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📢 | "Meiji The Chocolate" will hold a collaboration event at 3 "THE SHOP" stores for Valentine's Day ...


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"Meiji The Chocolate" will hold a collaboration event at 3 "THE SHOP" stores for Valentine's Day ...

 
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It is also a big feature that it is finished without using fragrance so that you can directly enjoy the unique taste of cacao beans from this production area.
 

A collaboration between a classic chocolate and a select shop that collects classic chocolates for Valentine's Day. Events are also held on weekends ... → Continue reading

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Cacao

Cacao(Kakaa・ Ke Kea[2],West: cacao,scientific name: Theobroma cacao) IsMallow family(Cronquist system,New Engler systemThen.Sterculiaceae)ofevergreenIs.Also called cacao tree or cocoa tree.学名のScientific name Theobroma TheGreek languageso"神 (theos) food (broma) "[3].チ ョ コ レ ー ト,cocoaIt is cultivated as a raw material for.

Linnaeusof"(English edition)''(1753/) Is one of the species listed in[4].

Overview

Tree height is 4.5-10Metersdegree.The growth of this species requires regular rainfall, well-drained soil and a moist climate.elevationAbout 300 metersHilly areaIt grows naturally in.Central americaからSouth America Of熱 帯It is native to the area.

It blooms about 4 years old and is white with a diameter of about 3 cm (it is red to yellow depending on the variety).CaulifloryWear in tufts.The fruiting rate is less than 1%.The flowering season depends on the anniversary in the place of origin and the temperature in the place of cultivation.JapanThen.Okinawa[5],Ogasawara Islands[6]It is cultivated in Japan and often blooms after May.Tokyo UniversityTree Arts InstituteSpaWe are continuing experiments to grow cacao with waste heat to produce chocolate, and on July 2021, 7, it will be a hot spring resort.IshikawaKaga CityAnnounced a plan to work on creating a "cacao forest" jointly with[7].

fruitRipe in about 6 months and 15-30 in lengthCentimeterCauliflory, 8-10 cm in diameter, hangs directly from the trunk and is called the cacao pod.形は卵型が多いが、品種によって長楕円形、偏卵型、三角形などで、外皮の色もMost of the shapes are egg-shaped, but depending on the breed, they are oblong, oval, triangular, etc., and the color of the exodermis is alsored,黄色,greenAnd so on.中に20から60個ほどのAbout XNUMX to XNUMX insideseedAnd this isCocoa beans (cacao beans).Seeds are 40-50%Contains the fat content of.The pulp is called pulp.

The harvest time varies depending on the production area, but it is generally twice a year.dry seasonとrainy seasonThe fruits harvested in Japan are about a week excluding the peel.fermentationThe cacao beans taken out are used as raw materials for cocoa and chocolate.

Variety

Of the cacao currently cultivatedVarietyThere are three known systems.

FORASTERO
West AfricaとSoutheast AsiaIt is produced in large numbers in Japan and has become the mainstream.
South America OfAmazon riverOriginated in the basin[8]..It grows quickly and has excellent disease resistance, making it easy to cultivate.The fruits are yellow.Its surface is smooth[9].PolyphenolThe content is high, and the inside of the beans ispurpleso,BitternessIs strong but suitable for milk chocolate[10].ガーナ,コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,BrazilThere are varieties such as.Forastello is "foreign"[11], "A stranger"[12]By the meaning ofTrinidadThis species was introduced to the area after the destruction of cacao, which is thought to be the Criollo species, and was called for the first time at that time.[11].
Criollo
Originated in Central America[8].
ベネズエラ,MexicoIt is produced slightly.It is called "flavor beans" because of its unique aroma.
It is distributed from Mexico to Venezuela and has been used since ancient times.It was almost destroyed in the middle of the 19th century because it was vulnerable to pests and unsuitable for large-scale cultivation.The fruits are red and yellow.Its surface has warts and deep grooves[13].. It has the lowest polyphenol content of the three, less bitterness and astringency, and the inside of the beans is white (or whitish).[14].CrioloAndSpaniards born in the colonyIt was named as a native species.[12].
Trinitario species (TRINITARIO)
Venezuela,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIt is cultivated in Central and South America.
After the cocoa on Trinidad was sick or hurricane annihilated, the Forastero species were introduced there and allegedly crossed with the surviving Criollo species.[15]..Easy to cultivate and excellent in quality.The fruit is large[13].

