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📊 | Ministop sells its Korean subsidiary to Lotte and withdraws from the Philippines

Photo Withdrawal from the Philippines, which operates a convenience store as a joint venture with a local company.

Ministop sells Korean subsidiary to Lotte, withdraws from Philippines

If you write the contents roughly
It will also withdraw from the Philippines, which operates a convenience store as a joint venture with a local company.

Ministop announced on January 1 that it will sell its subsidiary, South Korea Ministop, to Lotte, a major local conglomerate.Local company ... → Continue reading

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convenience store

convenience store(British: Convenience store) Is open 24 hours a day, XNUMX days a week, in small storesFood,Miscellaneous goodsHandles many varieties such asretail store..Abbreviation / common name is "Convenience store"Such.

originallyAmericaIt was a business format that was born in, but later mainlyJapanAchieved its own development inPOS systemAnd so on to the world[1][2]..Major capitalChain storeIt is often developed as.

United States convenience store


Convenience storeThe United States of AmericaIt is the business format that originated.

1927 years,Texas Ofæ°·John Jefferson Green, who was entrusted with management at the store "Southland Ice", has increased demand for ice.summerThe business hours were extended to "7 days a week, 1 hours a day", and customers were pleased.[3].. Furthermore from the customerBread,egg,milkThere was also a request for handling such as, and it became the prototype of convenience stores by handling these as well.[3]..The store was later renamed "Seven-Eleven."

In 1939OhioJames J. Lawson, who was running a milk sales business in Japan, established "Lawson Milk Co., Ltd." and opened a small store "Lawson" that sells daily necessities in addition to milk.Northeastern United StatesChained to[3][4]..Lawson's mark is a milk churn because it originated in the milk sales business.In addition, Lawson in the United States became a daily mart afterAlimentation CouchetarBecame a subsidiary ofCircle KHas been converted to.

Store type

The United States of AmericaThen,Gas stationThere are many stores that are attached to.In addition, car accessories such as engine oil and car wash accessories, which are not sold at convenience stores in Japan, are also sold.MoreoverCar maintenanceWith staff and pits involved in engine oil replacement, puncture repair, etc.AutomobileSome stores even carry out simple repairs.This is because, due to the vast land area, the fact that a car traveling a long distance gets stuck in an uninhabited area is directly related to life and death in some cases.A wide variety of products such as minimum daily necessities and light meals and drinks that allow you to take a little rest are available.am / pmAnd mini-mart.

For this reason, the management body of convenience storesoilIn some cases, it is an affiliated company.The parent company of "Speedway", which holds the third largest share in the United States, is an oil refinery company.Marathon PetroleumIs. 2020, JapanSeven & i HoldingsHas tried to acquire Speedway in order to expand its share in the United States, but it has become a high-priced business exceeding 2 trillion yen and has been broken.[5].

New York City,Chicago CitySuch assubway-busIn the center of a big city with a well-developed networkGrocery(Food grocery store) is the mainstream.Daily miscellaneous goods,Fresh produce(mainlyfruit) Is displayed in large numbers. These are like you can see in JapanChain storeInstead, it is often an independent store, so business hours, product content, and scale vary from store to store.Beverage-Confectionery・ Daily miscellaneous goods ・magazineFrom small ones with etc.meat-Vegetables-Side dish-seasoning-flower-liqueurKind (beerThere is even a large grocery store that handles various things such as (only).Also, as a name, the name convenience store is not often used, and simply "grocery store" or "Night Owl" (literally translated as night) is a store that is open until midnight.フ ク ロ ウ).

Depending on the state, in the storeVideo poker,Slot machineArea where is located (for example)Las VegasIn the city)[6].

Convenience store in Japan

Japan OfMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryIn commercial statisticsBusiness formatThe definition of "convenience store" as a classification is "handles food and drink, sales floor area 30Square meterMore than 250 square meters, business hours more than 1 hours a dayセ ル フ サ ー ビ スIt seems to point to a "dealer".

Nihon Keizai ShimbunAccording to a survey conducted by the company in 2014, the domestic market has grown to a scale of over 10 trillion yen for the first time, and the top share is "Seven-Eleven Japan", Followed by"FamilyMart"When"LawsonOnly in the top 3 companiesAbout 8% shareWas revealed to have reached[7]。2020年2月末の4社合計の総店舗数は5万3,285店である。なお、年間閉店数は2018年が3,610店、2019年が2,050店であるが、2018年の総店舗数に占める閉店店舗の比率は6.8%となっており、経営の厳しさが数字に表れている[8].

In the first place, the significance of urban retail stores represented by convenience stores was to "sell space." In many small houses in the cityDaily necessitiesThere wasn't much space to stockpile, and the method of buying more at the store was suitable every time it was needed. Next, convenience stores began to see a dramatic increase in double-income households and singles.1980 eraIn addition, as a stockpile that can be used even at midnight, it has begun to provide the function of "selling time" with the support of consumers, and 24-hour operation will be the source of brand value. It was hoped that ordinary retailers would gain great brand value and greatly increase sales by displaying the signboards of major convenience stores. In the city center during the convenience store popularization periodrentIt was high, and it was expected that the rent per hour would decrease due to long hours of business.However, after 2013, the labor shortage became serious and labor costs soared.deficitIn addition to the increase in time zone, the youth population is decreasing,AgingThe number of customers will decrease. For this reason, franchise stores that are open 24 hours a day and are difficult to protect will continue to appear, causing conflicts between franchise stores and headquarters.[9].. The 24-hour business is more based on the "store policy" rather than the customer's request, and there are many customers' opinions that "go because it is open".Therefore, it has been pointed out that it is necessary to open 24 hours a day.

Store management form

The management form of the storeFranchise chainMethod (FC method),Voluntary chainThere are independent convenience stores that do not belong to methods or chains.

Franchise store

Many store owners (franchisees) are individuals. When managing multiple stores, it is often incorporated. On the other hand, mainly related to buildings and transportation (Bus terminal-Storage BusinessIt is also seen that existing corporations that own facilities such as) set up and operate stores in their own buildings or idle land as part of their side business.

In the case of individual management, in many cases, the owner and his wife are required to join, but when operating multiple stores, each store has a managerial position.EmployeeIt is seen to be hired as a so-called "hired store manager").Most of the other employeesPart-time job・ Part etc.Non-regular employmentWork in the form of. In these cases, employees are recruited, hired, and dismissed by the owner or corporation that operates the store, and wages are paid.

As a matter of course, since it is a franchise chain, franchise stores conclude a franchise agreement with the chain headquarters (franchisers), and based on this, the use of trademarks is permitted, and they receive guidance on store management and supply products. It will be a receiving relationship. Even if you rent a store site, the franchise store owner will use it for business.Term leaseholdIn most cases, there is no direct relationship of capital, human resources, and employment between the headquarters and the franchise stores, as the headquarters is involved only in referrals and brokerage.

Franchisor directly managed stores

Some convenience store stores are directly managed by franchisors, such as chain headquarters and district offices. However, basically, franchise stores play a central role in expanding the scale of convenience stores, and directly managed stores are a minority when looking over the entire chain.

Compared to franchise stores, directly managed stores are headquarters stores in terms of work.supervisorThe number of patrols of (SV) is large, and strict guidance is given.Also, regarding the introduction of new products, directly managed stores are under the pretext of being a sample of franchise stores, and some new products may be forcibly delivered by saying "sending".However, in terms of personnel, staff working at directly managed stores are also treated as hourly wage-based headquarters employees in terms of salary calculation, and all personnel expenses are borne by the headquarters, so welfare benefits are substantial compared to franchise stores.

In the case of major Japanese chains, the following can be seen in directly managed stores by headquarters and district offices.

  1. Stores attached to bases such as district offices
  2. dominant・ Stores opened and operated by the chain headquarters / district offices themselves from the perspectives of management strategy, regional strategy, profitability, etc.
  3. Stores with strong experimental elements, such as the inclusion of some major innovations in store management, or stores established for the purpose of collecting store management know-how of new business formats[† 1]
  4. storetenantStores (large-scale) that are specified by contract to be directly managed by the franchisorComplex commercial facilityIn-house or public institutionGovernment building(Often seen in stores installed inside)
  5. Temporary store open for a limited time due to large-scale events
  6. Stores that cannot be continued due to FC owner's retirement, withdrawal, bankruptcy, illness, accident, sudden death, etc.
  7. FC owner's serious breach of contract[† 2] , A store that was forcibly canceled due to arrest or disappearance, and was directly managed.

Of these, the stores that mainly fall under 1 and 2 are places for practical training and education of franchisor employees, FC owners, and store manager candidates in normal business, and services with innovations.Private brand-DelicaIt is also used as a place for preliminary testing of similar prototype products.

On the other hand, especially in cases 6 and 7, it is often a temporary measure until the management is transferred to another manager or the process of closing the store (closing) is completed.However, in most cases, store closures are taken for a short period of time or immediately due to the occurrence of the situation.[† 3].. Even if the headquarters actually makes a temporary direct management, it is necessary for the headquarters to maintain it because it is located in the necessary location from the viewpoint of dominant, regional strategy, countering the development of other chains, etc. Limited to stores[† 4].. On the other hand, in stores where the chain headquarters forcibly closed the store based on the contract due to scandals or contract troubles, the image of the convenience store chain can be protected.MediaFor the purpose of countermeasures, the chain headquarters bought the building shed from the landowner who was renting the store building, and then in a very short period of time after the store was closed, all the facilities of the store were destroyed or removed, and there was no trace.Vacant lotIt may become.

In addition, in the case of the first store opening in each region, the franchisor will initially open it as a directly managed store, and when the management is stable, it will be possible to recruit store owner candidates and switch to a franchise store. May be taken[† 5].

Location location

Initially as a locationCity areaThe store was opened mainly inCurrently[When?]Residential areas around cities, suburbs and rural areasMain lineTo the roadRoadside storeThe stores that have the appearance of are conspicuous. The reason why convenience stores originated from urban areas was at that time.Large-scale retail store lawRegulations andReal estateA major company that has difficulty in securing new commercial floors (location conditions) in existing urban areas due to the bubbleDepartment storeHowever, it is said that it has started a small store as a new format.

In urban areas, there are many stores of a specific chain standing in the same area, such as multiple stores of the same chain within a short distance of about 5 to 10 minutes on foot.This is "Dominant strategyIt is a store opening tactic based on a sales strategy called ".In particular, since the number of products in stock at each store is small, if each store is too far away when delivering products, it will take delivery time.costIt takes too much and becomes inefficient, so it is in each regionvendorWe have set up a distribution center calledYenBy opening many stores as shown in the above, we have established a highly efficient delivery route and reduced delivery costs. In addition, by opening stores intensively ahead of other chains, it is also a major purpose for the chain headquarters to narrow the room for development and competition by other chains and monopolize the market share in that area.

