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📢 | Dispatched company introduction site "Dispatched company registration navigation" Cumulative number of visitors exceeded 33!Cumulative total to dispatch companies via the site ...


Photo dispatch company registration navigation PC version

The cumulative number of visitors to the dispatching company introduction site "Dispatching Company Registration Navi" has exceeded 33!Cumulative total to dispatch companies via the site ...

 
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In addition, we incorporate interviews with active dispatched employees as much as possible so that we can understand the atmosphere of the dispatching company and the advantages and disadvantages that registrants think.
 

Cielo azul Co., Ltd. (Headquarters: XNUMX-XNUMX-XNUMX Watanabedori, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka City Minami Tenjin Bi ... → Continue reading

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Worker dispatch business

Worker dispatch business(Roudousha is Kenjigyo,English: Temporary employment agency services[2]) IsJob placement businessone of[3]..In the classification of employmentTemporary employmentClassified as Temporary workers[4].Temporary staffing(Jinzai Haken),Worker dispatchIt is also called (Roudoshahaken).

Become a dispatch sourceTemporary staffing company(English: Temporary work agency[4])WorkerIs an employment form in which dispatched labor is provided to the business establishment that is the dispatch destination (business partner) and under the direction and order of the dispatch destination person in charge.[5]..Workers who work in this form of employmentTemporary workerCalled (Hakenrou Dosha)ColloquialismThen.For shortsimply"DispatchIt is also called ".

International Labor Treaty

International Labor TreatyIn No. 181, the worker dispatching business is permitted or notified, and it is regulated to give public protection.Japan has ratified this.

Article 1 For the purposes of this Convention, a "private vocational intermediary establishment" is a natural person or legal entity independent of a public institution that provides one or more of the following services in the labor market. ..

(b) Employ workers for the purpose of allocating work to workers and making them available to third parties (hereinafter referred to as "user companies") who are natural persons or corporations who supervise the performance of the work. Service consisting of

Article XNUMX Member States shall, in accordance with national law and practice, provide sufficient protection to workers employed at private employment intermediary establishments as provided in Article XNUMX (b) for the following matters: Take necessary measures to secure it.

 (a) Freedom of association
 (B) Collective bargaining
 (C) minimum wage
 (D) working timeOther working conditions
 (e) Legal社会 保障Payment
 (f) Opportunity to receive training
 (g) Occupational safety and health
 (h) Compensation in case of occupational accident or illness
 (i) Compensation and protection of worker claims in case of insolvency
 (j) Maternity protection and maternity benefits and protection and benefits for being a parent

Article XNUMX Member States shall, in accordance with domestic law and practice, determine the respective responsibilities of private vocational intermediary establishments and user companies that provide the services prescribed in Article XNUMX (b) with respect to the following matters. And assign.

 (a) Collective bargaining
 (b) Minimum wage
 (c) Working hours and other working conditions
 (d) Legal social security benefits
 (e) Opportunity to receive training
 (f) Protection in the field of occupational safety and health
 (g) Compensation in case of occupational accident or illness
 (h) Compensation and protection of worker claims in case of insolvency
 (i) Maternity protection and maternity benefits and protection and benefits for being a parent
—  1997 Private Employment Brokers Convention (No. 181)

System of each country

Percentage of temporary employment agent contracts among all employees in each country (2019)[6]
CountryRatio (%)
エストニア0.01
Greece0.19
Norway0.25
Hungary0.27
Poland0.52
Denmark0.57
Italy0.80
米 国0.90
Switzerland0.97
英国0.97
Czech Republic1.04
Sweden1.14
ラトビア1.18
Portugal1.48
Finland1.65
リトアニア1.98
Austrey2.00
Germany2.06
Belgium2.07
Ireland2.37
France2.73
Netherlands3.28
Spain3.45
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu4.07
スロベニア4.08

America

In the United States, where the development of labor legislation is limited, there is no law that regulates the dispatch of workers, and there are only restrictions on the accumulation of past precedents and, in some states, the notification of dispatchers and the upper limit of fees.Since there is no individual law, the focus of the discussion is on the comprehensive system and how to operate it.

Companies use dispatched labor as temporary or temporary employment, but in general, if the job performance is good after a certain period of time, the dispatched company will hire them as their own workers from the beginning. In many cases, it is stipulated in a contract, and as a result, it functions as a dispatch to be introduced in Japan (such a worker dispatch contract is called Temporary to Hire).

Since there are few regulations, it is possible to design a free and flexible worker dispatching business, and in fact many dispatching companies provide a variety of services from professionals such as professionals to unskilled labor, contributing to the smoothing of the labor market. doing.On the other hand, the wage gap with regular employees and the problem of uninsured people with medical insurance are serious.[7].

European Union

European UnionIn Article 5 of the Dispatched Labor Directive, as the "principle of equal treatment"Equal pay for equal workIs obligatory.

Article.5.1. The basic working and employment conditions of temporary agency workers shall be, for the duration of their assignment at a user undertaking, at least those that would apply if they had been recruited directly by that undertaking to occupy the same job.

The basic labor and employment conditions of a dispatched worker must be applicable at least during the dispatch period of the user business, if the business is directly hired to take on the same job.

— Temporary Agency Work Directive 2008/104 / EC

Denmark

DenmarkSo, there is no limit to the maximum contract period with a dispatch agent[8]..Agents do not require approval or reporting to regulators, but equal wages and working conditions with regular workers[8].

Germany

GermanyThe maximum contract period with a dispatch agent is 18 months, but there is no upper limit on the number of contract renewals.[9]..Agents must be licensed by the Ministry of Labor and have a reporting obligation[9].

Chugoku

It is regulated by the enforcement of the "Labor Contract Law" (promulgated on June 2007, 6).As in Japan, worker dispatch is usually restricted to temporary, auxiliary or alternative workplaces, and double or exclusive dispatch is explicitly prohibited.Furthermore, the "Temporary Labor Dispatch Regulations" that came into effect on March 29, 2014 tightened regulations on the labor dispatch business and limited the ratio of dispatched workers to within 3% of all employees.

Japan

in JapanAct on Ensuring Proper Operation of Worker Dispatching Business and Protecting Dispatched Workers(Worker dispatch law, Hereinafter abbreviated as "dispatch method").Article 2 of the Dispatch Law defines worker dispatch as follows:[10].

It means to have a worker employed by oneself engage in work for the other person under the employment relationship and under the command and order of the other person, and employ the worker for the other person. It shall not include what is promised to be done. — Article 2 of the Act on Ensuring the Proper Operation of Worker Dispatching Business and Protecting Dispatched Workers

Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareIn the operation of the provisions of the Temporary Staffing Law pertaining to the worker dispatching business,Effective use of that ability throughout the entire professional lifeAnd employment practices recognized as contributing to the stability of their employmentIn principle, temporary employment is temporary and temporary.In addition to considering the idea, the supply and demand of the labor force can be adjusted by the worker dispatching business.Employment Security ActCare must be taken to ensure that the work is done in harmony with other labor force supply and demand adjustment systems set forth in (Article 25 of the Temporary Staffing Act).

Difference from business contract

According to the dispatch law, the worker dispatch contract is a conventional businessContractAgreementWas to be clearly distinguished from[10]That.

In business contracting, a contract worker provides labor based on a contract contract concluded between the company with which he / she has an employment relationship (= contractor) and the ordering company.Therefore, it is defined that the command and command authority of workers lies not with the ordering company but with the contractor.[10].

On the other hand, in worker dispatching, the dispatching company and the dispatched company conclude a dispatch contract, the dispatching company and the dispatched worker enter into an employment relationship, and the dispatched company and the dispatched worker enter into a usage relationship, so to speak, a triangle. In the relationship of[10]..Therefore, the command and command authority of workers is granted to the company to which they are dispatched.[10].

Classification of dispatch business

Number of dispatched workers (as of June 2018)[12]
General dispatch business(Old) Specified dispatching company
Indefinite employment dispatch31.1 million people7.9 million people
Fixed-term employment dispatch92.5 million people2.1 million people
Business formatPermit system
Number of establishments29,667 establishments40,703 establishments

Specified worker dispatch business (abolished on September 2018, 9)

Workers who are always employed by the dispatching agency (own company)Regular employmentEmployee・ Regular dispatch) is dispatched to other companies.notificationSystem (Article 16 of the Dispatch Law, so-called "Article 16 Dispatch").

Compared to general worker dispatching companies, the range of companies and occupations that can be dispatched is narrow, but engineers (mainly computers, IT, etc.) are assigned to specific business establishments.electronics-machineContractors (mainly related to system design) that dispatchア ウ ト ソ ー シ ン グThere are many (called traders).

Article 2015 was deleted due to the revision of the law in 27, and all worker dispatching businessesPermit systemIt was integrated into the worker dispatching business of.Due to transitional measures, businesses that are engaged in the specified worker dispatching business as of September 9, 30 can continue to operate the specified worker dispatching business until September 2018, 30 (Heisei 9). After September 29, 2015, new notifications will not be accepted, and even if the office has been opened by then, change notifications related to the new establishment will not be accepted.

General worker dispatch business (worker dispatch business)

Workers who are not always employed by the dispatching agency (own company)Non-regular employmentEmployee・ Registration type dispatch) is dispatched to other companies.By Minister of Health, Labor and WelfareAuthorizationsystem..TemporaryDay laborDispatch also falls under this category.If the permission of the general worker dispatching business is obtained, the specific worker dispatching business described in the preceding paragraph is also possible.Due to the 27 revision, it has been unified into a permit system regardless of whether or not it is always employed.If you were in the general worker dispatching business before the revision, you can continue to run the worker dispatching business with the permission.

Generally speaking, a "temporary agency" is widely known as a business operator of this type.

The worker dispatching business after the revision in 27 must meet all of the following requirements in order to obtain a permit.The permit is valid for 3 years for new and 5 years after renewal.

  • It is not intended to provide the service of dispatching workers exclusively to a specific person.
  • Must meet the following criteria as having sufficient ability to properly manage employment of dispatched workers
    • Of dispatched workersCareer development support systemTo have
    • After the labor contract ends, materials that manage information such as education and trainingStored for 3 yearsDoing things
    • Permanent employment dispatched workersThere is no provision that you can dismiss only because of the termination of the worker dispatch contractthing.In addition, there is no provision that fixed-term employment dispatched workers can be dismissed only because the worker dispatching contract is terminated for dispatched workers whose labor contract remains at the end of the worker dispatching contract.
    • If a dispatched worker whose worker dispatch contract has ended within the labor contract period is closed due to reasons attributable to the employer, such as not being able to find the next dispatch destination,(I.e.(Labor Standards ActArticle 26) There is a provision to pay
    • For dispatched workersSafety and health education(Industrial Safety and Health ActEstablishing an implementation system for Article 59)
    • Being an act aimed at avoiding the obligation of employment stabilization measures, and not being instructed by the prefectural labor bureau and not correcting it
  • personal informationThe necessary measures have been taken to properly manage the work and keep the secrets of dispatched workers, etc.
  • Must have sufficient ability to carry out the business properly
    • The area of ​​the office is approximately 20 square meters or more
    • The amount obtained by deducting the total amount of liabilities from the total amount of assets (standard asset amount) must be "2,000 million yen x number of establishments" or more, and the amount of cash and deposits must be "1,500 million yen x number of establishments" or more.
      • 1つの事業所のみを有し、常時雇用している派遣労働者が10人以下である中小企業事業主については、当分の間、基準資産額1,000万円・現預金額800万円、5人以下である中小企業事業主については、平成30å¹´9月29日までの間、基準資産額500万円・現預金額400万円とする

Introduction Dispatching

Of the worker dispatches, a form that assumes direct employment at the dispatched company.

If you work as a temporary worker for a certain period of time and the dispatched company and the dispatched employee agree within the period, you will be directly employed by the dispatched company.However, it is not always possible to become a full-time employee.The premise is "direct employment", soContract employee,Part-time jobIs also included.The dispatching company is a worker dispatching businessJob placement businessBoth permission is required.The dispatch period is within 6 months.

Classification of dispatched workers

Number of dispatched workers by segment
(As of 2018 month of 6)[12]
Indefinite employment dispatchFixed-term employment dispatch
Manufacturing business6.2 million people22.0 million people
Other than manufacturing business32.8 million people72.6 million people
Regular dispatch (regular dispatch (Regular employment)
Dispatch in a state where an employment contract is always concluded between the dispatched worker and the dispatching company regardless of whether or not there is a job request from the dispatched company[13]..Also called regular dispatch or permanent employment dispatch.
Since so-called contract employees are fixed-term direct employment and do not correspond to regular employees (employees who are directly employed indefinitely, that is, workers who are always employed), they cannot be dispatched on a regular basis.See the next section, Registered Dispatch.
Registration type dispatch (Fixed-term employment)
Dispatch in a state where an employment contract relationship arises between the dispatched worker and the dispatching company only when there is a job request from the dispatched company.Also called fixed-term employment dispatch.Day labor dispatchIs also included here.