History

The place of originMesoamericaThen.1900 BCUsed from around the timeOlmec civilizationWhat has been regarded as cultivated food since the time ofGuatemala OfRio AzulRuins, etc.Maya civilization,AztecOf the ruinsEarthenware,mural, I know from the stone monument.ベリーズCarbonized cocoa beans believed to be from the Chicanel period (400 to 1 BC) have been found at the Quercio site in[16]..Also, as evidence of the use of cocoa in the 1100 BC, from fragments of jars of that era found in the Urua Valley of Honduras.TheobromineとcaffeineHas been detected[17]..It is believed that beverages were made from cocoa pulp during this period.[18].

Cacao is called Cacau in Maya[19]. this isOlmec civilizationSeems to have been spoken inMixe-ZoqueIt is a loanword from, and it seems that the original pronunciation was Kawakawa.[20].

In Maya and Aztecs, cocoa beans were drunk as drinks, as well as offerings to God and valuables.currencyWas also used as[21]..As an example of the monetary value of cocoa beans, the price in Mexico in 1545 was female.TurkeyThere are 100 cocoa beans, 200 male turkeys, 100 wild rabbits, etc. According to the history of Motolina's indio written in 1541, 2 cocoa nuts are 4000 or 5 Spanish gold coins.PesoWas[22]..Counterfeit money was also made by stuffing other things in the cocoa bean skin from which the contents were taken out.[23]..Cocoa beans continued to be used as a currency during the colonial era[24].

1502/,ColumbusIs the current on the XNUMXth voyageホンジュラスGet cacao seeds nearby andSpainI'm taking it home.However, the usage was unknown, and no one realized its value.1519/,Conquistador OfHernan Cortez TheAztecLearn how to use cacao.sugar,SpicesChocolate torr (chocolate)upper classWelcomed to1526/A cultivated land was built on Trinidad Island.

Cacao as a beverageEuropeAs the first record brought to1544/ OfQ'eqchi MayaCrown Prince Felipe of Spain (laterフ ェ リ ペ 2 世) There is a visit.FranceThe queen married from SpainAnne DoutlishThere is an anecdote that spread17st centuryCocoa drinks became popular in the 1660sMartiniqueStarted cultivation in.

After that, cacao cultivation expanded,1830/From aroundWest Africa OfPortugalAreaSao Tome IslandIt will be cultivated in such places.19st centuryCentral American in the middlePlantationHowever, when the production volume dropped sharply due to the disease, Africa replaced and became the main producer.さらにfurtherUnited KingdomBut from SpainleaseInFernando Po Island(CurrentEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu) Started plantation management1879/ToGold Coast(Currentガーナ)Tetteh QuarshiHas introduced. 1890 eraAt the end, FranceIvory Coast(Currentコ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル) Organized a colonial company to encourage production.

IndonesiaBy Spain in 1560JavaIt is transmitted to, but the production spread20st centuryAnd especially1980/Production has increased 30 years after the market crash.

Number

edible
Cacao mass - endospermPartCrushing-RoastAnd mashed.A common ingredient for cocoa and chocolate.
Cocoa butter(Cacao butter) --Isolated from cocoa massfatMinutes.Chocolate liquor contains about 55% fat.
cocoa powder ――It is made by degreasing and crushing cocoa mass, and the color is dark brown.About 300 from 1 seedskilogramI can take it.
チ ョ コ レ ー ト --Chocolate liquor with cocoa butter, sugar,ミ ル クIt is made by adding such things.
Mole - ソ ー ス.

In addition, cacao powder, "cacao nibs" that are fermented, roasted, peeled and crushed, cacaosyrupAnd fermented cacaovinegarIs being used as an ingredient and seasoning[25].