Also, for a period of timeTokyo,OsakaAmong themMarunouchi,Otemachi,Toranomon,Shinjuku StationPrevious,Ikebukuro StationPrevious,Umeda,NambaThere were almost no stores in large-scale downtown areas and office districts in central and sub-centers, and it was a business format peculiar to residential areas, but am / pm has been actively opening stores since the end of the 1980s.After a while, other companies followed suit, and around 2000, convenience stores in the city center became a common sight.

Distribution centers are being jointly delivered,ShowaIn a general store of the periodWholesalerThe number of deliveries per store has been reduced by delivering the products that were delivered to each store to the store at the joint distribution center by grouping the products from each wholesaler to some extent.Each store receives merchandise delivery about 1 to 2 times a day (depending on the chain).

2000 eraMany so-called "satellite stores" have also appeared in.This is to give flexibility to the store area and business hours, so that it is possible to open stores even on small-scale land where it was virtually impossible to open stores due to the low purchasing power of the store trade area compared to the conventional store opening standards. What I did[10] So, taking advantage of this privilege, it is a public facilityhospital-University-Government buildingThe number of stores opened inside is increasing.The first store in the hospital was opened on August 2000, 8 (Keiju General HospitalLawson in), the first store in the government building was opened on September 2002, 9 (Osaka Prefectural PoliceFamilyMart in the headquarters building), November 2004, 11 (Fukuoka City HallLawson in), January 2005, 1 (Tokyo Metropolitan Government BuildingInside is Seven-Eleven).again,high school-Junior high schoolThe first store will open on April 2006, 4 (TochigiUtsunomiya City OfUtsunomiya Junior High School/junior high school/high schoolFamilyMart (business hours are from 7:45 to 8:25, 12:20 to 13:10, and only meal time is treated as a satellite store in a neighboring store) is on campus as a purchasing department).FamilyMart is also open on the Shonan Campus of the Industrial Efficiency University in Isehara City, Kanagawa Prefecture.again,Yamazaki ShopFor a long timeYamazaki breadIt was a directly managed mini-convenience store, but in July 2013Daily YamazakiWhen the operation of the company changed from a subsidiary to Yamazaki Baking, it became a satellite store of Daily Yamazaki.

Also, with the realization of this satellite store,TrainsystemStandThere are many cases of forming a business alliance with a major convenience store as a de facto area franchise.

Still moreBuilding Standards LawByFirst-class low-rise residential area,Industrial areaCannot be built in.



The structure of the store is a one-story building in the case of an independent building.Currently[When?]Lightweight rebarPrefabricated construction methodThe mainstream is simple construction by wooden construction.FP methodIs also used in some chains such as FamilyMart. Seen early in the convenience store industryLiquor storeExisting stores such as existing stores due to transfer of businessWooden frame construction methodYou can also see the renovated building of.

The characteristics of building materials are common to each chain, and the cost of the materials can be reduced by systematic mass procurement by the headquarters side, and at the same time, the exterior design and outer walls of the common materials are designed to show the chain. It has become a typical feature.However, the installation location isLandscape regulationsIn the case of a target area such as, a store design with a special appearance is used according to this.

When opening a store in a building, condominium, commercial facility, etc.1st floor (ground floor)It is basically installed in restaurant,Financial institutionAs often seen inAerial store,地下Although there are cases of stores in buildings, government offices, and complex facilities, there are a small number of stores in metropolitan areas, which is an exception. Other,New constructionFor saleApartment OfshowroomIn some cases, an independent, relatively small-scale building built as a tenant is converted to a rental store after the end of its original use, and a convenience store moves in as a tenant.

The store has a wide side wall on the road (front) and the direction of the parking lot, from near the feet to the ceiling height.GlassIt is upholstered and generally has a structure and appearance in which magazine shelves are arranged facing large glass arranged on 4 to 8 sides.this isCrime preventionAbove andMarketingFor the above reason.By keeping the (reading) customers visible from outside the store at all times, we aim to attract other customers and also.robbery,ShopliftingAlso has the effect of deterring.

It is also a major feature in the design and operation of stores that there is basically no excess inventory on the store side by delivering products as needed.In this way, stock products and business toolsbackyardCan be designed to the minimum, and store space can be used effectively. This also means that the buildingDownsizingEnables construction costsUtility costsIt is possible to compress such items, manage products and prevent crime by making it easier for the clerk to see every corner of the store, and open stores in smaller spaces such as buildings in central Tokyo, which was not possible with conventional general stores. Produced various secondary benefits such as.

Since there are a wide variety of products, a walk-in type that allows you to replenish products from the backyard side so that you can display them all at the store.Refrigerator And movable display shelves that make it easy for merchandise, precise merchandiseLayoutVarious ingenuity such as is thorough.In addition, regardless of the chain, there are stores where the offices are the minimum size, and the store computers and office desks necessary for store management are lined up in a narrow space.

It is common to put up a façade sign, which is an internally illuminated signboard with the name of the chain, at the top of the store.Seven-ElevenIn some stores such as, on the front glass windowshutterHas been installed,typhoonSuch asdisaster时[12] ,RiotWhen an emergency occurs in the neighborhood, such as when an emergency occurs, when the store is closed, or when equipment is inspected or repaired[† 8]For example, it can be temporarily closed if necessary.

Also, pull the doorway in both the inside and outside directions.Double doorThere are many,Automatic doorThe number of stores that have introduced is relatively small due to initial investment and maintenance costs.At a store that was newly opened laterBarrier-freeFrom the perspective of promotion, there are an increasing number of cases where it is being introduced at convenience store chains, where there were no stores with automatic doors before.SimilarlyIn the current store[When?]Many stores have barrier-free toilets.Also,University hospital,general HospitalMainly in stores where large medical institutions such asOstomateSome have compatible toilets.

The ratio varies depending on the chain, but overall, the site and store building are mostly rented.A company in a completely different industry from retail used its own paid land, such as the site of a factory in an urban area or the site of an old headquarters.Side businessAsReal estate leasingI often deal with.

Originally, the case where the store owner also serves as the owner of the site or buildingLiquor store,Daily necessitiesAs a store, there are few exceptions to existing store transfer type stores that owned the land on their own.However, although it is rare, it is seen that the owner of the convenience store buys the land and buildings that were rented by the owner of the convenience store due to the aim of improving management efficiency and the circumstances of the lender.

When the owner owns the land and building from the beginning, the owner's intention is often reflected in the overall design of the building, and the store building is also more solid than the one using heavy reinforcing bars, or the owner Houses are attached to the side and top,ResidenceIt is often a dual-purpose store.

Building after store closure

After the convenience store is closed, closed (completely closed) and evacuated, the store building may be removed or left as it is and diverted.Many are the intentions of the building owner, the condition of the building, the age of the building,Depreciation, And it is decided by considering various factors such as usage.

As mentioned above, many of the store buildings of convenience stores in Japan are simple buildings with lightweight rebar prefabs.The franchise agreement for convenience stores is 2000 years until the early 15s.Even now[When?]Basically about 10 years.Depreciation of the buildingBuilding Standards Law-Seismic standardFrom such a viewpoint, consideration is given to durability assuming long-term use beyond the business period of a standard convenience store.

There is no time to list the cases where convenience stores close their stores and the buildings after moving out are reused or sold as second-hand real estate in both urban and suburban areas.Even when rented as a rental store restaurant-Barber shop-English class-Laundry-Rental shop-Coin laundryIncluding companies政治家 OfThe officeAnd many other thingstenantIt is included as.Therefore, in industries where convenience store traces are frequently used in other industries, equipment may be designed on the premise of using convenience store traces.For example, a large laundromatWashing machine,Clothes dryerIs designed to be assembled by carrying it inside without removing the double door of the convenience store.In addition, there are cases where another convenience store will be opened after the convenience store is closed.[† 9].

On the other hand, after moving out of convenience stores, there are some stores where the vacancy status of tenant recruitment continues endlessly without the successor tenant as a rental store being decided.In the case of a building tenant store, it is basic to recruit new tenant applicants after the restoration to the original state, and after moving out, there are many cases where the traces of the convenience store era are not retained at all.However, in any case, convenience store stores have a strong individuality for each chain, andCurrently[When?]Equipment in most franchise chainsfurnitureKind is a specification product for each companyleaseWhen the store is closed, it will be immediately removed and returned, and the inside of the store will become a hollow shell, so the successor tenant will be from the convenience store in any industry or retail store.Open a branchIs equal to none.There are also new convenience store openings of competing chains on the site of convenience stores, but especially in the case of major chains, in the case of an independent building, once it is completely returned to the vacant lot, a new store building will be opened again with the specifications of the own chain. The method of installation is common.

On the other hand, buildings are often destroyed or removed shortly after the convenience store is closed or moved out.This is often decided to be removed due to the age of the building and the use of the site.In addition, since most of the buildings are simple buildings, oversight of construction defects during construction, repeated remodeling during store operations, etc.maintenanceThe reason is that once the building is in poor condition, it cannot be balanced with the repair cost due to the omission of the building.

Convenience stores are being constructed, opened, and closed many times along the highways with heavy traffic.Existing stores often move to neighboring areas along the same highway to expand buildings and parking lots.In addition, many of the buildings left after the store was closed remain and are used as rental stores, which is a major part of the metropolitan area.National road-Prefectural road,Bypass roadNot a little, but after a long period of timeKiloA number of "active convenience stores" and "convenience store traces" are in a state of being crowded, including stores and vacant stores that are open in various industries.

Garbage can

Trash cans are installed on the premises of the store and inside the store, mainly in suburban stores. It may not be installed in some areas. It depends on the store, but it is free and anonymous without purchasing the product at the store.garbageThe amount and quality of garbage is left to the good intentions of the customers.


For the purpose of improving customer convenienceWCIs installed. Depending on the store, you can use it free of charge and anonymously without purchasing the product at the store.2000 eraSince then, there are many Western-style automatic flush toilets, but they are often not installed due to the building.

Eat in

MINI STOPIs deployed in all storesEat inIn Although,FamilyMartFollowed, thenSeven-Eleven,Lawson(Three major Japanese convenience stores),SeicomartIs also following[13]..By preparing simple chairs and desks, customers can eat and drink the products they bought at the store.Among the three major companies, FamilyMart is ahead,StarbucksThe atmosphere is similar to that of, and the design is high.The usage rate of young people is high, as elderly people read newspapers and use it for meals such as lunch boxes, and students use it for self-study.All three major companies are in the direction of expanding eat-in, but in the case of small stores such as those located in front of stations, it may not be possible to physically expand.Also, depending on the store, eat-in may be closed at midnight to ensure safety.Problems include staying unnecessarily long, making unreasonable complaints about refusing to use during the midnight hours, and using without permission even though the use is refused.

