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💹 | Norwegian sovereign wealth fund, investment income is the second highest level ever


Norwegian sovereign wealth fund, investment returns at the second highest level ever

If you write the contents roughly
Among individual stocks, Microsoft, Alphabet and Apple contributed particularly to earnings.

[Oslo XNUMXth Reuters] -Norwegian sovereign wealth fund will have an investment return of XNUMX in XNUMX on the XNUMXth. → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


Microsoft(British: Microsoft Corporation) IsThe United States of AmericaState of WashingtonHeadquartered insoftwareIs a company that develops and sells.1975/ToBill GatesとPaul AllenFounded by[Annotation 1].1985/TocomputeruseOS OfWindowsDeveloped.1990/For WindowsOffice softwareAsMicrosoft OfficeFor sale. In 1995Web browser OfInternet ExplorerReleased.2001/ToHome game console OfXboxFor sale.2009/ToSearch engine OfBingEstablished. In 2010Cloud serviceAsAzureStart. July 2015, 7 Developed and deployed Microsoft Edge. Market capitalization as of November 15Apple2rd in the world after[7].


Initially shortly after it appeared in the world 8bit OfMicroprocessorComputer equipped withAltairMoves on,BASICInterpreter"Altair BASICWas successful in the development and sales of

Initially a native environment (cassette tape based, no operating systemROM-BASICIt was in an environment close toCP / MWill become the standard platform for CP/M-basedMBASICTo announce.GBASIC with graphics function and GWBASIC for 16-bit will be released.In addition, W of GW is said to be a double byte / word meaning 16 bits (= 2 bytes).

IncidentallyIBM PCupperoperating systemUndertake the development of Seattle Computer Products86-TWOThe right to buy and improve the PC DOS (in its own brandMS-DOS) Developed. With the widespread use of IBM PCs and their compatibles, the demand for operating systems has grown, ensuring the consolidation to this day. 86-DOS developersTim PattersonLater, he was pulled out by Microsoft and became the main development staff for MS-DOS.

In addition to improving MS-DOS, Microsoft has introduced BASIC for each model andC language-FORTRANSuch ascompilerWhile developing theAltoWorks on MS-DOSGUIsystem"WindowsWe focused on the development.

Also for businessSpreadsheet software,word processing software, Etc., and developed fierce competition with other companies that were said to be "acquisition or crush, which one", and while seeking approval and disapproval in various fields,Business softwareでshareCame to monopolize.

From the early 1970s to the early 1980s,Kazuhiko Nishi Bill GatesAnd he became the vice president of Microsoft. This has a great effect on Microsoft's advance into Japan.ASCII TheMSX,AXWas a major contribution, such as co-development and acting as a Japanese agency until the establishment of a Japanese corporation (actually, the subsidiary ASCII Microsoft Co., Ltd. was in charge). However1986/A Japanese corporation (Microsoft Corporation) wholly owned by Microsoft from ASCIIRyo Furukawa,Mature hairSince some of the employees were established independently, the alliance was terminated.

Regarding the OS, as the successor to MS-DOS,IBMIn collaboration withOS / 2While developing, he was also developing an OS that will lead to later Windows. After that, after sharing with IBM, it was decided that IBM would develop OS/2 and Microsoft would develop Windows. Windows originally worked on MS-DOS, but in 1995, Windows and MS-DOS were integrated to improve the GUI.Windows 95Was released. In parallel with this,David CutlerLeadDECBy transferring the development team ofWindows NTWas developed.

After that, we continued to improve Windows and made minor changes many times.インターネットViaCD-ROMWe distribute a large number of modules. By Windows NTserverIt also made a foray into the market. In 2001Windows XPWith the launch ofMS-DOS type WindowsTheWindows NT seriesIntegrated into.

また2000 eraWhen you enterhandicapped OfAccessibilityConsideration for "Corporate social responsibility], and in each countryMicrosoft Assistive Technology Vendor ProgramExpanded[8].

