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💴 | [Real estate companies won't tell you! ] "National Health Insurance subscribers" and "dependents" are at the time of sale of real estate ...


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[Real estate companies won't tell you! ] "National Health Insurance subscribers" and "dependents" are at the time of sale of real estate ...

 
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When you sell real estate owned by a person who has National Health Insurance or a dependent, please make sure that you can make a profit.
 

Expenses "Tell Me" by Real Estate Companies Real estate companies provide a polite explanation of the costs of selling real estate. … → Continue reading

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Dependents

    National Health Insurance

    National Health Insurance(Kokumin Kenkou,British: National Health Insurance) Is JapaneseNational Health Insurance ActEtc.Compulsory insurance Ofmedical insuranceIs. Mainly operated by municipalities,Employee insuranceIn JapanUniversal healthcareIt is the core of the system.Medical insurance office workThe abbreviation above isNational insuranceIt is called (Kokuho) and is distinguished from employee insurance.In JapanNational Health Insurance taxAs a tax, it is collected.Since this tax is deductible, it has the function of reducing or exempting the inhabitant tax of businesses and individuals when the tax is filed.

    27.5% of Japan's population is a member of the Municipal National Health Insurance, and 2.5% is a member of the National Health Insurance Society (2011)[1].. Characteristically, 59.3% of households received mitigation measures, 6% of whom were unemployed (2017)[2].

    If you reach the age of 75, National Health Insurance will be withdrawn,Medical system for elder senior citizensBecome a subscriber of.

    • Regarding the National Health Insurance Act, only the number of articles will be described below.
    Japanese national medical expenses(System distinction, FY2016)[3]
    Publicly funded medical carePayment3 billion yen (007.5%)
    Medical care for the elderlyPayment14 billion yen (033.6%)
    medical insuranceEqual payment
    19 billion yen
    (45.7%)
    Employee insurance
    9 billion yen
    (22.2%)
    Association Kenpo5 billion yen (012.1%)
    Health insurance association3 billion yen (008.4%)
    Seafarers insurance195 billion yen (000.0%)
    Mutual aid association1 trillion0583 billion yen (002.6%)
    National Health Insurance9 billion yen (022.6%)
    OtherLabor accidentな ど3049 billion yen (000.7%)
    Patient burden5 billion yen (012.2%)
    Special mitigation measures1119 billion yen (000.3%)
    the amount42 million yen (1381%)


    History

    The first public medical insurance in Japan is1922(Taisho11 years)Health insurance lawAnd this is the occupation of the corporate employerHealth insuranceMet[4].

    About local insurance of farmer, self-employed person,SaitamaMinami Saitama DistrictKoshigaya Town(CurrentKoshigaya) "Koshigaya Junseikai," the first regional health insurance system in Japan for general residents1935(Showa10 years later, three years later1938In 13, the National Health Insurance Law (former law) at the government level was established. For this reason, Koshigaya City refers to the "Koshigaya Junshokai" as the "origin of National Health Insurance," and to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the enforcement of the National Health Insurance Act,1948In (23), "Monument of Sobu Mutual Aid", which honors "Koshigaya Junseikai", is set up on the site of the current Koshigaya City Hall.

    In addition, YamagataKadokawa Village (currentlyTozawa) To establish a village-run clinic in a village that was a non-medicine village at the time,1936"Kadokawa Village Health Insurance Society" was established in (Showa 11), and two years later1938Since it became the first national health insurance association authorized under the National Health Insurance Act of (Showa 13), it is called "the birthplace of national health insurance" and the 1th anniversary of the enforcement of the National Health Insurance Act. To commemorate1958In (Showa 33), "Monument of mutual aid" and "Monument of origin of national health insurance" are set up on the site of the current Rural Environment Improvement Center.

    1938In the old legal system of (Showa 13), it was a union system at that time and was targeted at the residents of agricultural, mountain and fishing villages.[4].Municipal management methodAs a result, Japanese citizens who are not organized by government agencies or companies are targeted1958(Showa 33),1961In (36), all Japanese people take out "public medical insurance"Universal insurancesystemWas prepared[4].

    In the face of major changes in the environment, such as the rapid declining birthrate and aging population, in order to make the medical insurance system sustainable and maintain universal health insurance in the future,2015(Heisei(27) By the "Law that partially amends the National Health Insurance Law, etc. to build a sustainable medical insurance system" established on May 5,2018Since April 30, prefectures have become the main body of financial management, and will play a central role in the management of national health insurance. Unless otherwise specified, the description below is based on the revised law that came into force in April 4.

    Purpose/Control

    The National Health Insurance Act ensures the sound management of the National Health Insurance business andImproving social security and national healthThe purpose is to contribute to (Article 1). And in order to reach this goal,disease,Injury,birthOrDeathRequired forInsurance benefits(Article 2). Unlike user insurance such as health insurance and seafarers' insurance, insurance benefits are provided regardless of whether they are in business or out of business.

    CountryWill take various necessary measures to ensure that the operation of the National Health Insurance business is carried out soundly.Shall be actively promoted(Article 4). AlsoPrefecturesOf stable financial management, municipal health insurance businessEnsuring efficient implementationOf the national health insurance business of other prefectures and municipalities within the prefecture.Sound management(Article 4).Municipalities shall appropriately implement matters concerning the acquisition and loss of insured qualifications, collection of national health insurance premiums, implementation of health business, and other national health insurance business (Article 2).

    In order to fulfill these responsibilities, the prefectures and municipalities shall organically cooperate with policies related to health and medical services and welfare services and other related policies. In addition to these provisions, the prefecture shall provide necessary guidance and advice to the National Health Insurance Society and other related parties so that the operation of the National Health Insurance business may be carried out appropriately and smoothly (Part 4 Articles 4 and 5).

    Specifically, the prefectural government, as the person in charge of financial management, sets the payment for each municipality, also improves the efficiency and area of ​​office work carried out by the municipality, and inspects and post-adjusts insurance benefits carried out by the municipality. .. Municipalities collect and charge insurance premiums, actual insurance benefits,Insured cardManagement of qualifications such as issuance, and delivery of national insurance business payments to prefectures.

    Insurer

    National Health Insurance Business Annual 22[5]
    Number of insurersNumber of households (thousand households)Insured number (thousands)
    Municipal National Health Insurance1,72320,37235,493
    National Health Insurance Society1651,5423,227
    meter1,88821,91438,769

    National health insurance fee collected from the subscriber orNational Health Insurance tax(Hereinafter, abbreviated as "insurance premium") and income from national treasury contributions, etc.InsurerSay. The following exist (Article 3).

