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💴 | Some households will not be able to receive children's allowance. Changes in children's allowance that changed from June


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Some households will not be able to receive their children's allowance. Changes in children's allowance that changed from June

 
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The reason why this child allowance was reviewed is that it is necessary to scrutinize its usage due to the rapid increase in social security costs such as old-age pension, medical care, and welfare.
 

This is a child allowance provided to those who are raising children from 0 years old to graduating from junior high school, but in June 2022, a new child allowance ... → Continue reading

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社会 保障

社会 保障(Shakasho,British: social security schemes) Is a personal risk, life problems ()sick-Injury-Obstacle,birth,Ageing,Death,unemploymentEtc.)Country・ Based on mutual support by insurance premiums collected by local governments in each field, the shortfall is taxed and borrowed (Government bond costs) Etc.Income transferBy letting them guarantee the people from the above problems,Medical,Nursing careTo provide social benefits such as.Social security system(Social security system) refers to a system for social security[3][4].

The word social securitysocial welfareOften used synonymously with, but publicly, in addition to social welfarepublic healthIt is a broader concept that also includes.

The presence and degree of social security varies greatly from country to country.World populationAbout 53% of the total, or about 41 billion people, are left without social security (by region).EuropeCovers more than 80%Sub-Saharan AfricaIs only about 13.7% covered.By countrynorth koreaExcept for unknown countries such asガイアナ-Saint Pierre and Miquelon-Australia-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-New Zealand-Singapore-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-Belgium-Finland-France-スロベニア-SwedenCovers all the people, whileEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIs only about 0.9% covered.By the way, Japan is about 98.0%)[5][6]..In a country with a social security system, the purpose is common to many countries, but the meaning of the word varies from country to country.for exampleUnited KingdomSo Social Security isFinancial securityRefers only.International Labor Organization(ILO)European UnionIn (EU) etc., the term Social Protection is used instead of Social Security.Economic Cooperation Development Organization(OECD) statistics adopt the concept of Social Expenditure, etc.[7], Makes various classifications for international comparison and statistical processing.

Regarding the financial resources, a method that uses general tax revenue as a source of funds (Beveridge type) and a method that contributes insurance premiums between labor and management (a method that contributes insurance premiums)BismarckDivided into type)[8].. For the latterSocial insurance systemAlso called.

Financial scale and financial resources of each country

Public and social spending in OECD countries[9]
Per person
Spending(PPPsU.S. dollar)
(2017)
GDPOccupy
Ratio (%)
(2019)
General government spending
Proportion (%)
(2017)
OECDaverage9,158.120.046.2
Australian flag Australia8,571.516.7[Annotation 1]45.6
Austrian flag Austria14,900.026.955.4
Belgian flag Belgium14,567.428.955.3
Canadian flag Canada8,830.418.0[Annotation 2]43.5
Chilean flag ãƒãƒª2,701.811.4---
Colombia flag ã‚³ãƒ­ãƒ³ãƒ“ã‚¢1,947.313.129.7
Costa Rica flag Costa Rica---12.2[Annotation 2]34.9
Czech flag Czech Republic7,231.819.2[Annotation 2]47.6
Danish flag Denmark16,053.528.356.9
Estonia flag ã‚¨ã‚¹ãƒˆãƒ‹ã‚¢5,839.217.743.8
Finnish flag Finland14,073.029.155.1
French flag France14,078.431.055.8
German flag Germany13,448.825.957.1
Greek flag Greece7,172.824.052.0
Hungarian flag Hungary5,810.518.141.9
Iceland flag ã‚¢ã‚¤ã‚¹ ランド8,896.817.437.3
Irish flag Ireland11,125.013.454.5
Israeli flag Israel6,331.116.341.1
Italian flag Italy11,551.428.256.7
Japanese flag Japan9,153.722.3[Annotation 1]57.7
Republic of Korea flag  South Korea4,143.912.233.4
Latvian flag ãƒ©ãƒˆãƒ“ã‚¢4,534.416.440.8
Lithuanian flag ãƒªãƒˆã‚¢ãƒ‹ã‚¢5,185.916.746.2
Luxembourg flag Luxembourg24,236.721.651.0
Mexican flag Mexico1,501.07.528.7
Dutch flag  Netherlands9,192.716.139.1
New Zealand flag New Zealand7,710.719.4[Annotation 2]48.8
Norway flag Norway15,868.825.349.9
Polish flag Poland6,198.621.350.4
Portugal flag Portugal7,497.922.650.0
Flag of Slovakia Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu5,395.317.742.1
Flag of Slovenia ã‚¹ãƒ­ãƒ™ãƒ‹ã‚¢7,881.021.148.8
Spanish flag Spain9,487.824.758.1
Swedish flag Sweden13,736.825.552.9
Swiss flag Switzerland11,432.416.7[Annotation 2]49.9
Turkish flag Turkey3,414.612.035.4
British flag United Kingdom9,466.320.649.8
United States flag America10,964.318.748.5

Countries marked with * are using different year values. Country footnotes indicate which item has a different year value.
All items are specified unless otherwise specified. When there is no footnote in the country name, only the items with footnotes use different year values.

Comparing the size of social security benefits and tax / insurance burdens,NordicCountries are "high welfare and high burden",The United States of AmericaIs said to be a representative example of "low welfare and low burden" (although the United States has small public spending but the largest private spending in OECD countries.CharityPlays a large role[7]).

Institutional financial resources vary from country to country, and if social security finance is operated separately from the government general account,Social security fundCalled (Social security Funds)[10].

Financial resources

ResourcesEmployer or employer(Or both)Social insurance system(Social insurance),Bismarck typeと 呼 ば れ る[11][8].Germany,FranceIs applicable[8].

On the other hand, the method of providing benefits from general tax revenueBeveridge typeCall[8].Sweden,DenmarkNordic countries such as[8], Without social insurance systemAustralia,New ZealandIs applicable[12].

European Union flag European UnionCountries and neighboring five non-member countries of the European Union (Social Protection receipts)
(2017,%)[13]
CountryCompanyCentral governmentLocal governmentSocial security fundGeneral government totalHouseholdNon profit organizationforeign
27 EU member countries[Annotation 3]28.231.315.61.047.922.80.60.5
Malta flag Malta8.180.00.00.080.011.90.00.0
Danish flag Denmark10.545.333.10.078.411.10.00.0
Finnish flag Finland19.432.628.85.266.613.80.20.0
Irish flag Ireland27.160.53.20.063.79.20.00.0
Swedish flag Sweden[Annotation 3]28.321.038.92.161.99.20.50.1
Italian flag Italy[Annotation 3]24.245.612.50.258.417.20.20.0
Cyprus flag Cyprus25.053.20.50.053.720.21.00.0
Greek flag Greece[Annotation 3]21.949.81.91.953.624.50.00.1
Portugal flag Portugal26.552.41.10.053.516.41.62.0
Luxembourg flag Luxembourg22.051.31.30.252.815.90.78.6
Latvian flag ãƒ©ãƒˆãƒ“ã‚¢[Annotation 3]29.641.56.44.452.317.30.30.6
Bulgarian flag Bulgaria23.148.73.40.152.224.40.20.1
Polish flag Poland27.745.55.40.050.921.50.00.0
Spanish flag Spain[Annotation 3]35.114.635.40.350.313.90.10.5
Belgian flag Belgium29.827.818.03.549.320.90.00.0
French flag France29.739.66.92.448.920.41.00.0
Hungarian flag Hungary[Annotation 3]25.737.83.11.842.730.30.80.5
German flag Germany[Annotation 3]27.420.918.60.439.931.41.20.0
Lithuanian flag ãƒªãƒˆã‚¢ãƒ‹ã‚¢[Annotation 3]39.728.011.30.439.719.80.30.6
Austrian flag Austria33.821.617.30.139.027.10.10.0
Romanian flag ãƒ«ãƒ¼ãƒžãƒ‹ã‚¢30.833.84.90.238.929.50.40.3
Flag of Slovakia Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu36.131.36.21.338.924.20.80.0
Croatian flag Croatia26.933.64.40.038.034.20.00.9
Dutch flag  Netherlands31.419.89.90.129.931.90.06.7
Flag of Slovenia ã‚¹ãƒ­ãƒ™ãƒ‹ã‚¢[Annotation 3]29.125.14.00.029.041.90.00.0
Czech flag Czech Republic50.223.31.40.525.224.60.00.0
Estonia flag ã‚¨ã‚¹ãƒˆãƒ‹ã‚¢76.021.21.70.123.01.00.00.0
Nine non-European Union countries
British flag United Kingdom[Annotation 3]30.454.24.60.058.810.70.00.0
Iceland flag ã‚¢ã‚¤ã‚¹ ランド27.237.314.013.664.96.61.20.0
Norway flag Norway27.236.721.20.057.914.90.00.0
Swiss flag Switzerland39.610.413.60.024.036.40.10.0
Turkish flag Turkey29.343.50.10.043.626.80.30.0
Flag of the Republic of North Macedonia Northern Macedonia3.043.40.00.043.453.60.00.0
Serbian flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu25.439.21.40.140.633.70.00.3
Montenegro flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[Annotation 3]19.434.30.30.034.645.70.00.3
Bosnia and Herzegovina Flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu10.30.524.10.024.664.70.00.3
  • The general government is the total value of the central government, local governments and social security funds.
  • Countries with annotations are provisional values.

History

The history of social security is closely related to the movement of economic society, and the system of social security has been accumulated by each country in a long history while influencing each other.19st centuryから20st centuryThe unemployment problem is the biggest issue in each country, and social security has progressed from it.Also, originallywelfareOpposite to戦 争The foundation of social security started with the opportunity. In the advanced countries of the 21st century, declining birthrate and aging population and securing financial resources are major issues for social security.

Poor law

Age of DiscoveryIt is,World tradeTo developCommercialIt brought about a big change.United KingdomThen.WoolenEnclosure that encourages the establishment of factories and aims for export (Enclosure) Due to the policy, the agricultural land in England is all at oncesheeppastureChanged to. The farmers displaced from the farmland flowed into the city and became unpaid (poor).1601, In the UK, summarize the past relief measuresElizabeth Poor LawsAnd enacted a law to help the poor who cannot get the support of their families.thisPoor law(Poor Law) is nowPublic assistanceAlthough it became the original form, the word social security was not born at that time.1834A major amendment to the Poor Savings Act was carried out to centralize the treatment of poor people and centralize them. Under the New Poor Law, poor people are to be admitted to work in the poor hospital. Regarding the level of poverty, "The poorest of theStandard of livingAlthough the principle of inferior treatment, prohibition of out-of-hospital remedy, deprivation of citizenship, etc. have been established such as "rescue below", social criticism will increase due to the severeness of inferior treatment.

Birth of social insurance

Industrial revolutionBy資本主義Is fixed,CapitalistIt is argued that unemployment is an individual problem and that the country's relief of the poor is harmful. Meanwhile, the factoryWorkerShare their wages and help each other to prevent povertyMutual aid associationWas made.Mutual Aid Association is a friendly society in England and in GermanyDisease safeIt was known by the names such as and provided financial security in case of employment interruption due to illness and unemployment. These contributed to the income security of the members within the mutual aid, but on the other hand, they could not deal with the poverty problem of the elderly (retired workers) outside the mutual aid. In addition, the level of benefits was limited and unstable with a small-scale mutual help system.

