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Nemuro(Nemuroshi) isHokkaidoEastern (Eastern Hokkaido)It is inCity.Nemuro Promotion BureauThe location of the Promotion Bureau.Hokkaido main islandThe easternmost municipality andJapan OfCityLocated in the easternmost part of the country.
Hokkaido main island145 east-west between 21 ° 146'to 11 ° 43'east longitude and 09 ° 43'to 38 ° 70' north latitude km, 10 km north-south, elongated east-westThe Pacific OceanProtruding intoNemuro PeninsulaAnd around the base of the peninsula,Northern Territories OfHabomai IslandsIs the most popular city in JapanNorthern TerritoriesIt is a city close to.About 3 km off the Pacific Ocean on the Nemuro PeninsulaYururi Island-Moyururi IslandThere is.
Generally low flat uplifted seafood plateau, mountains and largeRiverSince the center of the city is part of a transparent plateau, there are highs and lows in the terrain, and the streets have many gentle slopes, with Cape Red Smoke protruding to the northeast and the sea level to the west.BentenjimaLying down and becoming a natural harbor gateNemuro PortIs shaping.
The land is almost flat and suitable for livestock farming, the eastern end of the peninsulaCape NosappuAroundReefIn addition, it is known as a difficult place for voyage due to deep fog.Cape Nosappu LighthouseOn the other hand, large and small islands are scattered on the Pacific Ocean side, and each of the harbor inlets protruding to the southeastHabomai, Hanasaki, and Ochiishi ports, which serve as important fishing ports, with no freezing during the winter, and along the coast.Offshore fishingAs a base forNemuro PortIt is the front and back.
In addition, inland thick floors,WadaThe district is mostly flat plain with a maximum back of 150m,hillsThere are no large rivers mixed with streams, and there are only a few small rivers, the Onnebetsu River and the Bettoga River, and the Horonitai River.
Most of the area is a wind-filled volcanic soil formed by depositing volcanic ejecta from the Chishima volcanic system Mashudake, and the soil texture is generally volcanic ash soil except for peat soil.
Cool in summer真 夏日Days andSummerThe number of days is short.In winterNemuro PeninsulaFrom the influence of the locationEastern HokkaidoThe warmest of allAnnual range,Daily rangeBoth are smallOceanic climateHas a strong characteristic.From spring to summerSea fogIs likely to occur, and fine weather continues from autumn to winter..There is little snow in Hokkaido, and the deepest snowfall ever is 115 cm (2014/March 3) and a little over 21m.The highest temperature ever was 1 ℃ (2019/May 5th)2015/On August 8, the runner-up 5 ℃ was observed, while the lowest temperature ever was -33.6 ℃ (1931/May 2th)1978/Since observing -2 ° C on February 17, no temperature below -22.1 ° C has been observed.It has been observed for a long time and is used as one of the calculation points of the average temperature in Japan as a point where the influence of urbanization is small.
|Climate of Yasakae-cho, Nemuro City (Nemuro Special Area Meteorological Observatory, altitude 25m)|
|Highest temperature record ° C (° F）||10.3|
|Average maximum temperature ° C (° F）||−0.9|
|Average daily temperature ° C (° F）||−3.4|
|Average minimum temperature ° C (° F）||−6.5|
|Minimum temperature record ° C (° F）||−22.7|
|Precipitation amount mm (inch)||30.6|
|Snowfall cm (inch)||43|
|Average days of precipitation (≥0.5 mm)||9.7||6.3||9.4||10.6||11.3||10.1||11.0||11.8||11.5||10.7||10.8||10.4||123.6|
|Average number of snowfall days||23.2||20.5||19.4||12.9||2.6||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.7||6.1||17.5||105.3|
|Average monthlyDaylight hours||154.4||164.1||190.8||180.9||171.6||135.5||117.3||124.6||144.5||162.8||148.2||151.8||1,846.7|
|Source:Japanese Meteorological Agency (Average value: 1991-2020, extreme value: 1879-present)|
|Climate of Nemuro (Nemuro weather station, 1961-1990 average)|
|Average maximum temperature ° C (° F）||−1.7|
|Average daily temperature ° C (° F）||−4.5|
|Average minimum temperature ° C (° F）||−8.1|
|Source: Science Chronology|
|Source: Japan Meteorological Agency|