    Prefectures, municipalities, or national insurance associations jointly achieve the purpose,National Health Insurance AssociationAnd if more than two-thirds of the insurers in the area of ​​the federation join, all other insurers will be members of the federation (Article 3, paragraph 2, paragraph 83). Article 1, paragraph 84).

    Municipal National Health Insurance

    To discuss important matters concerning the operation of the National Health Insurance business, all prefectures and municipalitiesNational Health Insurance Management CouncilIs placed (Article 11). Council members are representatives of the insured,Insurance doctor-Insurance pharmacistThe number of representatives and public interest representatives is the same.

    Prefectural National Health Insurance Management Policy

    Prefectures are responsible for the stable financial management of national health insurance conducted by prefectures and the national health insurance business of municipalities within the prefecture.Promotion of wide-area and efficient managementTo achieve this, the policy regarding the operation of the national health insurance business of prefectures and municipalities within the prefecture (Prefectural National Health Insurance Management Policy) (Article 82-2, paragraph 1).

    The prefectural national health insurance management policy is based on the prefectural medical cost optimization plan (Act on ensuring medical care for the elderlyConsistency with Article 9 (1)) must be ensured.When the prefectural governor establishes or changes the prefectural national health insurance management policy, he / she must hear the opinion of the mayor of the municipality in the prefecture in advance.When a prefecture establishes or changes the prefectural national health insurance management policy, it will do so without delay.Try to publishI shall. Municipalities shall endeavor to carry out the affairs of national health insurance based on the prefectural national health insurance management policy. When a prefecture determines that it is necessary to create a prefectural national health insurance management policy and to implement the measures stipulated in the prefectural national health insurance management policy, it is necessary for the federation of national health insurance organizations and other related parties. You can ask for cooperation (Article 82-2, paragraphs 5-9).

    In the prefectural national health insurance management policy, in addition to the items listed in 1 to 4 below, the items listed in 5 to 8 below shall be established (Article 82-2, 2-3). ).

    1. National Health Insurance medical expenses and financial outlook
    2. Matters concerning the standard calculation method of insurance premiums in municipalities within the prefecture concerned
    3. Matters concerning proper implementation of insurance premium collection in municipalities within the prefecture concerned
    4. Matters concerning proper implementation of insurance payments in municipalities within the prefecture concerned
    5. Matter about approach of rationalization of expense required for medical care
    6. Matters concerning promotion of wide-area and efficient management of national health insurance business in municipalities within the prefecture concerned
    7. Matters concerning cooperation with measures related to health care services and welfare services and other related measures
    8. Coordination of communications between related municipalities necessary for implementation of the items listed in 2 to 7 and other items deemed necessary by prefectures

    National Health Insurance Society

    The breakdown of the National Health Insurance Society is as follows.

    There is a association in the union,TermsChanges, income/expenditure budgets, financial statements, etc. must be decided by the association (Article 27). As an officer,Directoras well as the AuditorsThe number of directors is 5 or more, the number of auditors is 2 or more, and the term of office for directors and auditors is determined by the respective regulations within the range not exceeding 3 years (Article 23).

    When establishing a National Health Insurance Society, 15 or more founders prepare the rules, and with the consent of more than 300 persons who should become union members, the location of the main officePrefectural governor OfAuthorizationHave to receive. If there is an application for approval, the prefectural governor will hear the opinion of the mayor of the municipality including the district of the union and grant approval unless it is deemed not to interfere with the operation of the national health insurance business of these municipalities. Don't A union is formed when the establishment is approved (Article 17). The union must use the words "National Health Insurance Society" in its name, and no person other than the union can use the name "National Health Insurance Society" or any similar name (Article 15). ). The following matters must be stated in the association's rules (Article 18).

    1. Name
    2. Office location
    3. Union area and membership range
    4. Matters concerning joining and leaving of union members
    5. Matters concerning acquisition and loss of insured qualification
    6. Matters concerning officers
    7. Matters concerning association
    8. Matters concerning insurance premiums
    9. Matters concerning management of reserves and other assets
    10. Method of notification
    11. In addition to the matters listed in the preceding items, matters specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (Enforcement Regulations Article 18)
      • Matters concerning insurance benefits
      • Matters concerning partial payment

    From the standpoint of the principle of municipal health insurance,Ministry of Health and Welfare The1959Since (34), as a general rule, new establishments have not been approved, but they may be approved as special cases. The example is as follows.

    • 1970(Showa 45) 39 associations for construction workers
    The National Health Insurance Society for construction workers was newly approved. This was due to financial difficulties in 1970 (Showa 45)Daily health insurance OfSingle masterAs a remedy for the abolition of imitation, construction-relatedUnionIt is based on the request by. Later, the Ministry of Health and WelfareCrowEven though there are days whenFootwear Red carpetIt was said that it was realized in a tenacious struggle, saying, "There was no day I could not step on."

    被 保 険 者

    Insured cardThe insurer number consists of 6 digits. less digits).

    Municipal National Health Insurance Household Occupation (2010)[1]
    Agriculture, forestry and fisheries3.1%
    self employed15.5%
    Employee35.3%
    Unemployed
    (40.8%)
    Of which 60 years or older32.4%
    30-59 years7.0%
    - 29-year-old1.4%
    Other5.2%

    Municipal National Health Insurance

    Within the prefecture areaAddressWho hasso,ExemptionThose who do not fall underRegardless of the intention[Note 1], All are considered to be insured by the National Health Insurance conducted together with the municipalities in the prefecture (Article 5). Even foreigners have been determined to have a period of stay of 90 days or moreMid- and long-term residents(Article 1 of the Enforcement Regulations) and those who are recognized as domestic residents for more than 90 days are required to join National Health Insurance.[8].

    The insured person of the municipal insurance company acquires its qualification from the date when it has an address in the area of ​​the prefecture concerned or from the date when it does not correspond to any exemption (Article 7), and from that date 14 Within a day, you must notify the mayor of the city with the prescribed information (Article 2 of the Enforcement Regulations).

    However,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularFor students who live in other municipalities for studying, etc.,marriagedo itspouseUnless you are living with your income, you will be covered by the national health insurance of the parent municipality (Article 116). Also,hospital, If you move from another municipality to a municipality that has that hospital, etc. by being hospitalized or admitted to a nursing care insurance facility, etc. Be regarded asAddress land exception, Article 116-2). If a person who is insured by the National Health Insurance of the municipality of the previous address area under the application of the exception of the address area by this regulation joins the medical care for the elderly with advanced age due to reaching the age of 75, etc. Insured by the Medical Association for the Elderly Medical Care for the Elderly at the previous address (May 27, 5, Hoho 29 No. 0527).