1883, Germany's first illness insurance. In 1884Work injury insurance,1889ToPension insuranceWas enacted[8]. in this way,Social insuranceWhile establishing the systemSocialism"Iron-Blood Minister" to suppress the movementOtto von BismarckThe policy ofCandy and whipIs called the policy.The sickness insurance used the existing mutual aid association, and there was no public expense for the expenses, but the workers' accident compensation insurance was entirely borne by the employer.Pension insurance provides benefits to elderly people aged 30 and over who have paid premiums for more than 70 years, and the public expense burden was one-third.The social insurance system that started in Germany will be introduced all over the world after that.[8].

Beveridge Report

1929In usaWall streetAtStock price crashStarted withGreat DepressionAs a result, a large number of unemployed people were flooded around the world and social unrest increased.President of the United StatesFranklin Roosevelt New Deal PolicyAs part of1935Has enacted the Federal Social Security Act.社会 保障The term was first used at this time, but this Federal Social Security Act covers old-age pensions, unemployment insurance, assistance for persons with disabilities, maternal and child hygiene and child welfare services, etc. It did not mean social security.

The word social security came into full-scale use internationally.Beveridge ReportAfter that.In EnglandSecond World WarIn1942ToWilliam BeveridgeTitled "Social Insurance and Related Services"Beveridge ReportAnd will subsequently have a major impact on the development of social security in many countries.[8]..In this report, we will focus on the social insurance system and integrate public assistance and related services.From cradle to graveyardAdvocated a social security plan with the slogan "[8].After the warIdeal system of social security (National minimum(Guarantee) was shown, and uniform contributions and uniform benefits were adopted for the social insurance system.[8].

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

After World War II, poverty caused social unrest and the tragedy of war,Universal Declaration of Human RightsIn the preamble, "freedom from fear and want" was stipulated in its Article 22 as social security as one of human rights.

"Everyone has the right to social security as a member of society, and by national efforts and international cooperation, and according to the organizations and resources of each country, of his own.dignityAnd selfPersonalityHave the right to realize the economic, social and cultural rights essential to the free development of "

This item was adopted in 1961European Social CharterAdopted in 1966, "International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsIs a basic human rightSocial rightsI was given a legal binding force as one of the above.

Expansion of social security

In the latter half of the war, manyDeveloped countrySocial security was expanded in.

KeynesianismBy the acceptance ofNegative stateからActive nationBy converting toFiscal policyAt the same time as intervening in the market through social security policy, intervention in civilian life through social security policy also gained legitimacy.

Social security (egPublic assistance,Unemployment benefit) If the number of recipients isfinanceBecause of the Keynesian policyFull employmentRealization of is a necessary condition for improving the quality of social security.mass productionIs realized and capitalism isFordismAt the stage, the expansion of social security can be tolerated as a price to compel workers to do simple labor.

Through social securityIncome redistributionWill contribute to the expansion of domestic demand, which is a pan for mass production. EspeciallyOpen economyIn these countries, the government will expand social security in return for curbing wage increases. Enhancing social security does not always bring only positive effects.

  1. Impact on labor supply
  2. Impact on capital accumulation
  3. Moral hazard

The negative effect of being recognized[14].

Review of social security in developed countries

the 1970sからOil shockAs a result of the slowdown in the advanced economies, the tax revenues will decrease and the need for social security will come to be restrained. After the introduction of free welfare and low-cost welfare to the elderly, the rapid aging of the population and the declining birthrate in advanced countries have caused social security costs to continue to increase due to the expanding role and scale of social security.

Italian medicalWas once a health insurance union system, but the fund went bankrupt in the 1970s and the UKNational Health ServiceShifted to the National Health Service, which is funded by taxes based on (NHS)[15].

France was a Bismarck method and had social insurance as its main financial source, but it is promoting tax substitution in order to avoid rising insurance premiums, and since 1991(French version)(CSG) is social securityPurpose taxWas introduced as[8].

Japanese social security

Japan's social security is divided into fields such as pension / medical / nursing care and children / child-rearing, and it is the largest expenditure item that accounts for about one-third of the national general account expenditure.The social security system should basically be supported by insurance premiums, but since the burden is concentrated on the working generation with only the insurance premiums for that year, it is covered by debt (government bond costs).Since much of this allocation depends on government bonds and debt from government bond purchasers, the Ministry of Finance points out that "the situation is putting off the burden on our children and grandchildren."

Social security system

The 1950 "Recommendations on the Social Security System" by the Social Security System Council stipulates the social security system as follows: "The social security system is illness, injury, delivery, disability, death, old age, unemployment. For those who have many children and other causes of distress, we will take measures for economic security by insurance method or direct public burden, and for those who are in need of living, we will guarantee the minimum living by national assistance and public health. And to improve social welfare so that all people can live a life worthy of being a member of a cultural society. "[16]..Social security in Japan is social insurance,Public assistance,social welfare, 4 pillars of public health, and XNUMX functions of life stability / improvement function, income redistribution function, and economic stability function[17].. Realized in 1961Universal insurance·allpensionIs a system that allows all citizens to receive public medical insurance and pension coverage.Japan's social security system has been constructed by combining various systems such as employment insurance, social welfare, livelihood protection, and long-term care insurance with this "universal insurance / universal pension" as the core.

Rapidly increasing social security costs and an aging society

Changes in Japan's social security benefits[18][19]
年度Amount of moneyNational income ratio
198024 billion yen12.23%
198535 billion yen13.70%
199047 billion yen13.67%
199564 billion yen17.10%
200078 billion yen20.10%
200588 billion yen23.89%
2010105 billion yen28.89%
2015116 billion yen29.75%
2019123 billion yen30.88%
2025
(2018 forecast[20][Annotation 4])
140 billion yen
2040
(2018 forecast)
188 billion yen

社会保障給付費の対GDP比は、2018年度の21.5%(名目額121.3兆円)から、2025年度に21.7~21.8%(同140.2~140.6兆円)となる。その後15年間で2.1~2.2%ポイント上昇し、2040年度には23.8~24.0%(同188.2~190.0兆円)となる[20].

社会保障負担の対GDP比は、2018年度の20.8%(名目額117.2兆円)から、2025年度に21.5~21.6%(同139.0~139.4兆円)となり、2040年度は23.5~23.7%(同185.6~187.3兆円)へと上昇する。その内訳をみると、保険料負担は2018年度の12.4%(同70.2兆円)から、2025年度に12.6%(同81.2~81.4兆円)となり、2040年度には13.4~13.5%(同106.1~107.0兆円)へと上昇、公費負担は2018年度の8.3%(同46.9兆円)から、2025年度に9.0%(同57.8~58.0兆円)となり、2040年度には10.1~10.2%(同79.5~80.3兆円)へと上昇する。(「2040年を見据えた社会保障の将来見通し(議論の素材)」(2018May Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare estimates)[20]The case of "By planning-based/economic baseline case" of).

Low-burden, high-welfare social security issues that began with left-wing populism

In Japan, the introduction of the consumption tax has been considered since 1975, when it was the first budget deficit in the previous year, but it is just between the ruling party and the opposition party.Political disputesIn 1993, the Liberal Democratic Party became the first Shimotsuke after its birth.Hosokawa CabinetAlthough he criticized the introduction of the consumption tax by the Liberal Democratic Party, he understood that the ruling party lacked financial resources and was planning and proposing it. When the Democratic Party of Japan was born in 2009, the Democratic Party decided to raise the consumption tax, which was opposed to the opposition era, when it grasped the tax revenue shortage as the ruling party, and in 2012Consumption tax lawIn the amendment, the ruling and opposition parties agreed to raise the consumption tax for social security, measures against the declining birthrate, and measures against the budget deficit, which were later implemented.In this way, in Japan, the opposition to the introduction and increase of the consumption tax has been regarded as a mere tool for gathering support, and the consumption tax was not introduced when the economy was good such as the bubble economy, and the budget deficit was rising. ..In the first place, the biggest factor that caused Japan to fall into a chronic budget deficit due to social security was1969March 12 Japanese Socialist PartyとJapan Communist Party, Supported by leftist groupsGovernor of TokyoWonRyokichi MinobeWithout asking for financial resources for payment such as tax increaseBecause the medical expenses for the elderly were completely free of chargewas.After that, request free medical expenses for the elderlyLeftist populismAfter the movement, candidates with the support of leftist organizations will be elected more. NHK is also based on the left-wing populism that prevailed in Japan in the 1960s and 70s.What "Free Medical Care for the Elderly" BroughtI criticize it with a special feature called "[21][22][23][24][25][26].1973March 133th House of Representatives general electionThere was some opposition that the financial resources and finances made it unsustainable, due to the defeat in Japan and the sense of crisis toward the left party's promotion.Prime MinisterKakuei TanakaThe medical expenses for the elderly aged 70 and over were made free of charge.The national government will bear two-thirds of the medical expenses for the elderly free of charge, and the local government will bear one-third. NHK also said, "In the turbulent period of society, free medical expenses for the elderly will start walking alone. Innovative local governments such as Governor Minobe of Tokyo will be born nationwide.The policy of free medical expenses for the elderly is a good material to gain support.It will become.Pushed by the voice of the people, the country decided in 1973 to make it free as a national policy. "With the two wheels of social security left behind, prevention and health care, the policy is to include elderly people who do not need medical care in hospitals.Social hospitalization-Visit a convenience storeIt is pointed out that it caused the problem of the elderly and led to an increase in medical expenses for the elderly.[22][23][24][25].. In July of the same year, the Governor of Minobe began the “Marufu” system, which was not covered by the national grant system, but also frees medical expenses for people aged 7 to under 65. In addition, for the elderlyTokyo Metropolitan Bureau of TransportationIt is a public gambling that operated a free fare policy and produced a large amount of tax revenue.Korakuen Bicycle RacetrackHas been abolished from October 1972, 10, and Tokyo has a tax deficit without increasing taxes Due to a series of populism policies, Tokyo falls into a budget deficit[22][23][24][25].1974Occurred in October 1973 of the previous yearSecond oil crisisでHigh economic growthAfter the end of the war, Japan suffered a large revenue shortage due to the first negative growth after the war and the excessively high welfare social security expenditure of free medical expenses for the elderly without tax increase.Deficit bondWill be issued[22][23][24][25][27].1975In December, due to lack of revenue, the government will issue deficit-financing bonds for the amount of 12 trillion yen, which is prohibited by the Finance Law in the supplementary budget. When he later became Prime Minister,Masayoshi OhiraThe Minister of Finance decides, "We should not let the descendants pay for deficit-financing bonds." After assuming the post of prime minister, he tried to introduce the consumption tax many times, but died during the campaign in 1980. Since then, the LDP was defeated by the opposition party, who opposed it every time it appealed for consumption tax, and the subsequent government bond-dependent finance of Japan started due to the increasing social security expenditure for the elderly who was not introduced until 1989.[28][25][23][27].1979To35th general electionPrime Minister Masayoshi Ohira launches a general consumption tax (tax rate of 5%), but the Liberal Democratic Party suffers a major defeat with a loss of more than half[27].1987ToYasuhiro NakasoneThe prime minister submitted a sales tax bill (tax rate 5%) to the Diet as a "new indirect tax" that is not as comprehensive as a "large indirect tax."However,11th Unified Local ElectionLiberal Democratic Party is defeated in[29].1988About 20 years after the introductionTakeshita CabinetSometimesConsumption tax lawIs established. December 12 promulgation[30] [31].19894/1Enforcement of consumption tax law3%Introduced in.19942 Hosokawa CabinetAtHosokawa GohiThe prime minister announced a plan to abolish the consumption tax and introduce a purpose tax "national welfare tax" with a tax rate of 7%. On November 11thMurayama CabinetIn 3, three years later,3%から5%Tax-related reform bill to increase tax, including local consumption tax of 1%)[32]Holds[33].1997ToMurayama Tomi CityBased on the bill passed by the Prime Minister,Hashimoto CabinetCarried out by[33].