In addition, game machineAsXboxThe2001/Released in2005/In 12 monthXbox 360,2013/In 11 monthXbox OneWas released.

As an activity in a field different from the conventional one,Formula 1The product supply to.McLaren Electronic SystemsIn collaboration withEngine control unitIs being supplied.

On October 2011, 10, we released "Omni Touch," a new technology that can be used in any place as a touch screen. The technology supports multi-touch. We aim to use the palms, arms, walls, notebooks, desks, etc. as touch screens.

August 2013, 9,NokiaAnnounced that it has agreed to acquire Nokia's mobile phone division for 54.4 billion euros (about 7,130 billion yen).The acquisition process is scheduled to be completed in the first quarter of 2014[9].

2014/XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Nokia OfmobileAnnounced completion of acquisition of business[10].

August 2015, 5,Submarine cableAnnounced investment in network[11].Hibernia NetworksJoint investment and laying agreement with

On April 2019, 4, the third company ever recorded a market capitalization exceeding $25 trillion[12].

March 2021, 3, Microsoft announces HoloLens[13]Announced that it has won a contract to provide the U.S. military with tens of thousands of technology-based augmented reality headsets[14]..The deal will amount to $ 10 billion over 218 years. Delivered 8000 IVAS (Integrated Visual Enhancement System) compliant AR headsets to the Army[15].. HoloLens 2 has been upgraded to meet the needs of field soldiers.Following Microsoft's $ 2018 million two-year contract to provide augmented reality technology to the U.S. military in 2. IVAS will also utilize cloud services based on HoloLens technology.

Products and services

Client software

Server software


mouse,Keyboard,Game padSuch asInput deviceAlso manufactures.The current optical mouse, which does not require a dedicated pad, was the company's invention, and since this invention, the optical mouse has become the mainstream in the world, replacing the ball-type mouse that was common until then. We are sending a number of new products that overturn the conventional wisdom, such as a new joystick that adds rotation of the Z axis to the joystick that was generally input only in the XY direction.The hardware department at that time, which was doing a lot of epoch making, was an in-house venture, but it was upgraded to a formal department due to the success of the optical mouse.

hardwareThe first product ofApple IIIt is a Z80 SOFT CARD for. this is6502When you insert a Z80 card into an Apple II with a CPUCP / MBase ofMicrosoft BASICIt is said that Tim Patterson (designer of MS-DOS) of Seattle Computer Products was designed in one theory.

2000 years,SegaAnnounced entry into the game industry in the form of replacing. For home use in 2001Video gamesDedicated machine ・XboxReleased.For arcadesChihiroThere is an Xbox platform board called.Then, in 2005 as a next-generation productXbox 360Was released.

Manufacturing of Xbox and Xbox 360,Singapore,TaiwanHeadquartered inEMSOutsourced to a company.

Portable music playerZuneThe series is sold in the US and Canada. Also2010/A newsharpとSmartphone"KIN] The series was jointly developed and released.

Windows PhoneWas onceWindows MobileCalledPocket PC,SmartphoneMounted onWindows CEIt is an advanced version of. In 2010, in several countries including the United StatesWindows PhoneWas sold.After that, the update made in the fall of 2011 promoted multilingual support, and the Japanese version was released, but support ended in December 2019.[16].

In-house manufacturedTablet terminalAs,Surface/ Surface Pro is being developed and sold. Surface can be upgraded to Windows RT 8.1 with a free update, and Surface Pro, Surface 3, and Surface Laptop can be upgraded to Windows 10 Pro with a free update.


1984/In the publishing department "Microsoft PressIs established and publishes computer-related books centered on technical manuals for Microsoft-related products.JapanThen from the background of the advance to JapanASCII(Current:Kadokawa ASCII Research Institute) Has been in charge of publishing,1998/Was established inNikkei BPNikkei BP Soft Press, a subsidiary of Nikkei BP Soft Press, has been in charge of publishing since July of the same year.KADOKAWA Game LinkageIs issued.