In Japan after October 2019, 10Consumption tax lawWith the revision ofReduced tax rateSince the reduced tax rate is not applied when eating and drinking foods to which is applied in the eat-in space, it is necessary to declare that the eat-in space will be used at the time of accounting.

Parking Lot

ShowaIn the conversion stores from existing stores such as liquor stores in the early days of the convenience store industry, there are only one or two parking spaces attached to the stores, and the stores that are not for visitors but for commercial cars and owners' private cars are in the suburbs. It was not unusual in the club.However,motorizationIn Japan in the 21st century, where the development has progressed, the existence of automobiles is indispensable in every situation, although there are regional differences, and retailers are also required to have equipment that supports them.

Most of the recently opened convenience stores along major suburban roads and emerging urban areas are for customers.Private carIt has the form of a typical roadside store that is premised on visiting the store.10 to 20 cars can be parked in an ordinary passenger carParking LotHaving space is a de facto condition, not just temporary parking for simple shopping, but also taking breaks and taking a short nap.Drive inIt is also used like. Arrive early around your destination, especially depending on location conditionsDeliveryIt is also used as a waiting place for trucks waiting for the specified time.On the convenience store headquarters side, the fact that the parking lot is full during peak hours is a factor in the loss of business opportunities and is not good for the image of the chain, and in the suburbs, the parking lot will be expanded some time after the new store opens. In some cases.curbIf the “narrowness” such as long hours and difficulty in entering and exiting is a factor that works against store management and competition with other nearby stores, it may be relocated.However, on the same site restaurant-bookstore-Car supplies storeWhen etc. are located,service area,Road StationIn stores that are occupying as tenants, the parking lot is used as a shared parking lot with other facilities and stores on the same site, and virtually tens to hundreds or more can be parked at the same time. There is also a parking lot where electric vehicles can be charged.

While the parking facilities for automobiles have been enhanced in this way,Bicycle-オ ー ト バ イBicycle parking space for people is not emphasized even in the suburbs where there is plenty of land.Therefore, bicycles are parked in the space between the corner of the parking lot and the front of the store building.Medium sizelargeFor motorcycles, it is often assumed that a parking space for passenger cars will be used.

At stores with parking lots, accident prevention on the premises at night and mischief on vehiclesAim on the car-Illegal dumpingFrom the viewpoint of preventing crimes such as, the minimum night lighting equipment that illuminates the entire parking lot is installed. Also, in a corner of the parking lot or beside the store buildingPost boxThere are many stores that have[† 10].. In addition, the convenience store chain is located facing the road.Logoとliqueur-た ば こHandling such asTMJIndicates the installation ofSynthetic resinSelf-supporting illuminated typeSignboardIs installed.

In the suburbs, some stores have a parking lot for employees for several cars in addition to the parking lot for visitors. The aim is to secure employees by fully permitting car commuting. Also, at such stores, when working at midnight / early morning shifts,AutomobileEmployment conditions (because it is after the last train and before the first train of public transportation)Driver's license(Owner of).On the other hand,Metropolitan areaUrban areaDowntownBesides, in suburban citiesStation squareIt is often difficult to secure a parking lot in a plaza due to problems such as the size, division, land price, and location conditions of the store site. There are many places where part-time job part-time car commuting is not permitted because there is no such thing.

Parking problems

Property damage accidents and personal injury accidents may occur when parking, and stores with parking lots basically put up a sign with a note stating that they are not responsible for accidents in the parking lot. There is.There are many property damage accidents in which a vehicle with an incorrect driving operation jumps into a store.In recent years[When?]Iron fences are often installed to prevent this.

A person who drove after drinking alcohol purchased at a convenience store that sells alcohol was arrested, etc.Drunk drivingThere is a case that is one of the incentives for[14][15][16].

At convenience stores with a small parking lot capacity, illegal parking of visitors and delivery vehicles on the surrounding roads may occur frequently during peak hours, which may cause a problem.Some stores in urban areas that do not have parking lots are taking measures such as securing parking spaces relatively close to the stores for daily delivery vehicles and parcel delivery vehicles.

Business hours

Convenience stores in modern Japan are basically24 time industryIs[17].

The origin of the name "Seven-Eleven" is "AMAt 7From afternoonAt 11As "until (= 23:24)", one of the features of convenience stores was that they were "open from early morning to midnight" in the early days.However, due to changes in lifestyle and the convenience of product delivery and in-store maintenance, today, with the exception of some stores and some areas such as buildings, railway stations, and facilities, regardless of whether they are in the city center or suburbs, in principle, the year Many chains have virtually obliged the chain headquarters to be open XNUMX hours a day, XNUMX days a week.

Urban engineeringConvenience stores are a non-negligible element from a practical point of view, and they are not only convenient for consumers, but also of the type that is open 24 hours a day, and anyone can come and go, and the security system is enhanced. From the aspect of being there, there is an effect of maintaining security in the surrounding area due to the brightness of the convenience store, and a role as an evacuation site where people can always ask for help in an emergency.[† 11].

Material released in 2006 by the Japan Franchise Association[18] According to the report, in less than half a year since October 2005, there were about 10 rush cases at 36,622 convenience stores nationwide.The Japan Franchise Association has been conducting safety station activities (commonly known as "SS activities") at member stores since 5,300.[19])It is carried out.

Product side


For convenience stores, compared to store spaceFood,Daily necessities-magazineThe number of varieties handled is very wide, and it is characterized by its high versatility as a retail store.On the other hand, in stores in urban areasfresh fish-MeatWe do not handle such fresh foods, or they are quite limited.Vegetables,fruitAlsosalad-pickles-Dessertな どSide dishIt is rarely treated as a single item except in the case of.Regarding magazines, at convenience stores in JapanErotic books,Adult cartoonMany stores carry magazines. There are no partitions in the 18 prohibited corners, and in many cases they are displayed in places where anyone can pass.[20][21].

The price of the product is basicallyManufacturer's suggested retail priceOr a price discounted by a few percent (Open price(In the case of magazines and books, all are set appropriately)List priceWill be sold at).

For food,Expiration Soon(Expiration date) Is approaching, we do not allow it to be sold at a discount, and the unsold items are discarded at the expense of the store.[† 12] Depending on the chain / storefeedChangefertilizerIn some cases, it has been converted and refooded.[22][23][24].. However, it is not fresh or delicaConfectioneryIn addition to the approaching expiration date, products are often sold at a discount due to product replacement.

At the store, as will be described laterPOS systemIt is required to sell as many products as possible with less waste and to ensure that they are delivered to customers without being sold out.Therefore, the owner is not only managing the sales volume every hour of every day, but also in the neighborhood.Festival,EventsIt is necessary to accumulate various know-how in order to change the purchase amount as needed according to the situation and adjust the number of employees engaged in business at the store as appropriate.


The convenience store headquarters also proposes new products to product suppliers, and these market researches are conducted under the initiative of the headquarters based on the sales data of each store.

For this reason, manufacturers have also created a direction to predict their sales by developing products that actively accept the proposals of convenience stores, selling their own products, and having them placed at convenience stores.For example, in the 500ml PET bottle beverage market mentioned above, the product planning and development departments of manufacturers are often overwhelmed by the results of the best-selling information provided by convenience stores. It has been taken up in many topics such as the relationship of the convenience store industry.In addition, you can draw lots for every 700 yen you purchase, draw lots for character goods called "Ichiban Kuji", and get clear files of famous anime and idols by combining specific products. There are also many campaigns.

At the same time, the convenience store headquarters has many productsPrivate brandWe are also involved in planning, supplying and selling original products at (PB).In this case, some products are unique packages for convenience stores with the convenience store logo added to existing products, and the manufacturer itself in the name is not the convenience store headquarters but the manufacturer itself.Chains that have supermarkets as parent companies or affiliated companies often sell PB products that are common to these.In any case, in the world of large-scale retailing, mass ordering and mass sales against the backdrop of a huge sales networkEconomy of scaleIt is common practice to set the price of PB products at a slightly lower price than similar products and sell them at that price. A prominent exampleSnacksIn some chains, the original PB products alone will occupy one or two store fixtures.

Ordering / purchasing

Correspondence differs slightly depending on the chain, but product purchases are basically limited to designated products from designated vendors at the headquarters. The headquarters will settle the purchase price on your behalf.

All product orders are processed electronically if data is sent to the headquarters by the deadline, and are delivered on the night of the day, the next day, or at the latest the morning of the next day, depending on the region, goods, and ordering timing. NS.Some are delivered daily, while others are delivered about three times a week.Delica and bread are delivered multiple times a day.Previously, each supplier delivered the product, but due to consideration for environmental issues and efficiency improvement, joint delivery and mixed loading of products with different temperature controls are progressing, and the product is delivered.TrackThe number of flights tends to decrease. The trucks used for delivery are mainly refrigerated trucks with a partial freezing function for 2-ton trucks and 3-ton trucks, and boxcars with specifications for convenience stores are used. Other than food, a general boxcar of the same size is also used. In addition, most magazines and newspapers are delivered by specialized companies, and there are differences in vehicles depending on the carrier and region.Public competition OfForecast paperAnd so onBike serviceIs used in some areas.

On the information system side, the POS system is used to accurately grasp sales products by managing and analyzing sales information consisting of seasons, weather, regional characteristics, gender, age group, trends, etc., and within a limited number of stores. We are pursuing efficient purchasing so that we can achieve maximum sales.Especially with 500 mlPET bottlesRegarding beverages, a wide variety of new products will be released and launched by various manufacturers, but since it is impossible to have them in a limited number of stores, it is possible to analyze by POS data within one month at the longest. It is judged whether the product is a hot seller or an obsolete product, and the products are being replaced violently.This will survive in the marketSoft drinkIs about 0.1%[25].

Employees in charge from the franchisor regularly visit each convenience store store, and also utilize the information function of the POS system to provide information such as demand forecasts and provide guidance on purchasing.・ It is the authority and responsibility of the owner of each store to decide how much and when to purchase. In fact, in the field, part-time employees are often asked to make purchasing decisions because of improved morale. If the judgment is correct, the sales of the store will increase, but if the demand is misread, the store will be out of stock and sales will not increase, or if the purchase amount is too large and the product expires, the product loss will be the store as described later.・ The management will suffer.

Generally, when a store purchases and sells on its own, it requires prescribed procedures and prior approval from the headquarters, which is extremely limited.

The following are examples of products that some stores may purchase and handle independently.

In addition, when holding festivals and events in the area, we anticipate a temporary increase in the number of customers visiting the store, refer to past POS data, etc., and significantly increase the purchase amount of Delica and drinks only for a certain period of time. Temporary response is required depending on the situation.