Of 2019JapanSocial security costs ofAnnual expenditureIt accounts for 33.6% of the total, and about 35 billion yen is spent.[34]..In the breakdown of social security expenses, the elderly-related benefits account for the overwhelming majority, while the proportion of children and child-rearing families is low.Compared to all generations of welfare states in the world, JapanSocial insuranceFor example, pensions, medical expenses, and long-term care expenses are generously and heavily burdened to the working generation, and a large amount of social security expenses are paid to them. Over the past few years, the proportion of child-raising generations such as day care centers has increased, but unbalanced tax distribution to older generations than the parenting generation required by society has been the cause of the declining birthrate and aging population. Are[35][36][37][38].

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ a b It is the value of 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e It is the value of 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l It is a provisional value.
  4. ^ The number of future patients and users will be calculated mechanically based on the medical treatment rate by age group at the current level of medical and nursing care services in 2018 (hospitalization rate, outpatient treatment rate, utilization rate for each service). The unit price for each service is calculated by multiplying the current unit price by a certain growth rate. The growth rate multiplied by the unit price is the economic growth rate x 1/3 + 1.9%-0.1% for medical care, and the weighted average of the wage increase rate and the price increase rate for nursing care at 65:35. (Social security/tax integrated reformUse the same assumptions as in the above. )

Source

  1. ^ OECD Social Expenditure --Aggregated data (Report). OECD. State. (2015). https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=SOCX_AGG#. 
  2. ^ OECD Social Expenditure Statistics (Report). OECD. (2012). two:10.1787 / socx-data-en. http://www.oecd.org/els/soc/expenditure.htm. 
  3. ^ "glossary of statical terms - SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEMES”. OECD. 2015/3/1Browse.
  4. ^ Ministry of Finance (2021-04-15) (PDF). Materials Social security, etc. (Report). https://www.mof.go.jp/about_mof/councils/fiscal_system_council/sub-of_fiscal_system/proceedings/material/zaiseia20210415/01.pdf 2021/12/12Browse.. 
  5. ^ "New ILO: There are still more than 40 billion people in the world who do not get any social protection" (Press Release), ILO Office in Japan, (September 2021, 9), https://www.ilo.org/tokyo/information/pr/WCMS_817774/lang--ja/index.htm 2021/12/11Browse. 
  6. ^ ILO (2021-09-01) (PDF). World Social Protection Report 2020-22: Social protection at the crossroads – in pursuit of a better future (Report). Pp. 40,268-276. ISBN 9789220319505. https://www.ilo.org/global/publications/books/WCMS_817572/lang--ja/index.htm 2021/12/11Browse.. 
  7. ^ a b OECD Social Expenditure Statistics (Report). OECD. (2011). two:10.1787 / socx-data-en. http://www.oecd.org/els/soc/expenditure.htm. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Nobuko Katayama (2008-10). “International Comparison of Social Security Finance: Benefit Levels and Financial Resources Structure” (Japanese). reference (National Diet Library Survey and Legislative Examination Bureau) 58 (10): 73-103. two:10.11501/999641. NOT 40016298909. https://warp.da.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/287276/www.ndl.go.jp/jp/data/publication/refer/200810_693/069304.pdf. 
  9. ^ OECD (2017,2019, XNUMX). “Social Expenditure-Aggregated data". OECD. State. 2021/12/12Browse.
  10. ^ "glossary of statical terms -SOCIAL SECURITY FUNDS-SNA”. OECD. 2015/3/1Browse.
  11. ^ "glossary of statical terms - SOCIAL INSURANCE SCHEMES”. OECD. 2015/3/1Browse.
  12. ^ OECD 2014, pp. 29–30.
  13. ^ Eurostat (2018-05) (Excel). Social protection statistics --financing Figure 4: Social protection receipts by sector of origin, 2017 (Social protection statistics-Funding Figure 4: Ratio of social protection costs by contribution sector in 2017) (Report). European Union. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Social_protection_statistics_-_financing#Sectors_of_origin_of_social_protection_receipts 2021/12/12Browse.. 
  14. ^ Nihon Keizai ShimbunHen "Easy Economics" (Nikkei Business People Library, 2001) pp. 179-180
  15. ^ Kazuko Matsui "Italian healthcare reform"Overseas Social Security Information, Vol. 85,National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, February 1988.
  16. ^ https://www.mhlw.go.jp/wp/hakusyo/kousei/12/dl/1-03.pdf
  17. ^ https://www.navinavi-hoken.com/articles/social-security-system
  18. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (October 2021, 8). “Statistics on Social Security Expenses for the First Year of Reiwa Table 8 Changes in Social Security Benefit Expenses by Sector (1950-2019) (Excel, DB) ”. General contact point for government statistics (e-Stat). 2021/12/12Browse.
  19. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (August 2021, 8). “Statistics on Social Security Expenses for the First Year of Reiwa Table 10 Changes in Social Security Benefit Expenses by Sector (Ratio to National Income) (1951-2019) (Excel, DB) ”. General contact point for government statistics (e-Stat). 2021/12/12Browse.
  20. ^ a b c Cabinet Secretariat; Cabinet Office; Ministry of FinanceMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare (2018-05-21) (PDF). About "Future outlook for social security with an eye on 2040 (material for discussion)" etc. (Report). https://www.mhlw.go.jp/file/06-Seisakujouhou-12600000-Seisakutoukatsukan/0000207399.pdf 2019/6/6Browse.. 
  21. ^ Strongly protests the policy of freeing pediatric medical expenses, which is accelerating the shortage of pediatric doctors, and demands the abolition of the ordinance ...: Medical Management Finance Association Home Page
  22. ^ a b c d <1960-70's> Keyword: "What brought "free medical care for the elderly""NHK
  23. ^ a b c d e Nobuo Ikeda (September 2017, 2). “Competition of “Balamaki education” begins with high school free” (Japanese). livedoor NEWS. JBpress (Japan Business Press). http://jbpress.ismedia.jp/articles/-/49208 2019/6/6Browse. 
  24. ^ a b c d KashiwaAssembly member Izumi Uehashi Kashiwa Municipal Government Study Group http://www16.plala.or.jp/kamihasi-izumi/kouki_kourei.htm
  25. ^ a b c d e Wu Seong (2005-03). “Formation of free medical system for the elderly and national medical expenses” (Japanese). "Bukkyo UniversityBulletin of Graduate School " (Kyoto City: Bukkyo University Graduate School) 33: 223-236. ISSN 13442422. NOT 110006472576. https://archives.bukkyo-u.ac.jp/repository/baker/rid_DO003300006449. 
  26. ^ How to choose the governor of Tokyo who can't fail anymore Meiji UniversityProfessor / Former Vice Governor of Tokyo Aoyama
  27. ^ a b c Kazutada Dohi (July 2010, 7). “A man who lost the election with a straight-forward introduction of the consumption tax, the words of a politician who became too light” (Japanese). JBpress (Japan Business Press). http://jbpress.ismedia.jp/articles/-/3871 
  28. ^ "Sato Yu reveals the contradiction of Japanese social democracy with the introduction of consumption tax" (Japanese). NEWS Post Seven. SAPIOJune 2017 issue: pp. 6. (May 2, 2017). https://www.news-postseven.com/archives/20170511_530363.html?PAGE=2 2019/6/6Browse. 
  29. ^ Makoto Chung (2009-09). “The Nakasone Cabinet and Consumption Tax: The Failure Process” (Japanese). International Public Policy Research (Toyonaka City, Osaka Prefecture: Graduate School of International Public Policy, Osaka University) 14 (1): 191-205. ISSN 13428101. https://hdl.handle.net/11094/11471. 
  30. ^ Haruko Kamakura (2018-03-15). “VAT of foreign countries (2018 version)” (Japanese). Basic information series (National Diet Library Survey and Legislative Examination Bureau) 24: 6. two:10.11501/11056198. ISBN 9784875828112. https://dl.ndl.go.jp/view/download/digidepo_11056198_po_201803ma.pdf?contentNo=1&alternativeNo= 2019/6/6Browse.. 
  31. ^ 2008.
  32. ^ Overview of the 131st Diet session House of Councilors
  33. ^ a b 5% consumption tax Murayama Tomi City Former Prime Minister September 2010, 9 Japan Press Club
  34. ^ Financial System Council Financial System Subcommittee, Ministry of Finance (2021-10-05). "Reference Material 1 General Finance (Reference Material)" (PDF). Financial system subcommittee (held on October 3, 10rd year of Reiwa). pp. 3. https://www.mof.go.jp/about_mof/councils/fiscal_system_council/sub-of_fiscal_system/proceedings/material/zaiseia20211005/02.pdf#page=3 2021/12/12Browse. 
  35. ^ https://headlines.yahoo.co.jp/article?a=20171114-00196208-toyo-bus_all&p=2(※記事名不明/リンク切れ)
  36. ^ https://headlines.yahoo.co.jp/article?a=20171114-00196208-toyo-bus_all&p=1(※記事名不明/リンク切れ)
  37. ^ Financial System Council Financial System Subcommittee, Ministry of Finance (2021-04-15). "Social security, etc. (reference materials)" (PDF). Financial system subcommittee (held on October 3, 4rd year of Reiwa). https://www.mof.go.jp/about_mof/councils/fiscal_system_council/sub-of_fiscal_system/proceedings/material/zaiseia20210415/02.pdf 2021/12/12Browse. 
  38. ^ Setuko Aoki (2014-01-15). “Social Security in a Super-Aging Society / Declining Population Society: Social Security System in Crisis (Special Feature Policy Issues)” (Japanese). Legislation and investigation (House of Councilors) 348: 82-88,94. NOT 40019938190. https://warp.da.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/10357835/www.sangiin.go.jp/japanese/annai/chousa/rippou_chousa/backnumber/2014pdf/20140115080.pdf 2021/12/12Browse.. 

References

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    Old age pension

    Old age pension(Rorainenkin) is paid when a person reaches a certain age.pensionThat is.Japanese public pensionInNational Pension Act"Old-age basic pension" inWelfare Pension Insurance ActThere is "old age welfare pension" in. With a private pensionLife insurance OfEndowment insuranceIs applicable. The old-age pension in Japanese public pension is described below.

    Japanese pensionsystem
    (As of the end of March 2017 / 29)[1]
    National pension(1st floor)
    No. 1 insured1,575 million people
    No. 2 insured4,266 million people
    No. 3 insured889 million people
    Employee pension (2nd floor)
    Welfare pension insurance4,267 million people
    Civil servants, etc.[2](426 people)
    Other optional pensions
    National Pension Fund / Defined contribution pension(401k)
    / Defined benefit pension / Employees' pension fund

    Old age basic pension

    Old age basic pension(Roireiki Sonenkin) is the National Pension Law (1986(Showa61 years)4/1According to the provisions of the so-called "new law" of enforcement,National pensionSince the person who meets the requirements and meets the requirements at the specified ageReceiptDo (PaymentBe done)pensionThat is. Typically"Old age pensionIs called officiallyOld age basic pensionOften refers to. Also, depending on the provisions of the old law and the date of birth, adjustments will be made with the old law even under the new law.