    Specifically, what is covered by the municipal health insurance isAgriculture, forestry and fisheriesemployee,self employedNot covered by employee insurancePart-time jobWorker,retirementPerson,UnemployedWho areBeSupportThe concept of person is not in national health insurance(The family also becomes "insured."Retiree medical system(Excluding cases related tohousewife-Full-time husband,Student,MinorEtc. can also be insured. In the past, it was often the case that self-employed persons were the representative example of subscribers, but recently unemployed persons such as retirees account for more than 4% of subscribers.[1].

    National pensionUnlike, there is no voluntary participation system for those who do not have an address in Japan.

    National Health Insurance Society

    The National Health Insurance Society shall organize as a member a person who is engaged in the same type of business or business and has an address within the district of the concerned association (Article 13 paragraph 1).Head of householdEven if is exempt from application, if there is a person in the household of that person who is not exempt from exemption (excluding persons who are members of other National Health Insurance associations), they can become union members (Article 13(3)) .. A person used in a union (excluding persons who are members of other National Health Insurance associations) can also become a member unless the exemption applies (Article 13, paragraph 4).

    Members of members of the National Health Insurance Society and households of membersWill be insured by the National Health Insurance provided by the association unless it falls under the exemption (Article 19, paragraph 1). However, by stipulating by the rules, it is possible to exclude persons who belong to the household of the union member from being comprehensively insured (Article 19 paragraph 2).

    The insured person of the National Health Insurance Society acquires its qualification from the date of becoming the member of the association or the day when it does not fall under the exemption (Article 20).

    Exemption

    Persons who fall under any of the following items shall not be insured by the National Health Insurance regardless of the above provisions (Article 6, Paragraph 13 of Article 3).

    1. Health insuranceInsured (Special day insured personexcept for)
    2. Seafarers insuranceInsured
    3. National Public Service Mutual Aid Association-Mutual aid association for local public employeesMembers of
    4. Private school teachers mutual aid systemSubscribers of
    5. Dependents of health insurance (excluding those who are specially insured by day labor)
    6. Seafarer insurance/national civil servantsMutual aid association・Dependents of mutual aid associations such as local government employees
    7. Persons who are in the process of receiving the special daily insured certificate and until there is no margin for sticking the health insurance stamp on the certificate, and their dependents (Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare(Excluding persons who are within the period of not being insured by the daily employment exception and those who have returned the daily employment exception insured certificate and their dependents)
    8. Medical system for elder senior citizensInsured (Municipal National Health Insurance only)
    9. WelfarePersons belonging to households (excluding households whose protection has been suspended)
    10. Insured by National Health Insurance Society (Municipal National Health Insurance only)
    11. Those who have other special reasons and are specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (Enforcement Regulations Article 1)
      • Those who do not have Japanese nationality,Basic Resident Registration ActOther than foreign residents prescribed in (Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition ActExcludes persons who have the status of residence stipulated in the Immigration Control Act and who have already acquired the qualifications of the insured person and those who are separately specified by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare. )
      • Among the activities specified by the Minister of Justice as the activities listed in the lower column of the Immigration Control Act Appended Table XNUMX-XNUMX, those who do not have Japanese nationality and are admitted to a hospital or clinic to receive medical treatment for illness or injury, or Those who continue to receive medical care for the disease or injury before and after the hospitalization and those who take care of the daily lives of those who perform these activities (excluding those who fall under the preceding item).
      • Those who do not have Japanese nationality and who are listed in the lower column of the Immigration Control Act Appended Table XNUMX-XNUMXMinister of JusticeActivities specified by the above, those who stay in Japan for a period not exceeding one year and perform activities such as tourism, recreation and similar activities (excluding those who fall under item 1 only for those over the age of 18).
      • Among the activities specified by the Minister of Justice as the activities listed in the lower column of the Immigration Control Act Appended Table 1-XNUMX, a spouse who does not have Japanese nationality and accompanies the person prescribed in the preceding item, Those who stay in Japan for a period not exceeding one year and perform activities such as tourism, recreation, etc.
      • Who have other special reasonsOrdinanceDefined in

    First-half elderly medical system

    Elderly people aged 65-74 are called early elder people (semi-elderly people)[9].. The service is the same, but these subscribers' finances vary among insurers.Risk structure adjustmentHas been done[9].. A total of 3 trillion yen in financial transfers from employee insurance (association health insurance, health insurance association, mutual aid association) to National Health Insurance[9].

    Retiree medical system

    National Health Insurance increases the need for medical expensesretirementLater, many people join the health insurance / mutual aid association, etc., so the burden of medical expenses is greater than that of the health insurance / mutual aid association.Therefore, in order to equalize the burden between these medical insurance systemsRetiree medical systemHas been provided.Due to a series of medical system reforms, from 20, we will change to a retiree medical system.New subscription is abolishedIt became a transitional measure only for those under the age of 65.Furthermore, the system itself will be abolished from 27, and only those who continue to join the National Health Insurance from before March 27 and meet the applicable conditions as of the end of March 3 will continue to be eligible.[9].

    The target person is among the insured personsEmployee pension,Mutual pensionOld age (retirement) of employee pension system such aspensionPersons under the age of 65 (retirement insured persons) who are receiving the benefits, and those under the age of 65SupportPersons (spouse and relatives within the third degree of kinship who have the same household and livelihood as the retired insured person and whose annual income is less than 130 million yen (60 million yen for persons aged 180 and over or persons with disabilities). Unlike insurance, even spouses and lineal relatives must belong to the "same household").[9].

    Note that the total old-age (retirement) pension recipients are those who have been in the employee pension for 20 years or more, or for 40 years or more after 10 years.[9].. The insured number on the insured card is an 67-digit number starting with 8.

    The retiree medical system is included in national health insurance.[9].. Compared with general national health insurance

    • Partial payment for medical treatment: 3% for both general and retiree medical care systems
    • Calculation method of insurance amount: same for general and retiree medical care system
    • Funding: In the retiree medical care system, in addition to some contributions and insurance premiums, contributions from occupational health insurance
    • Insured ID: Issued separately from general insured in household

    Has become. The target person has no direct benefit,Risk structure adjustmentThis means that it will lead to financial stability.

    finance

    In the case of the National Health Insurance Society, the entire amount of the administrative expenses is borne by the national treasury (Article 69), but the national treasury is not borne by the municipal government, and a special account must be established for each prefecture and municipality. Article 10).

