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The representative successors who performed live demonstrations of intangible cultural heritage attracted many citizens and tourists, and they actively participated in the experience.
 

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Intangible cultural heritage

Intangible cultural heritage(Mr. Kaibukai,Intangible Cultural Heritage) IsFolk cultural property,Folklore, OralTraditionSuch asIntangible cultural propertyWas targeted for protection,United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationOne of the (UNESCO) businesses. Effective in 2006Convention on the protection of intangible cultural heritagebased on. For intangible cultural heritage, UNESCOworld HeritageIs a building, etc.Tangible cultural propertyTarget. Included is the succession of 2001 masterpiece declarations made three times since 3.

The intangible cultural heritage that has been targeted so far includes music, dances, festivals and ceremonies of various countries, as well as Indianyoga(2016), JapanJapanese paper(2014 years),Japanese(2013) and other traditional customs and crafts.

Definition

Convention on the protection of intangible cultural heritageIt is,2003Was adopted at the 32nd UNESCO General Assembly. It is defined in Article 2 "Intangible cultural heritage means customs, depictions, expressions, knowledge and techniques and their related instruments, articles, processed goods and cultural spaces, What individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage."

Under the Convention, in order to raise awareness about the importance of intangible cultural heritage, the Intergovernmental Committee on Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection established within UNESCO has adopted "a representative list of human intangible cultural heritage". (Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity) Is to be created (Article 16). Before the adoption of the treatyA masterpiece of human oral tradition and intangible heritage(English edition(Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity) Is declared in the list (Article 31).

Notation

Generally, the intangible cultural heritage listed in this list isWorld intangible heritage,World Intangible Cultural HeritageThere is also a colloquial name that refers to the “world” as in, but the notation in the treaty approval procedure in Japan isIntangible cultural heritageIs[1], The word "world" is not included in the treaty text[2].

History

Intangible cultural heritage isFolk music-ダンス-dramaSuch),Lore, Social customs, ceremonies, festivals, traditional craft techniques, cultural spaces, etc. The tangible cultural heritage was already adopted in 1972.Convention on the protection of world cultural and natural heritage(World Heritage Convention)world HeritageAlthough there was a framework for protection such as the list of, but for intangible cultural heritage, it is difficult to protect with that framework, so a new framework was created. The Convention on the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage comes into effect three months after the number of Contracting Parties reaches 30 countries, and about three years after the adoption.2006It took effect on April 4.

UNESCO, It was announced every other year as "Proclamation of Masterpieces of Human Oral and Intangible Heritage" (Masterpiece Declaration) prior to the entry into force of the Convention on the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Held three times every other year (3, 2001, 2003), a total of 2005 masterpieces were declared. These will be integrated into the list of representatives after the entry into force of the Convention on the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage and no further declaration will be made.

In September 2007, the second UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee in Japan consulted on the preparation of a representative list and a list of intangible cultural heritage that should be urgently protected (list of crisis). It was held. In this committee, the government representatives of each country agreed to prepare the first list in September 9. Officially decided at the UNESCO General Assembly held in June 2[3].. The deadline for submission of proposals to the representative list for each Contracting Party is the first at the end of September 1. By the way, the crisis list is March 2008, 9. From the second time onwards, the deadline for submission to the representative list is the end of August every year.

At the intergovernmental committee held in December 2019, we will showcase the floats and performances with satireBelgiumof"Aalst Ofカ ー ニ バ ルAmong the prizes inJewIncludes some disdain,Anti-SemitismTargetRacismHowever, it was decided to deregister for the first time as an intangible cultural heritage.[4].

Representative list

The operating instructions adopted by the General Assembly of the Parties held in June 2008 set forth the standards and timetables listed in the representative list. According to the report, the first inter-governmental committee meeting scheduled to be held in September 6 will prepare the first representative list, which will be updated annually thereafter. The representative list is prepared by the individual proposals submitted by each contracting party being examined by an auxiliary body established in the intergovernmental committee, and then finally evaluated and decided by the intergovernmental committee.world HeritageIt is different from the evaluation system of.

The list prepared for the international protection of intangible cultural heritage prepared under Articles 16 and 17 of the Convention is based on the proposals or requests from the Contracting Parties concerned, Created by the committee. The list is

  • "Representative list of human intangible cultural heritage" (representative list)
  • "List of intangible cultural heritage that needs urgent protection" (Crisis list)

There are two types.

As with World Heritage Sites, registration countries are biased, and despite being a heritage site with historical and folk commonalities, multiple countries apply for registration separately, and in the process, There are also cases of international disputes insisting on sex. For example, the Chinese government protested the Korean “Gangneung Danno Festival” registered in 2005, and sought to define it as a convention in one region of South Korea.[Note 1].. Later, the country registered "Dango Festival" (2009). The registered name is different from "dragon boat" in English and "Dango" in Chinese, which is different from "Gangneung Festival" in that it promotes dialogue and respect between cultures in a regional, national and international manner. This is because the Chinese government intended to clarify the implications at the level.[Source required].