    The following persons are subject to the old-age old-age pension, so the new-age old-age basic pension is not provided.

    For the current and future benefits of each individual, please see thePension office, And “Pension Counseling Center” for individual inquiries, mailing inquiries, and “Nenkin dial” telephone consultation. Also"Nenkin special flightsOf the end of shipping2009(21) started fromScheduled flightsThe expected amount of future payments is also described in ". Even if the payment is decades into the future, it should be understood from the payment stage and whether or not it can be received without omission in the payment stage.

    Payment requirements

    The old-age basic pension is provided when all of the following requirements are met.

    • Being 65 years old
    • Have an insurance premium payment period or an insurance exemption period (excluding those prescribed by the student insurance premium payment exception and insurance premium payment grace system)
    • Eligibility period (premium payment period,Insurance exemption periodAnd totaling periodMore than 10 years) Is met

    Due to the amendment of the law, from August 2017, 29 (Heisei 8), the requirements for the eligibility period have been shortened from "1 years or more" to "25 years or more". Even those who were non-pensioners before the revision can receive the benefits after the enforcement date if they meet the requirements after the revision. The requirement of "10 years or more" before the revision may be shortened to "25 to 15 years" due to special cases. Even now that the requirement for eligibility for the old-age basic pension is "24 years or more",Bereaved family basic pensionThe requirement for payment is "Persons who are entitled to the old-age basic pension (Limited to those who have a total of 25 years or more when the premium payment period and the insurance exemption period are added)”, and there is room for special cases to be applied.

    • Exceptions to the period of enrollment in the public pension system (if the date of birth is as follows, the period will be shortened (special measures under the old law)). It is said that those who are already 31 years old or older when the new law is enacted and who find it difficult to meet the requirement of "25 years or more".
      • 1926 (Taisho 15th year)4/2~1927(2)4/1: 21
      • April 1927, 2 (Showa 4)1928(Showa 3) April 4: 1 years
      • April 1928, 3 (Showa 4)1929(Showa 4) April 4: 1 years
      • April 1929, 4 (Showa 4)1930(Showa 5) April 4: 1 years
    • Exceptions to the employee pension system participation period (for those with the following dates of birth, the period of the welfare pension, mutual aid association, etc. (welfare pension No. 1 to 4 insured period) is added up, and if it is longer than the following period It is considered that the period requirement has been met).Since the employee pension system of the old law had a term requirement of "20 years or more", it is a transitional measure for enacting the new law.
      • 1952(Showa 27) Before April 4: 1 years
      • April 1952, 27 (Showa 4)1953(Showa 28) April 4: 1 years
      • April 1953, 28 (Showa 4)1954(Showa 29) April 4: 1 years
      • April 1954, 29 (Showa 4)1955(Showa 30) April 4: 1 years
      • April 1955, 30 (Showa 4)1956(Showa 31) April 4: 1 years
    • Special provisions for middle-aged and elderly people in the welfare pension (for those with the following dates of birth, the welfare pension No. 1 insured period (boys are 40 years old, girls, type 3 insured, and seafarers voluntarily continued insured) 35 If the period (limited to the period after the month when the person reaches the age) is longer than the following period, it is considered that the period requirement is satisfied.Sailor10 years) or more must be a period other than the Type 4 insured person or the seafarer's voluntary continuous insured person).Under the old law, the welfare pension was treated as satisfying the term requirement if the insured period after the age of 40 (35) was "15 years or more", so this is a transitional measure for enacting the new law.
      • 1947(Showa 22) Before April 4: 1 years
      • April 1947, 22 (Showa 4)1948(Showa 23) April 4: 1 years
      • April 1948, 23 (Showa 4)1949(Showa 24) April 4: 1 years
      • April 1949, 24 (Showa 4)1950(Showa 25) April 4: 1 years
      • April 1950, 25 (Showa 4)1951(Showa 26) April 4: 1 years

    Insurance premium payment period

    Regarding the period of enrollment in the employee pension system, the next period will be the period for which insurance premiums have been paid.

    • No. 2 period of being insured (excluding periods under 20 and periods over 60)
    • 1961(36)4/1~1986(61)3/31Until the period of being an insured person of welfare pension and seafarer insurance, or a member of a mutual aid association (excluding those under the age of 20 and those over the age of 60)

    For the period in which you did not participate in the employee pension system, the next period will be the period for which the insurance premium has been paid.

    • Out of the period of being the first insured person (including voluntarily insured persons)Period of full payment of insurance premiums
    • No. 3 period of being insured
    • From the period from April 1961, 36 to March 4, 1 (Showa 1986), which was the insured person (including voluntarily insured person) of the national pensionPeriod of full payment of insurance premiums

    In summary, for the No. 1 insured, the period in which the insurance premium was paid in full during the No. 1 insured corresponds to the No. 2 insured and the No. 3 insured. , Because the insured is not obligated to pay the insurance premium, the period of being the No. 2 insured and No. 3 insured will be the period for which the insurance premium has already been paid.

    If notification of becoming No. 3 insured is delayed,2 years before the month before the month to which the notification was madeExcept those inPeriod of delinquent insurance premiumsTreated as. However,2005(Heisei(17 years) Regarding the unreported period of No. 4 insured before April 1, by reporting, the period related to the report will be included in the premium payment period after the date when the report was made. be able to. Regarding the unreported period of the third insured person after April 3, 17, about the delay in reportingUnavoidable reasonIf it is found that the insurance payment has been completed, the period pertaining to the notification can be included in the insurance payment period after the date of the notification by making a notification. In addition, for a part of the period where the premium payment period has been set as the third insured period, if the insured period other than the third insured is newly found or the spouse's system movement is If the pension record is corrected in such a case, the subsequent No. 3 insured period will be treated as the period for which the premium has been paid.

    On the other hand, if the notification of the change from the No. 3 insured person to the No. 1 insured is delayed (SarahYes, my husbandRetirement ageI retired, my wife's income increased and my husband'sSupportDeviated fromViolence from husbandIn response to this, my wife no longer keeps a living due to her husband's income, etc.2013(25) was established in July. Under this law, the period of being insured as No. 7 as an inconsistent period will be the total period covered. in this case,2015(平成27年)4月から3年間に限り、過去10年分(60歳以上の人は一律50〜60歳の分)の不整合期間の保険料(特定保険料)を追納することができる。また、2015年(平成27年)4月より前でも、不整合期間を未納期間として通常の後納制度で保険料を納付することもできる。

    Insurance exemption period

    There are four types of full exemption, three-quarter exemption, half-price exemption, one-quarter exemption, the period when the full exemption was exempt, except the full exemptionPeriod of payment of remaining amountIs applicable. In addition, the exempted insurance premiumIn case of late payment, The insurance premium payment period has come. Note thatIf you do not pay the remaining amount other than full exemption, it will be treated as unpaid.

    Period covered

    It is the empty period for generating pension rights. Included to meet the "10+ years" requirement.

    Regarding the period of enrollment in the employee pension system, the following period will be the target period for aggregation.

    • No. 2 Under-insured period, under 20 years old and over 60 years old (Insurance paid period is not considered, not insured period)
    • By March 1986, 61 (Showa 3)Withdrawal allowanceThe period on which the calculation of
    • The basis of calculation of the amount of retirement pension or reduced retirement pension paid by the mutual aid association during the period of membership until March 1986, 61 (Showa 3) Period (1931(Showa 6) Limited to those born after April 4)
    • Term used as the basis for calculation of retirement lump sum payments provided by mutual aid associations, which are specified by a Cabinet Order.
    • Of the total period (those that meet the prescribed requirements of the employee pension system enrollment period before April 1961), those pertaining to the period before April 36, 4
    • 1961年(昭和36年)4月1日〜1986年(昭和61年)3月31日までの間に通算対象期間を有しない者が1986年(昭和61年)4月1日以後の保険料納付済期間又は保険料免除期間を有するに至った場合におけるその者の厚生年金・船員保険の被保険者のうち、1961年(昭和36年)4月1日前の期間に係るもの

    Regarding the period in which the employee pension system was not enrolled, the following period (all limited to the period between 20 years old and under 60 years old) is the total period. In "the period when we did not voluntarily join",Period during which you did not pay insurance premiums while voluntarily enrollingIncluding.

    • Those who were exempt from the national pension because they were the recipients of the employee old-age pensionPeriod without voluntary participation in national pension
    • Period during which a person with Japanese nationality who was exempt from the national pension because he did not have an address in Japan did not voluntarily join the national pension
    • April 1961, 36 (Showa 4)1991(March 3, 3) By March 31Period of daytime studentOf those who did not voluntarily join the national pension
    • During the period from April 1961, 36 (Showa 4) to March 1, 1986 (Showa 61), since the person was the recipient of the disability pension for the employee or the survivor pension for the employee, the national pension is applied. Period during which the excluded people did not voluntarily join the national pension
    • In the period from April 1961, 36 to March 4, 1 (Showa 1986), the employee old-age pension or employee disability pensionSpouse of beneficiaryOrEmployee's spouseThe period during which a person who was exempted from applying for the national pension did not voluntarily join the national pension
    • Of the period from April 1961, 36 to March 4, 1 (Showa 1986),Member of ParliamentOr thatspouseThe period during which a person who was exempted from applying for the national pension did not voluntarily join the national pension
    • Of the period from April 1961, 36 to March 4, 1 (Showa 1986),Local assemblyOr its spouseThe period during which a person who was exempted from applying for the national pension did not voluntarily join the national pension
    • According to the old law,Prefectural governorPeriod of voluntary withdrawal based on approval of

    19615/1From then on, Japan between the ages of 20 and 65CitizenshipWho acquiredpermanentFor those who have received the license, the following periods (excluding the period of enrollment in the employee pension system for the period of 20 years old and under 60 years old) will be the target period.

    • Of the period in which the applicant had an address in Japan, the exemption period for foreigners (from April 1961, 36)1981(56)12/31) Was the period
    • Of the period in which we did not have an address in Japan, the period until the day before we obtained Japanese nationality and received the permanent residence permit

    If you meet the requirement of "10 years or more" only for the combined period, you cannot receive the old-age basic pension,Transfer additionIf the requirements of (XNUMX) are met, it is considered that the person is entitled to the old-age basic pension and the old-age basic pension equivalent to the transfer addition is paid.

    Payments

    The amount of the old-age basic pension is calculated by the following formula.

    • (780,900 yen x revision rate) x (total number of months payment of insurance premiums/month of exemption from insurance premiums/480)

    As a general rule, if premiums have been paid for all of the 20 years (60 months) from age 40 to 480, the full amount of 777,800 yen (≒780,900 yen x 2022 revision rate in 4) will be paid. be done.note that,1941(昭和16年)4月1日以前生まれの者(新法施行時にすでに20歳以上の者)は40年の加入期間を満たすことができないので、生年月日に応じて「40年」は「25〜39年」に短縮される(算式の「480」は「加入可能年数×12」となる)。

    If there is a period other than the period for which insurance has been paid for 40 years, the amount will be reduced from the full amount. Of the delinquency period of insurance premiums, the period subject to summation, and the insurance premium exemption periodStudent payment exceptionThe period and the grace period for payment of young people are treated as zero in calculating the pension amount. For other premium exemption periods, the ratio to the premium payment period is reflected in the pension amount as follows. The difference between March 2009 and April after April is due to the fact that the national treasury burden was raised to half in April 21.