Microsoft and OS

Development of platform-independent binary format

Microsoft has been used as a binary format for UNIX-like systemsCOFFImprovedPortable Executable (PE)Formulated the format. The biggest feature is that it does not depend on specific hardware or OS..NET FrameworkApplication orUEFIIn addition to being used as the format of application execution files,Third partyMade of OSkernel,Boot loaderIt is also used as an executable file for.

Microsoft and UNIX

Microsoft from 1980AT&TLicensed as the world's first commercial UNIX vendorXENIXWas being developed and sold. But in 1987XENIXOwnership ofSCOMoved to. SCO funded SCO's litigation against Linux from 2003 to 2010[17]But SCO has lost the case[18].

Also, since 1999 for Windows NT seriesServices for UNIX(SFU) is provided. Addressed this by the communityDebian Interix Port andGentoo/Interix etc. were developed, but many packages are not supported.

Microsoft and open source

In 2001Shared sourceBut it wasn't something that could be called open source. In 2006CodePlexStarted, Ms-PL/Ms-RL received OSI open source license certification in 2007[19]So, Microsoft's open source strategy has begun. To date, Terrarium and others have been made open source. Founded CodePlex Foundation in 2009[20].

In 2008, MicrosoftHyper-VDeveloped a Linux integrated component, but in 2009 it was pointed out that the GPL violation of the kernel module[21]And released the source code[22], Decided to participate in the development on the Linux mailing list for the integration of the Linux kernel into the mainline. In addition, when the GPL violation of Windows 2009 USB/DVD Download Tool was pointed out in 7, the source code was released under the GPL.[23].

Microsoft and Linux

MicrosoftHalloween documentsAnd FUD strategies such as GET THE FACTS campaign[24].

The results of the survey that Microsoft requested from Security Innovation in 2005NovelWas argued by[25]Also, since 2006, we have partnered with Novell.[26].. Although Novell had intellectual property of UNIX, it was still in court with SCO at that time.

In 2007 Microsoft raised patent issues in open source[27]Litigated TomTom in 2009 for patent infringement in using the Linux kernel[28]..In addition, the lawsuits have led to contracts with multiple companies, such as "allowing Linux to be used."

CPTN Holdings Inc., founded by Microsoft in Delaware on November 2010, 11, was purchased by Attachmate in November 2010 for $11 million for Novell's 4 patents.[29].

In recent years, official postings such as "Microsoft Loves Linux" have been made.[30]For example, it shows a harmonious stance towards Linux, and in fact Microsoft Azure, which is a cloud platform, can also use Linux as an OS.[31].. Also, as a platinum member at The Linux Foundation[32], And also contributes to the open source community such as Linux by providing the source code.

April 2018 is a Linux distribution for IoTAzure SphereWas announced.


Microsoft has entered both the enterprise and consumer markets and is competing with IT vendors in their respective fields.

  • IBM -Once used to compete in OS and develop into litigation, but now collaborating in the cloud field[33][34].
  • Oracle -Competing in database management systems, business intelligence, ERP, development languages ​​(Java), cloud services.
  • SAP -While competing in ERP, CRM, database management system, business intelligence, etc., we have a long-standing collaborative relationship, and in 2016 we have expanded the scope of collaboration including the cloud field.[35].. In December 2017, MicrosoftSAP S / 4 HANA It was announced that on Azure will be adopted for internal operations and SAP will adopt Azure as the foundation of the company's multiple cloud services.[36].
  • Salesforce.com -Conflict in CRM.
  • Google -Competing in online services such as search engines, cloud services for business and office products, mobile terminals and mobile OS.
  • Apple --In August 1997, signed a patent cross-licensing tie-up.In the same year, it invested $ 8 million to acquire non-voting shares, but sold it in 1.[37]..After that, we cooperated in various fields and temporarilyiCloudTo provideAzureWas using[38]In addition, Bing was adopted as Siri's search engine until 2017[39].. In addition to PCs and online services, they compete with OS and office products.
  • The Amazon -AWS and Windows Azure, which are public cloud services, are in a fierce share battle.
  • Sony --For home video game consoles, music distribution, etc.EntertainmentCompeting in the field.However, on May 2019, 5, we will collaborate on cloud gaming, semiconductors, AI business, etc.[40].