Dispatch period

For worker dispatch contracts that have already been concluded as of September 27, 9, the period will be limited by the law before the revision, regardless of when the worker dispatch based on the contract starts.That is, the period is one year in principle.Extension is possible for up to 30 years, but the majority of the establishmentsUnionEtc. (majority labor union or majority representative) are obliged to hear the opinions (Article 40-2 of the Dispatch Law).However, if there is too much time between the conclusion of the dispatch contract and the start of dispatch, it may be recognized as an illegal act.

The following two period restrictions apply to all work for worker dispatching based on the worker dispatching contract concluded on or after September 27, 9.

Time limit for each dispatched office
As a general rule, the period during which you can dispatch to the same place of dispatch (the period during which you can dispatch) isUp to 3 yearsWill be.The starting date is the date on which the worker was dispatched, which is subject to the new time limit. The starting date does not change even if the dispatched worker is replaced within three years or the worker dispatching is started based on another worker dispatching contract.If you intend to extend it, the majority of the establishmentUnionIt is necessary to listen to the opinions from others.The extension period is up to 3 years, and even if it is extended, dispatched workers with the same fixed-term employment cannot continue to be dispatched to the same organizational unit beyond the time limit of the individual unit.
The term "business establishment" here meansemployment insurance It is the same as the applicable business establishment of.If the unemployment insurance business establishment is not approved, in principle, it will not be recognized as a business establishment unit that is subject to a time limit.Those that do not have independence as one business establishment will be treated as one business establishment by including them in the most recent higher-ranking organizations.
Regarding the work of each business establishment of the dispatch destination, when dispatching again after the end of the worker dispatch, if the period between the end of the dispatch and the start of the next dispatch does not exceed 3 months, the worker dispatch is continued. Is considered (Cooling period).It is against the purpose of the law that the dispatched party resumes accepting dispatches after a cooling period for the purpose of avoiding the extension procedure.Administrative guidanceEtc.
Hearing opinions from the majority labor union, etc. must be made one month before the conflicting date of the time limit (two years and 1 months after the starting date).After a sufficient consideration periodIt must be made.In addition, the dispatched company must provide reference materials for the majority labor union to express their opinions, and the content of the opinions must be written in writing and stored for 3 years, and must be made known to the workers at the business establishment. It doesn't become.As a result of hearing the opinions, if there is an objection from the majority labor union, etc., the dispatched company must explain the response policy, etc., and endeavor to fully respect the opinions.
At the time of initial acceptance, it is desirable that the dispatched company explain the acceptance policy to the majority labor union.
Time limit for individual dispatched workers
As a general rule, the same dispatched worker can be dispatched to the same organizational unit at the place of dispatch.Up to 3 yearsWill be.If the organizational unit is changed, the same dispatched worker can be continuously dispatched to the same business establishment, but if it exceeds 3 years, it is necessary to extend the time limit for each business establishment.
The "organizational unit" here means that there is similarity and relevance as work, and that the head of the organization has the authority to direct and supervise work allocation and labor management.Judged according to the actual situation(Corresponds to the "section" and "group" of a general company).Even if the work of the dispatched worker changes, the dispatch period is totaled if it is within the same organizational unit.
When the same dispatched worker is dispatched again after the end of worker dispatch for the work of the same organizational unit at the dispatched office, when the period between the end of dispatch and the start of the next dispatch does not exceed 3 months. Worker dispatch is considered to be ongoing (cooling period).
If there is no time limit
There is no time limit in the following cases.
  • When dispatching a dispatched worker who will be employed indefinitely to the dispatching business owner
  • When dispatching dispatched workers over 60 years old
  • When dispatching dispatched workers to fixed-term project work with a clear end (before the 27 revision, it was a "fixed-term project within 3 years", but after the revision, if the end is clear, it will exceed 3 years. Good)
  • When dispatching dispatched workers to limited-day work (working days per month is less than half that of regular workers and less than 1 days)
  • Maternity leave,Childcare leave,Nursing care leaveWhen dispatching a dispatched worker to the work of a worker who acquires etc.
Business (common name) that was once stipulated in Article 4 of the Dispatch Law Enforcement Ordinance26 Business) Is a specialized job or a special employment form is required, so it has been said that there is no limit on the dispatch period, but with the 27 revision, 26 jobs are the same as other jobs. There will be a time limit.In addition, due to the enforcement of the revised law, fixed-term employees who were engaged in 26 jobs must not be hired (even dispatched workers).Labor contract lawArticle 19 (Hire Stop Doctrine) applies).
Restrictions on day labor dispatch
Registration type dispatchOf these, the ones that dispatch the day laborers to be hired are especially "Day laborCalled "dispatch".The term "day laborer" as used herein means "a worker who is hired on a daily basis or for a period of up to 30 days." Due to the revision of the Temporary Staffing Law in 2012, "Business specified in Article 4 of the Temporary Staffing Law Enforcement Ordinance" "60 years old and over" "Students who are not subject to employment dispatch (so-called daytime students)" In principle, it was prohibited with the exception of "when a person with a main income of 500 million yen or more engages as a side job" (Article 500-35 of the Dispatch Law, Article 4 of the Dispatch Law Enforcement Ordinance).

Business specified in Article 4 of the Dispatch Law Enforcement Ordinance(Popular name 26 business)

  1. Information processing system development
  2. Mechanical design
  3. Equipment operation
  4. Interpreter, translation, shorthand
  5. secretary
  6. Filing
  7. Research
  8. Finance
  9. Trade
  10. demonstration
  11. Tour guide
  12. Reception / Information
  13. Research and Development
  14. Planning and planning of project implementation system
  15. Production and editing of books, etc.
  16. Advertising design
  17. OA instructions
  18. Sales engineer sales, financial product sales

Special provisions regarding the application of the Labor Standards Act, etc.

Labor Standards ActRegarding the application of the Worker Protection Law such as, etc. to the worker dispatching business, in principle, there is a labor contract relationship with the dispatched worker.The dispatching business owner is responsibleI am in a position.However, for dispatched workers, the business owner of the dispatched company, who does not have a labor contract relationship with the dispatched worker, gives specific instructions and orders for business execution, and installs equipment, machines, etc. at the place where the actual labor is provided. -Since management is also carried out, from the viewpoint of ensuring that the dispatched workers do not lack protection, it is a matter that accompanies specific employment at the dispatch destination, and from the actual situation of worker dispatch, the dispatch source For matters that are difficult to hold the responsibility of the dispatched business owner, and matters for which it is appropriate to hold the dispatched business owner responsible for the effective protection of dispatched workers, the dispatched business owner is responsible. We have established provisions regarding special provisions for the application of the Labor Standards Law, etc. (Articles 44 to 47-4 of the Dispatch Law).[14]..The provisions regarding special provisions for the application of the Labor Standards Act, etc., impose responsibility on the dispatching business owner for specific matters, which would otherwise be borne by the dispatching business owner. The employer of the dispatching agency will be responsible for all provisions of the Labor Standards Act, etc., for which there are no special provisions.

Labor Standards Act
Industrial Safety and Health Act

Employment stabilization measures

For dispatched workers based on the dispatch contract concluded on or after September 27, 9, the dispatching business owner will take measures to continue employment of the dispatched worker after the dispatch is completed (Employment stabilization measures) Must be taken.Specifically, it is as follows.The obligation will remain in effect until the dispatching employer properly fulfills it or the dispatched worker no longer wishes to continue working.Even if the employment contract ends, the obligation must be fulfilled.When taking employment stabilization measuresRespect the intention of the personHowever, you must endeavor to take the measures you desire.The dispatching business owner must describe the details of the employment stabilization measures implemented for each dispatched worker in the dispatching agency management ledger.

  1. Request for direct employment to the dispatched company
    Ask the dispatched worker to whom the target dispatched worker is currently working to apply for employment directly after the dispatch is completed.It is desirable to make this request by issuing a document.
    If, as a result of taking this measure, it does not lead to direct employment at the dispatched place, the dispatching employer needs to take additional measures.
    It is contrary to the purpose of the dispatching law that the dispatching agency prohibits or interferes with the direct employment of the dispatching agency, which is subject to administrative guidance.
    If the dispatched company directly employs a dispatched worker that it acceptsCareer advancement grantIs eligible for payment.
  2. Providing a new dispatch destination (Limited to rational ones)
    Secure new dispatch destinations and provide them to dispatched workers so that they can continue to work after the dispatch.
    This measure also applies to dispatching the target dispatched worker to the same dispatch destination as before after the dispatching business operator has made it an indefinite employment (not subject to the time limit).
  3. Indefinite employment by the dispatching business owner
    The dispatching business owner employs the target dispatched worker indefinitely and makes him / her work in-house (working style other than dispatched worker).
    The dispatch sourceLabor regulationsIf it is stipulated that only those who pass the examination will be hired as permanent employees by imposing a uniform examination, it cannot be said that employment stabilization measures have been taken for those who have failed the examination. It is necessary to take the measures of.
  4. Other measures necessary to stabilize employment
    Paid education and training conducted before providing new employment opportunities
    Temporary staffing, etc.

The target dispatched workers are

  • For those who are expected to be dispatched to the same organizational unit for three consecutive years, one of 3 to 1Must take.
    • Intentionally shortening the dispatch period to less than three years in order to avoid the employment stability obligation measures is subject to administrative guidance as an act of lawlessness.
  • For those who are expected to be continuously dispatched to the same organizational unit for one year or more and less than three years, one must endeavor to take any of 1 to 3.
  • For persons other than the above who have been employed by the dispatching business owner for a total of one year or more, efforts must be made to take any of 1 to 2.

When the dispatch destination receives a worker dispatch for the same fixed-term employment dispatched worker (specified fixed-term employment dispatched worker) from the dispatching agency for the same work for each organizational unit for one year or more, the relevant work continues. When trying to hire a worker to engage in a worker, hire a specific fixed-term temporary worker (limited to those who wish to continue working) who engaged in the work without delay. I have to try.

Career development support system

The 27 amendment made it obligatory to establish measures for the career development support system for dispatched workers in order to obtain a permit for dispatching business.Specifically, the permission criteria are as follows.

  • Establish a step-by-step and systematic implementation plan for education and training with the career development of dispatched workers in mind.The content of the education and training plan is
    • The education and training to be conducted is intended for all dispatched workers employed.
    • Education and training to be carried outPaid and freeWhat to do in (Note the number of hours below)
    • The content of the education and training to be implemented should contribute to the career advancement of dispatched workers (the reason for considering that it will contribute to career advancement must be stated in the submitted plan).
    • It must include education and training (education and training at the time of employment) to be carried out when hiring as a dispatched worker.
    • Education and training provided to indefinitely hired temporary workers should be designed with long-term career development in mind.
  • Have a career consulting consultation desk
    • A person in charge (a person who has knowledge of career consulting) must be assigned to the consultation desk.
    • The consultation desk should be available to all dispatched workers to be employed.
    • All desired dispatched workers can receive career consulting
  • Procedures for providing dispatch destinations with career development in mind are stipulated.
    • Administrative guides, manuals, etc. are in place to provide dispatched workers with the career development of dispatched workers in mind.
  • Time, frequency, number of hours, etc. of education and training
    • Education and training at the time of employment is essential for all dispatched workers.Training, etc. according to the career path must be prepared at regular intervals such as career milestones.
    • Regarding the number of hours of implementation, provide about 1 hours or more of education and training opportunities every year for each dispatched worker who is expected to be employed for 8 year or more full-time.
    • When implementing the above education and training plan, the dispatching business owner must consider working hours, etc. so that he / she can properly take education and training.

Step-by-step and systematic education and training

Step-by-step and systematic education and training will be conducted based on the education and training plan formulated as a career development support system.

It is desirable that the dispatching business owner formulates an appropriate career advancement plan for each dispatched worker based on consultation with the dispatched worker and implements effective education and training in line with the intention of the dispatched worker. ..Also, the education and training must bePaid / freeMust be of the costOf dispatched workerswageIt is not desirable to make up for it by reducing..If the dispatching agency voluntarily implements further education and training in addition to the required education and training, the dispatched worker will carry out these training if the participation of the dispatched worker is substantially compulsory. The time I participated inworking timeIt is necessary to calculate as and make it paid.

Promotion of equal treatment

The dispatching employer must consider the balance with workers engaged in the same type of work at the dispatched place, and consider wage determination, education and training, and welfare programs (Article 31). 2).In addition, the dispatching business owner must explain to the dispatched worker the matters considered to secure this treatment if the dispatched worker so desires, because the dispatched worker requested an explanation. Do not treat it disadvantageously (Article 31-5).

The dispatched employer must take care to provide the necessary information so that the dispatching agency can properly determine the wages of the dispatched worker.In addition, when the dispatched worker is to provide education and training closely related to the work to the dispatched worker, when requested by the dispatched agency, the dispatched worker is notified unless the dispatched agency can implement it. On the other hand, care must be taken to implement this.The dispatched company must take care to give the dispatched workers an opportunity to use the following facilities used by the dispatched workers.