Planned products

At the convenience store chain headquarters, as a measure to promote sales and earn further profits, we will introduce special plans according to seasonal and seasonal events, and pre-order seasonal products with prices of hundreds to thousands of yen. doing.

In particular,New Year OfChinese food,節 分 OfEhomaki,バ レ ン デ ー Ofチ ョ コ レ ー ト,Day of the ox OfNo more(Hagi YakiBento),Christmas OfChristmas cakeIs typical, and the chain headquarters is with Delica manufacturers and major food manufacturers.Tie-upThen, the project was launched as a seasonal event, and reservations were collected by strengthening POP at the store and advertising and solicitation by the clerk, and mass production and mass sales were carried out.Besides that,節 分 OfEhomakiOriginally a custom of a limited area, it has become an annual commercial event starting with products planned by convenience stores, and food supermarkets have been spread nationwide by taking advantage of this. Some have gone.

In many cases of this type of planned product, the allocation amount to each store is first determined in many cases, and materials and the like are procured according to the planned production amount.

In addition, デ ィ ズ ニ ー,SanrioSuch ascharacterProducts andTV program-Television Animation-movies-Cartoon magazineetcTie-upConvenience stores often plan and sell products that are planned under contract as limited-quantity products that are limited to their own company.

Newspapers / books

Newspapers and books (including magazines) are sold at a fixed price. The fee is about 2%. They areDesignated resale productsTherefore, it cannot be sold at a discount.Also, if unsold, you can return it, so there is no risk on the store side due to unsold, but the return deadline[26] If it passes, the choice is to continue selling or discarding, and if it is discarded, it is a risk to the store. About newspapersNewspaper special designationSee also.

Liquor / tobacco

The price of sake can be set freely for each store.Tobacco is sold at a fixed price,In recent years[When?]Discounts have become practically normal by methods such as adding extras (lighters, canned coffee, etc.) for purchases of a certain amount (about 1 carton) or more.In addition, if the furniture specified by the tobacco manufacturer is installed in the store, the tobacco manufacturer will give a reward to the store owner.

Cigarettes are often displayed at cashier counters, and the brand and quantity are reported to the clerk for purchase.

All of them are prohibited by law for those under the age of 20, and major chains cannot purchase unless they take a unique method only at convenience stores.[† 15].

For example, when you scan the barcode of the product, the POS cash register will announce "This product requires age confirmation" and the screen "Are you 20 years old or older?" Will be displayed and you will not be able to purchase unless you select "Yes". Even after selecting "Yes", the POS cash register may announce that "You may be asked to show your ID."These announcements are often heard at a volume that can be heard by other employees and visitors in the store.

As of 2016Underage Smoking Prohibition LawThen, the person who bought it is only confiscated, but the store who sold it and the clerk who sold it knowing that he was under 20 years old will be punished.Therefore, if you do not look under the age of 20, you will be acquitted.[27].

Some stores do not sell tobacco, and these stores do not have the word "tobacco" on the signboards at the stores.In addition, there are cases where tobacco cannot be sold temporarily due to a change of owner, etc. In that case, the "cigarette" part written on the signboard at the store may be hidden with tape or the like.

Courier pickup

At stores that accept courier services, vendors visit the store once or twice a day to collect the courier services.As a general rule, luggage is stored in the back room of the store.Majors, scales, slips and various stickers are installed in the store, and you can also use cash on delivery.

In the case of a major chain, the fare and the shortest arrival date and time are automatically displayed at the cash register when you enter the zip code or phone number.In the case of payment, the price is paid at the cash register.Refrigerating / freezing service and express delivery service are not available.In addition, as a general rule, luggage is collected several times a day, so luggage will be retained in the store for up to 1 hours.Since it goes through a convenience store clerk, if there is a human error such as forgetting to hand it over, it will not be possible to deliver it on the specified date and time.For this reason, if you want to deliver packages that require careful handling, in a hurry, or on a specified date and time, it is better to bring them directly to the courier center (sales office).

Review of list price sales for some products

from beforeSeicomartAlthough they offered discounts at such stores, they were exceptional in the convenience store industry as a whole.However, on September 2005, 9, it was the largest in Japan.Seven-Eleven Coca Colaな どSoft drinkAbout 7 items ManufacturerSuggested retail priceHas decided to reduce the price by 15%. The company started in the same monthIto-YokadoetcSeven & i HoldingsEstablished, and demanded that manufacturers reduce delivery prices by strengthening price bargaining power against the backdrop of large-scale purchases through joint purchasing by a huge retail group. From the same dayAEON group OfMINI STOPAlso implemented a 5% counter-price cut for every five items, including Coca-Cola.

In addition, Seven-Eleven reduced the price of 2006 seasonings in 30, and on April 2009, 4.detergent,tooth paste31 items of daily necessities such as, reduced by an average of 15%[28].

The reason why the convenience store industry, which has maintained fixed-price sales in principle with the convenience of 24-hour operation as a weapon, has decided to reduce prices.SHOP99Low price 24 hours represented bySupermarketIntensified competition due to expansion of late-night business at existing supermarkets, low prices and savings for consumersWastefulOrientation,supermarket,Drug storeThe aim is to increase demand by reducing the price difference with the above.

Fresh convenience store

SHOP99 mentioned above was a pioneer, and the number of convenience stores whose selling points are fresh food sales and low-priced uniform sales is increasing.


Assets / liabilities

Since various payments are made on behalf of the headquarters, all sales are basically paid to the headquarters. This is the management of the headquarters, and in the unlikely event that the headquarters goes bankrupt, there is basically no guarantee that it will be returned.

Deposits to the headquarters at the time of opening are no longer required[29].. In cases where the store or equipment is not owned by the store owner, the assets managed by the store are mainly products. In addition, since you can borrow the product price from the headquarters at the time of opening, you can open the business with a small amount of funds on hand, but you must pass the identity examination of the couple. If one of the couples has a history of bankruptcy, if it is incorporated, only the company and one representative will be examined.

Minimum guarantee system

Expensive in many convenience storesRoyaltyTherefore, if the average daily sales fall below 35 yen, the company will be in the red (when the charge rate is 50% and the profit margin is 35%). If it falls below 30 yen, the store may be closed.In order to protect the owner from the unstable state, a minimum guarantee system is prepared for stores whose sales have decreased compared to the previous year.

The amount varies from company to company, but it is around 1,800 million yen per year.The charge will be borne by the headquarters.Even if the sales in one month are 10 yen and the sales in the next month are 20 yen, the profit will not be lower than the minimum guarantee.On the contrary, if it stabilizes at 40 yen, it may be necessary to make an additional payment.It is also called the owner's total income, but it is not the owner's take-home amount.In addition, since the permanent survival of the minimum guaranteed store will affect the management of the headquarters, there are cases where the headquarters will prompt the store to close or relocate at the next contract renewal.


In principle, only royalties are paid by the store owner to the headquarters, and the headquarters provides equipment such as product provision (purchasing agency), accounting agency, store fixtures, POS system / register terminal (POS system / register terminal).rental), Responsible for system construction, planning, advertising, store management guidance, etc.Royalty is reduced in some names (such as the number of stores), but it is quite high at 50% of gross profit.Gross profit is the amount of sales minus its nominal purchase cost, which is different from profit.In the case of in-store cooked food such as fast food, the cost price is set to be considerably lower than the original cost price.

The royalty rate differs depending on the chain, and the rate varies greatly depending on the type of ownership of the store property and the equipment installed. When a store owner owns a store or interior, it is 35% to 45% of the gross profit in the case of a large chain, and it is about 30% even under particularly low conditions. In a chain with a lot of leased equipment, it can be seen that the amount paid to the headquarters is actually higher, even if it is in the form of equipment rental costs.

In recent years[When?]Many new practitioners usually do not own a store, but in this case the royalty rate is high, often well over 50%.In this way, in the case of convenience stores, a large portion of gross profit is paid as royalties, so it is not possible to judge the business condition of a store from simple sales alone.In an era when franchise businesses were not well established in Japan, this royalty rate, which was similar to joint management, was described by the term "coexistence and co-prosperity."

In 2009, Seven-Eleven received a cease and desist order from the Japan Fair Trade Commission for violating the Antimonopoly Act (abuse of dominant bargaining position) for unreasonably restricting "close-out sales" in which headquarters personnel offer discounts before the deadline. Announced support measures for the headquarters to bear 15% of the cost of waste loss[30].

Operating expenses

As for operating expenses, most of them are fixed expenses other than personnel expenses, and there is almost nothing that can be reduced by the store's independent efforts.coffee,donutRelated costs associated with the sale of new products such as[† 16] Is increasing.

Personnel costs will increase the handling of various services,minimum wageDue to reasons such as the revision of the company, it has taken a considerable amount of time and effort to educate employees, and it is on an upward trend.

In addition, FamilyMart pays incentives to stores that are open 24 hours a day.[31], XNUMX-Eleven and Lawson are part of the utility bill[32][33] The headquarters may bear some expenses, such as paying.

Product loss

At convenience stores, a "sales deadline" is set to some extent before the expiration date, and products that have passed the sales deadline must be disposed of as losses.

For lunch boxes, rice balls, bread, etc. of major chains, the sales deadline information is included in the barcode, and the cash register will not go through if the sales deadline is exceeded.

However, in response to soaring labor costs, an increasing number of business owners are focusing on reducing product loss, reflecting the recent trend, and the number of stores where all lunch boxes are sold out is increasing depending on the time of day. be.

UnsoldExpiration dateAs a general rule, all products that reach the end of the market will not be sold off due to price cuts, etc., and in principle, all products will be discarded.This is because the FC contract between the headquarters and the store usually includes a clause that "close-out sales are a reason for canceling the FC contract or refusing the contract at the time of the next contract renewal."However, from the consumer side, "It is a waste to throw away food that can still be eaten" and "It is the headquarters side that restricts free sales by the store side.Antitrust lawBanned in "Abuse of dominant position”, And in February 2009, against Seven-Eleven.Fair Trade CommissionConducted an on-site inspection on suspicion of violating the Antimonopoly Act[34], In June of the same year, issued a cease and desist order to the company.[35]..In response to this, some convenience stores have begun to sell out.[36][37].

In the 2020s, as in the case of Seven-Eleven's "Ethical Project," there are cases where the headquarters takes the initiative in reducing food waste loss and rewards points for products that are about to expire. became.In fact, the company has been able to reduce the waste loss of bento boxes by about 2% by starting the "ethical project".[38].


POS data (Point-of-sale information managementThe difference between the theoretical inventory and the actual inventory calculated by) is wear. The main causes of wear are incorrect counting of goods, incorrect input of cash registers, etc.ShopliftingTheft by.Disposal due to expiration of consumption and replacement of defective products are not included in wear because they are counted by POS.