    In the municipal health insuranceMedical treatment benefitsThe state subsidizes 32% of the cost required for the above, 25% of the high medical cost burden (Article 70), and the national subsidy subsidizes 13-32% of the cost considering the financial strength of the union. be able to.

    Municipal Health Insurance

    The main financial resources of the municipal insurance are the national, prefectural and municipal contributions andHead of householdIt consists of insurance premiums from.

    In the case of municipal insurance, the municipality is the national health insurance.Special accountMust be provided (Article 10).

    The cost required to pay the insured (medical cost less the patient's burden) is (# Retiree medical system(Excluding households), 50% will be covered by public funds and the remaining 50% will be covered by insurance premiums. The breakdown of public expenditure is 41% for the country (32% for contributions such as benefits and 9% for adjustment grants) and 9% for prefectures. In addition, since various support is provided,[11], Premium income of subscribers was 41.6%[12].# Retiree medical systemThe expenses required for household benefits are insurance premiums and grants for medical treatment benefits (Employee insurance(Contribution from the insurer ofRisk structure adjustment).

    Since April 30, prefectures have been working to stabilize the financial status of national health insurance.Fiscal stabilization fundTo cover the expenses required for the following businesses (Article 81-2).

    • Business to lend or deliver funds to municipalities where insurance premiums are insufficient
    • In the special accounts of prefectures, if the amount of money that is earned to cover the expenses required for medical treatment benefits, etc. is insufficient for the amount actually required for medical treatment benefits, the fund should be revoked and transferred to the special account.

    Standard insurance rate

    • Every year, the prefecture shall be in accordance with the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.Standard level of insurance rates by municipalityNumerical value (Municipal standard insurance rate) Shall be calculated (Article 82-3, Paragraph 1).
    • Every year, the prefecture shall be in accordance with the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.Standard level of insurance rates for all municipalitiesNumerical value (Prefectural standard insurance rate) Shall be calculated (Article 82-3, Paragraph 2).
    • When calculating the standard insurance rate for municipalities and the standard insurance rate for prefectures, the prefecture shall notify the standard insurance rate to the municipalities within the prefecture in accordance with the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (Article 82-3. (Section 3).

    Based on the standard insurance premium rate, the insurance premium amount is set and collected for each municipality. The breakdown of insurance premiums is as follows. All or part of the following four methods are adopted, but depending on the local government, the combination and the multiplication rate of income percent,HouseholdThe upper limit of insurance premium differs for each[13].. The burden rate on income is higher than other insurance systems,Sole proprietorshipThere are many local governments that have a system that demands a heavier burden regardless of whether or not they have employees.

    • Income percent: For the entire household in the previous yearincomeIs calculated according to[13].
    • Equality split: Calculate per household[13].
      • Perhaps because there are many single households,Tokyo Ward,横 浜 市There are local governments that do not set average rates, such as.
    • Evenly split: Calculate according to the number of subscribers in the household[13].
    • Assets split: Household owned by a household with a resident card (insurance site)Real estateEtc.Property taxCalculated according to the amount[13].
      • It is not levied on real estate owned outside the municipality. Since the owner's name is used as the basis for imposition, indirect ownership through a corporation, etc. will not be levied if the ownership is not changed. In addition, since real estate that does not generate income, such as residential homes, may also be targeted, the asset ratio for pensioners with a home is a heavy burden, which is considered to be a cause of the above-mentioned camouflage subscription. In this way, the grounds for imposition are uncertain and there is a strong sense of unfairness, so the number of local governments that abolish their wealth is increasing. The asset ratio is vastFarmlandBecause of the implications for the landowner who owns the property, there is a tendency to spend a high proportion of assets in rural areas.

    How to pay insurance premiums

    Annual insurance premiums must be paid by the deadline set by the municipality. As a general rule, payment methodLong-term care insuranceIt is common with the medical system for the elderly and the elderly.

    Payment method is "Account transferOr, many of them have adopted the “payment slip” that is sent by mail in advance.Households in which all subscribers, including the head of household, are aged 65 to under 75about,Head of householdIf the public pension received by the company is 18 yen or more and the insurance premium (total with long-term care insurance premium) is less than one half of the annual amount, the insurance premium will be charged unless you request an account transfer. Withdrawal from pension (Special collection) (Article 76-3). Since public pensions are provided to guarantee the income of the elderly, it is unreasonable to deduct the insurance premiums for those under the age of 65 from the public pension. Persons belonging to the household to which the insurer belongs are not subject to special collection. "Public pension" here meansOld age basic pensionAs wellBasic disability pension-Disability welfare pension,Bereaved family basic pension-Survivor's welfare pensionIncluding,Old-age welfare pensionDoes not include(Because the old-age welfare pension is co-paid with the old-age basic pension or disability basic pension). In the case of the National Health Insurance Society, no special collection is done.

    Of the insurance premiums collected by the municipality for the head of household, the basic assessment amount must exceed 65 yen, the assessment amount for the elderly aged 20 or over 17 yen, and the nursing care payment assessment amount must exceed 4 yen. (Both as of April 4, 1. Article 29-7 of the Enforcement Order).Regarding the surcharge limit, since the percentage of insured persons who fall under the highest class of standard monthly remuneration in employee insurance is legally stipulated to be between 0.5% and 1.5%, it is necessary to maintain a balance with the rules in employee insurance. In light of this, the ratio of households exceeding the levy limit is being raised in stages so that it approaches 1.5%.

    In addition, the person paying insurance premiums in National Health Insurance isHead of householdAnd not the individual insured. The head of household is also the person who is required to report such things as joining and withdrawing. In addition, even if the head of household is not insured by the National Health Insurance, if the member of the household has an insured, the head of household is obliged to pay the insurance premium. Therefore, insurance premium notifications and insured cards are to be sent to the head of household. In this case, the householder in this case is referred to in practice as "gimulation householder" or abbreviated as "ginushi/Gyushu". Long-term care insuranceNational pensionIs different from the insured person who is the primary payer of insurance premiums.

    • Municipalities, regarding the office work of collecting insurance premiums by the method of ordinary collection,Only when it is recognized that it contributes to securing income and enhancing benefits of the insured, May be entrusted to a private person, as provided for by a Cabinet Order (Article 80-2). By this, payment noticeconvenience storeThere are municipalities that can bring in and pay the insurance premiums, and municipalities that support “visit collection” by visiting collectors entrusted by the municipalities when they cannot pay for some reason such as physically handicapped people or old age.
    • You can also pay using a lump sum payment slip to prevent forgetting to pay. In this case, some cities, towns and villages will pay the prepayment bounty instead of having no insurance discount.
    • If you lose your payment slip, you will have to contact the municipal office again to have it reissued.

