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市町村(Shichoson) isJapan OfBasic local public bodiesIsCity() ""town(Machi / Cho) ""village(Mura / Son) "is a general term.Municipalities are wide-area local public organizations (comprehensive organizations)PrefecturesWith (Todofuken)Local government lawInOrdinary local governmentHas been defined.
The municipalities areSpecial local governmentIsTokyo Ward(special area) Together with JapanBasic municipalityIs. In general, including municipalities and special wardsMunicipality(Municipalities) orMunicipal DistrictIt ’s called (Shichosonku),TokyoInspecial area(23 wards of Tokyo) Is the central part,Municipalities(Kushichoson).
2018/(Heisei30 years)10/1Current(FukuokaNakagawa CityThe number of municipalities and special wards (enforcement of the city system) is as shown in the table below.Great Heisei mergerBefore1999/(11)3/31Compared to the number at the time, it has decreased to more than half.
|Basic municipality||2018/10/1||(December 1999, 3)|
Local government lawIn the following, only the article name is described.
Statistics and listings
Number of municipalities by prefecture
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsThe number of municipalities based on the summary of is shown below. The latest merger of municipalities was April 2014, 4, and the latest municipal organization came into effect on October 5, 2018..
|Prefectures||Basic municipality(BasicLocal government) Number|
|Number of municipalities||City||town||village||special area||Total number of basic municipalities|
|Grand total||1718||792||743||183[Annotation 1]||23||1741|
Prefectures where villages have disappeared
"Cities" and "towns" still exist in all prefectures, but "villages" have begun to appear in prefectures that have completely disappeared.
1962/(Showa 37)Hyogo,1970/(Showa 45)KagawaThe village disappeared because the village that remained until the end enforced the town system.For a long time, these two prefectures had no villages,2004/(16)HiroshimaStarting with the disappearance of the village in Heisei, the village disappeared in 11 prefectures due to the great merger of Heisei.As a result, the number of prefectures without villages was 13 prefectures, which was a quarter of all prefectures.
|Region||Prefecture name||Extinction date||Remarks|
|Kanto region||Tochigi||2006/(18)3/20||Kuriyama VillageDue to the new merger NikkoBe part of.|
|Chubu region||Ishikawa||2005/(17)3/1||Yanagita VillageDue to the new merger Noto TownBe part of.|
|Fukui||20063/3||Nadasho VillageDue to the new merger Oi TownBe part of.|
|Shizuoka||20057/1||Yongsan VillageBut, Hamamatsu cityMerged into.|
|Kinki||Mie||20061/10||UdonomuraDue to the new merger New systemKihochoBe part of.|
Miyagawa VillageIs a new system due to a new merger OdaimachiBe part of.
|Shiga||20051/1||Kuchiki VillageDue to the new merger TakashimaBe part of.|
|Hyogo||1962/(37)4/1||Due to the enforcement of the town system in Ayamura Harima TownBecomes|
|Chugoku||Hiroshima||2004/(16)11/5||Toyomatsu VillageDue to the new merger Kamiishi Kogen TownBe part of.|
|Yamaguchi||20063/20||Hongo VillageDue to the new merger IwakuniBe part of.|
|Shikoku region||Kagawa||1970/(45)2/15||(Old) due to the enforcement of the town system in Saita VillageZaita TownBecomes|
→2006/(18)1/1, New system MitoyoBecomes
|Ehime||20051/16||Asakura VillageとSekizen VillageIs a new system due to a new merger ImabariBe part of.|
|Kyushu region||Saga||20063/20||Sifuri VillageDue to the new merger KanzakiBe part of.|
|Nagasaki||200510/1||Oshima villageDue to the new merger Hirado CityBe part of.|
1889/(Meiji 22), alongside the prefectural systemMeiji constitutionAs the local system below,Hokkaido-OkinawaOn the mainland exceptMunicipal system and municipal system(Law No. 21, April 4, 25) came into effect. They areLocal governmentAs a law targeting municipalities andAdministrationOffice workPolicemenLocal government system (Meiji 19Royal Decree No. 54) has been established separately.
