiIn Mt. Sakurayama Park, a mandarin orange production center was established (a mandarin orange production center located in the most inland area in Japan). Also, Ibaraki Prefecture, although not as much as Fujioka and KarasuyamaHitachi CityToo TownThere is also a tourist orange garden.At higher latitudes, Fukushima Prefecture in 1985Hirono TownDistributes mandarin orange saplings to the townspeople and cultivates the mandarin oranges (however, because the townspeople do not market for recreational purposes, there is no harvest record so far).
    On the other hand, there are few mandarin orange producing regions in the inland areas other than the Kanto region.Ide TownTagaIt's about the district.
    Mandarin orange production area on the Sea of ​​Japan side of Honshu
    HonshuSea of ​​JapanOn the side, mandarin orange production areas have been scattered since ancient times. In Yamaguchi Prefecture, many mandarin orange producing areas such as Shimonoseki, Toyoura, and Hagi are still seen, but since it becomes extremely cold in winter north of Shimane Prefecture, production areas are limited. Among them, KyotoMaizuru OfOura PeninsulaLocated in Sezaki, Otanyu area, Kyoto PrefectureMiyazu CityThe Yura area is the largest production area on the Sea of ​​Japan side of Honshu, and since ancient times the temperature difference has been large and high quality mandarin oranges have been produced. The cultivation area is 10 ha or more, and the annual yield is 100 t or more, which is the northernmost middle-scale production area in Japan.[32], Called Yura mandarin orange. Also, in Fukui prefectureEchizen coastThe mandarin orange production area develops. Fukui prefectureTsurugaHigashiura district is also known as one of the northern production areas and is called Higashiura Mandarin Orange.[33] Here you can not only cultivate conventional fast-growing and common varieties, but also once shipped to the Hanshin region,RussiaThere was also a scale that was also exported to (currently about 30-50t annual harvest, rarely marketed). Fukui prefecture extending to the northFukui CityKoshikou Village,Echizen TownTourist farms are scattered around. Shimane PrefectureMatsueMihonosekiMihoseki mandarin oranges also have a revival momentum,Miho ShrineThe name is "Ebisumikan" and it is publicized after the dedication. In the islands, there are soybean mandarin oranges in the soybean soup area in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture and Saki mandarin oranges in Oki Island. The Tsushima area in Tsushima has a low share of the prefecture (because Nagasaki is one of the leading production centers in Japan), but the branding process is also in progress. ShimaneOki Islandsに 位置 す るAmamachiThere is a production area called Saki Mikan (higher latitude than Higashiura. Annual yield is about 10 tons), and a rehabilitation project by young people in I-turn is underway. AndSado Island OfHamoIn the area, mandarin oranges have been planted for private use since the Meiji era. Niigata Prefecture in December 2007Sado IslandFarmersEarly speciesAbout 1 ton including "" was shipped and became a hot topic. It later grew as a production area, the number of cultivated farmers is about 20 people, the cultivation area is 3 ha, and processed products such as jam called Sado mikan are also made (this is the tentative northernmost production area in Japan. However, there is little snowfall on the southern coast of Sado, and the climate is milder than Tango and northern Kanto).

    Nutritional value

    In the fleshProvitamin AIs a type of compoundβ-cryptoxanthinIs contained in a much higher amount than other citrus fruits. It is reported that this has a strong carcinogenic effect on fruit tree research station (currently Fruit Tree Research Institute).Kyoto Prefectural University of MedicineHas been attracting attention in recent years.[36].[Source invalid]

    It is an orange pigmentβ-cryptoxanthinSuch asCarotenoid ThefatBecause of this, the skin turns yellow when a large amount of mandarin orange is eaten. thisCitrusThat. The symptoms of citrus are temporary and have no adverse health effects. Othercitric acid,Dietary fiberMany are included. On the white streaksHesperidinIt is said to be effective against arteriosclerosis and cholesterolemia[37].

    Use

    edible

    The deliciousness of mandarin orange depends on the amount and balance of sugar and acid contained and the thinness of the holo.sugar contentHigh is important, but the amount of acid is a decisive factor for taste as well.