    Exemption measures

    Ratio of reduced households (FY2017)[2]
    Total number of reduced households59.3%
    2% reduction11.6%
    5% reduction14.2%
    7% reduction33.5%

    The insurerOrdinanceOr, as stipulated in the regulations, it is possible to reduce or exempt insurance premiums or postpone the collection for those who have special reasons (Article 77).

    Reduction of insurance premium

    市町村による法第76条第1項の保険料の減額賦課についての法第81条に規定する政令で定める基準が、法施行令第29条の7第5項に示されている。世帯主と被保険者の合計所得によって2割、5割、7割の軽減があり、2017年度は、およそ6割の世帯が軽減措置を受けていた[2]..This is a premium reduction measure that is different from the exemption that the insurer stipulates in the ordinances and regulations.

    Nonpayment of insurance premiums

    Number of delinquent households of municipal insurance companies (2013)[14]
    The number of householdsTo National Health Insurance households
    Share
    Number of delinquent households372.1 million18.1%
    Of which short-term insured certificate is issued116.9 million5.7%
    Of which, insured qualification certificate is issued27.7 million1.3%
    Treasurer rate by municipality of municipal insurance (2012)[15]
    Municipal scalePayment rate
    City average89.4%
    Ordinance city·special area87.9%
    Core city89.0%
    10 or more87.6%
    5-1088.5%
    Less than 591.2%
    Average of towns and villages93.4%
    National average89.8%

    For those who are delinquent in the Municipal National Health Insurance, the use of their insurance card will be restricted by issuing a short-term insurance card or an insured qualification certificate.

    Municipalities require the head of household to return the insured card, except when: The head of household requested is obliged to comply (Article 9, Enforcement Ordinance Article 1).

    • The head of household suffered a disaster or was stolen from the property.
    • A householder or a relative who makes a living with him or her is ill or injured.
    • The head of household abolished the business or stopped it.
    • The head of household suffered a significant loss from the business.
    • There was a reason similar to the previous items.

    InsuranceDelinquent over 1 yearThe person who has done so must return the insured card (Article 9-3-5). Therefore, if you receive medical treatment due to illness after return, pay the full cost at the window (Medical treatment benefitsCannot be received), and is issued instead of the insured cardInsured qualification certificatePresent (Article 9, paragraph 6) at the counter and pay the equivalent amount at a later date excluding the self-pay amountSpecial medical expensesWill be paid by redemption.

    For the head of household who returned the insured card due to delinquent insurance premiums,3/31Insured between (up to high school students and below) andAtomic bomb general illness medical expensesWhen there is a person who can receive the payment, etc., the municipality asks the head of the household of the insured card pertaining to the insured (until the first March 18 after the date of reaching the age of 3). For those who are in, the insured certificate with a valid period of 31 months) will be issued (Article 6 paragraph 9). This insured card can be renewed.

    Insurance benefits

    In National Health Insurance, insurance benefits are paid not to the individual insured but to the head of household (unpaid premium) or the union member. Therefore,Partial contributionIs also obliged to be paid by the head of household or union member. Also in employee insurance"Family benefits" do not exist in national health insuranceTherefore, the entire family (including dependents of the retirement insured) receives insurance benefits as "insured".

    Absolutely required benefit

    This is a benefit that is required by the insurer to be implemented by law.

    For the above, refer to the respective articles.

    Relative required benefit

    The insurerOrdinance or TermsThe following benefits shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of, but if there are special reasons, they may not be provided in whole or in part (Article 58, Paragraph 1).

    Optional benefits

    An insurer may make the following benefits as provided for in the regulations or rules (Article 58, Paragraph 2).

    Medical fee examination committee

    When an insurer requests a claim for medical treatment benefits from an insurance medical institution, etc., the insurer shall make a payment after examining it in accordance with the statutory calculation method. The insurer shall carry out the affairs concerning this examination and payment within the prefectural area.National Health Insurance Association(Excluding those who do not reach two-thirds of the total number of insurers in the area.) orSocial Insurance Medical Fee Payment FundCan be entrusted to (Article 45). The insurer may entrust the fund with lump-sum payments for childbirth, funeral expenses or funeral expenses, and payment of injury and sickness allowances.

    National Health Insurance AssociationNational Health Insurance Medical Fee Examination Committee(Hereinafter referred to as "Examination Committee") is set up, and it is possible to have the Examination Committee examine the medical fee bill as long as it does not hinder the performance of office work (Article 87).

    Health business

    Health business in National Health InsuranceAs a more proactive precautionary measure, to prevent the occurrence of injury or illness, or to prevent the seriousness and prolongation of the disease by early detection, to maintain and improve the health of the insured, health education, illness prevention,Medical checkup, Maternal and infant protection, nutritional improvement,レ ク リ エ ー シ ョ ンActivities such as establishing a National Health Insurance hospital and a National Health Insurance clinic to provide medical treatment benefits are collectively referred to (Article 82).[16].

    Directly managed medical institution

    Some municipal governments and union governments also operate medical institutions directly, and the number of directly managed facilities in the municipal government was 2011 in 1,145.[17].

    Third-party actions and insurance benefits

    Such as traffic accidents and injuriesthird partyThe act of (PurposelyOrNegligenceMedical expenses for injuries received by any person will be liable to the third party (perpetrator) for damages. But,Restitution for DamagesInsufficient victims may be treated by the National Health Insurance, which may be insufficient or delayed. In that case, it is necessary to submit the "Notification of injury or illness caused by a third party act" to the insurer (Article 32-6 of the Enforcement Regulations). The insurer will replace the perpetrator and temporarily pay for the treatment, and later charge the perpetrator for the replacement (Article 64).

    Complaint

    Those who are dissatisfied with the disposition regarding insurance benefits, the issuance/return of the insured ID card, or the disposition regarding the insurance fee and other collection charges pursuant to the provisions of the National Health Insurance Act, start from the day after the day that the disposition is known. Within 3 months from the start,National Health Insurance Examination BoardToRequest for examinationCan be done (first-time trial, Article 91, paragraph 1). The disposition other than the collection fee is the difference from the employee insurance which has a double court system. An action to revoke a disposition may only be filed after a decision has been made on a request for examination of the disposition (Examination request prefix, Article 103). The request for examination shall be deemed to be a judicial request regarding suspension of prescription (Article 91, paragraph 2).