    Full exemption
    2009年(平成21年)3月までの月数については全額納付者の6分の2(3分の1)、2009年(平成21年)4月以後の月数については全額納付者の8分の4(2分の1)。
    4/3 exemption
    2009年(平成21年)3月までの月数については全額納付者の6分の3(2分の1)、2009年(平成21年)4月以後の月数については全額納付者の8分の5。
    Half price exemption
    2009年(平成21年)3月までの月数については全額納付者の6分の4(3分の2)、2009年(平成21年)4月以後の月数については全額納付者の8分の6(4分の3)。
    4/1 exemption
    2009年(平成21年)3月までの月数については全額納付者の6分の5、2009年(平成21年)4月以後の月数については全額納付者の8分の7。

    If the total payment period and exemption period exceeds 40 years (480 months) due to voluntary subscription, the exemption period will be calculated by giving priority to the period with the highest pension amount in January. Specifically, the payment period, the quarter exemption period, the half price exemption period, the three quarter exemption period, and the full exemption period are given priority in the order of calculation.

    Payment start time

    As of 2022, if the payment is not advanced or deferred as described below (and the procedure for receiving the pension is performed), the payment will start at the following times.

    • EligibilityIt is,MitsuruThe day when I turned 65 (general "65 years old"birthdayThe day before)[3]Occurs in[4].
    • The month following the day of eligibility isReceiving start monthBecome[4].
    • After the month when the payment starts, the actual payment (such as the transfer of the pension to the designated bank account) will be made on the 15th day of the month after the next month for even-numbered months and on the 15th day of the following month for odd-numbered months.[5][6]..However, the first payment may be made in odd-numbered months.[7]..In addition, due to procedures, the actual first payment may be two to three months after the month of birth.[8].

    Advancement of payment

    Those who meet the old-age basic pension period and are between the ages of 60 and 65 (Limited to those who are not voluntarily insured),Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareToRequest advancement of paymentBy doing so, you can receive the reduced pension. In the case of the beneficiary of the old-age welfare pension, the old-age basic pension and the old-age welfare pension must be raised at the same time. Payment starts from the month following the month in which the request for advancement belongs. Submit the "Invoice for Advancement of Payment" attached to the pension bill.

    Those who were born before April 1941, 16 (Annual Showa 4) can make an advance payment (early receipt) on a monthly basis for those born on or after April 1, 1941 (Showa 16). Apply a reduction ratenegativeof"Amount” is added.Depending on the year and month of birth, you can perform "all advance" and "partial advance".In other words, it is a reduction in the early bird amount. For those born on or after April 1941, 16, there is a 4% reduction per month (2% from April 0.5). (-4%) =30% reductionBecomes The additional pension will also be reduced at the same rate. The reduction continues for a lifetime and cannot be changed or canceled after the request has been made. If you carry it forward, you cannot become a voluntarily insured person in the national pension,Widow pensionOr due to post-severity/standard disorderBasic disability pensionWill not be paid. Those who were born before April 1941, 16 (Showa 4), if the person is insured by the national pension, the old-age basic pension that has been advanced will be suspended.

    Deferred payment

    On the other hand, those who have the right to receive the old-age basic pension when they reach the age of 65,From 66 years old (65 year after the acquisition of the entitlement if you do not have the entitlement when you reach the age of 1)To the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare on a monthly basis after desired age up to 75 yearsRequest for postponement of paymentBy doing so, you can receive an increased pension.From April 4, "until the age of 4" was changed to "until the age of 70."

    In the case of a beneficiary of the Old-age Employees' Pension, unlike the case of deferment, it is not always necessary to defer the Old-age Basic Pension and the Old-age Employees' Pension at the same time.Payment will start from the month following the month in which the day of the request was made.However, when reaching the age of 65Disability pension or Survivor pensionIf you were the recipient of the disability pension or survivor pension by the date you reached the age of 66, you cannot apply for postponement and you will not be able to apply for the disability pension or survivor pension after the age of 66. When becoming a beneficiary, it is generally considered that the request for postponement was made on that day. Please fill in the request for postponement of the pension bill (postcard format) sent at the beginning of the month of birth at 65 years old (the month before the month of birth if you are born on the 1st). Enclose one of "I want to postpone only the employee pension" and send it back. If both the old-age basic pension and the old-age welfare pension are withdrawn, it is not necessary to return them. If you are a recipient of the old-age welfare pension and only the old-age basic pension, you should attach a bill for postponing payment to your pension bill.

    With "age deferred payment" on a monthly basis, the amount of payment will be increased by 1% for each month of deferring (delaying) the start of payment, and if it is postponed to the month of reaching 0.7 years old five years later, 10 months x 75%. = =84% increasebecomes.This increase will last for life.In addition, cancellation after application is not possible.However, this "increase" is literally a "face value" figure, and does not necessarily mean an 84% increase in "net benefits" after tax.A simplified example is shown below.

    Although public pension income is treated as “miscellaneous income” under the tax law, and the taxation coefficient varies depending on the amount received, for example, if the annual amount received at the age of 65 is 200 million yen, 200 million yen × 100% – 120 million Yen (uniform deduction) = 80 yen is taxable. If this person reduces the payment to 70 years old and the amount of payment increases by 42%, the taxable object is 282 million yen x 100%-120 million yen = 162 million yen. If this person has other income and is subject to a 10% income tax during the year of receiving the tax, the tax amounts for the ages 65 and 70 will be 8 yen and 16.2 yen, respectively. “Take-out” after deducting from the face value received was ¥192 million and ¥267.8 million, respectively, which was 267.8/192≈1.395, an increase of less than 40%. In case of taking other taxation into consideration, the actual increase rate of “take-in” will decrease to about 33%.[9].. While various commentary on the benefits of deferred payments emphasizes that this "42% increase" is an absolute increase that can be applied to everyone, the actual (take-in amount) increase rate is It depends on the situation. This change in the rate of increase affects the calculation of the “break-even point,” which is, “How old do you live until the total amount of benefits is higher than if you do not delay it by delaying the start of payment?”. For example, if a person who plans to defer receiving payment until the age of 70 dies at the age of 69, the pension that he would have been able to receive for four years would not be received as a "delaying loss". Originally, public pensions are insurance for longevity safety net = longevity risk, so if you think in mass (general remarks), the profit and loss account is meaningless, but as each argument, it is humanity that I want to make the most profit. For example, the break-even point after reaching the age of 4 is 70 years and 42 months if the increase rate is 81%, but if the increase rate stops at 10%, the break-even point is 33 years and 85 months, which is the average of 2-year-old men. Life expectancy exceeds 65 years, and there is a 19.55% or more chance of being "delayed".

    If you wish to receive a deferred payment and wish to increase the rate at 70 years and 0 months, you must make a claim in the month when you reach 70 years old (just because you are 70 years old does not mean that you will be automatically paid). However, due to the principle of receiving payment from the month following the billing month (for example, 70 months in the case of "billing at 8 years and 8 months"), it is not a good idea to receive the payment until the bill is delayed.Be especially careful when you are born at the end of the month or the first day.Due to the revision of the law2014From April (26), even if you make a late request, you will be able to receive it retroactively until the month when you reach the age of 4.However, even if you make a claim after the month when you reach the age of 70, the maximum amount of increase is 70 months (60%), and there is no merit even if you receive it later.

    Transfer addition

    Those under the age of 65 who meet the requirements for beneficiaries of old-age welfare pension and disability welfare pensionDependentspouse(Generally, it is a "wife", so for the sake of convenience, it will be referred to as "wife" below... (There is no distinction between men and women in the system), the spouse's "added pension amount" is added to the "husband" old-age welfare pension, etc. Since the wife can receive the old-age basic pension after the wife reaches the age of 65, this addition disappears, and the amount equivalent to this addition is "Transfer additionIs added to the "old age basic pension" that the wife receives. In other words, only my wife can get this "transfer addition".

    As a requirement that transfer addition is added

    • My wife1926(Taisho15 years)4/2~1966(Showa 41) Born on April 4st.
      • Since the wife during this period was voluntarily enrolled under the old law, the period that was not voluntarily enrolled is considered as a combined period and is not reflected in the pension amount at all, and the older the wife is, the lower the pension amount is likely to be. , There is a meaning to make up for the shortage. Even if the wife can receive the full-age old-age pension by voluntarily joining, the transfer addition will be made if the requirements are met.
      • Wives born after April 1966, 41 (Showa 4) are forced to join under the new law for the entire period, so transfer additions will not be made. Wives born before April 2st, 1926 (Tensho 15) (beneficiaries of old-age pensions, etc. under the old law) will not lose their husband's pension even when they reach the age of 4, so transfer addition will not be made. ..
    • Satisfaction of the old-age basic pension after the wife reaches the age of 65.
      • If the wife meets all the requirements on the age of 65, it will be paid from the month following the age of 65. If the wife gets the old-age basic pension right after reaching the age of 65 due to voluntary participation, etc., it will be paid from the following month.
      • If the husband meets the following requirements after the age of 65, he will be paid from the month following the month in which the husband reaches the requirements. If the wife is older than the husband, she is already receiving the old-age basic pension, generally when the husband meets the requirements for an additional pension. In such a case, no additional pension will be paid to the husband, and the wife's transfer addition will start from the month following the month in which the husband acquired the old age welfare pension. In this case, it is necessary to submit "Notification for the reason for starting the addition of the basic old-age amount for old age" (usually, transfer addition will be automatically added if the requirements are met without making a notification etc. Is required).
    • By a husband who fulfills one of the following requirements (which is the basis for calculating the salary amount):Keep a livingis being done.
      • Those who are eligible for the old-age welfare pension or retirement mutual aid pension, and the period of the insured person of each law of employee pension or the period of union members, etc.240 months (20 years) or more(15 to 19 years in the case of special cases) (including cases where the old-age welfare pension is fully suspended, including supplements, due to the working-age pension system)
      • Disability welfare pensionOr, be the recipient of disability mutual aid pension, and based on the same reason for paymentBasic disability pensionWho has the right to receive

    The amount of transfer addition is calculated by the following formula.

    • 224,700 yen x revision rate x rate determined according to wife's date of birth (1.0 to 0.067)[10]

    2019年(平成31年)度の場合、1926年(大正15年)4月2日生まれの者であれば224,500円、1966年(昭和41年)4月1日生まれの者であれば15,042円である。

    Transfer addition can be advanced but not advanced (even if the old-age basic pension is advanced, transfer addition does not start until the age of 65). Even if it is postponed, the amount will not be increased. If the wife receives an employee old-age pension with a subscription period of 240 months or more, no transfer will be added. Also, when the wife can receive the disability pension, the transfer addition will be suspended during that period.[11].. Even if you divorce after meeting the requirements for transfer addition, the transfer addition will not be suspended, but if the number of insured months of the employee pension is 240 months or more due to the period of the insured who was considered as divorce, transfer No addition is done.