- Prefectural housing Hanasaki housing complex
- Prefectural Housing Park Town Meiji
- Meiji, which is a prefectural house
|Population distribution by age in Nemuro City and the whole country (2005)||Population distribution by age and gender in Nemuro City (2005)|
■Green-All over Japan
Changes in the population of Nemuro City (corresponding area)
|Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan|
- Disappearing village
- Nemuro City-Shunkunitai, Benten Island, Yururi Island, Moyururi Island, Nemuro Port, Hanasaki Port
- Kansei2 years(1790/)Matsumae clan OfTransport officeMoved from Nokkamappu (currently Makinouchi, Nemuro City) to Nemuro, which was the origin of the village.Nemuro is "Child Moro" (Child is NeKana Kana) It is said that it was taken from a stream where driftwood gathers at the mouth of the river, writing "roots".Also,AinuThere is also a theory that it was taken from Nimuoro (where the trees grow).The Nokkamappu, where there was a transportation station in front of Nemuro, was from the previous year.Battle of Kunashiri MenashiIt was the place where the mastermind was executed.It is said that the reason for the relocation was to avoid the Nokka map, which was disliked by the Ainu because of this.11th year of Kansei (1799/) In Higashi EzoHeavenAt that time, the Nemuro transportation office was changed to the Nemuro Kaisho.
- Bunsei4 years(1821/)Matsumae clanReturned to the territory.
- Ansei2 years(1855/) When it becomes a tenryo againSendai DomainIs on a business tripJinyaWas built and guarded.
- Meiji2 years(1869/)June,11 counties in 86 countries in HokkaidoWas enacted, and the area corresponding to the current Nemuro city isNemuro countryIncluded inHanasaki-gunとNemuroWas placed.
- In March 2 (Meiji 1869)PioneerNemuro branch office was set up in June 3.TokyoThe jurisdiction of Tokyo Prefecture in the three counties of Nemuro Province will be abolished on October 10, the same year.19th year of Meiji1871/) Renamed to Nemuro Business Trip Development Branch Office in May, 5 (Meiji 5)1872/) The name was changed to Nemuro branch office from September.These government offices had the role of supervising the administration of eastern Hokkaido.1882/From (Meiji 15)1886/Until (Meiji 19), it was the prefectural capital of Nemuro Prefecture.1886/(Meiji 19) When the Hokkaido Government Office was established in January, Nemuro Prefecture was abolished, and the Nemuro Branch Office was temporarily established until December.1897/In (Meiji 30), when the Nemuro branch office, which is much narrower than before, was set up, it became its location and continues to this day.
- Nemuro at the beginning of the Meiji era was the largest town in eastern Hokkaido.It was a temporary place for fishermen working in the surrounding waters, and the population fluctuated greatly depending on the season.1877/When was abolished in (Meiji 10) and the rule of minority merchants disappeared, the number of people who lived permanently in Nemuro increased, and shops began to line up.
- Before and after the war, it developed as one of the leading fisheries cities in Japan.Pacific WarIn the final stage of 1945 (Showa 20)U.S. ForcesThere was a military attack by7/14 OfHokkaido air raidAt that time, 369 people were killed.Most of the city of Nemuro was burnt down and devastated, but it was reconstructed after the war.1957/(Showa 32)NemuroWadaMerged with and enforced the city system,1959/(Showa 34)Hanasaki-gunHabomaiWas incorporated and merged.
Chronology (after the Meiji era)
- 2th year of Meiji (1869/) In September, Judge Matsumoto, a pioneer ambassador, will lead 9 immigrants to live with his staff and set up the pioneer ambassador in Nemuro.The Wada area will be under the jurisdiction of the Nemuro Development Commission.
- 1880/(13th year of Meiji)- ChiefIs placed.
- 1892/(25th year of Meiji)- Seiryuji Templeopen.
- 1931/ (6)8/24 - LindbergThe couple flew across the North Pacific Ocean and arrived in Nemuro.
- 1957/(32)8/1 --Nemuro-gunNemuro Town-Wada New mergerThen,NemuroWas launched.
- 1959/(34)4/1 - Hanasaki-gunHabomaiTheTransferTo do.