Acquired company


  • Forethought was the first company acquired by Microsoft.With this acquisition, MicrosoftPower pointGot[41](PowerPoint was developed by Forethought[41]).
  • The acquisition was unknown before, but PowerPoint developer Robert Guskins revealed it in BBC News on July 2012, the day the acquisition was made in 7.[41].
  • Forethought declined the offer to buy Microsoft once, but after six months of negotiations, Microsoft offered $ 6 million, three times the original amount, to accept the deal.[41].


  • Microsoft acquired Hotmail at the end of 1997[42], Service name was changed from "HoTMaiL" to "Hotmail" spelling.
  • Along with this acquisition, Microsoft also developed a provider business (MSN) in each country and provided Webmail under the domain name of msn.com, which is also Hotmail itself. With the renewal of MSN Japan on May 1999, 5, it became available on the page under the name of MSN Hotmail.


  • The acquisition by Microsoft was completed on October 2011, 10 (local time), and it became a new division of Microsoft "Skype Division of Microsoft"[43].
  • Microsoft announced on May 5 that same year it will acquire Skype for $10 billion[43].
  • The deal was approved by the U.S. federal authorities in June and the European Union on October 6.[43].
  • Tony Bates CEO of Skype becomes president of the division[43].


  • Announced to acquire Nokia's mobile terminal business on September 2013, 9 (local time)[44].
  • Microsoft will buy the mobile device business, which accounts for about half of Nokia's company-wide revenue for cash of EUR 37 million, and will pay Nokia a royalty of EUR 9,000 million. Microsoft will also accept about 16 employees from Nokia.
  • Nokia smartphone brand "Lumia"Leave.


  • The popular game "September 2014, 9 (local time), which sells 15 million copies worldwideMinecraftAnnounced that the developer, Mojang, has been acquired for $ 25 billion.[45].

ZeniMax Media

  • On September 2020, 9 (local time),The Elder ScrollsSeries andFallout seriesKnown as the developer ofBethesda SoftworksIs the parent company ofZeniMax MediaAnnounced acquisition for $ 75 billion[46]..Even after the acquisition, the PlayStation 5 exclusive titles "Deathloop" and "Ghost Wire: Tokyo" will not be sold on Xbox and will continue to be exclusive to PlayStation 5[47].
  • Announced official completion of ZeniMax Media acquisition on March 2021, 3 (local time)[48].

Activision Blizzard

Exercise / discussion / problems

Competitive environment

Points from the judiciary/administration

De facto standardConcentrating on one company has the disadvantage that users and society as a whole suffer disadvantages. Microsoft in the USAntitrust lawAs a violationMinistry of JusticeWas filed with.TrialThen,OSWith the companyApplicationThe company received a correction order to split the company in two, but the Washington High Court abandoned the trial.District courtSent back to. Now it's a real win for Microsoft[Source required].

2004/January,European Union OfEuropean CommissionMicrosoft abuses Windows' dominant position,Competition lawAbout 4 million for violatingEuro(At that time the market price was about 795 billionYen)ofFineDecided to impose. Microsoft initially refused to do this,2007/Accepted this in October (Microsoft's European Union competition law violationSee also). But,2008/On February 2, the European Commission announced that Microsoft will not provide sufficient basic information on Windows after that, and it will impose a new fine of 27 million euros (the market price was about 8 billion yen at that time) did. This is the highest amount of fine the Commission has imposed on a single company at the time of its announcement. European Commission Commissioner for Competition Policy Nelly Cruz said in a statement that "obeying (the order) is not enough. It needs to be shown in action. The Commission's demands are not yet met."[50].. Every yearBill Gates World Champion(Forbes Magazine), while Microsoft monopolizes the operating system market worldwide, and Windows purchases new PCs worldwide.licenseThe ridiculous word "Microsoft tax" was born because the costs were mostly included.[51].2002/From the financial report released to the public, it was found that the profit margin of Windows was about 85%, but it was ridiculed by some media such as "It is almost like printing money" Came to[52].