    Additional pension

    The No. 1 insured and voluntarily insured, the monthly premium of the national pensionAfter paying the full amountYou can apply to the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare and increase the payment by 400 yen per month. This is called "added premium", and by paying the added premium,When we obtain right to receive old-age basic pensionThe pension paid in conjunction withAdditional pension". However, the second and third insured persons[12]・Persons who are exempted from insurance premiums ・Insureds who are voluntarily enrolled in special cases cannot pay additional insurance premiums. AlsoNational Pension FundThose who are enrolled in are not able to pay additional insurance premiums. Of the 1st insured persons, those who are insured with the farmer's pension will be those who pay the additional insurance fee regardless of whether they wish or not. The payment of additional insurance premiums can be submitted at any time to the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare and declined (from the previous month of the month to which the application is made). If you do not pay the additional insurance by the due date, you will not be the person who pays the additional insurance from the date of the due date until 2013 (Heisei 25), and you will not be reminded and the additional insurance It was treated as an extra charge. From 2014 (Heisei 26), due to the revision of the law, it is possible to pay up to the past two years as well as the national pension insurance premium.

    For those who paid additional insurance premiums, 200 yen x the number of months paid will be paid as an additional pension. No. 3 insured persons will be paid for those who paid additional insurance premiums in the old law era. The additional pension is the amount of money that is added for a lifetime. Generally, if you receive the additional pension for two years, you can get the insurance premium of 2 yen. In addition, the additional pension is not subject to automatic revision of the annual amount due to revision of the revision rate (the macroeconomic slide/price slide special measures are not applied).

    The additional pension is paid together with the old-age basic pensionTherefore, if the old-age basic pension is fully discontinued, or if you receive a pension other than the old-age basic pension (such as the survivor's basic pension or disability basic pension), the additional pension is also stopped. Also, if you receive a lump-sum withdrawal payment or widows pension, you will not be added even if you pay additional insurance premiums,Death allowanceIn case of receiving the above, 36 yen will be added only if the additional insurance premium has been paid for 8,500 months or more. With regard to additional pensions, payments can be increased or decreased at the same time as the old-age basic pension, and the same rate increases and decreases as the old-age basic pension, and neither advance nor post-cancellation can be canceled after application.

    Old-age welfare pension

    Old-age welfare pensionWhat is (roroikonenkin)?Employee pensionIs a pension that is received by a person who meets the requirements and meets the requirements after reaching a certain age.

    Overview

    Over 65 years oldWho isMeet the eligibility period for old age basic pension,And1 month or moreIs paid on the condition that you have an insured period of the employee pension ("Original" old-age welfare pension). The pension is "Reward proportional part""Progressive addition""Annual wageIs the total of

    Apart from the "original" old-age welfare pension,1As a transitional measure before the age of 2 for those above the date of birth (more than two periods of insured types are added up)Specially provided old-age welfare pensionAre paid until the age of 65. The amount of payment is "Flat-rate part""Reward proportional part""Annual wageIs the total of Even if you receive this specially provided old-age welfare pension, the pension from age 65 will not change[13][14].. Recipients of "special payment" will also request a ruling again when they receive the "original" old-age welfare pension.[15].

    List of birth dates covered by the "specially provided old-age welfare pension" and payment details
    Date of Birth (Male, Female Nos. 2-4)[16][17][18]Date of birth (No. 1 female)[19]Specific police staff, etc.[20]Payment details
    1941(Showa 16) Before April 41946(Showa 21) Before April 41947(Showa 22) Before April 4From the age of 60, a specially-paid old-age welfare pension with a "fixed portion" and "added pension amount" will be paid. The original old-age welfare pension is paid from the age of 65.
    From April 1941, 16 (Showa 4)
    1949(Showa 24) Until April 4
    From April 1946, 21 (Showa 4)
    1954(Showa 29) Until April 4
    From April 1947, 22 (Showa 4)
    1955(Showa 30) Until April 4
    From the age of 60, an old-age welfare pension that is specially paid only for the "reward proportion portion" will be paid, and from the time of reaching the age of 61 to 64 depending on the date of birth, the "fixed portion" and "additional pension amount" Old-age welfare pension is paid. The original old-age welfare pension is paid from the age of 65.
    From April 1949, 24 (Showa 4)
    1953(Showa 28) Until April 4
    From April 1954, 29 (Showa 4)
    1958(Showa 33) Until April 4
    From April 1955, 30 (Showa 4)
    1959(Showa 34) Until April 4
    Aged 60 to 65 years old will be provided with a specially-paid old-age welfare pension only for the "reward proportion portion" (the fixed portion is not provided). From the age of 65, the original old-age welfare pension and "additional amount" will be paid.
    From April 1953, 28 (Showa 4)
    1961(Showa 36) Until April 4
    From April 1958, 33 (Showa 4)
    1966(Showa 41) Until April 4
    From April 1959, 34 (Showa 4)
    1967(Showa 42) Until April 4
    From the age of 61 to 64 depending on the date of birth, a specially-paid old-age welfare pension is provided only for the "reward proportion portion" (the fixed portion is not provided). From the age of 65, the original old-age welfare pension and "additional amount" will be paid.
    After April 1961, 36After April 1966, 41After April 1967, 42No specially provided old-age welfare pension is provided.

    For the following,ExceptionThere is.

    • Not insuredFor those who are eligible for the old-age welfare pension, which is a special payment only for the proportion of remuneration (which is a retired employee),
      • If you are in disability grade 3 or higher,By billing, A specially-paid old-age welfare pension with a fixed amount added from the month following the month of the request will be paid. If a person who can receive a disability welfare pension requestsGoing back when you are judged to be in a disability state(One year and six months have passed since the first medical examination (if healed within this period, that day))1941Born April 16st, 4 (Showa 2) April 1961st, 36 (Showa 4), girls1946(Showa 21) April 4 to 2 (Showa 1966) Limited to those born on April 41).
      • For persons with an insured period of 44 years or more ("44 years" for one insured type only, and do not add up two or more insured types), from the age at which the compensation proportional part begins to be paidFlat-rate part is added(男子は1941年(昭和16年)4月2日〜1961年(昭和36年)4月1日生まれ、女子は1946年(昭和21年)4月2日〜1966年(昭和41年)4月1日生まれの者に限る)。障害者特例とは異なり、請求は不要である。
    • Miner-SailorFor those who have a total of 15 years (actual period) or more as an insured person, a specially-paid old-age welfare pension with a fixed amount added from the age determined according to the date of birth is paid. It In this case, there is no difference in the age at which the proportional payment portion and the fixed amount portion start to be paid (limited to those born before April 1966, 41 (Showa 4)). "Not insured" and "Request" requirements are not required.
      • Born before April 1946, 21 (Showa 4)...From 1 years old
      • April 1946, 21 (Showa 4)1948(Showa 23) Born April 4...From 1 years old
        • After that, the age at which payment begins will be delayed by 2 year in increments of 1 years
      • 1964Born April 39 (Showa 4) ~ April 2 (Showa 1966) From age 41

    For persons with more than one type of employee pension insured period, the entitlement shall be determined for each insured period of each item, and the pension amount shall be determined for each insured period of each item. Each executing agency performs arbitration and payment procedures for each subscription period, and each executing agency also issues a pension certificate and various notices. "Old-age welfare pension" and "other old-age welfare pensions that are paid based on the same reason as that" can be co-paid (the same applies to survivor welfare pension, but disability welfare pension does not have this treatment and cannot be co-paid). Will be).

    Flat-rate part

    It is a fixed part that existed in the old law era and is not proportional to the reward. Since the new law replaces the basic pension, it will not be added to the “original” old-age welfare pension, but will be added to the specially-paid old-age welfare pension as a transitional measure.

    The degree for 2019 is as follows. Since it is a "fixed amount", if the number of insured months and the date of birth are the same, the amount will be the same regardless of the remuneration amount.

    • Â¥1,628 x rate determined according to date of birth (1.0 to 1.875) x number of months of insured period (upper limit is 480 months for only one insured type) x revision rate (2019 (Heisei 31) (Degree is 0.999)
      • The number of months of the insured period is calculated as 240 months when the insured period is less than 240 months for those who are eligible for the exception of middle-aged and elderly persons. The upper limit is 1946 months if born after April 21, 4 (Showa 2), but if born before that, the upper limit will be gradually reduced, for example1929(Showa 4) If you were born before April 4st, the upper limit will be 1 months.
      • The "rate determined according to the date of birth" is1926(Taisho15年)4月2日〜1946年(昭和21年)4月1日生まれの者は1.875(1926年(大正15年)度生まれ)〜1.032(1945(Born 20).Persons born after April 1946, 21 are uniformly 4.
      • "1,628 yen" is defined as "the amount of pension when enrolling in the national pension for one month" (full amount of old-age basic pension / 1), and is determined to maintain consistency with the old-age basic pension.

    Reward proportional part

    Basic amount
    • New revaluation rateCalculated using2003(15) Average standard reward up to MarchMonthly amount<br>× Benefit multiplication rate × Number of months of insured period until March 2003
    • New revaluation rateAverage standard remuneration for the period after April 2003 calculated usingamount× Benefit multiplication rate × Number of months of insured period after April 2003

    Is the sum of[21].

    • The new revaluation rate (revaluation rate after revision in 2004) is the current adjustment period (Macro economy slide), the revaluation rate for new arbitrators is based on the “nominal take-up wage fluctuation rate x adjustment rate” and the revaluation rate for existing arbitrators (65 in the year to which the beneficiary reaches the age of 3). The revaluation rate applied after the year to which April 4 of the following year belongs is based on "price fluctuation rate x adjustment rate".Revised every yearIs done.
    • Benefit multiplication rate
      • 2003年(平成15年)3月までの期間分については、1946年(昭和21年)4月1日以前生まれの者は0.723〜0.95%、1946年(昭和21年)4月2日後生まれの者は一律0.7125%。
      • 2003年(平成15年)4月以後の期間分については、1946年(昭和21年)4月1日以前生まれの者は0.5562〜0.7308%、1946年(昭和21年)4月2日後生まれの者は一律0.5481%。
    • The number of months of the insured period is calculated in the actual period even if the exception of middle-aged persons is applied (there is no minimum guarantee). There is no upper limit. Note that special cases are used for the period of Type 1991 insured persons before April 3, 4.
    • The division between March and April 2003 (15) is due to the introduction of a total remuneration system based on annual income, including bonuses, from April 3 (hence " Average standard rewardMonthly amount<br>"Average standard rewardamountThe notation is different).
    Conventional security
    • 6 revaluation rateCalculated by using the average monthly standard remuneration for the period up to March 2003 (Heisei 15) × benefit multiplication rate × number of months of the insured period until March 3 (Heisei 2003)
    • 6 revaluation rateCalculated using the average standard remuneration amount for the period after April 2003 (Heisei 15) × benefit multiplication rate × the number of months of the insured period after April 4 (Heisei 2003)

    If the amount multiplied by the previous revision rate (revised every fiscal year based on the “price fluctuation rate x adjustment rate”) exceeds the above-mentioned principle amount, the previous amount is calculated as the amount proportional to the remuneration. Become. As a result, until 26, most of the beneficiaries are paid the subsidy amount.