Medicinal
Theobromine --Diuretic and muscle relaxing effects.
caffeine --Awakening effect.
Cocoa butter - Human capital Ofbody temperatureAs a vegetable oil that dissolves insuppository,ointmentEven though.
currency
It was written down by Columbus, which is also the reason why the Spaniards started cultivation.1520/AroundEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfNikaraoThen,RabbitOne bird was trading for 1 cocoa beans and one slave was trading for 10 cocoa beans.19st centuryIt became obsolete when money was introduced into.

Health

Cacao is type IAllergiesOf the causative substanceTyramine,nickelIncluding,Chocolate allergyCauses.なお、チラミンはIn addition, tyramineblood pressure,Heart rateHas the effect of raising chocolate, and eating too much chocolatenosebleedWill come outPopular beliefHowever, in reality, it does not have a strong effect to cause bleeding in healthy people.

生産

Worldwide cocoa bean production in 2012 was approximately 500 millionTIs[26]..The breakdown of the top producing countries for the current year is shown below.

Country2012 production
Cote d'Ivoire flag コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル165.0 million tons (33%)
Indonesian flag Indonesia93.6 million tons (19%)
Ghana flag ガーナ87.9 million tons (18%)
Nigerian flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu38.3 tons (08%)
Cameroon flag カ メ ル ー ン25.6 tons (05%)
Brazilian flag Brazil25.3 tons (05%)
Ecuador flag Ecuador13.3 tons (03%)
Mexican flag Mexico8.3 tons (02%)

As a characteristic of cacao productionbanana,coffeeOther tropicals such asCommodity cropUnlike large scalePlantationIt is mentioned that production in Japan is not common.This can be attributed to the botanical properties of cocoa.カカオの木はThe cacao treeShade treeTherefore, it is necessary to grow it in the shade of other trees until it grows large.In other words, it is difficult to cultivate a single crop in a large area at once, and it is difficult to obtain the merit of scale.On the other hand, it is suitable for mixed planting with growing trees such as plantain banana, so it is extremely suitable for self-sufficient small-scale farmers to grow as a commercial crop in one hand.[27]..ガーナにおいては、労働者が未開発の土地を開発する契約を地主と結び、バナナやIn Ghana, workers have signed contracts with landowners to develop undeveloped land, such as bananas.CassavaWhile growing the main food crops such as, grow the cacao tree in the shade, and when the cacao grows and becomes sufficiently profitable, the development area is split in half and half is for the landlord and the other half is for the workers The contract was once popular and became the driving force for the growth of cacao production.

Child labor in the production area

Historically for cocoa productionslaveLabor has been used a lot.古くは、アジア人のIn the old days, AsianscoolieHowever, even recently, child slaves have been used as a labor force in West Africa.2001/In the worst form in Octoberchild labourForbid ""U.S. CongressmanWas signed between the Chocolate Manufacturers Association.

But even after that, 90 of the cocoa farms in Côte d'Ivoire%However, it is said that they are using slaves, including children, for maintenance in some way.[28]..カカオの価格が下落すると、西アフリカの農民がしわ寄せを受けることとなるFalling cocoa prices will wrinkle West African farmers[29]..58% of Côte d'Ivoire producers are in extreme poverty due to too low prices in favor of chocolate makers, and only 7 growers earn enough to live comfortably. %.そのような状況の中、生産者の子どもが労働力とならざるをえないUnder such circumstances, the producer's children have no choice but to become a labor force.[30].

Price control movements seeking returns to farmers

2019/November, in GhanaNana Akufo-AdAt the investment forum in Africa, the president appealed that there was little reward for cocoa bean growers.Together with Côte d'Ivoire, it announced that it will promote bean price control.演説では「チョコレート産業は1000億ドル規模だが、農家が労働と引き換えに手にする額は60億ドルにすぎない」として各国への理解を求めたIn his speech, he sought the understanding of each country, saying, "The chocolate industry is worth $ XNUMX billion, but farmers get only $ XNUMX billion in exchange for labor."[31].