- 1968/(Showa 43) --Implement a 100th anniversary commemorative project.
- Mayor:Masatoshi Ishigaki(August 2018, 9, 29th term)
From the head of the house to the mayor of the town, unless otherwise specified, according to the "Nemuro / Chishima History Biographical Dictionary".
|1||Ebiko Gennosuke||June 1872, 6 (April 3, 5)|
|2||Kazo Miura||1875 (8th year of Meiji)|
|Mayor Nemuro (government election)|
|Risuke Yamamoto||May 1900, 33||December 1900 (Meiji 33)||Office handling|
|Kensaburo Adachi||December 1900 (Meiji 33)||May 1900, 33||Office handling|
|1||Risuke Yamamoto||May 1900, 33||May 1903, 36|
|2||Ryuzo Fukao||May 1903, 36||May 1907, 40|
|3||Keizo Ono||May 1907, 40||May 1911, 44|
|4||Yunao Sakagyu||May 1912, 45||May 1921, 10 (Taisho 10)|
|5||Sadachi Motohashi||May 1922, 11 (Taisho 2)||1930 (Showa 5)/2/5|
|6||Ando Ishinori||1930 (Showa 5)/8/1||1936 (Showa 11)/7/25|
|7||Yutaka Matsuo||1936 (Showa 11)/9/7||1940 (Showa 15)/9/6|
|8||Toshihiro Hayashi||1940 (Showa 15)/10/27||1943 (Showa 18)/3/19|
|9||Ando Ishinori||1943 (Showa 18)/6/12||1946 (Showa 21)/11/7|
|Mayor Nemuro (public election)|
|10||Toshio Kishida||1947 (Showa 22)/4/7||1951 (Showa 26)/4/24|
|11||Masagami Togashi||1951 (Showa 26)/5/8||1957 (Showa 32)/7/31|
|Mayor Nemuro (public election)|
|First generation||Hisao Nishimura||1957/9/16||1964/9/5|
|2 fee||Toshio Yokota||1964/10/4||1974/9/1|
|3 fee||Izanagi Terashima||1974/9/30||1986/9/28|
|4 fee||Koji Oya||1986/9/29||1998/9/28|
|5 fee||Hiroshi Fujiwara||1998/9/29||2006/9/28|
|6 fee||Shunsuke Hasegawa||2006/9/29||2018/9/28|
|7 fee||Masatoshi Ishigaki||2018/9/29||Incumbent|
- About the affairs of the Northern Territories
- 1983/(58)4/1Enforced in "Act on Special Measures to Promote Resolution of Northern Territories Problems(Showa 57According to Law No. 85) "Northern TerritoriesNemuro City is in charge of family register affairs.This is because the "nominated person" in Article 11 of the same law is the mayor of Nemuro (Notification based on the Act on Special Measures for Promoting the Resolution of Northern Territories, etc. (March 58, 3). Ministry of Justice Notification No. 1, April 63, 58 Ministry of Justice / Ministry of Home Affairs Notification No. 4)).That period is the year to which the date of the return of the northern territory belongs.3/31Up to.