    • Benefit multiplication rate
      • 2003年(平成15年)3月までの期間分については、1946年(昭和21年)4月1日以前生まれの者は0.761〜1.0%、1946年(昭和21年)4月2日後生まれの者は一律0.75%。
      • 2003年(平成15年)4月以後の期間分については、1946年(昭和21年)4月1日以前生まれの者は0.5854〜0.7692%、1946年(昭和21年)4月2日後生まれの者は一律0.5769%。

    Annual wage

    When a recipient of a special payment (paid to a person under the age of 65) or a recipient of the "original" old-age welfare pension with a fixed amount added meets all of the following requirements: The supplementary pension amount is added to the pension amount.

    • 20 years (15 to 19 years in special cases) for the insured period of the employee pension, which is the basis of pension calculation
      • For those who have two or more types of employee pension insured periods, the insured periods are added together.
      • Even if it is less than 20 years at the time of obtaining the beneficiary right, if it is more than 20 years due to the revision at the time of retirement, confirm the following livelihood maintenance relationship at the time when the relevant number of years became 20 years or more according to the revision rule ..
      • Divorce splitIf it is over 20 years, the pension amount will not be added.
    • A spouse under the age of 65 (may be insured by Employees' Pension) who was living by the person at the time of obtaining the entitlement, or a child (until the first March 18 after the date of reaching the age of 3) Between the child and the child under the prescribed disability under the age of 31)
      • Acquisition of entitlement means when the age at which the fixed amount portion starts to be paid or when the person reaches the age of 65, not at the stage where the entitlement portion for the remuneration proportion only has occurred.
      • If the annual income (income of the previous year. Income from the previous year. Income from the year before last. Excluding temporary income) of 850 million yen or more is excluded from the addition, it is generally less than 5 million yen within 850 years If it is recognized that it will be added.
      • A spouse born before April 1926, 15 (Taisho 4) may be over 1 years old.
        • For spouses born from April 1926, 15 to April 4, 2 (Showa 1966), when the spouse reaches the age of 41, the additional pension amount will not be added, which is equivalent to this. The amount to do is "Transfer additionIs added to the old-age basic pension received by the spouse himself. Generally, if the wife is older than the husband, the wife is already receiving the old age basic pension when the husband can receive the pension, so the husband will not be given the pension, A considerable amount will be paid to the wife as a transfer addition from that point.
      • Even if the spouse advances and receives the old-age basic pension, the paid pension is not suspended. Even if the spouse does not have the right to receive the old-age basic pension and the transfer addition is not paid, when the spouse reaches the age of 65, the addition of the supplementary pension ends.

    2019年(平成31年)度の加給年金額は、配偶者、第1子、第2子については一人につき224,500円(≒224,700円×改定率0.999)、第3子以降は一人につき74,800円(≒74,900円×0.999)となる。また配偶者のある受給権者が1934(Showa 9) If born after April 4, 2 yen (≒33,200 yen ×33,200) to 0.999 yen (≒165,600 yen ×165,800) depending on the date of birth of the beneficiarySpecial additionIs done.

    If your spouse can receive an old-age welfare pension for more than 240 months (for spouses with two or more types of welfare pension insured periods, add up the insured periods) or disability pension If you can get it, the additional amount of the spouse will be stopped. In addition, when the old-age welfare pension and the disability basic pension are co-paid, and the child is added to the disability basic pension, the accrual of the child of the supplementary pension amount is suspended. Even if a person who was a single person at the time of obtaining the entitlement to the old-age welfare pension later has a spouse or child who meets the prescribed requirements, the amount of wages will not be added.

    Progressive addition

    Since the period covered by the summation is included, the old-age basic pension amount may be lower than the fixed portion amount. The difference will be paid for the time being in order to prevent the total amount of pension payments from decreasing.

    • Fixed amount portion-(Full amount of old-age basic pension x 1961 (Showa 36) After April 4, 1 months of welfare annuity under 20 years old and under 60 years old ÷480 (12 times the number of years of enrollment) )
      • In other words, "progressive addition = fixed amount-old age basic pension equivalent amount".
      • The number of months is calculated in real time, and special cases such as Type 3 insured persons are not used.

    Increase/decrease payment

    It is also possible to request/apply for the payment increase/decrease as in the old-age basic pension. For persons who have two or more types of insured period, a request/request for advancement/deferral of the old-age welfare pension based on one type of insured period is a request for an old-age welfare pension based on another period.・With offerat the same timeIt must be made.

    Advancement of payment

    The increase of the old-age welfare pension is the same as the increase of the old-age basic pension.at the same timeIt must be made.

    • For those who receive a fixed amount from the age of 60, you can request an "advancement of the old-age basic pension". If the amount is increased, the amount equivalent to the old-age basic pension will be suspended for the fixed-amount part, and the full amount of the old-age basic pension will be reduced. It is eligible and will not be increased even at the age of 65.
    • Those who are 60 years old and receive a specially-paid old-age welfare pension and only a fixed-age portion after the age of 61 can request the "old-age basic pension with full advancement" from the age of 60. .. In this case, the amount equivalent to the old-age basic pension will be suspended for the fixed amount, and the entire amount will be reduced for the old-age basic pension, and will not be increased even at the age of 65. There is no reduction in the proportion of remuneration or the cumulative addition from the age of 65. Before the start of payment of the fixed amount part, you can request a "partial advance basic pension". In this case, the fixed amount part is also paid up at the same time, adjusted at a prescribed rate, and the part of the old age that was not increased at the age of 65 Basic pension amount will be added.
      • The "partially advanced old-age basic pension" is calculated using the following formula.
        (Annual amount of the old-age basic pension from age 65) × (Number of months from the claim month to the month before the fixed amount partial payment start month) / (Number of months from the claim month to the month before the month 65 years old) × Payment rate
        "Payment rate" is 100%-(0.5% x number of months from the advanced billing month to the month before the age 65 years old)
    • For those who are 60 years old and receive a specially-paid old-age welfare pension and only the fixed-amount part is not paid, a 60-year-old or later can be requested to pay the "all-earnings-based old-age basic pension". Claims for "partial advance basic pension" cannot be made.
    • For those who are 61 years old or older and are not paid the fixed amount part of the special welfare pension, only the proportionate part of the remuneration will be paid from the age of 60 to the age at which payment of the proportional part of the remuneration is started. Can be charged. In this case, you must also make a claim for the "old-age basic pension with full advancement" (both will be reduced naturally). From the start of the payment of the proportional portion of the remuneration until the age of 65, you can request an "advanced old-age basic pension".
    • For those who do not receive the specially-paid old-age welfare pension, they can request an advance payment of the old-age welfare pension if they meet the qualification period for the old-age welfare pension (=the qualification period for the old-age basic pension) on the day before the billing date. In this case, it must be carried out at the same time as the promotion of the old-age basic pension. In addition, even if it is advanced, the wages will not be added until the age of 65. Insured persons who voluntarily join the national pension cannot make this claim.

    Deferred payment

    Those who have the right to receive the old-age welfare pension (excluding those who have acquired the right to get paid by March 2007, 19), and one year from the date when the right was acquired Those who have not claimed the old-age welfare pension before the lapse of days may request the executing agency to reduce the payment of the old-age welfare pension. Provided, however, that the person acquired the right to receive the old-age welfare pension, the person who received the disability pension other than the basic disability pension or the survivor's pension, or from the date of obtaining the right to receive the old-age welfare pension. If you become a recipient of a disability pension other than the disability basic pension or a survivor's pension by the day after one year has passed, you cannot make this offer (Article 3-31). A person who became a recipient of a disability pension other than the disability basic pension or a survivor's pension one day after the lapse of one year will be postponed after the day when the reason why the disability pension other than the disability basic pension or the survivor's pension should be paid When making an application, in principle, it shall be deemed that the application for postponement was made on the day of becoming the beneficiary.

    The law related to pension system reform that was enacted on May 2020, 2 (5nd year of Reiwa) made it possible to start receiving pensions from the age of 29[22].

    Employment old-age pension

    Working while receiving old-age welfare pensionRemunerationApplied when you get[23].. From October 2015 (Heisei 27), the old-age pension system will be applied to members of the Diet and local government members.

    Low age

    If you are 60 years old or older and receive a (specially paid) old-age welfare pension and are also an employee of the welfare pension,Low age),Equivalent to the total monthly salary(The sum of the standard monthly salary and the total amount of standard bonuses for one year prior to that month divided by 1)Basic monthly amount(Annual amount ÷ 12) and the total amount is 28 yen (Payment stop adjustment start amount), the payment will be suspended as follows until the month to which the retirement date belongs. If a pension is added, the pension amount of the working old-age pension is calculated by excluding the pension amount. According to this calculation, if even a part of the main body is paid, the full amount of paid pension is paid, and if the main body is stopped from full payment, the paid pension is also stopped.

    • The basic monthly amount is 28 yen or less, and the total monthly remuneration amount is 47 yen (Payment suspension adjustment change amount)[24]If:
      • (Total amount-28 yen) × 2/1 amount will be suspended.
    • When the basic monthly amount is 28 yen or less and the total monthly remuneration equivalent amount exceeds 47 yen
      • (Pension monthly amount +47 yen-28 yen) x 2/1 amount and (total monthly equivalent amount-47 yen) sum will be suspended
    • When the basic monthly amount exceeds 28 yen and the total monthly equivalent amount is 47 yen or less
      • The amount of (total monthly payment equivalent amount x 2/1) will be suspended.
    • When the basic monthly amount exceeds 28 yen and the total monthly remuneration equivalent amount exceeds 47 yen
      • The sum of the amount of (47 yen x 2/1) and the amount of (total monthly remuneration equivalent amount-47 yen) will be suspended.

    The total monthly salary is not only the monthly salary but also the past one year.BonusIf you receive a large amount of bonus right before you retire, even if your monthly income decreases after retirement, the amount of suspension of payment will increase due to the bonus before retirement (in some cases, full payment suspension) There is a possibility.

    Under the pension system reform-related law enacted on May 2020, 2 (5nd year of Reiwa), the reduction standard in the early 29s will be increased from the current monthly income of over 60 yen to over 28 yen for people aged 65 and over.[22].

    Senior citizen

    1937(Showa 12) Those born after April 4 (2002(Persons who are 14 years old after the revision of (65)) are receiving the (original) old-age welfare pension after age 65 and are also insured by welfare pension (Senior citizen),Equivalent to the total monthly salaryとBasic monthly amountAnd the total amount is 47 yen (Payment suspension adjustment amount)[25]If the amount exceeds the limit, one-half of the amount exceeded will be suspended. Furthermore, if the amount exceeded exceeds the basic monthly amount, all payments for the old-age welfare pension (reward proportion portion) will be suspended except for the old-age basic pension, transitional addition and deferred addition. From April 2, senior citizens will be subject to the same mechanism for employees aged 1 and over. From October 19 (Heisei 2007), those who are 4 years old or older who were born before April 70, 2015 (Showa 27) are also eligible.

    Since senior citizens pay insurance until they are 70 years old, the amount of future pension payments will increase accordingly, and in principle there is no burden of insurance premiums after 70 years old. However, since the amount of suspension of payment will be considerable, it may hinder the elderly's willingness to work.2019(First year of Reiwa) in AugustFinancial verificationThen, the verification including the abolition of the working old age pension was made.[26].