    The National Health Insurance Examination Committee is located in each prefecture, and is organized by three members each representing the insured, the insurer, and the public interest. The term of office of a member shall be three years (the term of office of a substitute member is the remaining term of the predecessor) (Article 3-3).

    Prescription

    When two years have passed from the time when you can exercise these, the right to collect insurance premiums or other collection fees pursuant to the provisions of the National Health Insurance Act, or the right to receive the refund and the right to receive insurance benefits,PrescriptionDisappear by (Article 110, Paragraph 1). Announcement or reminder of the collection of premiums according to the provisions of the National Health Insurance Law, etc.Civil lawRegardless of the provisions of (110), the effect of renewal of the prescription will occur (Article 2, paragraph XNUMX).

    Issues/problems

    Municipal National Health Insurance financial crisis

    In 2012, 47.7% of municipal insurance companies (819 insurers) were in the red[18].

    The insurance premiums of the municipal insurance companies are not uniform throughout the country, but each insurer can set their own insurance premiums. The reason is that it aims to reflect the industrial structure and demographic composition of the region. However, even though the annual income is in the same range, insurance premiums may differ from one municipality to another, creating an unfair feeling. In addition, since the operating area is a unit of municipalities, there is a drawback that the operation tends to become unstable due to the withdrawal of companies, the occurrence of a large number of retirees, and the increase in the elderly population ratio.

    As a solution to this problem, it is pointed out that unfairness is pointed out because the introduction of a large amount of general account to the municipal government National Health Insurance and the injection of national expenses to the National Health Insurance Society will be the public expenditure to the insurers who should not have joined. ing.

    National Health Insurance Central AssociationDemands that all public insurance systems be integrated with National Health Insurance[19].. In the OECD examination against Japan, it is recommended that the national health insurance system be shifted from municipalities to prefectures to expand the scale.[20].. In 2013Social Security National AssemblyA similar recommendation was made in[21]. Also,Medical system for elder senior citizensRegarding support money, it was recommended to completely shift from the current "Subscriber Discount" to the "Total Compensation Discount"[21].. In 2015, the bill to make these amendments was passed, and since FY29, the total remuneration rate has been transferred, and since 30, the national health insurance of municipalities has been operated mainly by prefectures.[22].

    Change in subscriber base

    When the system was first launched, it was launched as a medical insurance system for self-employed people and farmers who are not office workers. However, due to changes in the industrial structure and the aging of the population, the proportion of unemployed people such as non-regular employees, pensioners and the unemployed accounts for nearly half. Medical spending per subscriber was also high, double that of other insurance subscribers in 1.[23].. Local governments make up for it with general financial resources, but due to the financial situation of the local governments, it is probably not possible to bear the burden. In 2009, about half of the municipal governments were in the red.[24][25].

    In addition, it is not covered by employee insurance in National Health Insurance.part timerThe proportion of workers has risen to 32.4%[26].. Therefore, the law was amended to expand the application of employee insurance, and from October 2015, the application of employee insurance to some part-timers who met the requirements began, aiming for full enforcement in the future (Health insurance # insured).

    Increase in unpaid households

    The insurance premium collection rate of the municipal government was about 1980% around 55 (Showa 95), but in 2009 it reached a record low of 88.08%.[27], 2012% in 89.86[28].

    However, originally, according to Article 9 of the National Health Insurance Law, the head of household must report the loss of qualification when he / she joins the social insurance. Join the welfare annuity insurance[29]The actual delinquency rate is lower due to the problem of double enrollment in national health insurance and social insurance due to the misunderstanding that the national pension is automatically lost by the same. there is a possibility.

    The delinquent amount is to be borne by other insured persons who paid without delinquency, and it is said that the insurance premium is set in anticipation of the delinquent amount. If there is still a shortage, it will be covered by a transfer from the general account.

    The transition of non-statutory transfers from the general account of municipalities has improved year by year from 2012 billion yen in 3,534 to 2017 billion yen in 1,751.[30].

    For those in financial distressWelfareBy application ofMedical assistanceIs provided, but this isMeans testMust be the case. For this reason, there are cases in which financially deprived people who do not receive welfare protection are unable to pay their insurance premiums and become virtually uninsured, and according to a survey by the All Japan Civil Medical Federation, they died late in 2014. There were 56 cases, of which 20 were uninsured and 8 were short-term insured.[31][32].. Targeting such peopleFree low-cost medical care businessSome hospitals[33][34].


    In the national health insurance system for foreigners, the national health insurance tax (fee) will be reduced in the first year because there is no previous year's income in Japan, and the next year will be the normal insurance premium (tax), but it will be delinquent. It is said that there are many cases where people return to Japan as they are.[35].ToshimaIn the FY30 budget, the number of foreign insured persons is increasing rapidly, accounting for one-fourth of all insured persons in the ward. Especially, the number of Vietnamese insured persons is increasing rapidly, and delinquent households. It states that the number and the amount of delinquent payments are also increasing rapidly. Since there is a tendency for delinquency to occur due to understanding of the national health insurance system and low awareness of payment, we have started to assign counselors who can speak Vietnamese.[36].. As of 27, more than 2% of the members of the National Health Insurance are foreigners, and half of them are international students. Among them, there are a large number of international students from Vietnam recently, and the storage rate of Vietnamese students is about 36%, which is quite low. Has been done. For this reason, the National Health Insurance Division is promoting payment recommendations for Japanese language schools.[37].

    ChibaFunabashiHowever, among the households that have delinquent insurance premiums in FY29 at the National Health Insurance, the storage rate of households with foreign heads is 54%, which is lower than the overall storage rate (98%). In 90, we started to encourage native speakers to pay by telephone in Vietnamese and Nepali, and created a pamphlet translated into 27 languages ​​(English, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Nepal, Sinhala) to take measures. ing[38].Matsudo-shiHowever, as a result of the 29 financial results, more than 11% of the delinquent amount is foreigners, and as part of the collection strategy from this year, the number of Vietnamese delinquents is increasing, so we cooperate with the Japanese language school that Vietnamese attend. We asked them to do so and provided guidance and publicity on the National Health Insurance system. It is reported that 92 people have been seized against foreigners as of the end of November.[39].