Anti windows movement

In 1999,Windows Refund CenterCentered on the website[53]In addition, users such as Linux and FreeBSD are campaigning for a refund of the Windows license fee from the price of the PC, saying "I do not use Windows pre-installed on the PC".[54]. Also,Free Software Foundation(FSF) was announced on October 2009, 10Windows 7About, rolled out an anti-Windows 7 campaign[55].. FSFWindows VistaA similar campaign was launched at the time of announcement[56].

Anti-google movement

Microsoft is a competitorThe Amazon,Yahoo!In cooperation withGoogle BooksIs worried about the monopoly of the e-book market by the government, and has launched an opposition movement. It started in 2005, being the largest and oldest author association in the United States.National Writers AssociationEtc. against Google,Copyright infringementでClass actionIt begins to happen. Although the plaintiffs and the defendant parties had agreed to settle for a total of US$1 million, the proposed settlement included a license to digitize future copyrighted works. A new violation of law was pointed out. Microsoft and others in 2,500(English edition)And disputes this settlement proposal.[57].. In addition, the French and German governments criticized the proposed settlement, and the German Ministry of Justice said, ``It appears to be victim relief and prevention of damage spread, and Google is giving compulsory enforcement rights to all copyrighted books around the world. Class action lawsuits are being used to get it,'' he submitted an opinion in tune with Microsoft and others.[58].

Technology/Product strategy

2009/6/26[59]Includes FSF founder Richard Stallman and Microsoft in the future.C#May claim a patent againstC#Implementation announced a sentence that should be consciously reduced[60].. In contrast, MicrosoftCommunity Promise, And announced that it will not obtain a patent on C#[59].

The office suite format is open source and ODF (Opendocument) Is being standardized,OpenOffice.org, StarOffice (StarSuite),Ichitaro,KOfficeCompatibility between office suites that have adopted this has improved.In fact, the movement to adopt OpenDocument is increasing in the governments and local governments of each country including Japan.However, Microsoft goes against that trend with a new standard that is completely incompatible with ODF.OpenXML”Was defined and adopted as a standard format in Office 2007. Microsoft claims Open XML's dominance,GNURelated organizations criticize Microsoft's actions as share violence and controversial as going against the times[61].

customer service

In 2016, Microsoft had a free upgrade to Windows 10 until July 2016, 7, but the notification message of the upgrade was difficult to understand, there were many cases where the OS was forcibly upgraded halfway without mistake, consumption Received a complaint from an organization. In addition, the question spread widely, such as the issuance of a willingness to ask questions at the Diet.[62][63].

In-house management

In December 2011, at Microsoft Development, the so-called "Power harassmentAs dismissed bytrialIs occurring[64].

In November 2013, was the then CEOSteve BallmerIt is,GEAlthough it was introduced top-down by imitating, it was praised both inside and outside the company.[65][66]Abolished personnel evaluation system ""[67][68].

Sexual harassment/discrimination issues

In April 2019, multiple womensexual harassmentMicrosoft's group of employees is in a turmoil protesting their company after revealing their experiences of being discriminated against in a series of emails.[69].

Unauthorized access problem

On April 2019, 4, unauthorized access to some accounts of ``Outlook'', Microsoft announced[70]..The target is "Outlook.com", "MSN", and "Hotmail".Support personnel account credentials were stolen and used to break in.Corrected the initial announcement, saying that 6% of the affected accounts were in a state where intruders could also see the email body and attachments.[71].

Development in Japan

Microsoft Japan

Microsoft Japan Co., Ltd.(British: Microsoft Japan Co., Ltd. Abbreviation: MSJ) Is mainlySales,Marketing, Support, president's office andLegal affairsThe company in charge of such things.