  • School lunch facility (dining room)
  • Break room or rest area
  • Changing room

Labor contract application deeming system

After October 27, 10, if the dispatched company accepts the following illegal dispatch, the dispatched company will give the dispatched worker the same labor conditions as the dispatched worker's dispatching agency at that time. It is considered that you have applied for a labor contract that includes the conditions (except when you do not know that the dispatched company falls under illegal dispatch and there is no mistake in what you did not know) (Article 1 of the Dispatching Act) 40).

  • When engaged in dispatch prohibited work
  • When accepting worker dispatch from an unauthorized employer
  • If you accept a worker dispatch in violation of the time limit
    • Worker dispatching that has been carried out before September 27, 9 is subject to the obligation to apply for a labor contract under the law before the revision, and is not subject to the system of assuming no labor contract application.
  • So-calledCamouflage contract, this means a

The dispatching agency must clearly indicate the conflict date to the dispatched worker in advance when attempting to dispatch a worker and promptly when notified of the extension of the dispatchable period by the dispatching destination. At the same time, if the dispatched company accepts a dispatch that exceeds the conflict date (violating the time limit), it must be clearly stated that it will be subject to the labor contract application deeming system.

Health insurance association

Of the business that dispatches workersIndustry groupIsCorporation(At that time, nowInstitute(Migrate to)2002(Commonly known as "Hakenkenpo") was established.

Dispatched workers have traditionally been dispatchersWorker dispatching companyBecause the contract with is usually on a monthly basis and is not continuously employedHealth insurance,Welfare pension insuranceI often did not join.This handling increases the take-home income by not paying the insurance premiums for dispatched workers, reduces the insurance premium burden and social insurance related office work for the dispatching business operator, and the dispatch unit price for the dispatched company. Due to the merit of compression, contract renewals were repeated and the employment relationship continued for a long time without enrolling in both insurance systems.In particular, some businesses that specialize in the worker dispatching business intentionally did not join the social insurance system.[15].. But in 2002Accounting OfficePointed out that this is illegal in an inspection conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare.[16]Since both insurances were applied retroactively, a large amount of insurance premiums were added.In view of this situation, industry groups are taking the lead.Health insurance associationIt led to the establishment of.

Government-controlled health insuranceThere was also a way to join,It is said that the health insurance union system was adopted because the health insurance premium rate can be set lower if the insurance population consists of only relatively young dispatched workers.[By whom?]..The medical system for the elderly has changed since 20, andMedical system for elder senior citizensSince 21, the current account balance has fallen into the red due to contributions to (payments required by law), and this contribution is initially calculated according to the number of subscribers. Because it was decided, it tends to be a huge burden for unions with many young and low-income earners.[17]. AlsoHealth insurance associationBecauseNational Health Insurance(National Health Insurance)National Health Insurance AssociationCompared to (commonly known as "Japan Health Insurance Association"), there was also the merit that the rules could be set so that the compensation system such as, etc. would be more generous.The worker dispatching companytrading company,bank, If you are one of a group company such as a major manufacturer, you may take the form of joining the health insurance association of the parent company, and these companies are businesses that already had health insurance before the establishment of "Hakenkenpo". There were also many.

Dispatched Labor Health Insurance Association (Hakenkenpo)2019Dissolved on March 3st[18], From April 4stNational Health Insurance AssociationMoved to (commonly known as Japan Health Insurance Association)[18]. However,Recruitment stuffing(Recruit Health Insurance Association)RandstadSome dispatch companies, such as (Kanto IT Software Health Insurance), are members of health insurance associations other than "Japan Health Insurance Association".

History

The first company that engages in the worker dispatching businessOil shockAfter1975It has increased rapidly since that time.Corresponding to this1985In June, the Worker Dispatching Law was enacted, and the following day1986Enforced in July[19].2012Due to the revision of (24), "Ensuring proper operation of the worker dispatching business andProtection of dispatched workers, etc.LawThe title was revised.

  • 19867/1 : Worker dispatch lawEnforcement.
  • 1999February 7: International Labor TreatyJapan ratifies No. 181 (1997 Private Employment Agency Convention).
  • 199912/1: Amendment (expansion of dispatch industry)[Annotation 1]
  • 2002:ButHealth insurance associationEstablished as (commonly known as "Hakenkenpo").
  • 20043/1: Amendment of the Worker Dispatching Law.Lifting of the ban on dispatching manufacturing operations, legislation for dispatching scheduled referrals, etc.
  • 20063/1: With the revision of the Worker Dispatching Law, the extension of the dispatch acceptance period, consideration for the hygiene of dispatched workers, labor insurance, etc. will be included.
  • 2012October 10: Due to the revision of the Worker Dispatching LawDay labor dispatchIs prohibited in principle[23].
  • 2015October 10: Unification of dispatch business permit system, revision of time limit, clarification of the principle that "dispatched labor is temporary and temporary", and dispatched workers Mandatory implementation of employment stabilization measures for employees.
  • 2019
    • March 3: Dispatched labor health insurance association ("Hakenkenpo") is dissolved[18].
    • April 4: Dispatched labor health insurance association shifts to Japan Health Insurance Association (commonly known as "Kenpo")[18].

Major Japanese dispatch companies

List of Japanese staffing agenciesSee also

Controversy in Japan

Until the enactment of the Worker Dispatch Law

The reason why we adopted the current form of worker dispatching businessaircraftIn the industryDispatched tour conductorThe theory that[24]There is.

In enacting the Worker Dispatch Law, the year before the enforcement1985ToConvention on the Elimination of Discrimination against WomenRatifyLaw on ensuring equal opportunities and treatment for men and women in the field of employmentBy amendingsecretaryThe theory is that the Worker Dispatching Law was enacted in order to continue to respond in the form of dispatch because it is no longer possible to recruit jobs that women have taken on, such as receptionists and receptionists, by gender only.[25]There is.

Paraphrasing to "temporary staffing"

Despite the official name of "worker dispatch" under Japanese law, "worker dispatch" is dared to be "Human resourcesThere are dispatchers who use the name "dispatch"Industry groupIsInstituteBut the word "dispatch" is used in the name of the organization.[26].

There is an opinion that there are the following reasons for this[5].

  • The word "dispatched labor" may be associated with the image of direct employment at the dispatched destination, in order to avoid it.
  • The word "worker"Blue collarMay make you imagine, to avoid it
  • To give the impression that it is a business form that provides labor services by dispatching appropriate "human resources".

As an administrative example of the unclear meaning of the word "dispatch"Commercial registrationThere is precedent.2006Until then, concreteness is required for the expression of the purpose registration of the company, and the purpose of the company isregistrationA collection of purpose cases with precedents (Japanese lawAnd eachLegal Affairs BureauAccording to the compilation)The term "dispatched labor" was not allowed to be registered because it lacked specificity.[Source required]For this reason, in the practice of registration, expressions such as "worker dispatch business" are used in accordance with the Worker Dispatching Law.

Since 2006, registration has been possible even in the temporary staffing business,CorporationSubmits a permit application for a general worker dispatching business and a notification for a specific worker dispatching businessPrefectural Labor BureauWhen doing againstArticles of IncorporationThe purpose of is to carry out "worker dispatch business"[Annotation 2]Is required, and the expression "dispatching labor" is not acceptable.Therefore, it is necessary for a business operator who intends to carry out a worker dispatching business to set the business purpose as "worker dispatching business" instead of "human resources dispatching business".[Source required]

problem

Labor market polarization and widening economic disparity

In 2008, the OECD announced that in regular and non-regular workersEmployment protection regulationsTaking the gap as a problem, it proposes to reduce the employment protection of regular workers and to expand the employment protection and social security of non-regular workers.[27].

Regarding the situation of dispatched employees, there is also a survey result that many people choose the way of working as a dispatched employee in hopes of employment opportunities after retirement.[28]..On the other hand, there are cases where employees are forced to become dispatched employees because they have no other choice ().[29]..According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's "Comprehensive Survey on the Diversification of Employment Forms", the most common reason for choosing dispatched employees was "because there was no company that could work as a full-time employee", and 51.6% of dispatched employees said "other employment forms". I want to change to ", of which 91.6% want full-time employees.As regular employment is decreasing, temporary employment is increasing, soDisparity societyIt has also been pointed out that it is the cause of this.[By whom?]

On the other hand, the managing directorYuichi MatsudaIn the May 2007 issue of the monthly "Human Resources Business", "Temporary employeesNon-regular employmentIt is a misunderstanding that the current situation is misunderstood due to the fact that it accounts for only 8% of the total and the confusion between dispatch and contract. "[30]..According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications "Labor Force Survey"2012The number of dispatched employees from July to September was 7, which was 9% of all workers and only 87% of non-regular employment.

Japan Communist Party OfShizu KazuoOn April 2008, 2House of RepresentativesIn a question at the Budget Committee, I addressed the current issues of the worker dispatching business.For details of the questionKazuo Shii # About the worker employment problemSee.

Day labor dispatchAs for, because illegal acts at the dispatching company or the dispatching company were discovered one after another.2012In principle, it was banned except for specific industries.#Dispatch periodSee also.

Rampant working conditions unfavorable to workers

The worker dispatching business is originally a service that receives the request of the dispatched company, selects the most suitable person from the registered persons, and dispatches the person to the dispatched company.Therefore, Article 26 of the Worker Dispatching Act restricts "acts aimed at identifying dispatched workers" except for dispatched labor scheduled for direct employment in the future (up to 6 months). ..apart from"Face to faceUnder various names such as "workplace tour" and "business confirmation", the act (preliminary interview) in which the dispatched laborer introduces the dispatched worker to the dispatched destination and asks for hiring is rampant.Since this is illegal, the government is calling on dispatchers to strengthen legal compliance.HoweverJapan Business FederationTo the government's request for regulatory reform in the employment and labor sectorPre-interviewIt includes the full lifting of the ban.It is considered decisive that the position of dispatched workers will be weaker if the ban on pre-interviews is completely lifted, and dispatched workers say.Power harassmentThere are concerns about further rampant.In addition, in some interviews, there are reports of interviews that include substantially false content such as "think about hiring full-time employees" at the time of the interview.[By whom?]

In addition, the working conditions of one-month or three-month renewal indicated by a major worker dispatching company mean that both the employer and the worker have the freedom to refuse the renewal, but in reality, the worker refuses to renew. There are many companies that do not accept this, and there are statements that are disadvantageous to workers, such as "expecting long-term employment for one year or more, but requiring renewal of the contract for three months."On the other hand, renewal refusals from companies are being made plainly.[Source required]

Decline in international competitiveness / hollowing out of industry

Japan is a typical processing and trading nation that is made up of importing raw materials, processing them, and exporting products.Japan produces a large number of products of the highest quality in the world and maintains international competitiveness, but it requires loyalty and quality awareness to the products from most temporary employees who are outsiders and have short-term employment. Is almost impossible[Source required].In most cases, the worker dispatch system is used from the cost aspect, but if we do not switch to the worker dispatch system from the perspective of maintaining international competitiveness, Japan's international competitiveness will be improved from the quality aspect rather than the cost aspect. There is a risk of gradual deterioration, and measures from a long-term perspective that can achieve both cost and quality are required.Also, for dispatching workers, etc.Non-regular employmentDestabilization of life due to the increase of singlesLow birthrate and aging populationIs further advanced.It has been pointed out that employment instability is a major factor that has caused a fundamental and long-term decline in Japan's international competitiveness and is shrinking Japan's domestic market.[By whom?]

Due to the expansion of the dispatch system, skilled engineers and clerks are not trained, and the entire company / industryHollowing outIt is pointed out that it will lead to.It has also been pointed out that companies that use dispatched labor should accept the decline in productivity in return for low costs.[31].

Confederation of Japan Automobile Industry Labor UnionAccording to a questionnaire survey conducted by (Automobile Soren) on non-regular employees to their unions (response ratio in parentheses, multiple answers), "There is a problem in passing on skills and technology" (52.6%), "Products and services It has been pointed out that there is an impact on points such as "quality will decline" (28.3%).[32].

Counterargument from the worker dispatch affirmative side

In response to criticisms of the dispatched labor industry, the management side of the dispatch destination and the dispatch source mainly argues about the following points.

Criticism of the margin

Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareResults of the worker dispatching business report published by[33]According to the dispatched labor wages (8-hour conversion) and dispatching company dispatch fees (8-hour conversion), 31% for general worker dispatch and 33% for specific worker dispatch are dispatched companies.marginIt has become.The margin rates of major dispatch companies are published on the official websites of each dispatch company.

An industry group explains that it is necessary to take a margin of about 30% to make a profit as a for-profit company.[34].