    Problem of misuse of national health insurance by foreigners

    The law stipulates that foreigners residing in Japan who have obtained a status of residence for the purpose of treating illness cannot enroll in the National Health Insurance. However, from July 2012 to April 7, a law (a law to partially revise the Basic Resident Registration Act) was enacted from April 2015 so that foreign nationals with a status of residence can be conditionally issued with a resident card. Due to the misunderstanding that several city officials have made it possible for foreigners with a status of residence to join the National Health Insurance, they have given a status of residence to treat cancer and cerebral infarction and take care of their patients. Seven men and women from Ukraine, Russia, and China who had acquired the drug were mistakenly admitted to join the National Health Insurance, which provided about 2012 million yen.[40].

    Weekly SPA for the November 2016, 11 issue!However, foreigners can use counterfeit documents to support their families living in Japan, or create a paper company and come to Japan for management purposes to obtain a status of residence of 29 months or more and illegally use the National Health Insurance. I reported the actual situation[41].

    By abusing foreigners to join the National Health Insurance for a stay of 1 months or more due to the revision of the Basic Resident Registration Act from 2012 year to 3, the purpose is falsely called "study abroad in Japan" or "management". If you get a visa and have no income from the previous year after joining the National Health Insurance in Japan, you will have to pay 1% of your own expenses and pay the minimum monthly premium of several thousand yen, and if you incur even higher medical expenses. The refund system has been abused. The Japanese medical insurance system will be implemented by the Japanese paying the high medical expenses of foreigners by misusing the National Health Insurance by impersonating the purpose of residence, such as the case of returning to Japan after receiving expensive medical treatment with a small burden. There is a concern that it may collapse[42].. At the end of August 2018, the Liberal Democratic Party is considering a revision.[43].

    The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare is also conducting an investigation, saying that "it is necessary to grasp the actual situation because it is not an emotional criticism of foreigners but a calm discussion."NPOIppei Torii, the representative of the corporation "National Network for Solidarity with Immigrants", said, "The investigation itself gives the impression that foreigners are fraudulent." "If foreign residents refrain from seeing a doctor, It goes against the purpose of the National Health Insurance, where everyone can receive medical care with peace of mind. "[44].

    In August 2019, a Bolivian company officer was arrested in several municipalities for deceiving the National Health Insurance lump-sum birth allowance for giving birth to triplets in Bolivia. It is estimated that the damage amount is 8 million at a time, less than 1 cases with the same method, and about 121 million yen.[45].. The lump-sum birth allowance of 42 yen can be received even if you give birth overseas, so if you have a birth certificate issued by a local hospital, you will be paid, but the fact is that the government has not confirmed whether it is genuine or not. It is reported that[46].. AlsoArakawaOf the 28 National Health Insurance lump-sum payments for childbirth and childcare overseas, China accounted for 31 cases, accounting for 6% of the total.[47].

    なお東京都新宿区にある総合病院では、1990年から2001年の間の外国人の分娩数は12年間で656例であり、総分娩数に占める外国人の割合は1990年には4.2%であったが,年々増加し,1997年からは全分娩の約16~19%を占めた。公的保険加入は,加入している者が66.0%(433例),保険に加入していない者(未加入者)は30.6%(201例),生活保護1.0%(6例),不明2.4%(16例)であった。飛び込み分娩事例は21例,全外国人分娩事例の3.2%であり、21例の国籍(出身地)の内訳は,「タイ」66.7%(14例)となっている[48].. Since jump-in childbirth is an act of childbirth without knowing the presence or absence of a pre-existing disease or infectious disease, there is also a problem that the risk of infection of medical staff is higher than usual. In 2007, according to the managing director of the Japan Midwifery Association, many unexamined pregnant women who dived into childbirth had previously experienced childbirth, but recently <XNUMX> young pregnant women <XNUMX> foreign women. <XNUMX> It is reported that there is a tendency for many families in need of economy.[49].

    National Health Insurance misuse issue of lump-sum birth allowance for abortion

    The lump-sum birth allowance provides insured persons with approximately 85 yen per baby for births of 12 days or more and 1 weeks of pregnancy or later, but not only premature birth, miscarriage, and stillbirth, but also 40 weeks of pregnancy. After thatAbortionIf you do, it will also be applicable.A certain obstetrics and gynecology department in Kanagawa Prefecture publicizes that if you use your health insurance card to perform surgery in the 12-week range, the surgery cost will be zero with the assistance of your health insurance card, and the lump-sum birth allowance will be paid directly to the hospital. It is reported that there are hospitals that take advantage of the merits of being able to do something.In Kanagawa Prefecture, in 2019, the number of abortions by prefecture in Table 8 of the example of health administration report for the first year of Reiwa was 12, which was outstanding among 15 cases nationwide from 4199 weeks to 1185 weeks, which is equivalent to 10.5%. ing[50]..The nurse who was working testified that the foetation that came out of the mother during the abortion limit may raise a voice, and the director gave instructions to close the mouth and prepare water in a bucket to sink. ing.If you refuse them, just leave the baby and wait for him to take his breath.[51].

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ The Tokyo District Court's decision on July 10, 7 granted foreigners without a status of residence an insured status. During the appeal hearing, the plaintiff received a special residence permit and obtained insured status.