"Instruction" to employees by the chain headquarters

In the convenience store chain, in addition to the interior, product lineup, and inventory status of the store, matters included in the atmosphere such as customer service attitude and cleaning status inside the store are treated as a category of products called "convenience store".Basically, if it is a chain store of the same company, the system is set so that the same products and services can be purchased and used in the same procedure at any store in the country, and it is required to be able to handle customer service in that way. Will be done.

Therefore, the chain headquarters asks each franchise store for an assortment of products that takes into consideration the best-selling information (data mining) aggregated by the POS system, prepares a manual for customer service, and estimates the efficiency of store equipment. The interior of the building is decided.In addition, there are specialized employees (supervisors) who regularly visit each franchise store, convey the policies of the headquarters, listen to opinions to the headquarters, and provide guidance on purchasing, sales, and customer service techniques.

In the case of major chains, the atmosphere of the store, product display, and the status of equipment in the store are also subject to check and guidance by the headquarters.In fact, not only the layout of the sales floor in the store, but also the order of product display in one fixture is controlled by the headquarters side, and every time a new product is scheduled to be released, the store side is instructed in the form of paper distribution etc. NS.In addition to that, a work called shelving must be performed in the form of paper distribution every season.Furthermore, depending on the chain, the storefrontPOP advertisementPosting method,WCOdor, store floor (Fluorescent light-LED) Gloss,Parking Lot Ofweed-pavement-PaintingDetailed standards are set for many items such as the condition of the franchise store, and maintenance and regular machine measurements are performed by headquarters employees and outsourced companies designated by the headquarters, and the owners of franchise stores are given "guidance" from the headquarters. Repairs and replacements may be instructed.

Examples of clothing manuals

ExcessiveHair dye,beard,Earrings,Earrings,necklace,Manicure,False nails,ring,clock,perfume,bracelet,Heel,Sandals,MASKS[† 17]It is a stricter rule than general regular employees that it is prohibited, and it is almost common to all convenience stores.

When a store manager, a headquarters employee, or a customer complains, the first time is only caution and improvement guidance, but if it is repeated many times, it may be dismissed.

Examples of cleaning manuals

Example of a manual on customer service

  • You can call out recommended products such as "How about a new product?"
  • Grooming checkpoints are always achieved.
  • When customers enter the store, they always greet with a smile and cheerful voice with a clear voice.
  • Whenever I pass a customer in the aisle, I give a nod and greet with a smile and a bright voice with a clear voice.
  • When serving customers at the cash register, he always greets with a smile and cheerful voice with a clear voice.
  • I always make eye contact when serving customers at the cash register.
  • At the beginning and end of the checkout, he always bows more than 30 degrees (FamilyMart).
  • After the checkout (when leaving the store), he always greets with a smile and a bright voice in a clear voice.
  • Before registering the product at the cash register,Point CardDo you have one? "
  • We are asking customers who have points, "Would you like to use the points?"
  • The point card is returned immediately after the slit.
  • Warm and cold items, items that are difficult to get wet, food and daily necessities are packed separately.
  • I hand over the change carefully with both hands.
  • receiptIs handed over to all customers.
  • We carefully hand over shopping bags and products to customers with both hands.
  • We provide prompt cashier guidance and polite voices to customers waiting for checkout.
  • The customer is in the store and is not chatting (chat).
  • We respond with polite language such as "Please wait a moment" and "I'm sorry to have kept you waiting".
  • When he goes to the sales floor, he actively makes an appearance.
  • Open case (Cooked rice-Cooked noodles-salad) Is out of stock, it is front-out and centered.
  • If the fried food fixtures are dirty, clean them immediately.
  • Fried food is first-in first-out, and products that are within the sales deadline are displayed.
  • We take the initiative in collecting trash in the trash can. Or, I am giving instructions.
  • If there is garbage in the sales floor or store, it is picked up.

Sales data and accounting information of franchise stores are also collected at the chain headquarters through the POS system and store computer installed in each store, and may support owners who are unfamiliar with management. Some of these include lending operations, and local staff visit each store to check the management status one by one.


As for which is Japan's first convenience store, there are few related materials and the definition of convenience store is ambiguous at that time.[39] Since there are various theories from the facts, several influential cases are described here. As a whole, the number of stores, which is clearly on the rise, was close to 1988 in 35,000, but was narrowed down to 1991 in 25,000 due to a change in standards.

Present situation


Since the birth of convenience stores, chain stores have often been reorganized due to factors such as mergers and bankruptcies due to intensifying competition.1990 eraToSun chainIs integrated into Lawson,Sun Evry Daily YamazakiIntegrated into2000 eraMust be saturated in urban areas, etc.[46] Due to such reasons, by LawsonSHOP99Made a subsidiary ofHOT SPAR OfCocostoreChange (excluding some stores in Hiroshima area)[† 18]And so on.

Trading companies are attracted to the part where they can develop by utilizing the information gathering and analysis capabilities of convenience stores and economies of scale.[46][47], Convenience stores also have the advantage of making it easier to develop new products and collaborate with different industries by utilizing the company, human resources, and product networks of trading companies.[46][47][48], And because there are mutual benefitsrecent years[When?]The relationship between trading companies and convenience stores is deepening,Mitsubishi CorporationWith Lawson and AeonITOCHU Corporation FamilyMart,Circle K ThanksAnd each has a business relationship. Also in connection with ittrading companyLeading restructuring is also predicted in some[46][47].

Flow of cashless society and promotion of electronic money

Although it depends on the chain, store, and region, it is a common payment method for cashiers.cashIn addition, except for some products such as various charge storage agency and tobaccoCredit card-prepaid card-debit card-Electronic money[† 19] Can be used. As of July 2012100 Yen shopTypeVoluntary chainAlmost all non-type wide-area expansion chains have introduced a payment system using some kind of electronic money, regardless of whether it is operated by the company or another company.

In terms of operation, there are merits that there is no miscalculation of the cash register, that payment can be completed smoothly without the delivery of deposits and change, and that even elderly people and young people can easily handle them.Station NakaContributed to the advancement of convenience stores.

From the perspective of crime prevention, the introduction of electronic money is increasing the amount of money handled as described above, and the role of reducing the amount of cash existing in stores and cash registers and reducing the amount of damage in the event of a crime, also for customers. Being able to bring only electronic money without a wallet at midnight is expected to have the effect of reducing the scale of damage in the event of robbery or blackmail, and for this reason, convenience stores are especially interested in electronic money. Actively plays a leading role. However, due to the influence of electronic money charging in advance for shopping at convenience stores and charge storage agency services that have expanded to innumerable fields, there is also the problem that cash in stores is on the rise in the end. Especially in the charge collection agency, customers sometimes bring in payments of hundreds of thousands of yen or more, and the clerk or owner has to deal with the cash register for a long time in front of a large amount of payment form and a large amount of cash. It is not uncommon for people to be told.

In addition, WebMoney-NET CASHRepresented byonline game,amazonSuch asInternet shoppingVirtual money type electronic money used forPOSA cardWe also handle a wide range of sales, especially in many cases where game play progresses in real time.MMORPGThe existence of a convenience store where electronic commerce for billing can be purchased over-the-counter in cash is indispensable for players and others 365 hours a day, 24 days a year. Since the latter half of the 2000s, the movement to introduce electronic money and virtual money type electronic money has been rapidly progressing not only in convenience stores but also in various industries, and even from the viewpoint of the operating company of electronic money, the introduction to convenience stores. The existence of convenience stores has become so large that the expansion of sales at convenience stores and the spread of sales is the key to the success or failure of services.However, in the sale of virtual money type electronic money, 3 to 5 receipts and tickets such as payment receipts and store copies are issued, and the handling procedure is not completely unified and may differ slightly depending on the business operator. be.AlsoConsumer electronics storeDue to the nature of the products they handle, they have rapidly and in parallel introduced the handling of multiple electronic money so that each company can compete. In 2016, fraud using these virtual money type electronic money increased 28 times from the previous year, and the government is calling for caution.[49].

Diversification of store formats

At some convenience store chains, attempts are being made to diversify store formats and functions.[50].

For example, FamilyMart is a major CD / DVD rental company.TSUTAYAIn December 2010, it opened its first store integrated with.Also,Aeon Omiya storeMinistop, which has a large number of seats, is open in the paid amusement park "Fantasy Kidzoona".

In the early days of the convenience store industry, private managementpharmacyThere were a few convenience stores that also operated as pharmacies, but apart from thisrecent years[When?]Major pharmaciesDrug storeAttempts are also being made to create a complex store with a chain, and LawsonMatsumotokiyoshiA store jointly planned withChibaWithin, FamilyMart opened a store jointly planned with Drug Costco.NaganoMatsumotoIt is open inside.

HokkaidoEbetsuAt Lawson, a mailbox was set up to collect TSUTAYA products in the city (as of March 2005).

NaganoMatsumotoAt the FamilyMart Kiri Oiwake store in Japan, there are posts that collect returned products from 4 TSUTAYA stores in the city (as of December 2014).

HiroshimaKamiishi DistrictKamiishi Kogen TownThen, in the summer of 2011, the nation's first convenience store jointly operated by the public and private sectors opened. The store was opened by LawsonSanwa 182 StationOpen in one corner[51].


Crime prevention[52]

Security measures are a problem at convenience stores. There is also data that "77.9% of store robbery cases were damage at convenience stores."[53].

There are various convenience storesCrime preventionMeasures have been taken.

  • Installation of security cameras.Parking lots, cashiers, backyards, near ATMs, etc.Eliminate blind spots.
  • Regular inspection of security cameras.
  • Look at your face and say hello.
  • Color balls and color sprays are always available.
  • 2010 eraIn the new stores after that, there is also a system that can record 16 screens at the same time with full HD image quality, and there is almost no blind spot.
  • One cash register will be used during midnight hours. The use of 1-yen bills at midnight is prohibited, and 1-yen bills are collected in a safe.
  • Place two or more staff members in the midnight hours (preferably a male clerk at midnight).
  • Integrated security guarantee(ALSOK)SECOMInstallation of 24-hour security system such as (SECOM).
  • Report customer troubles to security companies.
  • In an emergency, light and sound notify the surroundings of abnormalitiesRed lightInstallation.
  • It is said to be the highest priced product at convenience storesPOSA cardThere is no point in shoplifting because it will not be effective unless you scan and check out at the cash register.
  • It is said to be the next most expensive product at convenience storesCharger,SD memory cardPlace it in a position that is easy to see from the cash register or install a dummy camera to psychologically prevent shoplifting.