Guidelines for measures to be taken by the dispatching business owner(20Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareNotification No. 37) provides the dispatched labor company with information on the business operation status such as the unit price of dispatched workers, management information, and dispatch business report in "13. Disclosure of Information" to the dispatched company and dispatched workers. It is stipulated to make it public.However, the fact is that this notification itself is hardly well known.The dispatched labor company denies the excessive margin, but since most of the margin is not a ratio that can be derived from the company's financial statements, it is difficult to confirm the authenticity and it is not credible.In most cases, even if it is assumed to be true, it is not a numerical value derived from a statistical point of view.[Source required]

Adecco,Fuji staff(CurrentRandstadIn the case of an independent worker dispatching company such as), the profit is calculated by taking into account expenses such as social insurance (half labor and management), paid leave burden, welfare, office land rent and labor costs, for example. Even if a large worker dispatching company in a prime location has a margin of 30%, it will not be profitable at face value.This is the same reason that the number obtained by dividing the annual income of general companies in other industries by the number of employees cannot be distributed as it is to the annual income of each employee.Roughly speaking, about 5% of the salary of dispatched employees is allocated to paid holidays, and about 7 to 10% is allocated to social insurance.In addition, there are various expenses such as personnel expenses such as accounting, sales, and personnel in charge of instructing staff, advertising expenses, land rent and utility expenses for large buildings.[Source required]

It can be seen from the financial statements of the worker dispatching companies that the worker dispatching business is a low-margin, high-selling business.For example, it can be inferred from the fact that Tempstaff, a major dispatched worker, had sales of 2007 billion yen in fiscal 1618, while operating income was 70 billion yen.If the net profit is about 1600 billion yen for the sales amount of 70 billion yen, the net profit of the dispatching company excluding expenses from the margin is about 4.5%.In addition, the operating profit of the top five companies in the industry in FY2006 was 5% of Tempstaff, and the operating profit of Pasona, the largest dispatched worker, was only 4.5%.However, the sales of the dispatch industry as a whole exceeded 3 trillion yen according to a survey by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in 22, and even if only 5% of it is net profit, it is a huge profit of 3 billion yen.[Source required]

Worker dispatching companies use the labor consideration that workers should get the full amount as a source of income.

Employing full-time employees by a company incurs enormous expenses, and in principle, it is necessary to set wages on the assumption that the employees will continue to be employed until retirement age (ボ ー ナ スExcept).Furthermore, for example, if 1 dispatched employees are hired as full-time employees, it means that labor management and accounting work for 1 people will be required.Inevitably, the number of managers and accounting staff will be increased, and these labor costs will also be incurred.In addition, it is difficult for regular employees to adjust their employment according to the business cycle and seasonal fluctuations.

For these reasons, hiring a full-time employee imposes a heavy burden on both initial costs and running costs.Even if the dispatched laborer gets a margin of 5% for net income, the company will bear this burden.OffsetMoreover, it is profitable for the company.Worker dispatching companies give elasticity to the labor costs of the dispatched companies and are profiting as compensation for services that strengthen the corporate constitution.

Full-time employees are replaced by temporary staffing, depriving them of employment opportunities as full-time employees

It has been pointed out that the existence of dispatched workers restrains the labor demand of companies and impairs employment opportunities for workers because the status of regular employees in Japan is very strong.[By whom?]..Actually Japanese companiesBulk recruitment of new graduatesDispatched workers meet the labor demands of companies.

Temporary employees have low incomes and are the cause of economic disparity and the working poor.

When the Worker Dispatching Act was enacted in 1986, worker dispatching was "temporary" for those who had notable skills such as simultaneous interpretation, financial processing, and software development that were difficult for regular employees of general companies. Because it was supposed to be a means of "borrowing from the outside", dispatched employees were generally higher paid than regular employees, and specialists who move from one company to another ("journey man" in professional sports). It was common to consider it to be.

However, the tendency of general companies (especially the current manufacturing industry) to use dispatched labor companies as a means of reducing labor costs has become remarkable since 1999 (after the revision of the law), and as of 2008, only those who have not acquired skills However, the number of companies that use dispatch companies is rapidly increasing as a means of accepting inexperienced workers and securing "human resources to perform routine simple tasks" rather than as a ready-to-work force. In 2009, the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare was banned from dispatching and accepting workers in simple manufacturing operations.Akira NagatsumaProposed by the Cabinet, but has been repeated every year since then, with the resignation of the Cabinet and the establishment of a new Cabinet, and in 2013Self-public coalitionThere is no prospect of enactment of the bill due to the revival of the bill.

In many cases, the misunderstanding of the dispatched company is the cause of the trouble.

In many cases, the person in charge of the dispatched company treats the dispatched worker with a false recognition, leading to trouble.This is often the case in young companies that use dispatched labor, but the person in charge of the dispatched labor treats the dispatched worker with the attitude that he / she should proceed with the work in the same manner as the employee, and the quota / results May be requested according to the employee.If the dispatched employee does not have social insurance, in most cases he thinks that he is only a short-term part-time job. There are many cases where both sides have a disadvantageous ending.Some are dispatched employeesAdvanced Information Technology Engineer ExaminationThere have also been reports of extremely excessive demands to pass[Source required]..The number of people who can pass the Advanced Information Technology Engineer Examination is limited among information processing engineers, and it is rare for a person who has the ability to pass the Advanced Information Technology Engineer Examination to continue working as a dispatched employee.

Since dispatched employees are outsiders, they often cannot move without instructions from the dispatched destination.In some cases, dispatched laborers do not act without instructions and are educated to be cautious about what they say and do. In some cases, dispatching workers is more suitable than dispatching workers, and there have been many reports of mismatches in dispatching workers due to lack of awareness of the dispatched companies.Also, in dispatched labor, dispatched employees are not responsible for completion, so a contractor who is responsible for completion may be more suitable.[Source required]

In addition, the regular employee side constantly threatens the dispatched employee to make a complaint to the dispatching source, forcing a labor level equivalent to that of the regular employee, the relationship deteriorates extremely, and the dispatched employee side intentionally makes a mistake or intentionally wants to resign. In some cases, it causes a loss to the dispatched company, and when the dispatched employee quits, all the problems of the dispatched company are reported to the personnel and general affairs of the dispatched company, causing trouble.There are voices from the dispatched employees asking the general affairs and personnel personnel of the company to crack down on acts such as constant threatening.In some extremely malicious cases where a full-time employee instructed a temporary employee to violate internal rules for personal reasons, or even ignored the loss of the company, or in order for the full-time employee to avoid liability, the temporary employee was asked. There have been quite a few reports of cases in which employees are allowed to carry out their duties without giving clear instructions, and if problems occur, they claim that they have not given instructions to dispatched employees.Both the dispatched company and the dispatched employees said that it is necessary to establish a system for reporting malicious acts of regular employees from the dispatched employee side to general affairs and personnel, and to improve the environment so that the disadvantage of the dispatched employee does not occur. There is from.[Source required][By whom?]

The dispatch system is a system that benefits some workers

In the case of major dispatched labor companies, there are many renewal contracts every 3-6 months, so this can be a mental pressure for some people, but on the contrary, it is attractive that there is no need to leave the initiative to the place of employment for the rest of your life. Some people feel it.For full-time employees, it is the same as the average salary based on company regulations, and it is difficult for some companies to receive payment according to their abilities, but highly skilled workers have high salaries and time. By selecting only dispatch destinations with a high degree of freedom, it is possible to improve annual salary.While the motivation for human resource development of companies is declining, by clearly having their own career advancement plan without relying on companies, it is possible to earn higher income than relying on companies in the short term.As a general rule, dispatched employees do not receive severance pay or bonuses, but depending on the type of business and the skills of the dispatched employees, the monthly take-home amount may be higher than that of regular employees with a short career in small and medium-sized enterprises.Many people used to take advantage of the self-development plan of voluntarily investing in study abroad and lessons to acquire further abilities by using the temporary cash obtained from this.It is true that an hourly wage of 20 yen, which is said to be a high hourly wage in the 2000s, may be attractive at the annual income level of 400 million yen, but since there is no salary increase, it remains at 40 million yen even at the age of 400.There are many transportation expenses and own expenses, there is no salary increase even if you work for many years, demand decreases extremely after the age of 40, and if there is no suitable job, the contract will be terminated even within the contract period. Has become clear one after another, and the number of those who are attracted to dispatch is decreasing sharply.[Source required]

Mainichi NewspapersAccording to the report ofNPO corporationAccording to the survey results, 7% of the dispatched workers working in the manufacturing industry said that the reason for choosing dispatched labor was "passive reason", and about 3% felt the merit and positively chose it. That[35].

Scholar's view

EconomistNorihisa IwataAccording to the book, as of 2008, the ratio of dispatched labor (the ratio of dispatched workers to non-permanent employees) is 8%.[36].. As of 2008, the ratio of dispatched workers to the total number of employees was 2.7%.[37]..Iwata pointed out that "if deregulation of dispatched labor had not progressed, the way to work in dispatch would have been closed and the number of unemployed would have increased. If the number of unemployed increased, the disparity would widen." Is[37]..Iwata says that if regulations on dispatching workers are tightened, companies will reduce non-regular employees, reduce the wages of regular employees, and move to overseas with relatively low wages.[38].

EconomistHideomi Tanaka"If we completely ban dispatched workers in Japan, we could take away the jobs of the workers who were dispatched. It is better to leave the dispatching system and improve the treatment."[39].

Works featuring dispatched workers

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ Japan Federation of Employers' Organizations (currentlyJapan Business FederationOne of the predecessors of.Nikkeiren) announced a plan to switch general jobs other than the core business to dispatch in 1995, and there is a theory that it will be revised in response to it.[20]..You can also read it in the Nikkeiren document "Japanese-style management in a new era."
  2. ^ Worker dispatching business, worker dispatching business, general worker dispatching business, specific worker dispatching business, all are possible.[Source required]

Source

  1. ^ OECD Labor Force Statistics 2020, OECD, (2020), two:10.1787/23083387 
  2. ^ "Databook International Labor Comparison" Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training, November 2019, 11.ISBN 978-4-538-49054-0. 
  3. ^ International Labor Treaty181 No.
  4. ^ a b OECD 2020.
  5. ^ a b Harada, 2004, p. 13
  6. ^ OECD Employment Outlook, OECD, (2021), Figure 4.5. two:10.1787 / 5a700c4b-en 
  7. ^ Regulatory reform centered on dispatched labor and comparison of human resources business between Japan and the United States
  8. ^ a b OECD Employment Outlook 2020, OECD, (2020-07), Country report: Denmark, two:10.1787/19991266, ISBN 9789264459793 
  9. ^ a b OECD Employment Outlook 2020, OECD, (2020-07), Country report: Germany, two:10.1787/19991266, ISBN 9789264459793 
  10. ^ a b c d e Naotaka Watanabe, Masaaki Mizui & Tsugumasa Nozaki 1990, p. 76.
  11. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsLabor force survey
  12. ^ a b "Status of worker dispatching business as of June 30, XNUMX" (Press release), Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Employment Security Bureau Supply and Demand Adjustment Business Division, (March 2019, 3), https://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/seisakunitsuite/bunya/0000079194.html 
  13. ^ Policy report (about the worker dispatch system) Demand and Supply Adjustment Business Division, Employment Security Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  14. ^ Worker dispatch business related business handling procedure Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare[Broken link]
  15. ^ Performance Record "Pasona's Corporate Strategy and Management Philosophy" Yasuyuki Nanbu(PasonaPresident and CEO) January 1999, 1
  16. ^ Board of Audit 11 Financial Results Inspection Report
  17. ^ The medical system for the elderly will change from April 20, and the insurance premiums of the health insurance association will increase sharply. Hakenkenpo
  18. ^ a b c d About Japan Health Insurance Association Japan Health Insurance Association, March 2019, 3
  19. ^ Naotaka Watanabe, Masaaki Mizui & Tsugumasa Nozaki 1990.
  20. ^ "Weekly Toyo Keizai』April 2007, 6 issue[Page number required]
  21. ^ Comprehensive Regulatory Reform Council "Second Report" Regulatory Reform Council
  22. ^ Temporary workers can now choose from a variety of work styles
  23. ^ "Narrowing "non-regular labor" siege"Nikkei Business],Nikkei BP, August 2012, 7.
  24. ^ "To create a society where dreams can be pursued Uematsu Electric Tsutomu Uematsu's challenge-Akabira-"Kamui Mintana" September 2007 issue
  25. ^ Daniel H. Foote, "Trial and Society: Rethinking the" Common Knowledge "of Justice," Translated by Masayuki Tamaruya, NTT Publishing, October 2006 ISBN 9784757140950
  26. ^ Japan Human Resources Dispatch Association
  27. ^ "Japan could do more to help young people find stable jobs”. OECD (December 2008). 2021/9/20Browse.
  28. ^ Awareness survey for contracted and dispatched employees Nagoya city
  29. ^ Can you continue to be "Haken" and be happy?Approaching the actual situation of female dispatched employees Kumiko Seto, Nikkei Business Online,Nikkei BP, Delivered April 2008, 7
  30. ^ "Dispatch is not the cause of disparity society"Yuichi Matsuda, Monthly "Human Resources Business" May 2007 issue,
  31. ^ Temporary staff ranking is also illegal 47NEWS, Kyodo News, March 2013, 3[Broken link]
  32. ^ "Issues to pass on non-regular and automobile skills also affect the quality of products and services"Kyodo News, Delivered April 2008, 9
  33. ^ Aggregation result of 22 worker dispatch business report Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  34. ^ I will explain the mechanism of the dispatch fee. Dispatch staff Japan Human Resources Dispatch Association[Broken link]
  35. ^ Dispatched workers: 7% of the manufacturing industry is "for negative reasons" NPO survey " Mainichi Newspaper, January 2008, 11
  36. ^ (I.e., 2010, 236 pages.
  37. ^ a b Iwata, 2010, p. 237.
  38. ^ Iwata, 2010, p. 238.
  39. ^ Tanaka, 2009, 180 pages.