Previously, the office was called "Microsoft Corporation"Odakyu Southern Tower(head office),Asahi LifeShirota BridgeBuilding, Akasaka Garden City,Tokyo Opera CityIt was distributed in 4 locations in Tokyo. In order to eliminate this, as of February 2011, 2, there are four bases excluding the Technology Center and affiliated companies.Fast Search & Transfer Co., Ltd.In Chiyoda Ward, whereKasumigasekioffice(Daido Life Kasumigaseki Building) Is integrated and integrated, and the new headquarters office is located in Konan, Minato-ku.Shinagawa Grand Central TowerMoved to[73].. At the same time, the company name was changed to Microsoft Japan Co., Ltd.[74].. Furthermore, there are branch offices in places other than Tokyo. As of 2011, when the bases were consolidated in Konan, Minato-ku, it was planned to merge Microsoft Japan Co., Ltd. and Microsoft Development Co., Ltd., which will be described later, in Chofu City, but from 2014 to 2015 it will belong to Microsoft Development Co., Ltd. Both the development department and the support department belonging to Microsoft Japan have moved to Konan, Minato-ku, and preparations for integration continue.

It is no longer an unofficial name, but the abbreviation for renaming is MSKK (Microsoft). Kabushiki KaishaWas an abbreviation for).

In the Japanese marketOracle Japan-SAP Japan-Salesforce.com (Salesforce.com)-Amazon Web Services Japan-Google GK-IBM Japan-Apple Japan-Samsung japanNot only foreign companies such asToshiba-Fujitsu-Hitachi, Ltd.-NEC・ It is competing with many IT vendors including Japanese companies such as Sony, and is fiercely competing for market share.

Since 2008, the notation of "computer" has been changed to "computer" with a macron.It follows the notation of elementary and junior high school textbooks and newspaper broadcasts, but it is relatively rare within the industry and has become a pioneer.

Office nameAddress
Main officeTokyoMinato-kuKonan16-3-XNUMX Shinagawa Grand Central Tower
OtemachiTechnology centerTokyoChiyodaOtemachi 1-1-3 Major center building 1st and 13th floor

Microsoft development

Microsoft Development Co., Ltd.(British: Microsoft Development Ltd.) Mainly belongs to the development department.It is not a subsidiary of Microsoft Japan Co., Ltd., but a subsidiary of Microsoft Corporation headquarters.Previously, riceMicrosoft Product Development Ltd.It was positioned as a Japanese branch office of2006/, Was reorganized as a Japanese stock company to respond to the revision of the Companies Act.

The head office isMicrosoft Chofu Technology Center(TokyoChofu CityChofugaoka1-18-1)[76][77]However, in 2014, the development department moved to Shinagawa Grand Central Tower, which is the same as Microsoft Japan headquarters, and in 2015, the support department moved to Shinagawa as well. As of May 2018, the description of Chofu Technology Center exists on the Microsoft website,[76], Actually not working. In April 2015, the head office location was changed to Konan, Minato-ku, which is the same location as the Shinagawa head office.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ a b The founding date may be April 1975, 4, but there is no document at that time that can confirm this date.Gates and Allen signed a partnership agreement on February 4, 1977, which was previously informal and vague by oral promise.[3]..Under US law, registration and contracts between the parties are not required to form a partnership, so oral promises are valid, and it is believed that partnerships existed before February 1977, 2.However, when MITS signed a contract for the BASIC interpreter on July 3, 1975, they were individuals Gates and Allen, not a partnership entity.[4]..Also, it is said that Allen came up with the name Microsoft in the summer of 1975.[5]As of April 1975, 4, the name Microsoft does not exist.It's true that the parties, Gates and Allen, have stated that April 4, 1975 is Microsoft's founding date, but all of these statements are from 4 onwards, before 4. I can't confirm.It also does not say what kind of agreement was reached between the parties on April 2005, 2005. Detailed interviews with the parties in materials up to the mid-1975s indicate that the exact date on which the partnership was formed is unknown.[6].


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