    It is often eaten raw, and the individuality is divided between those who eat the entire endothelium (Human sac) and those who do not.In addition, there are various methods of peeling, such as peeling from the navel, peeling from the navel, and cutting with a knife.

    otherHokuriku region,Tohoku region,Kyushu regionDepending on the area, there are places called fried mandarin oranges that are baked and eaten. Freeze it againFrozen tangerinesVarious kinds of processed products are also made according to the purpose, such as making it into a bath or eating it in a bath. About 2% of the total mandarin orange production is processed into juice and canned food.

    canning
    Eat it as it is or use it as a topping for cakes.
    Juice (especially cheap concentrated reconstituted juice is often produced in China)
    In addition to drinking, it is also used as a cream and other ingredients.
    Sugar confectionery
    Mainly uses the skin part. Well-rinsed hull, cut into pieces, stir-fried to remove water, and sprinkle with sugarConfectionery.

    As a diet food

    Included as dietary fiberPectinIn addition to the intestinal function,digestive enzymeone ofPancreasLipaseIt is said to have the effect of inhibiting the action of. By ingesting this before meal, absorption of fat contained in food can be suppressed. Also for synephrineβ3 adrenergic receptorIt has the effect of promoting lipolysis and heat production, and is highly effective in reducing body fat. It is abundant in unripe blue fruits.

    However, the properties of these mandarin oranges are excellent.dietIt does not have an effect.Extracted synephrine from mandarin oranges and sang a diet effectSupplementIs also commercially available, but synephrine and stimulants (caffeine,CatechinEtc.) have also been pointed out as dangerous when ingested at the same time.[38].

    In addition, the TV program "Excavation! A Certain Encyclopedia II』October 2006, 10 broadcast of mandarin orangesBlood glucose levelA graph showing the inhibitory effect was presented, but it was later reported that this graph had been tampered with.[39].

    Medicinal

    On the skinEssential oil, The essential oil component is mainlyLimonene90%[6]. In addition, as an ingredientHesperidin[40],Rutin[41] な どFlavoneContains glycosides. Hesperidin isCapillariesIs known to restore fragile capillaries,Antibacterial,Diuretic,AntihistamineThere are also actions such as[6]. Therefore,High blood pressurePrevention of nephritis,hivesHelp preventHerbal medicineIs also a type of[6].

    Chinese medicineNow, let’s say the ripe one with the skin dried in the shadeLeatherUse as "Chinpi"[Annotation 1]. Chen skin means that you should use a product that is more than one year old, that is, "old skin".[6]. Chen skin is Chinese medicineHealthy stomach,Diuretic,AntitussiveIn addition to being dispensed in prescriptions for the purpose of vomiting, etc.[6],seven spice blendAlso used as a material. It is also used in large quantities as a pharmaceutical raw material.[6]. In the Chinese traditional medicine "Chinese medicine," mandarin oranges are classified as foods that cool the body, and are therefore recognized as foods that should not be eaten when a cold is caught. Also,Essential oil TheAromatherapyIt may also be used for.

    Folk remediesThen, when you have some fever as the initial symptoms of a cold, daily skin peel 1-10G600 ccBoiled liquid (aqueous extract) boiled down on low heat untilhoneySweeten it or grate itGingerIt is known to mix and drink with 3 times between meals[6]. Overeating, poor appetite,nausea,VomitingIn addition, it is said that 1-2 grams of daily dose may be infused with 3 cc of water and taken.[42]. Used as an easy-to-use gastrointestinal drug, but taken if there is a fever in the gastrointestinal tractTabooIt is assumed[42].Stiff shoulder,Low back pain,Neuralgia,ChillsTo improve the, put the leather in a cloth bag and float in the bath,Bath chargesMay be used for[6].

    Industrial

    On the grains of the pericarp called oil vesiclesLimoneneIncluding the component,Synthetic resinIt is drawing attention as a solvent that dissolves. Also,Orange oilAnd limonene are also used in detergents.

    Play with mandarin oranges

    Mandarin orange juiceIt's starting to burnCan be used for.Especially in winter, it's easy to get,New year's cardIt may also be used for.Also,CandleThere is also a play where you can bend the mandarin orange peel toward the flame and enjoy changing the color of the flame with the flying oil.

    Mandarin oranges are easy to peel and peel off quickly, and the peeled skins come in various shapes, so you can make animals and other shapes by cutting them into intentional shapes.A typical one is the "8-legged octopus".