References

Related item

外部 リンク

Worker dispatch business

Worker dispatch business(Roudousha is Kenjigyo,English: Temporary employment agency services[2]) IsJob placement businessone of[3]..In the classification of employmentTemporary employmentClassified as Temporary workers[4].Temporary staffing(Jinzai Haken),Worker dispatchIt is also called (Roudoshahaken).

Become a dispatch sourceTemporary staffing company(English: Temporary work agency[4])WorkerIs an employment form in which dispatched labor is provided to the business establishment that is the dispatch destination (business partner) and under the direction and order of the dispatch destination person in charge.[5]..Workers who work in this form of employmentTemporary workerCalled (Hakenrou Dosha)ColloquialismThen.For shortsimply"DispatchIt is also called ".

International Labor Treaty

International Labor TreatyIn No. 181, the worker dispatching business is permitted or notified, and it is regulated to give public protection.Japan has ratified this.

Article 1 For the purposes of this Convention, a "private vocational intermediary establishment" is a natural person or legal entity independent of a public institution that provides one or more of the following services in the labor market. ..

(b) Employ workers for the purpose of allocating work to workers and making them available to third parties (hereinafter referred to as "user companies") who are natural persons or corporations who supervise the performance of the work. Service consisting of

Article XNUMX Member States shall, in accordance with national law and practice, provide sufficient protection to workers employed at private employment intermediary establishments as provided in Article XNUMX (b) for the following matters: Take necessary measures to secure it.

 (a) Freedom of association
 (B) Collective bargaining
 (C) minimum wage
 (D) working timeOther working conditions
 (e) Legal社会 保障Payment
 (f) Opportunity to receive training
 (g) Occupational safety and health
 (h) Compensation in case of occupational accident or illness
 (i) Compensation and protection of worker claims in case of insolvency
 (j) Maternity protection and maternity benefits and protection and benefits for being a parent

Article XNUMX Member States shall, in accordance with domestic law and practice, determine the respective responsibilities of private vocational intermediary establishments and user companies that provide the services prescribed in Article XNUMX (b) with respect to the following matters. And assign.

 (a) Collective bargaining
 (b) Minimum wage
 (c) Working hours and other working conditions
 (d) Legal social security benefits
 (e) Opportunity to receive training
 (f) Protection in the field of occupational safety and health
 (g) Compensation in case of occupational accident or illness
 (h) Compensation and protection of worker claims in case of insolvency
 (i) Maternity protection and maternity benefits and protection and benefits for being a parent
—  1997 Private Employment Brokers Convention (No. 181)

System of each country

Percentage of temporary employment agent contracts among all employees in each country (2019)[6]
CountryRatio (%)
エストニア0.01
Greece0.19
Norway0.25
Hungary0.27
Poland0.52
Denmark0.57
Italy0.80
米 国0.90
Switzerland0.97
英国0.97
Czech Republic1.04
Sweden1.14
ラトビア1.18
Portugal1.48
Finland1.65
リトアニア1.98
Austrey2.00
Germany2.06
Belgium2.07
Ireland2.37
France2.73
Netherlands3.28
Spain3.45
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu4.07
スロベニア4.08

America

In the United States, where the development of labor legislation is limited, there is no law that regulates the dispatch of workers, and there are only restrictions on the accumulation of past precedents and, in some states, the notification of dispatchers and the upper limit of fees.Since there is no individual law, the focus of the discussion is on the comprehensive system and how to operate it.

Companies use dispatched labor as temporary or temporary employment, but in general, if the job performance is good after a certain period of time, the dispatched company will hire them as their own workers from the beginning. In many cases, it is stipulated in a contract, and as a result, it functions as a dispatch to be introduced in Japan (such a worker dispatch contract is called Temporary to Hire).

Since there are few regulations, it is possible to design a free and flexible worker dispatching business, and in fact many dispatching companies provide a variety of services from professionals such as professionals to unskilled labor, contributing to the smoothing of the labor market. doing.On the other hand, the wage gap with regular employees and the problem of uninsured people with medical insurance are serious.[7].

European Union

European UnionIn Article 5 of the Dispatched Labor Directive, as the "principle of equal treatment"Equal pay for equal workIs obligatory.

Article.5.1. The basic working and employment conditions of temporary agency workers shall be, for the duration of their assignment at a user undertaking, at least those that would apply if they had been recruited directly by that undertaking to occupy the same job.

The basic labor and employment conditions of a dispatched worker must be applicable at least during the dispatch period of the user business, if the business is directly hired to take on the same job.

— Temporary Agency Work Directive 2008/104 / EC

Denmark

DenmarkSo, there is no limit to the maximum contract period with a dispatch agent[8]..Agents do not require approval or reporting to regulators, but equal wages and working conditions with regular workers[8].

Germany

GermanyThe maximum contract period with a dispatch agent is 18 months, but there is no upper limit on the number of contract renewals.[9]..Agents must be licensed by the Ministry of Labor and have a reporting obligation[9].

Chugoku

It is regulated by the enforcement of the "Labor Contract Law" (promulgated on June 2007, 6).As in Japan, worker dispatch is usually restricted to temporary, auxiliary or alternative workplaces, and double or exclusive dispatch is explicitly prohibited.Furthermore, the "Temporary Labor Dispatch Regulations" that came into effect on March 29, 2014 tightened regulations on the labor dispatch business and limited the ratio of dispatched workers to within 3% of all employees.

Japan

in JapanAct on Ensuring Proper Operation of Worker Dispatching Business and Protecting Dispatched Workers(Worker dispatch law, Hereinafter abbreviated as "dispatch method").Article 2 of the Dispatch Law defines worker dispatch as follows:[10].

It means to have a worker employed by oneself engage in work for the other person under the employment relationship and under the command and order of the other person, and employ the worker for the other person. It shall not include what is promised to be done. — Article 2 of the Act on Ensuring the Proper Operation of Worker Dispatching Business and Protecting Dispatched Workers

Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareIn the operation of the provisions of the Temporary Staffing Law pertaining to the worker dispatching business,Effective use of that ability throughout the entire professional lifeAnd employment practices recognized as contributing to the stability of their employmentIn principle, temporary employment is temporary and temporary.In addition to considering the idea, the supply and demand of the labor force can be adjusted by the worker dispatching business.Employment Security ActCare must be taken to ensure that the work is done in harmony with other labor force supply and demand adjustment systems set forth in (Article 25 of the Temporary Staffing Act).

Difference from business contract

According to the dispatch law, the worker dispatch contract is a conventional businessContractAgreementWas to be clearly distinguished from[10]That.

In business contracting, a contract worker provides labor based on a contract contract concluded between the company with which he / she has an employment relationship (= contractor) and the ordering company.Therefore, it is defined that the command and command authority of workers lies not with the ordering company but with the contractor.[10].

On the other hand, in worker dispatching, the dispatching company and the dispatched company conclude a dispatch contract, the dispatching company and the dispatched worker enter into an employment relationship, and the dispatched company and the dispatched worker enter into a usage relationship, so to speak, a triangle. In the relationship of[10]..Therefore, the command and command authority of workers is granted to the company to which they are dispatched.[10].

Classification of dispatch business

Number of dispatched workers (as of June 2018)[12]
General dispatch business(Old) Specified dispatching company
Indefinite employment dispatch31.1 million people7.9 million people
Fixed-term employment dispatch92.5 million people2.1 million people
Business formatPermit system
Number of establishments29,667 establishments40,703 establishments

Specified worker dispatch business (abolished on September 2018, 9)

Workers who are always employed by the dispatching agency (own company)Regular employmentEmployee・ Regular dispatch) is dispatched to other companies.notificationSystem (Article 16 of the Dispatch Law, so-called "Article 16 Dispatch").

Compared to general worker dispatching companies, the range of companies and occupations that can be dispatched is narrow, but engineers (mainly computers, IT, etc.) are assigned to specific business establishments.electronics-machineContractors (mainly related to system design) that dispatchア ウ ト ソ ー シ ン グThere are many (called traders).

Article 2015 was deleted due to the revision of the law in 27, and all worker dispatching businessesPermit systemIt was integrated into the worker dispatching business of.Due to transitional measures, businesses that are engaged in the specified worker dispatching business as of September 9, 30 can continue to operate the specified worker dispatching business until September 2018, 30 (Heisei 9). After September 29, 2015, new notifications will not be accepted, and even if the office has been opened by then, change notifications related to the new establishment will not be accepted.

General worker dispatch business (worker dispatch business)

Workers who are not always employed by the dispatching agency (own company)Non-regular employmentEmployee・ Registration type dispatch) is dispatched to other companies.By Minister of Health, Labor and WelfareAuthorizationsystem..TemporaryDay laborDispatch also falls under this category.If the permission of the general worker dispatching business is obtained, the specific worker dispatching business described in the preceding paragraph is also possible.Due to the 27 revision, it has been unified into a permit system regardless of whether or not it is always employed.If you were in the general worker dispatching business before the revision, you can continue to run the worker dispatching business with the permission.

Generally speaking, a "temporary agency" is widely known as a business operator of this type.

The worker dispatching business after the revision in 27 must meet all of the following requirements in order to obtain a permit.The permit is valid for 3 years for new and 5 years after renewal.

  • It is not intended to provide the service of dispatching workers exclusively to a specific person.
  • Must meet the following criteria as having sufficient ability to properly manage employment of dispatched workers
    • Of dispatched workersCareer development support systemTo have
    • After the labor contract ends, materials that manage information such as education and trainingStored for 3 yearsDoing things
    • Permanent employment dispatched workersThere is no provision that you can dismiss only because of the termination of the worker dispatch contractthing.In addition, there is no provision that fixed-term employment dispatched workers can be dismissed only because the worker dispatching contract is terminated for dispatched workers whose labor contract remains at the end of the worker dispatching contract.
    • If a dispatched worker whose worker dispatch contract has ended within the labor contract period is closed due to reasons attributable to the employer, such as not being able to find the next dispatch destination,(I.e.(Labor Standards ActArticle 26) There is a provision to pay
    • For dispatched workersSafety and health education(Industrial Safety and Health ActEstablishing an implementation system for Article 59)
    • Being an act aimed at avoiding the obligation of employment stabilization measures, and not being instructed by the prefectural labor bureau and not correcting it
  • personal informationThe necessary measures have been taken to properly manage the work and keep the secrets of dispatched workers, etc.
  • Must have sufficient ability to carry out the business properly
    • The area of ​​the office is approximately 20 square meters or more
    • The amount obtained by deducting the total amount of liabilities from the total amount of assets (standard asset amount) must be "2,000 million yen x number of establishments" or more, and the amount of cash and deposits must be "1,500 million yen x number of establishments" or more.
      • 1つの事業所のみを有し、常時雇用している派遣労働者が10人以下である中小企業事業主については、当分の間、基準資産額1,000万円・現預金額800万円、5人以下である中小企業事業主については、平成30å¹´9月29日までの間、基準資産額500万円・現預金額400万円とする

Introduction Dispatching

Of the worker dispatches, a form that assumes direct employment at the dispatched company.

If you work as a temporary worker for a certain period of time and the dispatched company and the dispatched employee agree within the period, you will be directly employed by the dispatched company.However, it is not always possible to become a full-time employee.The premise is "direct employment", soContract employee,Part-time jobIs also included.The dispatching company is a worker dispatching businessJob placement businessBoth permission is required.The dispatch period is within 6 months.

Classification of dispatched workers

Number of dispatched workers by segment
(As of 2018 month of 6)[12]
Indefinite employment dispatchFixed-term employment dispatch
Manufacturing business6.2 million people22.0 million people
Other than manufacturing business32.8 million people72.6 million people
Regular dispatch (regular dispatch (Regular employment)
Dispatch in a state where an employment contract is always concluded between the dispatched worker and the dispatching company regardless of whether or not there is a job request from the dispatched company[13]..Also called regular dispatch or permanent employment dispatch.
Since so-called contract employees are fixed-term direct employment and do not correspond to regular employees (employees who are directly employed indefinitely, that is, workers who are always employed), they cannot be dispatched on a regular basis.See the next section, Registered Dispatch.
Registration type dispatch (Fixed-term employment)
Dispatch in a state where an employment contract relationship arises between the dispatched worker and the dispatching company only when there is a job request from the dispatched company.Also called fixed-term employment dispatch.Day labor dispatchIs also included here.

Dispatch period

For worker dispatch contracts that have already been concluded as of September 27, 9, the period will be limited by the law before the revision, regardless of when the worker dispatch based on the contract starts.That is, the period is one year in principle.Extension is possible for up to 30 years, but the majority of the establishmentsUnionEtc. (majority labor union or majority representative) are obliged to hear the opinions (Article 40-2 of the Dispatch Law).However, if there is too much time between the conclusion of the dispatch contract and the start of dispatch, it may be recognized as an illegal act.