- City council
- Fixed number: 18 people (16 from the next term))
- Term expiration date:2021/(3nd year of Reiwa)9/14
Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- Hokkaido Labor BureauNemuro Public Employment Security Office
- Otaru Quarantine Station Hanasaki Branch Office
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
- Hokkaido Development BureauKushiro Development and Construction Department Nemuro Port Office, Nemuro Road Office
- Japan Coast GuardXNUMXst District Coast Guard HeadquartersNemuro Maritime Security Department
Ministry of Finance
- Hakodate CustomsNemuro Customs Branch
- National Tax AgencySapporo National Taxation BureauNemuro Tax Office
Ministry of Agriculture
- Forestry AgencyHokkaido Forest Management BureauEastern Konsen Forest Management Office Ochiishi Forest Office, Attoko Forest Office
Ministry of Defense
- SDFObihiro Regional Cooperation Headquarters Nemuro Area Office
- Japan Air Self-Defense ForceNemuro branch base(26th Guard)
Ministry of Justice
- Kushiro Legal Affairs Bureau Nemuro Branch
- Immigration Control AgencySapporo Immigration BureauKushiro Port Branch Office Nemuro Branch
- Kushiro District Public Prosecutors OfficeNemuro branch,Nemuro Public Prosecutor's Office
- Police station
- Police box
- Police box in front of the station (2-7 Kowa, Nemuro City)
- Sakurabashi police box (2-4 Yayoi, Nemuro City)
- Meiji police box (2-16-2 Meiji, Nemuro City)
- Atsutoko Station (1-36 Atsutoko, Nemuro City)
- Ochiishi Station (392, Ochiishihigashi, Nemuro City)
- Nosappu Station (33 Nosappu, Nemuro City)
- Hanasaki Representative Office (164-3 Hanasaki Port, Nemuro City)
- Habomai Station (4-40-1 Habomai, Nemuro City)
- Fire department
- Nemuro City Fire Department
- Distribution office
- Hanasaki Port (Hanasaki Port 366-5)
- Atsutoko (Attoko 1-37, 38)
- Habomai (Habomai 4-40)
- Main hospital
- Public hospital
- Main post office
- Nemuro Post Office(Honmachi) (Collection and Delivery Bureau)
- Atsutoko Post Office (Atsutoko) (Collection and Delivery Office)
- Habomai Post Office (Habomai)
- Ochiishi Post Office (Ochiishihigashi)
- Nemuro Nishihama Post Office (Nishihamacho)
- Nemuro Taisho Post Office (Taishocho)
- Goyomai Post Office(Goyomai)- Japan's easternmost post office
- Nemuro Port Post Office (Chishimacho)
- Nemuro Ariiso Post Office (Ariiso Town)
- Nemuro Heinai Post Office (Heinaicho)
- Hanasaki Post Office (Hanasaki Port)
- Nemuro-Ake Simple Post Office (Akemachi)
- Koyo Post Office (Koyocho)
- Wada Simple Post Office (Nishiwada)
- Onneto Simple Post Office (Onneto)
Sister cities / sister cities
- sister city
- Sitka city(The United States of America ア ラ ス カ 州）
- Severo-Kurisk City(Russian Federation Sakhalin）
- sister city
mainlydairy..Mostly in the Attoko area.
- Fishing industry
- Agricultural cooperative/fishing cooperative
- Doto Asahi Agricultural Cooperative(JA Doto Asahi) Nemuro Branch
- Nemuro Fisheries Cooperative
- Rockfall Fisheries Cooperative
- Nemuro Bay Central Fisheries Cooperative
- Habomai Fisheries Cooperative
- Hokkaido Agricultural Mutual Aid Association(NOSAI Hokkaido) Nemuro Livestock Clinic
- Major companies based
- Yamato Transport: Doto Administration Branch
- Nemuro East Center / Nemuro West Center (Both centers are located in the same building, have the same telephone number, and divide the area in charge in the city into two)
- Sagawa Express: Nemuro Sales Office (You can bring your luggage to be shipped and pick up your luggage at the sales office, but the Nakashibetsu Sales Office will handle telephone calls such as pick-up reception)
- Daichi Mirai Shinkin Bank Main store Akebono branch Ekimae branch Habomai branch
- North Pacific Bank Nemuro branch
- Hokkaido Bank Nemuro branch
Compulsory education school
- Nemuro City Habomai Gakuen(2013/4Kyowa small, Hanasaki small,Goyomai small・ Five schools in Onnemoto Elementary School and Habomai are integrated), Compulsory education school in 2020.
Junior high school
- Nemuro City Koyo Junior High School
- Nemuro Municipal Kashiwaryo Junior High School
- Nemuro Municipal Ochiishi Junior High School
- Nemuro City Keiun Junior High School
- Nemuro City Hokuto Elementary School
- Nemuro Municipal Hanasaki Elementary School
- Nemuro City Hanasaki Port Elementary School
- Nemuro City Ochiishi Elementary School
- Nemuro Municipal Naruo Elementary School
Elementary and junior high school
- Nemuro Municipal Kaisei Elementary and Junior High School (Wada Elementary School, Horomoshiri Elementary School, and Wada Naka School are integrated)
- Nemuro City Atsutoko Elementary and Junior High School
- tv set
- NHK Kushiro Broadcasting StationNemuro branch office
- Radio station
- Nemuro Citizens Radio(FM sleep)
There is no airport in the city.Nakashibetsu TownIt is inNakashibetsu AirportIs the closest.The airlines and airport terminal building operating companies that operate the airport use the name "Namuro Nakashibetsu Airport."