    A story about mandarins

    Wakayama Prefecture and Mikan

    • Mandarin oranges have been cultivated in Wakayama prefecture for a long time.Therefore, there are processed products and characters with orange motifs.
    • In the mikan brand in Wakayama PrefectureArita mandarin orangeIs famous nationwide, but in the prefecture "Join juiceThe name is also known as "" (since there are no commercials outside the Kinki region, people outside the Kinki area do not know). This is a JA Wakayama Prefectural product,Agricultural cooperativeIt is sold at.
    • In Wakayama Prefecture,"Orthodox Wakayama Stripping"(Or"Arita stripping"There is a method of peeling oranges called ). The procedure is as follows.
      1. Rub the mandarin oranges several to dozens of times
      2. Put your finger on the one without slack and split it into two or three
      3. If you split it in two, split it in four

    Ehime Prefecture and Mikan

    • Ehime Prefecture has long been proud of its position as a major mandarin orange producing area, and mandarin oranges and their processed products appear in various scenes.The flowers of the prefecture are mandarin oranges, and the flag of the prefecture is mandarin oranges.
    • We are also actively using it as a character,Mikyan, SoccerEhime FCThe character has a motif of oranges, and the symbol color of the uniform is orange. Also,Shikoku Island League plus OfEhime Mandarin Pirates,Japan Professional Basketball League OfEhime Orange VikingsIs also the same.
    • About Ehime and MikanjokeThe most famous is "in EhimeShekouTwistPon juiceComes out.” Pon juice manufacturerEhime beverageThen, using this as the opposite hand, we will carry out the "Rumor Pon Juice Faucet Gift Campaign", direct sales office in Imabari City andMatsuyama AirportHas installed a "Pon juice outlet faucet" for a limited time. Due to the popularity of these, on the third Sunday of every month from June 2008 to March 6.Matsuyama AirportIt is installed in the terminal building and is installed intermittently thereafter.[43].
    • In some areas of Ehime prefecture, school lunch is called "Akebonomeshi". The cooking method is the same as ordinary cooked rice, but instead of dashi, add pon juice and cook.
    • Speaking of Ehime's mandarin orange juice, the aforementioned pon juice is famous, but other farmers also bottled it separately.MutenkaWas introduced in magazines and TV, and became a popular item for mail order.
    • In Ehime Prefecture, we carry out a mandarin orange (for citrus in general) PR campaign using "" every year. It is selected every year by the open call for participants and promotes Ehime mandarin oranges all over the country. This campaign has been ongoing since 1959.

    Shizuoka Prefecture and mandarins

    • The origin of mandarin oranges dates back to before the Nara period, but for raw consumption, it was from Kishu when Ieyasu Tokugawa retired to Sunpu Castle in the early Edo period.Kishu mandarin orangeIt is said that this tree planted by Ieyasu was originated. It still remains in Sunpu Castle Park as "Ieyasu's own mandarin orange tree".
    • Aoshima mandarin orange, one of the most widely cultivated Wenshu mandarin oranges in Shizuoka prefecture, was created by Heiju Aoshima of Shizuoka city in the early Showa period when he discovered and grew a branch in his own mandarin orange field. It is slightly larger than the one in shape and has a slightly flat shape with a rich flavor. Hamamatsu cityMikkabi TownThe thing is "Mikkabi mikanIs famous as
    • There are many companies and organizations that use orange as their symbol color.
    Typical example

    Matters related to oranges in other regions

    • In the United States, Wenzhou mandarin oranges are called "Satsuma Mandarin", and in 1878FloridaWas transferred to. Large-scale cultivation is carried out in the warm southern part,AlabamaIsSatsumaThere is a town named.
    • United Kingdom,CanadaThen, at the end of the year and the beginning of the year, instead of orange, which is hard to peel off, eating oranges and spending time with the family is a traditional home scene that has been going on for over 100 years.Therefore, mandarin oranges are called Christmas oranges.[44].

    character

    Mikan and song

    • The most famous song related to mandarin orangesTangerine blooming hillWas born in 1946, just after the end of the war. Although it was a song that was made in a hurry,Nursery rhymeHas been sung to the present. The stage of the song is ShizuokaIto.
    • In 1996Heavy metalOf the bandSEX MACHINEGUNSHowever, the feeling for Ehime mandarin orangeSong of tangerines
    • In 2006GTPThe single "Frozen tangerinesWas a hit mainly in Shizuoka prefecture, and the sales of frozen mandarin oranges increased rapidly in conjunction with this.
    • Folk duo that has been active since the 1970s,That one"Mikan no Kokoroboshi" (September 10, 1980) was released as the tenth single of the song and it became a hit. PART9 was also released later.
    • Of singer-songwriter in 2001Fukuyama MasaharuBut"Tangerine summer vacation] Has been announced. The coast of Omura Bay, where Nagasaki mandarin oranges are produced, is the stage of the music.

