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🎗 | Started recruitment for the Japan Donation Foundation "2022 Grant Project" A total of 1 million yen to support and solve social issues ...


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Started recruitment for the Japan Donation Foundation "2022 Grant Program" A total of 1 million yen to support and solve social issues ...

 
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The subsidy will be delivered by the method of transferring to the bank account designated by the subsidy target.
 

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Subsidy

Subsidy(Hojokin,British: subsidy) Is政府One-sided to the private sector such as private companies and individualscurrencyBenefits[1].Central government("Country") orLocal government(Local government) Is a cash benefit that is unilaterally paid to public organizations, economic organizations, companies, private individuals (individuals), etc. without receiving any counter-benefits in order to achieve the administrative purpose and effect.[2].

In economics, it may refer to the entire subsidy policy (including special tax cuts, public works, public services, etc.) in a broader sense, but in general, only one-sided monetary benefits are called subsidies.[1].

Overview

Types

Subsidies are divided into those paid by the central government (national) to local governments (local public bodies) and those paid by the government (central government, local government) to the private sector.[2].

Subsidies from the central government to local governments include "general subsidies" whose use is not limited and "specific subsidies" (individual subsidies) whose use is limited.[2].


Subsidies to the private sector

For subsidies from the government to the private sector,privateSubsidies for (individuals, consumers) "and"CompanyThere is a "subsidy for"[2].. "Subsidy for private individuals"social welfareIt is used for the purpose of maintaining and improving the standard (for example, medical care and education) and for maintaining and expanding the consumption of various products.[2].. "Subsidies for companies" are the protection and development of new and immature industries.External economyIt is used to foster highly effective industries, foster strategically important industries, and control supply prices of consumer goods.[2].

In recent years, instead of subsidy spending, "TaxThe method of achieving a similar effect (that is, the method of reducing the amount of tax that was originally planned to be collected) is increasingly being used.[2]..This can be said to be a "hidden subsidy," including special tax measures in Japan.[2].

Efficient allocation of subsidies

publicEconomicsIn such cases, it has been pointed out that the economic irrationality of the arbitrary allocation of subsidies.However, if numerical criteria such as "CO2 reduction effect" can be created, such as subsidies for the spread of new energy and energy-saving equipment, the most achievement of the criteria will be achieved.Cost-effectivenessThis problem can be avoided by adopting a system that allocates subsidies from the highest.


History

The origin of subsidies from the central government to local governments is in the 19th century in Europe and the United States.Industrial revolutionRecognized in the period[2].

The importance of subsidies has come to be recognized in local public finance.the 1930s OfrecessionAfter the period[2].

Subsidies in the UK

United KingdomNational subsidies1825It is said to start with the exchequer grant created in[3]..After the Industrial Revolution, the national government has responded to local governmentsWorker Ofpublic health,Pollution controlInstitutionalized to strengthen and force the construction of worker housing[3].

Subsidies in the United States

The United States of AmericaIs a federal stateStateIs relatively independent, and the state has taken the initiative in making financial adjustments between municipalities.[4].. There is nothing special to mention in the 19th century, except for the granting of state-owned land to be used as a land for state universities.[4]..The federal government began to actively intervene in local administration after the recession of the 1930s.Public worksBegan to promote economic policy through the agency of[4]..Subsidies have changed from temporary to permanent and have the character of maintaining the national minimum (national required administrative level).[4].1964ToLindon johnsonFederal subsidies surged as president declared war on poverty[4].


Subsidies in Japan

In Japan, in addition to what is called subsidies themselves in laws and budget-related documents, in a broad sense, "subsidies," "subsidies," "incentives," "benefits," "grantes," and "contributions." It includes those with names such as "consignment money", and in a narrow sense, it refers to national treasury expenditure.[2].

The definition of subsidies under the law is not always clear, and the Subsidy Optimization Law (described later) does not give a clear definition.Money transferred by the private sector to the government or by a lower-ranking government to a higher-ranking or equal-ranking government with the consent of both parties is often referred to as a "contribution", but this is also dealt with collectively below. ..There are "benefits" and "subsidies" that are similar to subsidies and contributions, but there are many that have substantially the same characteristics as subsidies, and these are appropriate for subsidies as specified by government ordinance. It is the subject of the chemical law.

As explained in the overview, subsidies from the national government to local governments include general subsidies with limited uses and specific subsidies (individual subsidies) with limited uses, but in Japan, As the formerLocal allocation tax, The latter is national treasury spending[2].

National treasury disbursements are divided into national treasury contributions, national treasury consignments, and national treasury subsidies.National treasury contributions include those stipulated by law (compulsory education staff costs, livelihood protection costs, etc.) and those for public works projects based on plans formulated by the government. The "national treasury consignment" has the property of paying the expenses when the government entrusts the affairs that should be done to a local public body. Required for office workExpenseand so on[2].

The Constitution has provisions that are also interpreted as related to subsidies,Article 89 of the Constitution of JapanThen,Public moneyOtherPublic propertyIt is,Religious organization or groupIt is stated that you must not spend or use for the use, benefit or maintenance of, or for charitable, educational or philanthropic businesses that do not belong to public control.But how to do this Article 89Legal interpretationThere is a complicated story about what should be done (such as the adequacy of subsidies for private schools), and the government's interpretation is changing.[5].