On the other hand, since the number of customers is small during the midnight and early morning hours,robbery,BlackmailThere are many cases of damage such as. In recent years, the prices of products handled have increased.Bank ATM(Convenience store ATM) Has increased, and there is an increasing risk of damage and the scale of damage. For this reason, it can be seen in the increase in the number of cameras, the introduction of security cameras capable of remote monitoring online, and financial institutions.Color ballSecurity equipment continues to be researched, improved and enhanced, focusing on the hardware side.

In addition, as a basic measure, it is difficult to understand the physiognomy of the store clerk.Full face helmetRefusal of wearers to enter the store, refusal to sell alcohol and tobacco to minors Reduce the amount of money stored at the cash register at the store, at night in the officesafe Ingenuity has been made such as making it impossible to open the door systematically. Especially in stores where the individual owner directly serves as the store manager, at the store manager's personal judgmentWood sword,bat,Special guard stick,Piercing,Security sprayThere are even cases of arming with such things, and cases of repulsion by these have been reported in the past.Also, in some countriesHandgunYou can also see equipment such as. In addition, since it is open during dangerous hours such as midnight when security is low, there are movements to cooperate with local police.

As the 24-hour operation of convenience stores has become accepted by the local community, cooperation with local police is interactive, including not only the crime prevention system on the convenience store side but also the cooperation system for criminal investigations on the police side. It is becoming a thing. When police officers use convenience stores, police officers who take turns to eat at convenience stores say that they are "skipping at convenience stores during working hours" or "confused between public and private" when shopping at convenience stores. ofHarmful rumorIn order to avoid this, there was a dress code such as taking off the cap and wearing a plain jacket, but since around 2000, the number of robbers at convenience stores has increased sharply, and since December 2003.Aichi Prefectural PoliceHas started a movement to help improve local crime prevention by letting people go in and out of convenience stores in their uniforms.Similar activities are being carried out in other areas, and it is expected that the number of robbery cases will be reduced by casually stopping by police officers during patrols.In some cases, a clerk contacted the police about a suspicious person who stopped by a convenience store, leading to the arrest of suspects in other incidents that occurred nearby.In addition, in the event of a convenience store robbery, various emergency measures may be taken, such as masked vehicles and police officers guarding and waiting in and around all convenience stores in the area.

In addition, crimes that cause damage to stores are also increasing. An example is shown below.

  • It was a fake that I bought a revenue stamp and later said "I want to return it" and was grabbed (stamps cannot be returned)[54].

In addition, with the spread of SNS, there are cases where employees themselves become criminals, in addition to crimes outside and inside buildings as in the past. These spread instantly, and it was an era when they were reported in national news.

  • The act of playingfully entering an ice case and destroying the brand image. FC contract cancellation[55].
  • An example of using a case containing a packed beverage product as a stepping stone with the shoes touching the product[56].
  • By refusing to buy alcohol or tobacco by minors or alcoholics, they may be beaten or kicked by minors who are angry at refusing to sell, or the store's products and equipment may be destroyed. It can also lead to damage such as being stolen.

In addition, the prices of the products we handle have increased (Mobile phone-SmartphoneChargerDVDEtc.), POSA card as described later, electronic money charge, various utility charges, installment payment, etc.Mail orderWith the start and expansion of charge storage agency services such as payments, relatively large amounts of cash are being temporarily placed at store cashiers, and this has increased.in recent years[When?]Problems such as the amount of damage per case of robbery at convenience stores jumping from the conventional 2 to 3 yen to nearly 10 yen have occurred.

Article in the Yomiuri Shimbun on May 2007, 5[57]According to the report, Seven-Eleven and FamilyMart are expected to handle more charge collection agency services than sales of goods in FY2008 / 2. For thisbankSuch asFinancial institutionIn addition to the convenience of being able to pay 24 hours a day, 365 days a year (366 days), it has been pointed out that mail-order sales such as Amazon will increase.In addition, some distributors offer a service that allows customers to receive goods purchased by mail order at convenience stores.

These various crime prevention issues are factors that cast a considerable shadow on the convenience store industry as an industry constitutional issue.for that reason,Currently[When?]In addition to store-based measures, chain headquarters and district offices of industry companies have taken steps on their own, and assigned specialized personnel for crime prevention guidance and antisocial forces to departments such as so-called "risk management" and "compliance". In addition to doing so, cooperate with the police or ask a security company to wear plain clothes.Security guardIn some cases, franchise stores are being patrolled.

However, as far as ATMs are concerned, there are various merits such as convenience and safety as an environment to install, protection from customers' crime damage, etc. Works.At the installation store, for remittance of salesConvenience store ATMBecause of thatCurrently[When?]Convenience store ATMs are also being used to replace the role of night safes for storing sales at stores.for realSeven BankHas started a service that allows you to use the night safe function at Seven Bank ATMs, targeting companies that have stores near convenience stores, not just the convenience stores themselves.[58].. Aside from this,Mizuho Bank[59] ,Mitsubishi UFJ Bank[60],Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation[61] However, we are developing a service that allows you to use a card dedicated to depositing sales not only at your own ATM but also at the three major convenience store ATMs.

Major serious incidents that occurred at convenience stores

  • When I tried to confirm the age of a customer who tried to purchase alcoholic beverages and tobacco, he was arrested by breaking the LCD saying "You can see it by looking at it!"[62].
  • He threw a coin at the store manager, threatened to "pick it up properly!", And was arrested for obstructing his business.[63].
  • Arrested on suspicion of murder at a convenience store after chasing a dating partner who rushed to a convenience store for help[64].

Lack of labor

It is not uncommon for stores to suffer from labor shortages due to the lack of progress in securing and replenishing part-time workers. In many stores, advertising posters for recruiting employees are still attached to the stores.

Many chains require the owners to secure a predetermined number of employees and establish a system that does not impose an excessive burden for stable store operation in the store operation manual, but in reality The owner makes explicit selection mistakes for employees (such as hiring a person with a good appearance and making the evening time only for high school girls to improve the reception of male office workers), or conversely, conventional There are some stores where new employees do not last long due to personality and behavioral problems of employees who are enrolled from[† 20].

Of FC store employeesDeath from overworkIn some cases, the bereaved family filed a lawsuit not only against the owner of the FC store but also against the head office of the convenience store. In 2012Osaka District CourtIn the proceedings against FamilyMart, on December 2016, 12, FamilyMart and the shop owner paid a total settlement fee of 22 million yen to the bereaved family.settlementWas found to have been established.Headquarters for FC store employees who are not directly employedIndustrial accidentIt is an unusual response to pay a settlement fee to[65].

In March 2017,Seven-ElevenAs a penalty for not finding a substitute for a high school girl who is a part-time employee who was sick due to a cold at the storeLabor Standards ActCase of illegally reducing 9,350 yen from salary, which exceeds the reduction due to sanctions stipulated by[66] TwitterDiscovered by postingYahoo! NewsIt was posted on the top and reported nationwide.It is said that there was a rule of penalty for not finding people at this store.It violates Article 24 (principle of full payment) and Article 91 (restriction of sanctions) of the Labor Standards Act.Initially, the Seven-Eleven headquarters called it a "problem with merchants," but as the incident came to light, it changed its response, admitted it was illegal, and instructed merchants to apologize and refund.

Labor Standards Act violationExample

  • Creating shifts over 8 hours (prohibited in principle)[65].
  • It is not a shift that allows you to take a break of 6 minutes after 45 hours and 8 hour after 1 hours.
    • If it is crowded while one person is doing the cash register with two people, even if he is taking a break in the back room, he must be called by the buzzer and check the cash register.
    • You cannot go out of the store during the break (the break must be freely available).
  • Do not pay hourly wages every minute (most convenience stores round every 1 minutes)[† 21].
    • He said he had a morning assembly and forced him to go to work 15 minutes ago, but he didn't pay his salary (some Seven-Eleven stores).
    • Originally, I work during the time before changing clothes, but the headquarters is instructing me to register for work after changing clothes (FamilyMart, etc.).
  • Do not give holidays according to the Labor Standards Act due to labor shortage etc. (minimum 1 day a week or 4 days a week is required)[65].
  • I work 168 hours a week, but I can't get social insurance.
  • If you are in training, your hourly wage will be below the minimum wage.
  • When the hourly wage is raised except from 22:5 to 22:5, the hourly wage from 25:XNUMX to XNUMX:XNUMX is not raised (XNUMX% surcharge is required).
  • The salary calculation system is only "hourly wage x working hours", and even though there is no XNUMX agreement, overtime premium wages are not paid.
  • Even though I was injured during work, I did not pay the allowance stipulated by the Labor Standards Act (if I did not join the company insurance).
  • "We don't have a paid system," he explains.paid holidaysIs not given by the store, but a system given by the state to workers).
  • In response to a high school student requesting a long absence during the test period, retaliation such as shortening the shift because it does not become a labor force.
  • The cashier's miscalculation and damages caused during work are deducted from the salary.
  • As a "name-only store manager", the Labor Standards Act will not be applied, and the worker will work 1 hours a day, no holidays, no overtime, and only a fixed salary (""Full-time employee # Only full-time employeeSee also).

Quota / self-destruct sales for clerk

In 2017, became a part-time clerk at a convenience storeEhomaki OfSuicide businessThere were a series of examples of imposing.50-100 reservations from the ownerQuotaThere are many reports that there were dozens of quotas, including the case where the quota was imposed, and there are also examples such as so-called "self-destruction business" where you buy yourself if you can not achieve the quota.twitterIt is brought up.NHKTakes up such an example in the news on January 1th and February 26nd.UnionFrom salary to the unsold tens of thousands of yen at the consultation deskdeductionIt was reported that some examples were received. Such an exampleLabor Standards ActIt is an illegal act that violates Article 24.

Due to the following situation, there are no new owners, and each company is devising ways such as a reduction system for membership fees, encouragement for managing multiple stores, and a senior membership system.

When convenience stores began to spread, they were making a lot of money due to the small number of retail stores that were open for a long time in the surrounding area.However,1990 eraAfter that, the company and other companiesdominantOpening a store, in additionsupermarketCompetition is intensifying due to the extension of business hours to midnight and the start of 24-hour business. As a result, although only stores were opened, the number of stores that were forced to close or close in a short period of time increased.

Connection with the community

Ministry of Economy, Trade and IndustryAccording to a report compiled in 2009 (Heisei 21), the participation rate of convenience stores in the store association is just over 2%. In addition, although I want to have a connection with the area and shopping district, the burden of royalties (management guidance fee) on the headquarters is heavy, and in principle it is instructed to open 24 hours a day, so it is difficult to take public holidays. While some business owners say that cooperation is strict, some business owners are not very interested in the area where the store is located. For this reason, some shops in the shopping district show opposition to convenience stores.[67].

24 time industry

FamilyMartHowever, he has shown a move to review the 24-hour business.

The main reasons for reviewing the 24-hour business are as follows.