    Other

    • Representative of JapanfruitAnd in winter, "KotatsuThe scene of "mandarin oranges on top" is often seen in ordinary households.
    • In rakugo, we ask for a mandarin orange that is out of season in midsummer.Thousand ryokan』There is a program.
    • Since it is perishable and shipped in a box, if there is even one rotten orange, the other oranges will also spoil.This situation is sometimes used as a metaphor.Drama"3rd Year Class B Kinpachi-sensei』The parable was used.rotten appleSee also
    • "Sangokushi performance』Turns around KojiCao CaoZuo CiThe anecdote is written.Yokoyama MitsuteruCartoon ofThree Kingdoms], This is referred to as "Wenshu mandarin", but to be exact, it is a citrus from Wenshu, not an unshu mikan.
    • The language of flowers is "Purity of bride, pureness"

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ In Japan, Unshu mandarin is used, but in China (Chinese name: Hiroshi Hideki, scientific name:Citrus tangerina) Etc. are used for medicinal purposes[42].

    Source

    1. ^ Koji Yonekura and Tadashi Kajita (2003-). “Citrus unshiu (Swingle) Marcow.”(Japanese). BG Plants Japanese name-scientific name index (YList). 2020/6/8Browse.
    2. ^ a b c Special feature 1 Mandarin orange (1)"Aff" January 2017 issue (Ministry of Agriculture) Read January 2021, 12
    3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Tangerine history walk Small mandarin orange and Satsuma mandarin orange (pdf) ”. Tips for agriculture, forestry and marine productsEhime Prefectural Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Institute. 2020/2/2Browse.
    4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hiroko Toyota, Chiaki Koguchi, Daio Ito and othersPrevalence of Wenshu tangerines in Japan during the Meiji era and changes in taste from traditional small tangerines"Historical Geography Field Study" Volume 18,University of TsukubaHistorical Geography Laboratory, Department of History and Anthropology, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2018, pp. 21-84, ISSN 0915 – 2504,2020/4/17Browse.
    5. ^ a b "Why was the scene of "Kotatsu mandarin orange" born? The rise and fall of winter traditions, even in the times when it was once avoided by superstition". Narumi Sato. p. 3 (September 2019, 2). As of September 1, 2019originalMore archives.2021/6/30Browse.
    6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Koji Tanaka 1995, p. 160.
    7. ^ Tokuro Shimizu, Nobu Kitajima, Keisuke Nonaka, Terutaka Yoshioka, Satoshi Ota, Shingo Goto, Atsushi Toyoda, Akisao Fujiyama, Takako Mochizuki, Hideki Nagasaki, Eri Kanuma, Yasushi Nakamura "Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes.PLOS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 11, Public Library of Science, November 2016, ISSN 1932 – 6203, NOT 120005947172.
    8. ^ "Tangerine history walk Citrus (pdf) ”. Tips for agriculture, forestry and marine productsEhime Prefectural Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Institute. 2020/2/2Browse.
    9. ^ Parental diagnosis of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Revealed by nuclear and cytoplasmic markers Breeding Science (2016) doi: 10.1270 / jsbbs.16060
    10. ^ Takahiro Inakuma "Consider Japanese citrus fruits and juice"Journal of the Japan Society for Food Science and Technology," 2013, Vol. 60, No. 10, pp.601-602, two:10.3136 / nskkk.60.601
    11. ^ "New technology for controlling pear scale insects Kumamoto Prefecture Effective method even at low temperatures""Japan Agricultural Newspaper』November 2021, 11 17 pages, viewed December 14, 2021.
    12. ^ "San Jose scale". Citrus pest pictorial book. Research Promotion Office, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries General Affairs Division, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Department, Wakayama Prefecture (September 2021, 9). 2021/12/30Browse.