Economy

Few countries participate in the cocoa bean trade.MalaysiaBecause it has excellent processing abilityIndonesiaIt imports cacao and other products and exports products.

The price of cocoa beans is the same except for some countries such as Ghana, which has a purchase system.UK(Mainly from Africa)ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クProducts (mainly from Central and South America)Futures marketThe international market is in control.Price per ton is 500 in a few yearslb(945Dollar) To £ 3,000 ($ 5672), producers have been hit by volatile global markets.Only 3-4% of the cocoa futures market has physical exchanges, 7-9 times the actual amount traded.

footnote

  1. ^ "Kakaa". Digital Daijisen(Koto bank). 2021/8/9Browse.
  2. ^ Naobumi OchiaiAuthor/Yaichi HagaRenovation "Cacao" "Kotosen: Nihon Daijiten" Volume XNUMX,Okura Bookstore, 1921, 673 pages.
  3. ^ Naoko Takeda 2010, p. 4.
  4. ^ Linnaeus, Carolus (1753) (Latin). Species Plantarum. Holmia [Stockholm]: Laurentius Salvius. P. 782. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358803 
  5. ^ "Integrated production from chocolate making and cacao bean processing popular in Okinawa"Asahi ShimbunDigital (March 2019, 2) Retrieved April 6, 2019
  6. ^ "Challenge to cacao from Tokyo / Cultivate 500 trees in Ogasawara" "Nihon Keizai Shimbun』Morning edition December 2018, 12 (NIKKEI The STYLE)
  7. ^ "Cacao with hot spring heat ♨ Challenge to produce for the first time in Honshu / Ishikawa / Kaga City Todai Jugeiken, with two private companies" "Japan Agricultural Newspaper』April 2021, 7 8 pages
  8. ^ a b "World History of Chocolate" Page 5
  9. ^ "Science Romance of Cacao and Chocolate" page 137
  10. ^ "Chocolate World History" pages 3, "Chocolate Natural History" pages 98, "Cacao and Chocolate Science Romance" pp. 137-138
  11. ^ a b "History of Chocolate" p. 278
  12. ^ a b "Chocolate Museum", page 111
  13. ^ a b "Science Romance of Cacao and Chocolate" page 138
  14. ^ "Chocolate World History" page 3, "Chocolate Natural History" page 111, "Cacao and Chocolate Science Romance" page 138
  15. ^ "Science Romance of Cacao and Chocolate" page 139
  16. ^ "Chocolate Museum", page 49
  17. ^ "Science Romance of Cacao and Chocolate" pp. 55-56
  18. ^ "Science Romance of Cacao and Chocolate" page 56
  19. ^ "Chocolate Museum", page 84
  20. ^ "Chocolate Natural History" pages 84, 86, "History of Chocolate" pages 51
  21. ^ World History of Chocolate, pp. 18-24
  22. ^ "Chocolate Museum", pages 68 and 70
  23. ^ "Chocolate Natural History" page 71, "Chocolate History" page 138
  24. ^ "Chocolate Museum", page 71
  25. ^ "Cacao is the protagonist. It's not just chocolate as a secret ingredient ... but also for syrup.Marinated, Meat dishes, snacks ""Nikkei MJMay 2020, 5 (trend side)
  26. ^ Edited by Yano Tsuneta Memorial "Japan National Census 2014/15 Edition ”(Kenta Yano Memorial, 2014) 176 pages
  27. ^ Carol Off 2007, p. 125.
  28. ^ "Truevision TV Slavery --a global investigation”(English). As of September 2004, 7originalMore archives.2006/6/27Browse.
  29. ^ "Bittersweet Chocolate”(English). As of September 2008, 5originalMore archives.2006/6/27Browse.
  30. ^ ""Chocolate: Unreported" Bitter "Reality"”. Global News View (GNV), Virgil Hawkins. 2018/2/8Browse.
  31. ^ "Chocolate industry less sweet farmer" "Yomiuri Shimbun』April 2020, 2 28 pages

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