The following two period restrictions apply to all work for worker dispatching based on the worker dispatching contract concluded on or after September 27, 9.

Time limit for each dispatched office
As a general rule, the period during which you can dispatch to the same place of dispatch (the period during which you can dispatch) isUp to 3 yearsWill be.The starting date is the date on which the worker was dispatched, which is subject to the new time limit. The starting date does not change even if the dispatched worker is replaced within three years or the worker dispatching is started based on another worker dispatching contract.If you intend to extend it, the majority of the establishmentUnionIt is necessary to listen to the opinions from others.The extension period is up to 3 years, and even if it is extended, dispatched workers with the same fixed-term employment cannot continue to be dispatched to the same organizational unit beyond the time limit of the individual unit.
The term "business establishment" here meansemployment insurance It is the same as the applicable business establishment of.If the unemployment insurance business establishment is not approved, in principle, it will not be recognized as a business establishment unit that is subject to a time limit.Those that do not have independence as one business establishment will be treated as one business establishment by including them in the most recent higher-ranking organizations.
Regarding the work of each business establishment of the dispatch destination, when dispatching again after the end of the worker dispatch, if the period between the end of the dispatch and the start of the next dispatch does not exceed 3 months, the worker dispatch is continued. Is considered (Cooling period).It is against the purpose of the law that the dispatched party resumes accepting dispatches after a cooling period for the purpose of avoiding the extension procedure.Administrative guidanceEtc.
Hearing opinions from the majority labor union, etc. must be made one month before the conflicting date of the time limit (two years and 1 months after the starting date).After a sufficient consideration periodIt must be made.In addition, the dispatched company must provide reference materials for the majority labor union to express their opinions, and the content of the opinions must be written in writing and stored for 3 years, and must be made known to the workers at the business establishment. It doesn't become.As a result of hearing the opinions, if there is an objection from the majority labor union, etc., the dispatched company must explain the response policy, etc., and endeavor to fully respect the opinions.
At the time of initial acceptance, it is desirable that the dispatched company explain the acceptance policy to the majority labor union.
Time limit for individual dispatched workers
As a general rule, the same dispatched worker can be dispatched to the same organizational unit at the place of dispatch.Up to 3 yearsWill be.If the organizational unit is changed, the same dispatched worker can be continuously dispatched to the same business establishment, but if it exceeds 3 years, it is necessary to extend the time limit for each business establishment.
The "organizational unit" here means that there is similarity and relevance as work, and that the head of the organization has the authority to direct and supervise work allocation and labor management.Judged according to the actual situation(Corresponds to the "section" and "group" of a general company).Even if the work of the dispatched worker changes, the dispatch period is totaled if it is within the same organizational unit.
When the same dispatched worker is dispatched again after the end of worker dispatch for the work of the same organizational unit at the dispatched office, when the period between the end of dispatch and the start of the next dispatch does not exceed 3 months. Worker dispatch is considered to be ongoing (cooling period).
If there is no time limit
There is no time limit in the following cases.
  • When dispatching a dispatched worker who will be employed indefinitely to the dispatching business owner
  • When dispatching dispatched workers over 60 years old
  • When dispatching dispatched workers to fixed-term project work with a clear end (before the 27 revision, it was a "fixed-term project within 3 years", but after the revision, if the end is clear, it will exceed 3 years. Good)
  • When dispatching dispatched workers to limited-day work (working days per month is less than half that of regular workers and less than 1 days)
  • Maternity leave,Childcare leave,Nursing care leaveWhen dispatching a dispatched worker to the work of a worker who acquires etc.
Business (common name) that was once stipulated in Article 4 of the Dispatch Law Enforcement Ordinance26 Business) Is a specialized job or a special employment form is required, so it has been said that there is no limit on the dispatch period, but with the 27 revision, 26 jobs are the same as other jobs. There will be a time limit.In addition, due to the enforcement of the revised law, fixed-term employees who were engaged in 26 jobs must not be hired (even dispatched workers).Labor contract lawArticle 19 (Hire Stop Doctrine) applies).
Restrictions on day labor dispatch
Registration type dispatchOf these, the ones that dispatch the day laborers to be hired are especially "Day laborCalled "dispatch".The term "day laborer" as used herein means "a worker who is hired on a daily basis or for a period of up to 30 days." Due to the revision of the Temporary Staffing Law in 2012, "Business specified in Article 4 of the Temporary Staffing Law Enforcement Ordinance" "60 years old and over" "Students who are not subject to employment dispatch (so-called daytime students)" In principle, it was prohibited with the exception of "when a person with a main income of 500 million yen or more engages as a side job" (Article 500-35 of the Dispatch Law, Article 4 of the Dispatch Law Enforcement Ordinance).

Business specified in Article 4 of the Dispatch Law Enforcement Ordinance(Popular name 26 business)

  1. Information processing system development
  2. Mechanical design
  3. Equipment operation
  4. Interpreter, translation, shorthand
  5. secretary
  6. Filing
  7. Research
  8. Finance
  9. Trade
  10. demonstration
  11. Tour guide
  12. Reception / Information
  13. Research and Development
  14. Planning and planning of project implementation system
  15. Production and editing of books, etc.
  16. Advertising design
  17. OA instructions
  18. Sales engineer sales, financial product sales

Special provisions regarding the application of the Labor Standards Act, etc.

Labor Standards ActRegarding the application of the Worker Protection Law such as, etc. to the worker dispatching business, in principle, there is a labor contract relationship with the dispatched worker.The dispatching business owner is responsibleI am in a position.However, for dispatched workers, the business owner of the dispatched company, who does not have a labor contract relationship with the dispatched worker, gives specific instructions and orders for business execution, and installs equipment, machines, etc. at the place where the actual labor is provided. -Since management is also carried out, from the viewpoint of ensuring that the dispatched workers do not lack protection, it is a matter that accompanies specific employment at the dispatch destination, and from the actual situation of worker dispatch, the dispatch source For matters that are difficult to hold the responsibility of the dispatched business owner, and matters for which it is appropriate to hold the dispatched business owner responsible for the effective protection of dispatched workers, the dispatched business owner is responsible. We have established provisions regarding special provisions for the application of the Labor Standards Law, etc. (Articles 44 to 47-4 of the Dispatch Law).[14]..The provisions regarding special provisions for the application of the Labor Standards Act, etc., impose responsibility on the dispatching business owner for specific matters, which would otherwise be borne by the dispatching business owner. The employer of the dispatching agency will be responsible for all provisions of the Labor Standards Act, etc., for which there are no special provisions.

Labor Standards Act
Industrial Safety and Health Act

Employment stabilization measures

For dispatched workers based on the dispatch contract concluded on or after September 27, 9, the dispatching business owner will take measures to continue employment of the dispatched worker after the dispatch is completed (Employment stabilization measures) Must be taken.Specifically, it is as follows.The obligation will remain in effect until the dispatching employer properly fulfills it or the dispatched worker no longer wishes to continue working.Even if the employment contract ends, the obligation must be fulfilled.When taking employment stabilization measuresRespect the intention of the personHowever, you must endeavor to take the measures you desire.The dispatching business owner must describe the details of the employment stabilization measures implemented for each dispatched worker in the dispatching agency management ledger.

  1. Request for direct employment to the dispatched company
    Ask the dispatched worker to whom the target dispatched worker is currently working to apply for employment directly after the dispatch is completed.It is desirable to make this request by issuing a document.
    If, as a result of taking this measure, it does not lead to direct employment at the dispatched place, the dispatching employer needs to take additional measures.
    It is contrary to the purpose of the dispatching law that the dispatching agency prohibits or interferes with the direct employment of the dispatching agency, which is subject to administrative guidance.
    If the dispatched company directly employs a dispatched worker that it acceptsCareer advancement grantIs eligible for payment.
  2. Providing a new dispatch destination (Limited to rational ones)
    Secure new dispatch destinations and provide them to dispatched workers so that they can continue to work after the dispatch.
    This measure also applies to dispatching the target dispatched worker to the same dispatch destination as before after the dispatching business operator has made it an indefinite employment (not subject to the time limit).
  3. Indefinite employment by the dispatching business owner
    The dispatching business owner employs the target dispatched worker indefinitely and makes him / her work in-house (working style other than dispatched worker).
    The dispatch sourceLabor regulationsIf it is stipulated that only those who pass the examination will be hired as permanent employees by imposing a uniform examination, it cannot be said that employment stabilization measures have been taken for those who have failed the examination. It is necessary to take the measures of.
  4. Other measures necessary to stabilize employment
    Paid education and training conducted before providing new employment opportunities
    Temporary staffing, etc.

The target dispatched workers are

  • For those who are expected to be dispatched to the same organizational unit for three consecutive years, one of 3 to 1Must take.
    • Intentionally shortening the dispatch period to less than three years in order to avoid the employment stability obligation measures is subject to administrative guidance as an act of lawlessness.
  • For those who are expected to be continuously dispatched to the same organizational unit for one year or more and less than three years, one must endeavor to take any of 1 to 3.
  • For persons other than the above who have been employed by the dispatching business owner for a total of one year or more, efforts must be made to take any of 1 to 2.

When the dispatch destination receives a worker dispatch for the same fixed-term employment dispatched worker (specified fixed-term employment dispatched worker) from the dispatching agency for the same work for each organizational unit for one year or more, the relevant work continues. When trying to hire a worker to engage in a worker, hire a specific fixed-term temporary worker (limited to those who wish to continue working) who engaged in the work without delay. I have to try.

Career development support system

The 27 amendment made it obligatory to establish measures for the career development support system for dispatched workers in order to obtain a permit for dispatching business.Specifically, the permission criteria are as follows.

  • Establish a step-by-step and systematic implementation plan for education and training with the career development of dispatched workers in mind.The content of the education and training plan is
    • The education and training to be conducted is intended for all dispatched workers employed.
    • Education and training to be carried outPaid and freeWhat to do in (Note the number of hours below)
    • The content of the education and training to be implemented should contribute to the career advancement of dispatched workers (the reason for considering that it will contribute to career advancement must be stated in the submitted plan).
    • It must include education and training (education and training at the time of employment) to be carried out when hiring as a dispatched worker.
    • Education and training provided to indefinitely hired temporary workers should be designed with long-term career development in mind.
  • Have a career consulting consultation desk
    • A person in charge (a person who has knowledge of career consulting) must be assigned to the consultation desk.
    • The consultation desk should be available to all dispatched workers to be employed.
    • All desired dispatched workers can receive career consulting
  • Procedures for providing dispatch destinations with career development in mind are stipulated.
    • Administrative guides, manuals, etc. are in place to provide dispatched workers with the career development of dispatched workers in mind.
  • Time, frequency, number of hours, etc. of education and training
    • Education and training at the time of employment is essential for all dispatched workers.Training, etc. according to the career path must be prepared at regular intervals such as career milestones.
    • Regarding the number of hours of implementation, provide about 1 hours or more of education and training opportunities every year for each dispatched worker who is expected to be employed for 8 year or more full-time.
    • When implementing the above education and training plan, the dispatching business owner must consider working hours, etc. so that he / she can properly take education and training.

Step-by-step and systematic education and training

Step-by-step and systematic education and training will be conducted based on the education and training plan formulated as a career development support system.

It is desirable that the dispatching business owner formulates an appropriate career advancement plan for each dispatched worker based on consultation with the dispatched worker and implements effective education and training in line with the intention of the dispatched worker. ..Also, the education and training must bePaid / freeMust be of the costOf dispatched workerswageIt is not desirable to make up for it by reducing..If the dispatching agency voluntarily implements further education and training in addition to the required education and training, the dispatched worker will carry out these training if the participation of the dispatched worker is substantially compulsory. The time I participated inworking timeIt is necessary to calculate as and make it paid.

Promotion of equal treatment

The dispatching employer must consider the balance with workers engaged in the same type of work at the dispatched place, and consider wage determination, education and training, and welfare programs (Article 31). 2).In addition, the dispatching business owner must explain to the dispatched worker the matters considered to secure this treatment if the dispatched worker so desires, because the dispatched worker requested an explanation. Do not treat it disadvantageously (Article 31-5).

The dispatched employer must take care to provide the necessary information so that the dispatching agency can properly determine the wages of the dispatched worker.In addition, when the dispatched worker is to provide education and training closely related to the work to the dispatched worker, when requested by the dispatched agency, the dispatched worker is notified unless the dispatched agency can implement it. On the other hand, care must be taken to implement this.The dispatched company must take care to give the dispatched workers an opportunity to use the following facilities used by the dispatched workers.

  • School lunch facility (dining room)
  • Break room or rest area
  • Changing room

Labor contract application deeming system

After October 27, 10, if the dispatched company accepts the following illegal dispatch, the dispatched company will give the dispatched worker the same labor conditions as the dispatched worker's dispatching agency at that time. It is considered that you have applied for a labor contract that includes the conditions (except when you do not know that the dispatched company falls under illegal dispatch and there is no mistake in what you did not know) (Article 1 of the Dispatching Act) 40).