    Source

    1. ^ a b c National Health Insurance Central Association 2012, pp. 5.
    2. ^ a b c National Health Insurance Fact-finding Survey 29 (Report). Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. (2019-03-12). https://www.e-stat.go.jp/stat-search/files?page=1&layout=datalist&toukei=00450397&tstat=000001125095&cycle=8&tclass1=000001125099&result_page=1. 
    3. ^ Overview of national medical expenses in 28 (Report). Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. (2018-09-21). https://www.mhlw.go.jp/toukei/saikin/hw/k-iryohi/16/index.html. 
    4. ^ a b c MHLW White Paper 2011, p. 35.
    5. ^ National Health Insurance Business Annual Report 22, e-stat, (GL08020101)
    6. ^ a b c (PDF) National Health Insurance-related materials at the National Health Insurance Section (Department) Director and the National Health Insurance Regional Union Secretary-General Meeting (Report). Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. (February 2012, 2). https://www.mhlw.go.jp/topics/2012/02/dl/tp120205-1-koku_kankei.pdf. 
    7. ^ "Tokyo Lawyer National Health Insurance Association". April 2014, 12Browse.
    8. ^ Director of Insurance (January 2012, 1), "Regarding the enforcement of the Ministry of Health Insurance Law Enforcement Regulations and the Ministerial Ordinance, etc. to partially revise the Law Enforcement Regulations on Ensuring Medical Care for the Elderly (Hokkaido 0120 No. 2)" (PDF) (Press Release), Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, originalArchived as of October 2014, 2., https://web.archive.org/web/20140220185635/http://www.kokuho.or.jp/whlw/lib/ho_24_0120002.pdf 
    9. ^ a b c d e f g National Health Insurance Central Association 2012, pp. 29.
    10. ^ National Health Insurance Business Annual Report 29 (Report). Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. (2016-03-31). https://www.e-stat.go.jp/stat-search/files?page=1&toukei=00450396&tstat=000001128395. 
    11. ^ National Health Insurance Central Association 2012, pp. 12, 17.
    12. ^ National Health Insurance Central Association 2012, pp. 17.
    13. ^ a b c d e National Health Insurance Central Association 2012, pp. 15.
    14. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 2014, p. 12.
    15. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 2014, p. 5.
    16. ^ National Health Insurance Central Association 2012, pp. 25.
    17. ^ National Health Insurance Central Association 2012, pp. 31.
    18. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 2014, p. 4.
    19. ^ National Health Insurance Central Association 2012, pp. 4.
    20. ^ OECD Economic Surveys: Japan 2009 (Report). OECD. (2009-08-13). Pp. 104, 118, 126-128. two:10.1787 / eco_surveys-jpn-2009-en. ISBN 9789264054561. 
    21. ^ a b Report of the National Conference on Social Security System Reform (Summary) (Report). Social Security National Assembly(2013-08-05). https://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/kokuminkaigi/. 
    22. ^ The 189th Diet Cabinet Law 189th No. 28 A bill to partially revise the National Health Care Act, etc. to build a sustainable medical insurance system
    23. ^ National Health Insurance Central Association 2012, pp. 12.
    24. ^ “National Health Insurance payment rate 88%, minimum renewal 09, due to economic downturn”. 47NEWSKyodo News (National Newspaper Net). (April 2011, 2). originalArchived as of October 2011, 11.. https://web.archive.org/web/20111126052608/https://www.47news.jp/CN/201102/CN2011020401000501.html 
    25. ^ Satoshi Tanaka, "Current Situation and Issues of the National Health Insurance System," Issue brief, Vol. 488, July 2005, 7, pp. 5-1, NOT 40006756508.
    26. ^ MHLW White Paper 2011, Chapt. 3.
    27. ^ National Health Insurance Central Association 2012, pp. 8.
    28. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 2014, p. 1.
    29. ^ "Procedures when hiring employees”(May 2020, 6). April 2020, 8Browse.
    30. ^ "About the progress of national health insurance reform”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (March 2019, 5). April 2020, 8Browse.
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    32. ^ “Difficulty in life, heavy burden on the counter, no insurance / pension, last-minute medical treatment”. Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun). (March 2014, 11). originalArchived as of October 2014, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141221010657/http://apital.asahi.com/article/serial/2014112600008.html April 2015, 4Browse. 
    33. ^ "Business establishments working on free and low-cost medical care”. All Japan Federation of Democratic Medicine (April 2015, 4). April 2015, 4Browse.
    34. ^ "About free low-cost medical care business (PDF)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (March 2008, 1). April 2015, 4Browse.
    35. ^ Study Group on National Health Insurance Premium (Tax) Delinquency Problem. “Recommendations for improving the national health insurance premium (tax) storage rate ~ publisher = Public Interest Incorporated Association National Health Insurance Central Association". April 2020, 6Browse.
    36. ^ "FYXNUMX department budget formulation policy". Toshima ward. April 2018, 11Browse.
    37. ^ "1 XNUMXst Toshima Ward Storage Countermeasures Headquarters". Toshima ward. April 2019, 3Browse.
    38. ^ "Materials for the 30th regular press conference in 5 (held on October 30, 10)”. Funabashi City. April 2018, 11Browse.
    39. ^ "Minutes of the XNUMX XNUMXnd Matsudo City National Health Insurance Management Council”. Matsudo City. April 2019, 3Browse.
    40. ^ "Over XNUMX million benefits due to mistaken participation in National Health Insurance". NHK NEWS WEB (NHK). (April 2018, 5). originalArchived as of October 2018, 5.. https://web.archive.org/web/20180509220615/http://www3.nhk.or.jp/lnews/hiroshima/20180509/4000000724.html 
    41. ^ “Chinese visitors to Japan are trying to“ free ”on the Japanese medical system !?”. Weekly SPA! (Fusosha Publishing). (July 2018, 11). https://nikkan-spa.jp/1241761 
    42. ^ “Sudden increase in foreigners for national health insurance study abroad and false entry, avoidance of high medical expenses Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, review of system and operation”. Sankei News (Sankei Shimbun). (May 2017, 1). https://www.sankei.com/affairs/news/170106/afr1701060006-n1.html 
    43. ^ “Working groups meet to start studying prevention of misuse of national health insurance by LDP and foreigners”. Sankei News(July 2018, 8). https://www.sankei.com/article/20180829-QQO2B4TIVNJ2BK2NDB7DNYWRWM/ April 2018, 8Browse. 
    44. ^ “Six months after the start of discussions on foreign national health insurance investigations, camouflaged stay has not been confirmed”. Saga newspaper (Saga Shimbun). (November 2018, 9). https://www.saga-s.co.jp/articles/-/273853 
    45. ^ ""I gave birth to triplets in Bolivia" Suspected of fraudulent lump-sum birth allowance”. Asahi Shimbun. April 2019, 9Browse.
    46. ^ ""Health insurance" and "dependent deduction system" are preyed on by foreigners”. NEWS Post Seven. April 2018, 11Browse.
    47. ^ "Survey of lump-sum payments for overseas births Measures against unpaid medical expenses of foreigners”. Sankei Shimbun. April 2018, 11Browse.
    48. ^ . Survey on the "diving delivery" of pregnant foreign women (Report). https://www.jschild.med-all.net/Contents/private/cx3child/2005/006404/003/0534-0541.pdf April 2019, 3Browse.. 
    49. ^ Rapid increase in "dive birth" (Report). http://www.cc.okayama-u.ac.jp/~mikiya/2007%20wadai%20tobikomisyussan.pdf  April 2019, 3Browse.. 
    50. ^ "Hygiene administration report example / Reiwa first year hygiene administration report example Statistical table Annual report Number of abortions, number of weeks of pregnancy, by prefecture”. E-stat. April 2021, 3Browse.
    51. ^ "Let the foetation that came out crying die as it is ... The "too fierce reality" of the abortion business”. Hyundai Business (March 2021, 3). April 2021, 3Browse.

    References

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