Field

Article 2, Paragraph 2 of the Convention on the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage lists the following five fields (Domain).

  • Oral traditions and expressions (including language as a vehicle of intangible cultural heritage)
  • Entertainment
  • Social customs, ceremonies and festival events
  • Knowledge and customs about nature and all things
  • Traditional craft technology

This field will be listed on the nomination form when each country makes a recommendation to UNESCO. Regarding the items listed in the 2009 list of representatives, we recommend one field for each recommendation from Japan, but there are many cases where they are recommended and registered as corresponding to multiple fields. Some of the items listed in the representative list do not include the relevant field.

Declaration of a masterpiece of humanity's oral and intangible heritage

Prior to the entry into force of the Convention on the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage, it cannot be legally registered as an intangible cultural heritage.政府,NGO,Local governmentFor the purpose of encouraging the succession and development of oral and intangible heritage and preserving its own cultural characteristics, those that meet the criteria are "Declaration of masterpieces of oral and intangible heritage of mankind" ( Announced as a masterpiece declaration). The first declaration was on May 1, 2001, the second declaration was in 511/7The third declaration was in 311/25, 19 cases, 28 cases and 43 cases have been declared masterpieces respectively. In 2006Convention on the protection of intangible cultural heritageBecame effective, and these were officially registered and integrated in the representative list in 2009.

In the masterpiece declaration, those that meet any of the "selection criteria" were selected in consideration of the "consideration criteria."

Selection criteria
Consideration criteria
  • Outstanding value as a masterpiece of humanity's creative talent
  • Traditional and historical tools of the community
  • Role that embodies ethnic groups
  • Excellence in finesse
  • Value as a unique proof of life culture tradition
  • Danger of disappearance

List of registered intangible cultural heritage

In 2006Convention on the protection of intangible cultural heritageHas come into effect.As a result, what was registered in "", which was implemented by UNESCO before the entry into force of the Convention, was integrated into the representative list of this Convention in November 2008.[5].

Trends in Japan

Due to the rapid increase in the number of applications and registrations since the 2010s, UNESCO has suspended the acceptance of applications from countries with a large number of registrations, and in 2011 applied for the Chichibu Festival stand event and the Kagura and Takayama Festival stand events. However, the registration was postponed because it was similar to the Yamaho event of the Kyoto Gion Festival registered in 2009. After that, in 2014, after successfully expanding the registration as "Washi" by adding Honmino paper and Hosokawa paper to the Ishishu Hanshi registered in 2009, in 2016, the Yamaho event of the Kyoto Gion Festival and Hitachi Furyumono mentioned above. UNESCO, who wants to reduce the number of registrations by adding the Chichibu Festival stand event, Kagura and Takayama Festival stand event, and other similar properties as "Mountain, Hoko, Yatai Event", has also evaluated this method.[6]In 2018, a property similar to Toshidon on Koushima, which was registered in 2009, was added and registered as "Visiting Gods: Ritual Visits of Masked and Costumed Gods". However, Japan, which continues to have a large number of registrations, is obliged to apply every other year.

At the 2020th Intergovernmental Committee held from November 11th to December 30th, 12, "Traditional Architects' Techniques: Traditional Techniques for Inheriting Wooden Buildings" (BuildingRepair,BuildingCarpentry,Cypress skin-Thatched roof,Thatched roof, Hinohide collection, roof board production, Kaya collection, buildingDecoration,Buildingcolor,BuildingLacquered,Roof tileTiled roof (book tile roof),Plasterer(Japanese wall),JoineryProduction,tatamiProduction, repair technology, made in JapanlacquerProduction / purification, edgingGold leafManufacture) was registered[7]..Regarding this registration, UNESCO has stated that one of the future registration indicators for World Heritage Sites is that "intangible cultural heritage is necessary and inseparable for the protection of candidate targets ("Cultural materials(Protection and succession of technology) ”, the skills of traditional architectural craftsmen will be inherited as new candidates for world heritage to be recommended at the Council for Cultural Affairs World Cultural Heritage Subcommittee held on January 2021, 1. Confirmed to give priority to what is[8].

Candidates aiming for registration in 2022 are also being selected, including "Aman no Furu Daidance Kodance" in Hyogo Prefecture and "Aman no Furu Daidance Kodance" in Kagawa Prefecture.Ayako Dance, "Shodon play" in Amami region, Kagoshima prefecture, "Tarama's good harvest festival" in Okinawa prefecture, etc.Bon danceConsider making an ancestral memorial dance festival like this an extension application for "Chakkirako" registered in 2009[9].. Held on February 2020, 2Cultural CouncilIn the folk performing arts "Fengyu dance("Shodon play" and "Tarama's good harvest festival" are excluded from the selection)[10]..Furthermore, on January 2021, 1, "Shouzu River Dance" in Gujo City, Gifu Prefecture, "Tsushima Bon Dance" in Tsushima City, Nagasaki Prefecture, and "Nobara Hachimangu Furyu" in Arao City, Kumamoto PrefectureImportant intangible folk cultural propertiesIn addition to this, we decided to incorporate "Nino Bon Odori" from Nagano Prefecture and face 24 cases in 41 prefectures.[11].