  • When engaged in dispatch prohibited work
  • When accepting worker dispatch from an unauthorized employer
  • If you accept a worker dispatch in violation of the time limit
    • Worker dispatching that has been carried out before September 27, 9 is subject to the obligation to apply for a labor contract under the law before the revision, and is not subject to the system of assuming no labor contract application.
  • So-calledCamouflage contract, this means a

The dispatching agency must clearly indicate the conflict date to the dispatched worker in advance when attempting to dispatch a worker and promptly when notified of the extension of the dispatchable period by the dispatching destination. At the same time, if the dispatched company accepts a dispatch that exceeds the conflict date (violating the time limit), it must be clearly stated that it will be subject to the labor contract application deeming system.

Health insurance association

Of the business that dispatches workersIndustry groupIsCorporation(At that time, nowInstitute(Migrate to)2002(Commonly known as "Hakenkenpo") was established.

Dispatched workers have traditionally been dispatchersWorker dispatching companyBecause the contract with is usually on a monthly basis and is not continuously employedHealth insurance,Welfare pension insuranceI often did not join.This handling increases the take-home income by not paying the insurance premiums for dispatched workers, reduces the insurance premium burden and social insurance related office work for the dispatching business operator, and the dispatch unit price for the dispatched company. Due to the merit of compression, contract renewals were repeated and the employment relationship continued for a long time without enrolling in both insurance systems.In particular, some businesses that specialize in the worker dispatching business intentionally did not join the social insurance system.[15].. But in 2002Accounting OfficePointed out that this is illegal in an inspection conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare.[16]Since both insurances were applied retroactively, a large amount of insurance premiums were added.In view of this situation, industry groups are taking the lead.Health insurance associationIt led to the establishment of.

Government-controlled health insuranceThere was also a way to join,It is said that the health insurance union system was adopted because the health insurance premium rate can be set lower if the insurance population consists of only relatively young dispatched workers.[By whom?]..The medical system for the elderly has changed since 20, andMedical system for elder senior citizensSince 21, the current account balance has fallen into the red due to contributions to (payments required by law), and this contribution is initially calculated according to the number of subscribers. Because it was decided, it tends to be a huge burden for unions with many young and low-income earners.[17]. AlsoHealth insurance associationBecauseNational Health Insurance(National Health Insurance)National Health Insurance AssociationCompared to (commonly known as "Japan Health Insurance Association"), there was also the merit that the rules could be set so that the compensation system such as, etc. would be more generous.The worker dispatching companytrading company,bank, If you are one of a group company such as a major manufacturer, you may take the form of joining the health insurance association of the parent company, and these companies are businesses that already had health insurance before the establishment of "Hakenkenpo". There were also many.

Dispatched Labor Health Insurance Association (Hakenkenpo)2019Dissolved on March 3st[18], From April 4stNational Health Insurance AssociationMoved to (commonly known as Japan Health Insurance Association)[18]. However,Recruitment stuffing(Recruit Health Insurance Association)RandstadSome dispatch companies, such as (Kanto IT Software Health Insurance), are members of health insurance associations other than "Japan Health Insurance Association".

History

The first company that engages in the worker dispatching businessOil shockAfter1975It has increased rapidly since that time.Corresponding to this1985In June, the Worker Dispatching Law was enacted, and the following day1986Enforced in July[19].2012Due to the revision of (24), "Ensuring proper operation of the worker dispatching business andProtection of dispatched workers, etc.LawThe title was revised.

  • 19867/1 : Worker dispatch lawEnforcement.
  • 1999February 7: International Labor TreatyJapan ratifies No. 181 (1997 Private Employment Agency Convention).
  • 199912/1: Amendment (expansion of dispatch industry)[Annotation 1]
  • 2002:ButHealth insurance associationEstablished as (commonly known as "Hakenkenpo").
  • 20043/1: Amendment of the Worker Dispatching Law.Lifting of the ban on dispatching manufacturing operations, legislation for dispatching scheduled referrals, etc.
  • 20063/1: With the revision of the Worker Dispatching Law, the extension of the dispatch acceptance period, consideration for the hygiene of dispatched workers, labor insurance, etc. will be included.
  • 2012October 10: Due to the revision of the Worker Dispatching LawDay labor dispatchIs prohibited in principle[23].
  • 2015October 10: Unification of dispatch business permit system, revision of time limit, clarification of the principle that "dispatched labor is temporary and temporary", and dispatched workers Mandatory implementation of employment stabilization measures for employees.
  • 2019
    • March 3: Dispatched labor health insurance association ("Hakenkenpo") is dissolved[18].
    • April 4: Dispatched labor health insurance association shifts to Japan Health Insurance Association (commonly known as "Kenpo")[18].

Major Japanese dispatch companies

List of Japanese staffing agenciesSee also

Controversy in Japan

Until the enactment of the Worker Dispatch Law

The reason why we adopted the current form of worker dispatching businessaircraftIn the industryDispatched tour conductorThe theory that[24]There is.

In enacting the Worker Dispatch Law, the year before the enforcement1985ToConvention on the Elimination of Discrimination against WomenRatifyLaw on ensuring equal opportunities and treatment for men and women in the field of employmentBy amendingsecretaryThe theory is that the Worker Dispatching Law was enacted in order to continue to respond in the form of dispatch because it is no longer possible to recruit jobs that women have taken on, such as receptionists and receptionists, by gender only.[25]There is.

Paraphrasing to "temporary staffing"

Despite the official name of "worker dispatch" under Japanese law, "worker dispatch" is dared to be "Human resourcesThere are dispatchers who use the name "dispatch"Industry groupIsInstituteBut the word "dispatch" is used in the name of the organization.[26].

There is an opinion that there are the following reasons for this[5].

  • The word "dispatched labor" may be associated with the image of direct employment at the dispatched destination, in order to avoid it.
  • The word "worker"Blue collarMay make you imagine, to avoid it
  • To give the impression that it is a business form that provides labor services by dispatching appropriate "human resources".

As an administrative example of the unclear meaning of the word "dispatch"Commercial registrationThere is precedent.2006Until then, concreteness is required for the expression of the purpose registration of the company, and the purpose of the company isregistrationA collection of purpose cases with precedents (Japanese lawAnd eachLegal Affairs BureauAccording to the compilation)The term "dispatched labor" was not allowed to be registered because it lacked specificity.[Source required]For this reason, in the practice of registration, expressions such as "worker dispatch business" are used in accordance with the Worker Dispatching Law.

Since 2006, registration has been possible even in the temporary staffing business,CorporationSubmits a permit application for a general worker dispatching business and a notification for a specific worker dispatching businessPrefectural Labor BureauWhen doing againstArticles of IncorporationThe purpose of is to carry out "worker dispatch business"[Annotation 2]Is required, and the expression "dispatching labor" is not acceptable.Therefore, it is necessary for a business operator who intends to carry out a worker dispatching business to set the business purpose as "worker dispatching business" instead of "human resources dispatching business".[Source required]

problem

Labor market polarization and widening economic disparity

In 2008, the OECD announced that in regular and non-regular workersEmployment protection regulationsTaking the gap as a problem, it proposes to reduce the employment protection of regular workers and to expand the employment protection and social security of non-regular workers.[27].

Regarding the situation of dispatched employees, there is also a survey result that many people choose the way of working as a dispatched employee in hopes of employment opportunities after retirement.[28]..On the other hand, there are cases where employees are forced to become dispatched employees because they have no other choice ().[29]..According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's "Comprehensive Survey on the Diversification of Employment Forms", the most common reason for choosing dispatched employees was "because there was no company that could work as a full-time employee", and 51.6% of dispatched employees said "other employment forms". I want to change to ", of which 91.6% want full-time employees.As regular employment is decreasing, temporary employment is increasing, soDisparity societyIt has also been pointed out that it is the cause of this.[By whom?]

On the other hand, the managing directorYuichi MatsudaIn the May 2007 issue of the monthly "Human Resources Business", "Temporary employeesNon-regular employmentIt is a misunderstanding that the current situation is misunderstood due to the fact that it accounts for only 8% of the total and the confusion between dispatch and contract. "[30]..According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications "Labor Force Survey"2012The number of dispatched employees from July to September was 7, which was 9% of all workers and only 87% of non-regular employment.

Japan Communist Party OfShizu KazuoOn April 2008, 2House of RepresentativesIn a question at the Budget Committee, I addressed the current issues of the worker dispatching business.For details of the questionKazuo Shii # About the worker employment problemSee.

Day labor dispatchAs for, because illegal acts at the dispatching company or the dispatching company were discovered one after another.2012In principle, it was banned except for specific industries.#Dispatch periodSee also.

Rampant working conditions unfavorable to workers

The worker dispatching business is originally a service that receives the request of the dispatched company, selects the most suitable person from the registered persons, and dispatches the person to the dispatched company.Therefore, Article 26 of the Worker Dispatching Act restricts "acts aimed at identifying dispatched workers" except for dispatched labor scheduled for direct employment in the future (up to 6 months). ..apart from"Face to faceUnder various names such as "workplace tour" and "business confirmation", the act (preliminary interview) in which the dispatched laborer introduces the dispatched worker to the dispatched destination and asks for hiring is rampant.Since this is illegal, the government is calling on dispatchers to strengthen legal compliance.HoweverJapan Business FederationTo the government's request for regulatory reform in the employment and labor sectorPre-interviewIt includes the full lifting of the ban.It is considered decisive that the position of dispatched workers will be weaker if the ban on pre-interviews is completely lifted, and dispatched workers say.Power harassmentThere are concerns about further rampant.In addition, in some interviews, there are reports of interviews that include substantially false content such as "think about hiring full-time employees" at the time of the interview.[By whom?]

In addition, the working conditions of one-month or three-month renewal indicated by a major worker dispatching company mean that both the employer and the worker have the freedom to refuse the renewal, but in reality, the worker refuses to renew. There are many companies that do not accept this, and there are statements that are disadvantageous to workers, such as "expecting long-term employment for one year or more, but requiring renewal of the contract for three months."On the other hand, renewal refusals from companies are being made plainly.[Source required]

Decline in international competitiveness / hollowing out of industry

Japan is a typical processing and trading nation that is made up of importing raw materials, processing them, and exporting products.Japan produces a large number of products of the highest quality in the world and maintains international competitiveness, but it requires loyalty and quality awareness to the products from most temporary employees who are outsiders and have short-term employment. Is almost impossible[Source required].In most cases, the worker dispatch system is used from the cost aspect, but if we do not switch to the worker dispatch system from the perspective of maintaining international competitiveness, Japan's international competitiveness will be improved from the quality aspect rather than the cost aspect. There is a risk of gradual deterioration, and measures from a long-term perspective that can achieve both cost and quality are required.Also, for dispatching workers, etc.Non-regular employmentDestabilization of life due to the increase of singlesLow birthrate and aging populationIs further advanced.It has been pointed out that employment instability is a major factor that has caused a fundamental and long-term decline in Japan's international competitiveness and is shrinking Japan's domestic market.[By whom?]

Due to the expansion of the dispatch system, skilled engineers and clerks are not trained, and the entire company / industryHollowing outIt is pointed out that it will lead to.It has also been pointed out that companies that use dispatched labor should accept the decline in productivity in return for low costs.[31].

Confederation of Japan Automobile Industry Labor UnionAccording to a questionnaire survey conducted by (Automobile Soren) on non-regular employees to their unions (response ratio in parentheses, multiple answers), "There is a problem in passing on skills and technology" (52.6%), "Products and services It has been pointed out that there is an impact on points such as "quality will decline" (28.3%).[32].

Counterargument from the worker dispatch affirmative side

In response to criticisms of the dispatched labor industry, the management side of the dispatch destination and the dispatch source mainly argues about the following points.

Criticism of the margin

Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareResults of the worker dispatching business report published by[33]According to the dispatched labor wages (8-hour conversion) and dispatching company dispatch fees (8-hour conversion), 31% for general worker dispatch and 33% for specific worker dispatch are dispatched companies.marginIt has become.The margin rates of major dispatch companies are published on the official websites of each dispatch company.

An industry group explains that it is necessary to take a margin of about 30% to make a profit as a for-profit company.[34].