    Revision of pension amount

    If the beneficiary of the old-age welfare pension (“originally” and special payment) who is an insured person (while working) has been revised in the amount equivalent to the total monthly remuneration due to salary increase, salary reduction, bonus payment, etc.From the month when the revision was madeThe suspension payment amount will be recalculated based on the new total monthly remuneration amount.From the month when the revision was madeThe pension amount will also be revised (Employee Welfare Pension Insurance Act, Article 46, paragraph 6).

    Divorce splitIf theThe month following the month to which the invoiced day belongsThe pension amount will be revised from Employees' Pension Insurance Act Article 78-10.

    The “original” old-age welfare pension is not, in principle, the basis for its calculation during the period in which the beneficiary is insured after the month in which the right is acquired. However, when one month has passed from the date of disqualification without the beneficiary being disqualified and becoming an insured person (re-employment), (also "specially, special payment")Until the month before the month of disqualificationBased on the insured period as a basis of pension amount, the amount of pension is calculated from the month to which the qualification loss date (if the reason for qualification loss is retirement or exemption) is one month Will be revised (Retirement revision, Article 43 Paragraphs 2 and 3 of the Welfare Pension Insurance Law). If you request an advance payment, the pension amount will not be revised until you reach the age of 65 regardless of whether you are disqualified.

    • 2015(平成27年)10月の法改正により、月末退職の場合の退職時改定の取扱いが変更となった。従来は資格喪失日(退職日の翌日)の規定により、例えば3月31日に退職した場合、資格喪失日(4月1日)から起算して1月を経過した5月から改定となっていたが、法改正後は退職日(3月31日)から起算して1月を経過した4月からの改定となる。

    If the beneficiary of the old-age welfare pension, which is specially paid only for the proportion of remuneration, falls under the above-mentioned special cases (persons with disabilities/long-term subscribers), the pension amount will start from the month following the month (the person with a disability charged) It will be revised (a fixed amount will be added). In addition, if the beneficiary of the old-aged welfare pension specially provided for which the fixed amount has already been added to the special exception does not fall under the special exception, the pension amount will be revised (the fixed amount will not be added) ( Employees' Pension Insurance Act Supplementary Provisions Article 9-2).

    If the beneficiary of an old-age welfare pension, which was not insured, became an insured (employed), the pension amount will be revised from the month following the month in which the insured became insured (In principle, reductions will be revised and payment will be suspended) (Article 11 of the Supplementary Provisions). If the insured qualification is lost in the month of becoming the insured (retirement in the month of employment), this mechanism does not apply.

    • 2016(28) Fixed-rate due to special cases for persons with disabilities and special cases for 9 years because persons who continue to work at the same establishment before September 30 became insured as short-time workers on October 2016, 10 If the full amount of the portion is suspended, the suspension of the fixed amount portion will be canceled by notification as a transitional measure.
    • 2020(2nd year of Reiwa) A pension system reform-related law, which was enacted on May 5, introduced a system called regular revision of employment. When a person in their late 29s works while receiving an employee pension, the paid insurance premium is reflected in the annual amount of the following year[22].

    Coordination with employment insurance

    Basic allowance

    The recipient of the specially-paid old-age welfare pension isEmployment Insurance ActAccording toBasic allowanceAs a general rule, if you can receive the payment ofNext month(If the application for job hunting is before the pension entitlement date, the month following the month in which the entitlement is obtained), until the month when the applicable period elapses, or the month when the payment is completed,Full amountWill be suspended (Basic allowance is given priority). In addition, the basic allowance (Excluding those paid after the age of 65) Is adjusted. In addition,Voluntary retirementHowever, if the basic allowance was not given for one day, the basic allowance will be paid without being stopped and the basic allowance actually received at the end of the basic allowance period. Convert the number of days of allowance into months, and if the number of months of suspension of payment is large, cancel suspension of payment retroactively (ex post payment).

    If the beneficiary applies for a job, attach the identification of the person eligible for employment insurance to the “Notification of Reason for Suspension of Payment of Beneficiary” and submit it to the pension office that has jurisdiction over the address. However,2003(25) Notification is not required in principle for those who fall under the cause of suspension of payment after October 10, 1.

    Senior employment continuation benefit

    Specially provided old-age welfare pension (Employment old-age pension) Is the recipientEmployment Insurance ActIn addition to the suspension of the old-age pension, if you can receive the basic benefits for continuing employment for older people (for those who are continuously employed without receiving the basic allowance) under the provisions ofEquivalent to 6% of standard monthly remunerationFurther payment will be suspended up to the maximum amount (All basic benefits for continuing employment for older people will be paid.). If you receive the “original” old-age welfare pension after age 65, there will be no suspension of payment.

    If the beneficiary is to receive the basic employment continuation benefit for the elderly, the jurisdiction over the domicile shall be attached to the “Notification of Reason for Suspension of Provision of the Beneficiary for the Elderly Employment Continuation”. Submit to the pension office. However, the first day of the first month when the basic benefits for continuing employment for older people are provided is 1 (2013).10/1In the following cases, notification is not required in principle.

    Forfeiture

    The recipient of the old-age basic pension, additional pension, and old-age welfare pension (special payment, "original")When you dieDisappear. In addition, the beneficiary has the right to receive the old-age welfare pension specially provided.When you reach the age of 65Disappears.

    After death

    It is basically necessary to contact the municipal pension office when the fact of death is known (National pension within 14 days, welfare pension within 10 days), but within 7 days from the date of deathFamily register lawIf you submit the above notification, the municipalityBasic Resident Register Network SystemIf you participate in, you can omit the contact to the pension office.

    However, as a result of checking at the pension office before proceeding with the suspension of payment,Remaining pension to be paid to the deceasedI may find out.As a general rule, the pension for the past two months is paid together on the 15th of even-numbered months, so if you die in an odd-numbered month, the amount that was planned to be paid in the next month will be an "unpaid pension".In this case, the unpaid portion (unpaid pension) is considered to be the dead.Had made a livingBereaved family (priority is spouse, child, parents, grandchild, grandparents, brothers and sisters. Due to revision of law, relatives within 2014 relatives other than these were added from April 4)In my nameYou can charge. If there are multiple ties, the claim made by that person shall be deemed to have been made in full for all, and the payment made to that person shall be deemed to have been made to all.

    On the other hand, if the beneficiary has died due to death, but the payment was made in error for the following month or later, the refundReceivableOf debt pertaining toRepaymentIf the person who should pay the pension has a pension benefit (survivor's basic pension), the payment of the pension benefit can be applied to the amount of the refund claim. Note thatFalse payment adjustments are made only within the same systemTherefore, it cannot be applied across systems such as the national pension and welfare pension.

    footnote

    1. ^ "White Paper on Health, Labor and Welfare 30"Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 2018, Documents.https://www.mhlw.go.jp/wp/hakusyo/kousei/18-2/dl/11.pdf. 
    2. ^ With the unification of the employee pension system, public employees and private school faculty members also joined the welfare pension from October 2015, 10.In addition, the occupational addition portion of the mutual aid pension has been abolished, and a new retirement pension benefit has been created.However, for the period of participation in the mutual aid pension until September 1, 2015, the occupational area addition portion will be paid according to the participation period even after October 9.
    3. ^ In other words, if your birthday is June 6st, it's May 1st. If June 5nd, then June 31st.
    4. ^ a b "The pension will be paid from the month following the start of receiving the pension.". FP Fumio Okuno Office. 2022/1/16Browse.
    5. ^ In other words, on the 15th day of even-numbered months, the amount for the previous month and the month before the previous month will be paid.
    6. ^ "Q. When is the pension payment month?". Japan Pension Service (September 2014, 4). 2022/1/16Browse.
    7. ^ "Q. I received my pension payment for the first time. How long is this?". Japan Pension Service (September 2014, 4). 2022/1/16Browse.
    8. ^ "It is not automatically transferred even at the age of 65 !? Pensions need to be received". Finasee (September 2020, 10). 2022/1/16Browse.
    9. ^ http://diamond.jp/articles/-/160670 “The pension will increase by 70% when it starts receiving 42 years old, but there is a pitfall!” Diamond Online Akie Fukada Viewed April 2018, 4
    10. ^ Due to the revision of the law in 2015 (Heisei 27), the fractional treatment of pensions has been changed from the previous 100 yen unit to 1 yen unit. However, in the transfer addition calculation, the fraction less than 224,700 yen is rounded off at (100 yen x revision rate), and when it is multiplied by (rate determined according to the wife's date of birth), the fraction less than 1 yen is rounded off. To do.
    11. ^ If the wife receiving the disability basic pension has reduced the disability grade to level 3, if the pension to be received is changed from the disability basic pension to the old age basic pension, transfer addition will be added.
    12. ^ The third insured was able to pay additional insurance premiums as an optional subscriber before April 3. The additional insurance premium paid period during this period is regarded as the additional insurance premium paid period as the first insured period.
    13. ^ Social insurance laborerButSpecially provided old-age welfare pensionHe pointed out that he often forgets to get it, and says, "Even if a special payment is received, the pension from age 65 does not change, so if you do not receive it, you will lose a lot.""I often forget to get a "special payment", which is a trap that I assume that my pension will be 65 years old". NEWS Post Seven (Shogakukan). (November 2019, 2). https://www.news-postseven.com/archives/20190213_868942.html 2019/9/15Browse. However, this article ignores the case of women regarding the target age and date of birth.
    14. ^ "Special payment, additional payment... Have you forgotten your pension? Loss of rights after 5 years Be careful even if you are under 65 years old". NIKKEI STYLE. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2018, 9). 2019/9/15Browse.
    15. ^ "Pension procedure at the age of 65 (those who are receiving a special old-age welfare pension)". Japan Pension Service (September 2020, 8). 2020/11/4Browse.
    16. ^ Specially provided old-age welfare pensionNational Public Service Mutual Aid Association
    17. ^ Old-age welfare pensionFederation of Local Public Employee Mutual Aid Associations
    18. ^ 65 years old pensionJapan Private School Promotion and Mutual Aid Agency
    19. ^ In the former private companies, there is a gender gap only for the 1st employee pension insured.Retirement ageIn the old law era, there was a gender difference in the age at which payment was started because there was a gender difference in age (there was no gender difference even in the old law era in the mutual aid pension).
    20. ^ "Among the insured persons who were police officers, escorts of the Imperial Palace, firefighters, or full-time members of the fire brigade (limited to those below the class specified by Cabinet Order) Those who have continued to be employed for 20 years or more at the time of satisfying the payment requirements (the day before the qualification loss day), or those specified by a Cabinet Order as equivalent thereto.
    21. ^ However, by 2014 (Heisei 26)Macro economy slideHas not been activated, the actual benefit amount will be the annual amount due to the special measure for price slides. Also in this case, the nominal take-up wage fluctuation rate or the price fluctuation rate is not multiplied by the adjustment rate even in the adjustment period.
    22. ^ a b c June 2020, 5 Chunichi Shimbun 30 pages
    23. ^ "For those who receive old-age welfare pension while working-when receiving pension while working (PDF)”. Japan Pension Service (March 2012, 3). 2013/11/5Browse.
    24. ^ The payment suspension adjustment change amount will be changed to the legally required amount of 48 yen according to the nominal wage fluctuation rate from 17 onwards.
    25. ^ The payment suspension adjustment amount is changed in the same manner as the payment suspension adjustment change amount.
    26. ^ Future public pension financial outlook (financial verification)Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare

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