  • At some stores, such as in the suburbs, the cost merit of opening late at night (including crime prevention) is low.
  • Store owners cannot sleep 24 hours a day and must be prepared for any troubles of their employees.
  • Due to heightened environmental awareness, the pros and cons of turning on the lights brilliantly at midnight are being questioned.
  • Midnight workIn the case of (22:5 to XNUMX:XNUMX the next morning)Labor Standards ActBased onPremium wage(25% increase in hourly wage) must also be added.
  • For the headquarters side, reduce the labor force involved in late-night delivery, which is expensive to control labor costs.[† 22].

In 2008Asahi ShimbunAccording to the results of the questionnaire conducted byGlobal warming83% of the respondents cited "late-night business at convenience stores, etc." as something they could put up with to prevent it.[68].

In response to this trendKyoto City,Saitama,KanagawaHas regulated late-night business at convenience stores. On the other hand, "(from the viewpoint of environmental protection) it will be open at the convenience store at midnight.carbon dioxideEmissions are insignificant. It is strange that late-night business is not regulated in areas other than convenience stores. "[69]. Also,Eagle's nest forceIn 2008Atomi UniversityIn a questionnaire survey (valid answers = 165) conducted on students in Japan, 7% of the students answered positively that they should not stop working 24 hours a day.[70].

So-calledStation NakaAnd the railway in front of the station (Kiosk(See), or those that operate under the franchise from a major convenience store in the air / bus terminal, or those that operate in the offices / factories of schools / large companies, etc., are not necessarily open 24 hours a day. , For transportation, it is open according to the time of the last flight from the first train of the day, and in the office / school, it is open according to the normal business / opening date and time on the tenant's premises.[† 23] Is often done.

Main products

List of convenience store chains in Japan

Convenience stores in each region


According toAsiaRetail market will grow by an average of + 2021% annually until 6.3, and its market size will beEuropeとNorth AmericaIt has reached 4 trillion USD (about 8,000 trillion yen), which is equivalent to the combined scale of each country, and among them, convenience stores have the highest average annual growth rate for four years from 527.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAt + 37.4% ofフィリピン+ 24.2% ofIndonesia+ 15.8% is expected to continue.In addition to the rapid growth of gross domestic product (GDP), these three countries have revised their regulations to encourage foreign investment, changed the consumption habits of their people, rapidly urbanized, and increased the youth population. Nick Miles, head of IGD Asia-Pacific region, analyzes that the convenience store market is growing due to factors such as increased disposable income.[71].


Taiwan(Republic of China), As a free translation of convenience stores, "convenient stores" are mainly used in government statistics.[72], Taiwan's first chain storeUnified companyEarly trade name byUnificationSuper-class store"Super quotient" which is an abbreviation for "[73]Is well established, so including other companies in the same industry other than Seven,Convenience store(Go to a convenience store) ”[74][75].

History as a retail business is a little slower than in Japan,1970 eraA convenience store opened at the end. As of March 2016, 3 convenience stores have opened, which is said to be the highest density in the world as a population ratio.[† 25].. For exampleTaiwan Seven-ElevenUntil 2000, there were 2,000 stores, but by the end of 2006, there were 4,500 stores, opening 400 stores a year.In the city, more than 1 convenience stores are lined up and competing within 10km.

South Korea

South KoreaThen, as of the end of March 2013, 3 stores[76] There is a convenience store. The number of stores is CU (former FamilyMart),GS25, Seven-Eleven, in that order.


ChugokuThen the convenience store is translated as "convenience store"[77], Still an emerging industry,ShanghaiIn just 10 years, more than 1,000 stores have opened, and fierce competition for market share among business owners is fierce.

According to the China Chain Store Management Association, sales of the top 2007 chain stores reached 100 trillion yuan (about 1 trillion yen) in 2,000, and the number of stores increased by about 18% from the previous year to over 17. And maintain a growth trend[78].

Southeast Asia

Even in Southeast AsiaThailand-IndonesiaConvenience stores are expanding around. In Indonesia, there are multiple chains with thousands of stores, such as Indomaret and AlfaMart.[79].. As of the end of 2012, there were about 9,500 convenience stores in Thailand, of which Seven-Eleven accounted for 6,822.[80].

MalaysiaThen, Seven-Eleven, which has 1,450 stores, is the market leader.In addition, there are KK Supermarket, Quick, Easy, and Mymart operated by Mydin in Japan.In the past, Carrefour Express also operated a convenience store in Malaysia, but has withdrawn.

フィリピンThen,Sari-sari storeA local version of the convenience store, the retail store, has been developed and exists on most roads, corners, commercial areas and other public places. Apart from the Sari-sari store, there are international convenience store chains along most highways in urban areas.Seven-Eleven is the largest convenience store chain and is run by Seven Corporation of the Philippines (PSC). 1984,QuezonThe first store opened inNow[When?]There are about 1400 stores.else(English edition)Ministop operated byAyala CorporationThere is a FamilyMart franchised by Rustans, who runs a major shopping mall.

However,Southeast AsiaSome countries have foreign capital (foreign) for the purpose of protecting their own small retail stores.capital) Has restricted the opening of convenience stores in some countries.So for exampleIndonesiaThere is also an example of a foreign-affiliated convenience store that is expanding its business by obtaining a business license in the restaurant business instead of a retail store by securing a space for eating and drinking in the store.[81].


EuropeThen, for the reason of worker protection, it is open on Saturdays, Sundays, holidays, nights, and early mornings.retail storeThere are few[82], It is difficult to establish a convenience store business as it is called in Japan.

In particularGermanyThen, due to legal regulations, it is not possible to open retail stores for a long time, so it is not possible to open early in the morning, late at night, or on Sundays and holidays.gas stationLimited to some stores[† 26]..However, in urban areas, in stations and downtown areaskioskThere are also some extensions of.

Also, Seven-ElevenNorway-Sweden-DenmarkThere are a few in.In Sweden, there is also a convenience store chain called "Press by rån", which originated from a newspaper stand at a station.AlsoSuperHeadquarters Netherlands OfAmsterdamIt is located in Europe and is deployed in various European countries.

United Kingdom

In England it is called a "corner shop".As the name suggests, the name comes from the fact that there is a store on the corner of the road traditionally.

New Zealand

New ZealandThe retail store called "dairy" is said to be equivalent to a Japanese convenience store, but it is not open 24 hours a day.

Works with motifs

* Only those with convenience stores as the motif of the work in the order of publication year.

TV drama

Computer games


TV program






[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Specific examples include convenience stores that mainly display health-oriented products, andSelf-service gas stationConvenience stores, such as the earliest stores.
  2. ^ The main examples of this are the habit of selling expired products, the extremely slandering store management that defame the image of the chain, and the act of providing profits to antisocial forces.
  3. ^ If the owner is unable to work or is absent, franchisor employees may take over the store closure procedure.
  4. ^ This is because if the location is excellent, it is natural that convenience stores of other chains competing with the withdrawn site will soon open.
  5. ^ A technique similar to thisInternet cafeIt is also used in store development such as.
  6. ^ Originally, FamilyMart was spun off from Seibu RailwaySeibu Distribution Group → (Seibu) Saison Group(More specificallySeibu Department Store) It was under the umbrella.Now[When?]As a connection with Seibu Railway,Seven & i Holdings(More specificallySogo/Seibu) Seven-Eleven under its umbrella is strong.
  7. ^ From the summer of 2012 to the spring of 2017, Poplar had a tie-up with Lawson in the northern region, and FamilyMart and a franchisee in the south, but the tie-up ended when the contract expired.
  8. ^ For example, if the breaker is shut off for inspection of electrical equipment, the cash register and store computer will stop and business will not be possible. In this case, it is necessary to suspend business in advance.
  9. ^ After closing the "Ministop" Owani Sabaishi store in Owani Town, Aomori Prefecture, the "Sunkus" Owani Sabaishi store will enter the same building.
  10. ^ Some of them are installed in stores such as Lawson.
  11. ^ On the other hand, at one point, many young people with poor behavior were found around the entrances and exits of convenience stores, which became a social problem.
  12. ^ The clerk may eat some of the unsold food, but in most chains such as XNUMX-ElevenShrinkageIt is prohibited for reasons such as being an incentive for.
  13. ^ In other words, there is definitely a certain amount of demand in the area where the store is located, but at the national and all prefecture levels, it is a product that is not worth the price even if it is handled by the headquarters.
  14. ^ Central horse racingSince the range of sales of related forecast papers is wide, they are prepared by the system on the convenience store side.
  15. ^ From April 2022, 4, the adult age was lowered to 1 years old, but since drinking and smoking are from 18 years old as before, from the viewpoint of preventing erroneous purchases of 20 and 18 years old, at many convenience stores, " We have posted enlightenment posters to the effect that "alcohol and cigarettes are from the age of 19".
  16. ^ Of various devicesleaseIn addition to fees, POS systems, etc.ApplicationLicense usage fees may be incurred on a regular basis.
  17. ^ However,Global pandemic of new coronavirus infectionsOn the contrary, many stores have obliged the clerk to wear a mask after the start of the event.
  18. ^ Cocostore itself has been merged into FamilyMart.
  19. ^ As a representativeEdy-Suica-WAON-PASMOand so on.
  20. ^ There are also stores where the owner operates by himself as a night shift to reduce expenses in the middle of the night. In addition to a wide variety of daily work, it is carried out many times a year.Planned productsEmployees are being forced to bear a heavy burden both mentally and economically as they continue to be chased by the achievement of sales quotas, which is a factor that spurs the violent turnover of employees.
  21. ^ However, at stores that pay in 1-minute units, there are many employees with poor behavior who take advantage of this system and repeat late arrivals, which is regarded as a problem.
  22. ^ However, although labor costs are higher in the middle of the night,Crude oil priceIn some areas, such as in urban areas, fuel costs will require more logistics costs during the daytime when driving on congested or congested roads at low speeds and for long periods of time. It seems that there is.Saitama Prefecture: Convenience store late-night business refrain[Broken link]
  23. ^ Therefore, some businesses may be closed on closed days.
  24. ^ Lawson =Lawson Ticket, Of FamilyMart, stores that have been open since the old FamilyMart era =E +(Old ticket saison. There is a temporary tie-up cancellation time. Old am / pm stores are in the pastCN Play Guide), Old Circle K Sunkus store =Ticket Pia, Seven-Eleven == Directly managed, Ticket Pia, CN Play Guide (Eplus in the past), etc.
  25. ^ An average of 2,300 in 1 people, and in Japan about 3,300 in 1 people.
  26. ^ However, in 2006FIFA World Cup Germany TournamentDuring the holding period, only the venue was partially relaxed.