- Nemuro Main Line(Hanasaki Line):Atsuko Station - Bettoga Station - Ochiishi Station - Kombumori Station - Nishiwada Station - Higashi-Nemuro Station - Nemuro Station
Abandoned railway line
- 1959/(34) Abolished.Until it was abolished, it was the easternmost railway in Japan.
- Central hire
- Nemuro Higher
- Hokuto taxi
- Hokkaido Route 8 Nemuro Nakashibetsu Line
- Hokkaido Road No. 35 Nemuro Peninsula Line
- Hokkaido Road No. 142 Nemuro Hamanaka Kusumi Route
- Hokkaido Road 310 Hanasaki Port Line
- Hokkaido Road No. 312 Nemuro Stop Line
- Hokkaido Road No. 313 Nemuro Port Line
- Hokkaido Road 780 Hanasaki Port Onneto Line
- Hokkaido Road 953 Bettoga Daiyo Line
- Hokkaido Prefectural Road No. 988
- Hokkaido Road 989 Toyosato Tohmai Line
- Hokkaido Road No. 1064 Tomochi Makinouchi Line
- Hokkaido Road No. 1123 Ochiishi Port Line
- Hokkaido Road No. 1127 Hattaushi Atsushi Line
Registered tangible cultural property
- Nemuro City Meiji Park Daiichi Silo
- Nemuro City Meiji Park Second Silo
- Nemuro City Meiji Park Third Silo
- Cape Ochiishi's own azalea
- Wada Tondenhei Village Clothing Storage-Hokkaido Designated Tangible Cultural Property, Wada Tonden Memorial Hall
- Earth figurines excavated from Hatsutaushi 20 ruins and relics excavated from graves-Hokkaido designated tangible cultural property, Nemuro City History and Nature Museum
- Yururi Moyururi Island Seabird Breeding Area-Hokkaido Designated Natural Monument
Nemuro City designated cultural property
- 4 tangible cultural properties such as the swordsman, the eagle sword, and the pottery with animal design excavated from the Hoka pit group
- Ainu Living Tools-Nemuro City History and Nature Museum Collection
- Goyomai Shishi Kagura --- Goyomai Shishi Kagura Preservation Society
- Kansei uprisingJapanese Martyrdom Tombstone-Cape Nosappu
- Wada Tondenhei Monument
- Quercus crispula wind forest
Nearby Tourist Spots
- Known for the arrival of swansFuren Lake,Shunkunitai.
- The easternmostCape Nosappu.
- One of the three great secret capes in HokkaidoCape Ochiishi.
- GokokuyamaSeiryuji Temple(In the precinctsChishima cherry tree.Hokkaido Sanju Kannon Sacred Ground22th pilgrimage place)
Festivals and events
Cape Nosappu first day visit (January), Nimuoro Winter Festival (February),Ochiishi / Taste Festival(June), Port Festival (July),Kotohira ShrineAnnual festival (August), crab festival (September), saury festival (September)
- Hanasaki crab
- SauryIso marine products
- Processed marine products
- North win(Sake）
- Dutch rice crackers
- Anti Age Tokuzumi(Impersonator）
- Saburo Iida(作曲家）
- Toshiko Endo(manga artist）
- Ryoji Kasuga(System operator)
- Tetsutoshi Kaneko(Hokkaido Television BroadcastFormer announcer, current employee of the same station)
- Takeshi Kanda(manga artist）
- Akira Kobata(Tokyo UniversityHonorary professor-Biochemistry）
- Cyclone Z(Comedian）
- Mutsuhiro Tomiyama(Satsudora HoldingsFounder / Chairman)
- Sanyutei Kinpachi(Rakugo performer）
- Hachiro Kawamura(Businessman MaxPresident)
- Hirami Shibata(Hokkaido Bunka Broadcasting Systemannouncer)
- (Pastry chef)
- Sukekei(An actor）
- Mari Hino(Voice actor）
- Satoshi Fukushima(Movie producer）
- Riki Nishioka(Illustrator）
- (Businessman President of Matsui Building)
- Yosuke Momono(Monobright Vocal guitar)
- (Coal mine king)
- Naoki Yanase(English literary-translator）
- Tokichi Yanagida(Businessman, member of the House of Lords)
- Yukihito Ranbashi(OriginalProfessional baseball player）
- RovebardRock group (1980/The CM image song "Bone Free Spirit" of Cup Noodle is a hit)
- Takanoyama Eiji(OriginalGrand SumoWrestler-Futakoyama roomBelongs)
- Keisuke Wakaten(OriginalGrand SumoWrestler-Magaki roomBelongs)
- Miki Ishibashi(Iwate Menkoi TVannouncer)
Person with connection
- 大 坂 な お み(Osaka): Professional tennis player.My mother is from Nemuro City, and my maternal grandfather is the head of the Nemuro Fisheries Cooperative Association..