Guidelines for measures to be taken by the dispatching business owner(20Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareNotification No. 37) provides the dispatched labor company with information on the business operation status such as the unit price of dispatched workers, management information, and dispatch business report in "13. Disclosure of Information" to the dispatched company and dispatched workers. It is stipulated to make it public.However, the fact is that this notification itself is hardly well known.The dispatched labor company denies the excessive margin, but since most of the margin is not a ratio that can be derived from the company's financial statements, it is difficult to confirm the authenticity and it is not credible.In most cases, even if it is assumed to be true, it is not a numerical value derived from a statistical point of view.[Source required]

Adecco,Fuji staff(CurrentRandstadIn the case of an independent worker dispatching company such as), the profit is calculated by taking into account expenses such as social insurance (half labor and management), paid leave burden, welfare, office land rent and labor costs, for example. Even if a large worker dispatching company in a prime location has a margin of 30%, it will not be profitable at face value.This is the same reason that the number obtained by dividing the annual income of general companies in other industries by the number of employees cannot be distributed as it is to the annual income of each employee.Roughly speaking, about 5% of the salary of dispatched employees is allocated to paid holidays, and about 7 to 10% is allocated to social insurance.In addition, there are various expenses such as personnel expenses such as accounting, sales, and personnel in charge of instructing staff, advertising expenses, land rent and utility expenses for large buildings.[Source required]

It can be seen from the financial statements of the worker dispatching companies that the worker dispatching business is a low-margin, high-selling business.For example, it can be inferred from the fact that Tempstaff, a major dispatched worker, had sales of 2007 billion yen in fiscal 1618, while operating income was 70 billion yen.If the net profit is about 1600 billion yen for the sales amount of 70 billion yen, the net profit of the dispatching company excluding expenses from the margin is about 4.5%.In addition, the operating profit of the top five companies in the industry in FY2006 was 5% of Tempstaff, and the operating profit of Pasona, the largest dispatched worker, was only 4.5%.However, the sales of the dispatch industry as a whole exceeded 3 trillion yen according to a survey by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in 22, and even if only 5% of it is net profit, it is a huge profit of 3 billion yen.[Source required]

Worker dispatching companies use the labor consideration that workers should get the full amount as a source of income.

Employing full-time employees by a company incurs enormous expenses, and in principle, it is necessary to set wages on the assumption that the employees will continue to be employed until retirement age (ボ ー ナ スExcept).Furthermore, for example, if 1 dispatched employees are hired as full-time employees, it means that labor management and accounting work for 1 people will be required.Inevitably, the number of managers and accounting staff will be increased, and these labor costs will also be incurred.In addition, it is difficult for regular employees to adjust their employment according to the business cycle and seasonal fluctuations.

For these reasons, hiring a full-time employee imposes a heavy burden on both initial costs and running costs.Even if the dispatched laborer gets a margin of 5% for net income, the company will bear this burden.OffsetMoreover, it is profitable for the company.Worker dispatching companies give elasticity to the labor costs of the dispatched companies and are profiting as compensation for services that strengthen the corporate constitution.

Full-time employees are replaced by temporary staffing, depriving them of employment opportunities as full-time employees

It has been pointed out that the existence of dispatched workers restrains the labor demand of companies and impairs employment opportunities for workers because the status of regular employees in Japan is very strong.[By whom?]..Actually Japanese companiesBulk recruitment of new graduatesDispatched workers meet the labor demands of companies.

Temporary employees have low incomes and are the cause of economic disparity and the working poor.

When the Worker Dispatching Act was enacted in 1986, worker dispatching was "temporary" for those who had notable skills such as simultaneous interpretation, financial processing, and software development that were difficult for regular employees of general companies. Because it was supposed to be a means of "borrowing from the outside", dispatched employees were generally higher paid than regular employees, and specialists who move from one company to another ("journey man" in professional sports). It was common to consider it to be.

However, the tendency of general companies (especially the current manufacturing industry) to use dispatched labor companies as a means of reducing labor costs has become remarkable since 1999 (after the revision of the law), and as of 2008, only those who have not acquired skills However, the number of companies that use dispatch companies is rapidly increasing as a means of accepting inexperienced workers and securing "human resources to perform routine simple tasks" rather than as a ready-to-work force. In 2009, the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare was banned from dispatching and accepting workers in simple manufacturing operations.Akira NagatsumaProposed by the Cabinet, but has been repeated every year since then, with the resignation of the Cabinet and the establishment of a new Cabinet, and in 2013Self-public coalitionThere is no prospect of enactment of the bill due to the revival of the bill.

In many cases, the misunderstanding of the dispatched company is the cause of the trouble.

In many cases, the person in charge of the dispatched company treats the dispatched worker with a false recognition, leading to trouble.This is often the case in young companies that use dispatched labor, but the person in charge of the dispatched labor treats the dispatched worker with the attitude that he / she should proceed with the work in the same manner as the employee, and the quota / results May be requested according to the employee.If the dispatched employee does not have social insurance, in most cases he thinks that he is only a short-term part-time job. There are many cases where both sides have a disadvantageous ending.Some are dispatched employeesAdvanced Information Technology Engineer ExaminationThere have also been reports of extremely excessive demands to pass[Source required]..The number of people who can pass the Advanced Information Technology Engineer Examination is limited among information processing engineers, and it is rare for a person who has the ability to pass the Advanced Information Technology Engineer Examination to continue working as a dispatched employee.

Since dispatched employees are outsiders, they often cannot move without instructions from the dispatched destination.In some cases, dispatched laborers do not act without instructions and are educated to be cautious about what they say and do. In some cases, dispatching workers is more suitable than dispatching workers, and there have been many reports of mismatches in dispatching workers due to lack of awareness of the dispatched companies.Also, in dispatched labor, dispatched employees are not responsible for completion, so a contractor who is responsible for completion may be more suitable.[Source required]

In addition, the regular employee side constantly threatens the dispatched employee to make a complaint to the dispatching source, forcing a labor level equivalent to that of the regular employee, the relationship deteriorates extremely, and the dispatched employee side intentionally makes a mistake or intentionally wants to resign. In some cases, it causes a loss to the dispatched company, and when the dispatched employee quits, all the problems of the dispatched company are reported to the personnel and general affairs of the dispatched company, causing trouble.There are voices from the dispatched employees asking the general affairs and personnel personnel of the company to crack down on acts such as constant threatening.In some extremely malicious cases where a full-time employee instructed a temporary employee to violate internal rules for personal reasons, or even ignored the loss of the company, or in order for the full-time employee to avoid liability, the temporary employee was asked. There have been quite a few reports of cases in which employees are allowed to carry out their duties without giving clear instructions, and if problems occur, they claim that they have not given instructions to dispatched employees.Both the dispatched company and the dispatched employees said that it is necessary to establish a system for reporting malicious acts of regular employees from the dispatched employee side to general affairs and personnel, and to improve the environment so that the disadvantage of the dispatched employee does not occur. There is from.[Source required][By whom?]

The dispatch system is a system that benefits some workers

In the case of major dispatched labor companies, there are many renewal contracts every 3-6 months, so this can be a mental pressure for some people, but on the contrary, it is attractive that there is no need to leave the initiative to the place of employment for the rest of your life. Some people feel it.For full-time employees, it is the same as the average salary based on company regulations, and it is difficult for some companies to receive payment according to their abilities, but highly skilled workers have high salaries and time. By selecting only dispatch destinations with a high degree of freedom, it is possible to improve annual salary.While the motivation for human resource development of companies is declining, by clearly having their own career advancement plan without relying on companies, it is possible to earn higher income than relying on companies in the short term.As a general rule, dispatched employees do not receive severance pay or bonuses, but depending on the type of business and the skills of the dispatched employees, the monthly take-home amount may be higher than that of regular employees with a short career in small and medium-sized enterprises.Many people used to take advantage of the self-development plan of voluntarily investing in study abroad and lessons to acquire further abilities by using the temporary cash obtained from this.It is true that an hourly wage of 20 yen, which is said to be a high hourly wage in the 2000s, may be attractive at the annual income level of 400 million yen, but since there is no salary increase, it remains at 40 million yen even at the age of 400.There are many transportation expenses and own expenses, there is no salary increase even if you work for many years, demand decreases extremely after the age of 40, and if there is no suitable job, the contract will be terminated even within the contract period. Has become clear one after another, and the number of those who are attracted to dispatch is decreasing sharply.[Source required]

Mainichi NewspapersAccording to the report ofNPO corporationAccording to the survey results, 7% of the dispatched workers working in the manufacturing industry said that the reason for choosing dispatched labor was "passive reason", and about 3% felt the merit and positively chose it. That[35].

Scholar's view

EconomistNorihisa IwataAccording to the book, as of 2008, the ratio of dispatched labor (the ratio of dispatched workers to non-permanent employees) is 8%.[36].. As of 2008, the ratio of dispatched workers to the total number of employees was 2.7%.[37]..Iwata pointed out that "if deregulation of dispatched labor had not progressed, the way to work in dispatch would have been closed and the number of unemployed would have increased. If the number of unemployed increased, the disparity would widen." Is[37]..Iwata says that if regulations on dispatching workers are tightened, companies will reduce non-regular employees, reduce the wages of regular employees, and move to overseas with relatively low wages.[38].

EconomistHideomi Tanaka"If we completely ban dispatched workers in Japan, we could take away the jobs of the workers who were dispatched. It is better to leave the dispatching system and improve the treatment."[39].

Works featuring dispatched workers

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ Japan Federation of Employers' Organizations (currentlyJapan Business FederationOne of the predecessors of.Nikkeiren) announced a plan to switch general jobs other than the core business to dispatch in 1995, and there is a theory that it will be revised in response to it.[20]..You can also read it in the Nikkeiren document "Japanese-style management in a new era."
  2. ^ Worker dispatching business, worker dispatching business, general worker dispatching business, specific worker dispatching business, all are possible.[Source required]

Source

  1. ^ OECD Labor Force Statistics 2020, OECD, (2020), two:10.1787/23083387 
  2. ^ "Databook International Labor Comparison" Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training, November 2019, 11.ISBN 978-4-538-49054-0. 
  3. ^ International Labor Treaty181 No.
  4. ^ a b OECD 2020.
  5. ^ a b Harada, 2004, p. 13
  6. ^ OECD Employment Outlook, OECD, (2021), Figure 4.5. two:10.1787 / 5a700c4b-en 
  7. ^ Regulatory reform centered on dispatched labor and comparison of human resources business between Japan and the United States
  8. ^ a b OECD Employment Outlook 2020, OECD, (2020-07), Country report: Denmark, two:10.1787/19991266, ISBN 9789264459793 
  9. ^ a b OECD Employment Outlook 2020, OECD, (2020-07), Country report: Germany, two:10.1787/19991266, ISBN 9789264459793 
  10. ^ a b c d e Naotaka Watanabe, Masaaki Mizui & Tsugumasa Nozaki 1990, p. 76.
  11. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsLabor force survey
  12. ^ a b "Status of worker dispatching business as of June 30, XNUMX" (Press release), Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Employment Security Bureau Supply and Demand Adjustment Business Division, (March 2019, 3), https://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/seisakunitsuite/bunya/0000079194.html 
  13. ^ Policy report (about the worker dispatch system) Demand and Supply Adjustment Business Division, Employment Security Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  14. ^ Worker dispatch business related business handling procedure Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare[Broken link]
  15. ^ Performance Record "Pasona's Corporate Strategy and Management Philosophy" Yasuyuki Nanbu(PasonaPresident and CEO) January 1999, 1
  16. ^ Board of Audit 11 Financial Results Inspection Report
  17. ^ The medical system for the elderly will change from April 20, and the insurance premiums of the health insurance association will increase sharply. Hakenkenpo
  18. ^ a b c d About Japan Health Insurance Association Japan Health Insurance Association, March 2019, 3
  19. ^ Naotaka Watanabe, Masaaki Mizui & Tsugumasa Nozaki 1990.
  20. ^ "Weekly Toyo Keizai』April 2007, 6 issue[Page number required]
  21. ^ Comprehensive Regulatory Reform Council "Second Report" Regulatory Reform Council
  22. ^ Temporary workers can now choose from a variety of work styles
  23. ^ "Narrowing "non-regular labor" siege"Nikkei Business],Nikkei BP, August 2012, 7.
  24. ^ "To create a society where dreams can be pursued Uematsu Electric Tsutomu Uematsu's challenge-Akabira-"Kamui Mintana" September 2007 issue
  25. ^ Daniel H. Foote, "Trial and Society: Rethinking the" Common Knowledge "of Justice," Translated by Masayuki Tamaruya, NTT Publishing, October 2006 ISBN 9784757140950
  26. ^ Japan Human Resources Dispatch Association
  27. ^ "Japan could do more to help young people find stable jobs”. OECD (December 2008). 2021/9/20Browse.
  28. ^ Awareness survey for contracted and dispatched employees Nagoya city
  29. ^ Can you continue to be "Haken" and be happy?Approaching the actual situation of female dispatched employees Kumiko Seto, Nikkei Business Online,Nikkei BP, Delivered April 2008, 7
  30. ^ "Dispatch is not the cause of disparity society"Yuichi Matsuda, Monthly "Human Resources Business" May 2007 issue,
  31. ^ Temporary staff ranking is also illegal 47NEWS, Kyodo News, March 2013, 3[Broken link]
  32. ^ "Issues to pass on non-regular and automobile skills also affect the quality of products and services"Kyodo News, Delivered April 2008, 9
  33. ^ Aggregation result of 22 worker dispatch business report Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  34. ^ I will explain the mechanism of the dispatch fee. Dispatch staff Japan Human Resources Dispatch Association[Broken link]
  35. ^ Dispatched workers: 7% of the manufacturing industry is "for negative reasons" NPO survey " Mainichi Newspaper, January 2008, 11
  36. ^ (I.e., 2010, 236 pages.
  37. ^ a b Iwata, 2010, p. 237.
  38. ^ Iwata, 2010, p. 238.
  39. ^ Tanaka, 2009, 180 pages.

References

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