Furthermore, since the Agency for Cultural Affairs registered "Japanese food" in 2013, interest in Japanese food has increased overseas.Foreign tourists visiting JapanJapanese food consumption is increasing, and the government has promoted exports of Japanese foods and ingredients, branded them, and protected their rights.SakeWe have begun to consider application and registration. A legal protection basis is required when applying,Cultural property protection lawbyImportant intangible cultural propertySince it is a prerequisite to specify such asMr. Tsuji OfHuman national treasureCertification is also in view[12]..This took place on January 2021, 1Yoshii Kanprime minister OfPolicy statementAiming to register in 2024[13], The Council for Cultural Affairs Intangible Cultural Heritage Subcommittee announced on February 2022, 2.穀物As a raw materialmaltTo usefermentationOf "Technique"Distilled spirits,AwamoriSelected as a candidate for proposal as "traditional sake brewing" including[14].

The Agency for Cultural Affairs has begun to make positive proposals as candidates from local governments and private organizations in the field.tea ceremony-flower arrangement-calligraphy-Kimono-bonsaiWe have also decided to consider traditional Japanese lifestyles such as[15], Under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties revised on April 2021, 4, the owner applies for and "registers" the building instead of "designating" it by the government.Registered tangible cultural propertyThe system was expanded to include intangible cultural properties, and a system was established to serve as a legal protection basis when recommending intangible cultural heritage.[16].

Active utilization

UNESCOEpidemic of new coronavirus infectionTo rebuild a confused society, the traditions and wisdom of each regionIntangible goods(Cultural property) AndLiving heritageIf there is a hint in[17], Launched the "Dive into Intangible Cultural Heritage" project to actively utilize intangible cultural heritage and experience intangible cultural heritage after the end of Corona.Resilient TourismRecommended as[18].

Special measures

The intergovernmental committee to select the intangible cultural heritage in 2022 was scheduled for November 11th to December 28rd, but applied for it there.ウクライナ Oflocal cuisineIsBorscht,Russia invades UkraineUNESCO hastily decided to register on July 7st.[19].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Source

  1. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs-Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage
  2. ^ CONVENTION FOR THE SAFEGUARDING OF THE INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE, Treaty,(English)UNESCO, 2003
  3. ^ UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage, first registered in 09 Noh and Kabuki [Broken link]/ asahi.com / September 2007, 9
  4. ^ UNESCO, Racism and Deregistration Belgian Carnival of Cultural Heritage Kyodo News (Yahoo! News) December 2019, 12
  5. ^ [1],UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List
  6. ^ Mountain / Hoko / Yatai event decided to be registered as an intangible cultural heritage UNESCO Asahi Shimbun December 2016, 12
  7. ^ UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Japan's "Traditional Architects' Techniques" Registration Decision NHK 2020/12/18
  8. ^ Council for Cultural Affairs World Cultural Heritage Subcommittee (5th) Agency for Cultural Affairs Council for Cultural Affairs World Cultural Heritage Subcommittee
  9. ^ Intangible heritage, 22 years registration discussion start to domestic candidate selection Nihon Keizai Shimbun March 2019, 6
    "Aman no Furu Daidance Kodance" becomes a domestic candidate for UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Minamiawaji's traditional performing arts / Hyogo Prefecture Sun TV February 2020, 2
  10. ^ "Fuyu Dance" selected as a UNESCO intangible heritage candidate Kyodo News September 2020, 2
    Selection of proposal candidates for UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage in the first year of Reiwa Agency for Cultural Affairs
  11. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun June 2021, 1
  12. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun January 2020, 1 evening edition
  13. ^ Aiming for intangible cultural heritage of sake and shochu Expectations for export and consumption expansion Prime Minister in policy Japan Agricultural NewspaperJanuary 2021, 1 (Yahoo! News distribution)
  14. ^ About selection of proposal candidates for UNESCO intangible cultural heritage in Reiwa 3 Agency for Cultural Affairs
  15. ^ Consider applying for UNESCO intangible heritage, tea ceremony and bonsai Expanding candidates Nihon Keizai Shimbun March 2017, 2
  16. ^ Amendment of the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties is enacted NHK November 2021, 4
  17. ^ Living heritage experiences and the COVID-19 pandemic --intangible heritage - UNESCO
  18. ^ Recognizing importance of living heritage during pandemic Mirage News2020/12/4
  19. ^ Borsch designated as an intangible cultural heritage in danger of disappearing UNESCO AFP = Jiji Press July 2022, 7

注 釈

  1. ^ The Korean Dano Festival is indigenousShamanismRitual included,ZongDo not eatKusuharaDo not worship.

References

  • Furuhisa Mami FurutaSupervised "World Intangible Cultural Heritage Data Book" (Think Tank Setouchi Research Organization)

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