  1. ^ Naomi Kato "Convenience and Japanese Why did it become the" culture "of this country?"Shodensha,Year 2012
  2. ^ Keitaro Hasegawa"The day when the world imitates Japan again"PHP Institute,Year 2017
  3. ^ a b c Tai Nejo and Kyoichi Hiraki, "Introduction to Illustrated Industry Research, The 3rd Edition of the Latest Convenience Industry Trends and Colors", p. 38
  4. ^ "Lawson history". Lawson. 2017/5/24Browse.
  5. ^ "Seven, US convenience store "2 trillion yen acquisition" issues seen in the breach". 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン (September 2020, 3). 2020/4/29Browse.
  6. ^ "A professional wrestler living in Las Vegas talks about "the city of casinos died in the new Corona"". Business Insider Japan (September 2020, 3). 2020/4/19Browse.
  7. ^ Convenience store market size exceeded 10 trillion yen FY14 Headquarters survey Oligopoly further
  8. ^ "Distribution News --Convenience store / Plan to open 2019 major companies in 4, net increase of 40 stores". 2020/4/6Browse.
  9. ^ The pros and cons of "THE21" August 2019 issue "Convenience store time reduction" Meiji UniversityAssociate professor Yasuyuki Iida(PHP Institute)
  10. ^ About the development of satellite stores(Lawson, August 2007, 8)
  11. ^ “About the business alliance between JR West Group and Seven-Eleven Japan station store business” (PDF) (Press Release), West Japan Railway Company, Seven-Eleven Japan Co., Ltd., JR West Japan Railway Service Net Co., Ltd., (March 2014, 3), http://www.sej.co.jp/dbps_data/_material_/localhost/pdf/2011/20140414jrw.pdf 2016/9/5Browse. 
  12. ^ 2008 Ryukyu's Change CHANGE "Environment" This Year (Web Site-Station Q News-Weather Information)[Broken link](Ryukyu Asahi Broadcasting August 2008, 12)
  13. ^ http://www.sankeibiz.jp/business/news/161203/bsd1612030645006-n1.htm
  14. ^ "I'm thirsty" and drive with a can of beer(Response. August 2007, 4)
  15. ^ Buy 3 bottles of beer at a convenience store, drink and drive on the spot Response. September 2009, 5
  16. ^ Analysis of cases of drunk driving disciplinary action ASK (Non-Profit Organization Alcohol Drug Problem National Citizens' Association) DUI Special Committee November 2007, 11
  17. ^ Shimazaki tree Overview of convenience store industry and countermeasures for various issues
  18. ^ Convenience store / safety station (SS) activities-Creating a safe and secure living base for the town-National expansion questionnaire result report (PDF) [Broken link](2006.7 Japan Franchise Association)
  19. ^ SS Square-Japan Franchise Association
  20. ^ "Erotic books at convenience stores" is only available in Japan !? Japan's nude culture changes due to external pressure
  21. ^ The removal of adult magazines at convenience stores "symbolizes changes in Japanese society" and "business decisions" What is the reaction of overseas and English media?
  22. ^ NPO Sanagi and Lawson "Yokohama-style Mottainai Movement" Yokohama Keizai Shimbun 2006/6/18
  23. ^ Major convenience store uses expired lunch as feed Sankei Shimbun 2006/11/28
  24. ^ Recycled lunch boxes, homeless support ... Self-sufficiency rate that does not appear in numbers[Broken link](Sankei Shimbun October 2009, 5)
  25. ^ Nikkei Shimbun June 2003, 7
  26. ^ http://www.nihon-zassi.co.jp/02books.html
  27. ^ Tobacco sales at the age of 15 and acquittal of convenience store clerk Takamatsu High Court[Broken link]
  28. ^ Price cuts at convenience stores, 31 XNUMX-Eleven items[Broken link](Asahi Shimbun May 2009, 4)
  29. ^ Seven-Eleven example
  30. ^ [Seven-Eleven] Headquarters bears 15% of waste loss cost, new member store support measures February 2016, 2
  31. ^ Management support system
  32. ^ Example of XNUMX-Eleven
  33. ^ Lawson example
  34. ^ Seven-Eleven, Japan Fair Trade Commission survey Convenience store business model hit[Broken link](Fuji Sankei Business i August 2009, 2)
  35. ^ Cease and desist order for Seven-Eleven Japan Co., Ltd.(2009 6 年 月 日 22)
  36. ^ Convenience store owner "close-out sale" movement Discount before the sales deadline(asahi.com August 2009, 5)
  37. ^ Seven-Eleven's "discount limit" "cannot win the competition" and the store opposes(J-CAST August 2009, 5)
  38. ^ 2% reduction in food loss through Seven-Eleven / Ethical Project -Distribution News May 2020, 6
  39. ^ a b c d e f Yoshihito Ida (2009) "Dawn Convenience Store" Ikoma Economic Review (Kinki UniversityEconomic Society). 7 (1): 383-401. (From page 391)
  40. ^ Yukio Abe, "Convenience Stores Growing in Japan," Japan Food Newspaper, 1972, p. 57.
  41. ^ "[BUSINESS REPORT] First appeared in Japan in 1973. Trace the history of rapid growth at convenience stores". At dime(Excite News). P. 2 (November 2014, 11). 2017/10/14Browse.
  42. ^ Project XFrom the 027th "Japan-US Reversal! Amateurs Who Made Convenience Stores"
  43. ^ History Corporate Information Seven-Eleven Japan
  44. ^ Asahi Shimbun January 2009, 1 Morning edition page 20
  45. ^ Convenience stores and department stores are overtaken ... Sales increased by 08% in 6.7 ZAKZAK 2009/1/21
  46. ^ a b c d Changes that occur in the strong convenience store industry. Lawson changes power map with am / pm acquisition (1) / 2 / 3(Nikkei TrendyNet May 2009, 5)
  47. ^ a b c C & S and Sumitomo Corporation negotiate capital tie-up[Broken link](Nikkei BPNet May 2003, 6)
  48. ^ How is a trading company with good performance making money?[Broken link](R25 August 2005, 10)
  49. ^ Electronic money fraud surged 28 times year-on-year, damaging young people
  50. ^ 2011 pages of the Asahi Shimbun morning edition on January 1, 27
  51. ^ "Measures for vulnerable shopping" Opening a convenience store in a depopulated area "(Mainichi Newspapers November 2011, 11, morning edition, page 9)
  52. ^ "Convenience store | Security thief encyclopedia". www.hanzai.net. 2022/1/15Browse.
  53. ^ Convenience store | Security thief encyclopedia
  54. ^ After purchase, counterfeit returns saying "no longer needed" Damage continues with counterfeit revenue stamps
  55. ^ "I tried to put it in a convenience store ice case" Photo Lawson apologizes for burning The man in question is dismissed, the store also cancels the FC contract
  56. ^ https://www.j-cast.com/2018/03/07323014.html?p=all
  57. ^ Two convenience stores, charge storage agency exceeds product sales?[Broken link](Yomiuri Shimbun August 2007, 5)
  58. ^ Sales deposit service(Seven Bank)
  59. ^ Dedicated deposit card service(Mizuho Bank)
  60. ^ ATM deposit card service(Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ)
  61. ^ Card deposit service(Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation)
  62. ^ "I'm angry with the age confirmation button 63 years old Break the cash register". Nikkan Sports.As of August 2013, 2originalMore archives.2019/7/1Browse.
  63. ^ Arrested four 1-year-old men suspected of throwing coins at a convenience store manager and requesting several chopsticks for one sausage
  64. ^ Arrested a man of a former dating partner Immediately after stabbing a former lover at a convenience store, he is being treated by stabbing his belly at the scene
  65. ^ a b c Death from overwork Famima admits reconciliation over 200 hours a month overtime Mainichi Newspaper March 2016, 12
  66. ^ "Fine if you don't find a substitute" Seven "Original rules" Convenience store recruiting hell
  67. ^ Convenience store community-based wall Open all year round, high management guidance fee[Broken link](Tokyo Newspaper November 2012, 11 morning edition)
  68. ^ ""I don't need a convenience store late-night business" Industry opposition to the Asahi Shimbun survey”. J-CAST dated January 2008, 1. As of January 14, 2008originalMore archives.2012/10/16Browse.
  69. ^ Gendai Net "Eco", even if it's sloppy! Stupid regulation until late-night business at convenience stores "[Broken link]
  70. ^ Tsutomu Washizu "Convenience as a public space Evolving system 24 hours a day, 365 days a year"Asahi Shimbun Publishing〈Asahi selection book 847>,Tokyo, October 2008, 10, pp. 25-46 (Japanese).ISBN +978-4-02-259947-6.
  71. ^ VIET JO --Vietnamese convenience store market, annual average + 2021% growth forecast until 37.4 2017/04/28 06:20 JST delivery
  72. ^ "Convenience store exhibition store rapid, profitable new high school". Executive Yuan Ministry of Economic AffairsStatistics 處. (May 2020, 5). https://www.moea.gov.tw/Mns/dos/bulletin/Bulletin.aspx?kind=9&html=1&menu_id=18808&bull_id=7217 
  73. ^ Zhou Gakusei (September 2009, 9). “Convenience store". Ministry of Culture of Taiwan. 2020/12/17Browse. Encyclopedia of Taiwan
  74. ^ “Kokujin 130 year ago, 7th super-commerce, Taiwan FamilyMart Co., Ltd.. Chuten Shimbun (YouTube). (November 2020, 8). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrsZIszILy4 
  75. ^ "Original uncorrected super-commercial Ke P 吃 吃 麵 蚱 蚱. Free time(July 2015, 7). https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/breakingnews/1394076 
  76. ^ 250 convenience stores increase this year To intensify competition = South Korea(Union News August 2013, 4)
  77. ^ “Commerce Department: Convenience store in the previous three seasons Increased by 6.3%”. Xinhua News Agency (People's Republic of China State Council). (November 2019, 11). http://www-gov-cn.vpn.ruc.edu.cn/shuju/2019-11/15/content_5452505.htm 
  78. ^ Current Chinese market Aeon enters China at convenience stores (2009) --J-marketing.net produced by JMR Life Research Institute
  79. ^ Introducing 4 major Indonesian convenience store brands --Walkers Indonesia
  80. ^ Offensive at convenience stores and Thailand, entry into Lawson, less than four times as many FamilyMart stores, pursuing Seven-Eleven(Nikkei, March 2013, 3)
  81. ^ Kawabe, Nobuo (2012). “Global Strategy for Japanese Convenience Stores: Focusing on Asian Expansion since 2005”. Management theory 22 (1): 1-23. http://www.u-bunkyo.ac.jp/center/library/001-023%EF%BC%88%E5%B7%9D%E9%82%89%EF%BC%89.pdf 2015/8/9Browse.. 
  82. ^ Takashi Masuda, Paris Industrial Information Center (December 2013, 12), General Survey Report Sunday / Night Business of Retailers in France 

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