History

in Japan,MeijiIn the early daysCentralizationWith the change, subsidy policies have been used for local governance.[2].

Subsidies issued by the government, etc.

CountryFor procedures such as subsidies, please refer to "Law Concerning Appropriate Execution of Budget for Subsidies, etc."(Subsidy optimization method) is used for processing.In addition, regarding subsidies, etc. that the national government grants to local public bodies,Local Finance LawThere is a regulation in.

Subsidy optimization method

As the responsibility of the person who pays the subsidy, the head of each ministry and agency is concerned with the subsidy, etc. under its jurisdiction.budgetSubsidies, etc.PeopleCollected fromtaxSubsidies, etc. are provided, paying particular attention to the fact that they are covered by other valuable financial resources.decreeAnd, it is said that efforts must be made to use it fairly and efficiently in accordance with the provisions of the budget, and the subsidies, etc. are covered by taxes and other valuable financial resources collected from the people. In accordance with the decree and the purpose of granting subsidies, etc., or the purpose of delivering or accommodating indirect subsidies, etc., we must endeavor to carry out subsidy projects, etc. or indirect subsidy projects, etc. in good faith. Must be. (Article 3, Paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Subsidy Optimization Law)

Those who receive subsidies are subject to the stipulations of laws and regulations, the content of the decision to grant subsidies, the conditions attached to them, and the disposition of the heads of each ministry and agency based on the laws and regulations.Attention of a good managerIt is necessary to carry out subsidy business, etc., and use it for other purposes such as subsidies (for interest subsidies, by not reducing the loan or interest that is the purpose of the grant. , It means that the grant was received contrary to the purpose of granting the subsidy, etc.). (Article 11 of the same law)

Those who receive subsidies must report the progress status to the heads of each ministry and agency, but the heads of each ministry and agency should report the contents of the decision to grant subsidies, etc. to the person's subsidy business, etc. If you find that you are not performing in accordance with the conditions attached to, you may order the person to carry out the subsidy business, etc. in accordance with these, and if you violate this order, that person It may be ordered to suspend the execution of the subsidy project, etc. (Article 12, Article 13, Paragraph 1, Paragraph 2 of the same law)

The heads of each ministry and agency may use the subsidies for other purposes, such as subsidies, and the details of the decision to grant subsidies, etc. If the disposition of the head of each ministry or agency is violated based on this, it is possible to cancel all or part of the decision to grant subsidies, etc. When subsidies, etc. are issued, a deadline must be set and the return must be ordered. (Paragraph 1 of the same law, Article 18 Paragraph 1)

Persons who have used subsidies for other purposes or indirect subsidies for other purposes in violation of the provisions of Article 11 of the Act on Appropriate Execution of Budgets for Subsidies, etc. Less than a yearImprisonmentOr less than 50 million yenfineOr both. (Article 30 of the same law)

Local Finance Law

Specific financial resources such as subsidies and contributions that the national government grants to local governments are collectively called national treasury disbursements, and the Local Government Finance Act calls this.National treasury contribution,National treasury subsidy,National treasury consignmentAfter classifying into, the responsibilities of the country and the principles for calculating the amount are stipulated.

Subsidies, etc. issued by local governments

根 拠

Local governmentabout,Local government law"Ordinary local public bodies may donate or subsidize when necessary for their public interest." (Article 232-2), And based on this, subsidies are provided to other local public organizations or the private sector.Expenditures are based on the rules and guidelines of each local government in accordance with the provisions of the Subsidy Optimization Law.

There is a system to attract companies from other places for the purpose of promoting industry.The amount of the subsidy is determined as a percentage of the purchase amount of equipment, buildings, land, etc., and will be paid if the application is evaluated and approved.In the evaluation, the flow of a series of purchases from ordering to delivery, payment based on the invoice, and subsequent receipt is confirmed, and the actual product is confirmed whether it is actually used for business.

Audit by Audit Committee

Audit CommitteeWhen it finds it necessary, or when requested by the head of an ordinary local government, the ordinary local government provides subsidies, grants, contributions, loans, loss compensation, interest supply and other financial matters. It is possible to audit those related to the financial assistance in the execution of accounts and other affairs of those who are providing assistance.Those that are funded by the ordinary local government and are specified by Cabinet Order, those that the ordinary local government guarantees the payment of the principal or interest of the loan, and the trust that the ordinary local government has the beneficiary right. The trustee of what is specified by the Cabinet Order and the ordinary local public bodyArticle 244-2The same shall apply to those who manage public facilities based on the provisions of Paragraph 3. (Article 199 of the Local Autonomy Law(Section 7)


footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b Kenichi Miyamoto, "Political Economy of Subsidies," Asahi Sensho, 1990, p. 8. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Encyclopedia Nipponica" [Subsidy]
  3. ^ a b Kenichi Miyamoto, "Political Economy of Subsidies," Asahi Sensho, 1990, p. 9. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Kenichi Miyamoto, "Political Economy of Subsidies," Asahi Sensho, 1990, p. 10. 
  5. ^ Eijiro Arai "Government Interpretation and Private School Grants on Article 89 of the Constitution"The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Education Educational Administration Theory," Volume 26, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Education School Development Policy Course, March 2007, pp. 3-1, two:10.15083/00031808.

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