Works set in Nemuro City
- From the northern country - Fuji Television Network, IncProduction. '95 Secret (1995/(7)6Broadcast) and the '98 era (1998/(10)7(Broadcast), the heroine appears at a clinic in the Ochiishi district of the city.
- Child of the earth - NHKProduction. Broadcast in 1995.The old at the time of the defeat that appears in the first part "Two Fathers"ManchuriaThe scene was shot in a forest area in the city.
- Antarctica - TBSProduction. Broadcast in 2011. "60th Anniversary of TBS OpeningSunday TheaterThis drama, titled "AntarcticaAlmost all of the scenes were recorded in Nemuro city.
- From 1974Weekly Shonen SundaySerialized in "Man group"(Original)Satoshi Kariya, Drawing/Ryoichi Ikegami) Has an episode set in a non-existent island called Gunkanjima off the coast of Nemuro.
- ^ The following figures are not described due to lack of data "1917 (9.9)"
- ^ The following figures are not described due to lack of data "1917 (25.5)"
- ^ The following figures are not described due to lack of data "1917 (-9.3)"
- ^ The following figures are not described due to lack of data "1917 (3.2)"
- ^ The following figures are not described due to lack of data "1917 (17.7)"
- ^ The following figures are not described due to lack of data "1917 (16.3)"
- ^ 以下の数値は資料不足値の為未記載「1917(＜0℃最低116,≧25℃（最低）0,＜0℃最高42,≧25℃（最高）1,,≧30℃（最高）0,≧35℃（最高）0」
- ^ Climate in Nemuro area(Broken link)
- ^ "Normal value download”. Japan Meteorological Agency. March 2021Browse.
- ^ "Value of 1st to 10th in observation history (value throughout the year)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. March 2021Browse.
- ^ "Past weather data". Japanese Meteorological Agency. 2021/4/23Browse.
- ^ Census Division, Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (2017-01-27) (CSV). 27 National Census Subregion Total 01 Hokkaido << Age (5 years old), Population by gender, Total age and average age (Foreigners-Special)-Machicho, characters, etc. (Report). Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications 2017/5/20Browse.. *Even if there is an area of 0 people in a part of a section of an article, it is excluded if there is a population in another same section.
- ^ Nemuro / Chishima History Biographical Dictionary Editorial Committee 2002, Pages 366-367.
- ^ "Decree related to the Northern Territories Affairs Administration of the Cabinet Office". 2021/5/22Browse.
- ^ "About city council”. Nemuro City. 2021/8/30Browse.
- ^ "Nemuro city council member election”. Election dot com. 2021/8/30Browse.
- ^ Habomai (Habomai District Elementary School Integration / Small and Middle School Opening Preparation Committee General Affairs Subcommittee)
- ^ "About October 28 schedule revision" (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (December 2015, 12), originalArchived as of October 2015, 12. 2021/1/6Browse.
- ^ “About the March 2019 timetable revision” (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkaido Railway Company, (December 2018, 12), originalArchived as of October 2018, 12. 2021/1/6Browse.
- ^ Naomi Osaka's grandfather and Tetsuo Nemuro fishermen's association president, tour win "I've become stronger" / Hokkaido (Mainichi Shimbun April 2018, 3)
- Nemuro / Chishima Biographical Dictionary Editorial Board, edited by Nemuro / Chishima Biographical Dictionary, Nemuro / Chishima Biographical Dictionary Publishing Association, 2002.