    13. ^ "Mandarin production 76 tons Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 21-year production forecast tends to decrease due to aging" "Japan Agricultural Newspaper』April 2021, 6 8 pages
    14. ^ 10) The origin of mandarin oranges in Oita Prefecture, the history of citrus fruits in Tsukumi, and the original tree of small mandarin oranges. Outbreak of Aoe early life Arita mandarin orange database
    15. ^ Atsushi Kawakubo "Development of house mandarin orange cultivation and its significance."Human Geography," Vol. 51, No. 2, The Human Geographical Society, April 1999, pp. 4-117, two:10.4200 / jjhg1948.51.117,2020/4/16Browse.
    16. ^ "Mandarin oranges (Citrus unshiu, mandarin oranges) Producing area (prefectures)". Japan cropsAppros. 2021/9/12Browse.
    17. ^ JA Nagamine brewed oranges
    18. ^ ""Nagasaki mandarin oranges"”. Nagasaki Prefecture. As of May 2013, 7originalMore archives.2013/6/18Browse.
    19. ^ "Visit record of domestic fruit production "Nagasaki mandarin orange"”. Snow Brand Megmilk. As of January 2014, 1originalMore archives.2013/6/18Browse.
    20. ^ "Nagasaki mandarin orange brand "Dejima no Hana"”. Nagasaki Prefecture Agriculture and Forestry Department. As of September 2013, 9originalMore archives.2013/6/14Browse.
    21. ^ Current situation surrounding "Taramikan"
    22. ^ a b c d e Jitsuo Tabuchi "Taste of Hometown << Hiroshima Prefecture >> Excessive Delicious Food" "Weekly Yomiuri』April 1965, 8 issue,Yomiuri Shimbun, P. 4849.
    23. ^ Hiroshima Culture Encyclopedia
    24. ^ Thinned mandarin orange dressing
    25. ^ Amami Oshima is prohibited to move all over the tanker etc.
    26. ^ Osaka / Naniwa special product Osaka mandarin orange
    27. ^ Ogaki region portal site Nishi Mino Nanno oranges
    28. ^ Sakuragawa City Tourism Association Fukurai Tangerines
    29. ^ Yorii Town Tourism Association Yorifufu/Mt. Kobayashi
    30. ^ "Enjoying the scenery Northern mandarin orange cultivation”. NOSAI Tochigi (January 2006). As of January 1, 2009originalMore archives.2008/1/4Browse.
    31. ^ Tourist orange garden Nasu Karasuyama City Commerce and Industry Tourism Division
    32. ^ Oura mandarin orange hunting returns for the first time in about 20 years "Fururu Farm" project, 6 farms in Sezaki cooperate [Maizuru]
    33. ^ Chunichi Shimbun [Fukui] Higashiura Mikan Tourist Farm Open Tsuruga
    34. ^ Ministry of education "Japanese Food Standard Ingredient Table 2015 Edition (XNUMXth Edition)"
    35. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare "Japanese dietary intake standards (2015 version)'
    36. ^ Keiko Iwami "Preventive effect of citrus flavonoids on osteoporosisNational Institute of Health and Nutrition, 2004
    37. ^ Fruit Tree Experiment StationCitrus fruit as a cancer preventive food[Broken link]Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1998
    38. ^ Kazuhiro Kubo, Mamoru Saito "About Citrus AurantiumNational Institute of Health and Nutrition, 2002
    39. ^ "Report In response to a report of the Investigation Committee by an outside expert (PDF) "(Kansai TV broadcasting, 2007) pp. 21-22
    40. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, ed (2011). “Chinpi”. Japanese Pharmacopoeia (1550th revision ed.). pp. 1551-XNUMX
    41. ^ Recent research achievements Medicinal plants in East Asia (including Chinese herbs and crude drugs) (PDF) -Kinki University Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
    42. ^ a b c Yoshitaka Kaizu 1995, p. 69.
    43. ^ About "Pon Juice Faucet" tasting event at Matsuyama Airport (PDF) -Matsuyama Airport Utilization Promotion Council
    44. ^ "Christmas Orange" spreads from Ehime to Canada and spreads around the world

    References

    • Yoshitaka Kaizuma "Japanese herbs"Shogakukan<Shogakukan Field Guide Series>, July 1995, 7, p.20.ISBN 4-09-208016-6. 
    • Koji Tanaka "Medicinal herb health method that shows the effect and usage at a glance"Kodansha<Best Life>, February 1995, 2, p. 15.ISBN 4-06-195372-9. 

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