1947/(Showa 22)Local government lawIt was abolished due to the enactment, but it is said that there is still a "disposal that the town (village) becomes a city""Municipal system enforcementIs the remnant of this.
At the time of the 2015 census, 91% of Japan's total population lived in cities and the remaining 9% lived in towns and villages.In terms of area ratio, 57% are cities and 43% are towns and villages.The proportion of cities in the population ratio gradually increased from 1947% in 33 immediately after the end of the war to 2000% in 79 after the great merger of Showa and the progress of urbanization.On the other hand, in the 2000 years since 15, after the Great Heisei Consolidation, the proportion of towns and villages that exceeded 7% of the area ratio decreased, the proportion of cities doubled, and the proportion of towns and villages in the population ratio decreased to about one-third. Diminished.
|Annual||Area (%)||Population (people)|
|Source: Census ---city, Town / village|
History of merger of municipalities
1950/Items after (25) are listed on each of the following pages in list format.
Requirements to be a city
- Population over 5. However1965/After (40),Law on special cases of merger of municipalities(Heisei 16Under the new law of Law No. 59, if the provisions of Article 7) are applied, it will be over 3.
- There are more than 6% of all units in the central city area.
- More than 6% of the total population is engaged in commerce, industry and other urban formats and those who belong to the same household.
- ConcernedPrefectures OfOrdinanceIt has urban facilities and other urban requirements specified in.
Requirements to be a town
VillagetownIn order to become, the prefectures to which the village belongs must meet each requirement (population, number of consecutive units or consecutive rates, required public offices, etc., employment population ratio by industry, etc.) (Article 8) 2). The population requirement is most in 5000 prefectures, followed by 8000 prefectures.
There are no special rules regarding village requirements.If it does not meet the conditions for becoming a town, it is automatically a village.
Population requirements for becoming a town
|Lower limit||Prefectures(* The presence or absence of a village is as of 2010/22)|
|There is a village||No village|
|1 million 5,000 people||Tochigi|
|1 million 0,000 people||Iwate Gunma Tokyo Niigata||Fukui Kagawa|
|8,000|| Aomori Yamagata Fukushima Nagano Osaka|
Nara Shimane Kochi Oita Okinawa
|5,000|| Hokkaido Miyagi Akita Ibaraki Saitama|
Chiba Kanagawa Yamanashi Gifu Aichi
Kyoto Wakayama Tokushima Fukuoka Kumamoto
|Mie Shiga Yamaguchi Ehime|
In principle, this is the case of a single town system, and some prefectures have established special cases to promote mergers.
Transition to city/town
In order for a town/village to become a city or a village to become a town, based on the application of the relevant municipalityPrefectural governor Prefectural assemblyImmediately after the decisionMinister of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsReport to Article 8 (3).
"Transition" due to abandonment
When a town or village is abandoned and at the same time a new city or town is created, the town or village appears to have "migrated" to it. However, in this case, the old towns/villages and the new cities/towns are separate local public bodies even if they have the same name (excluding the “city”, “town”, and “village” parts), and the legality is not continuous.
actuallyAbandonmentAlthough such cases occur due to (merging/transferring, so-called municipal mergers), it is not obligatory to select a new municipality even if it meets the requirements of the city or town.Great Heisei mergerBecame the first new "village" inKumamotoMinamiaso villageHas a population more than double the population requirement (3 people) to become a town due to the merger of the three former villages,Mount AsoNango ValleyWe chose to be a village with an emphasis on the natural environment and the image of rural areas.
"Relegation" to a town/village
"Demotion" due to migration
If a city that does not meet the requirements after becoming a city becomes a town or village, or if a city that does not meet the requirements after becoming a town becomes a village, follow the same procedure as above for moving to a city or town. Take (Article 8 paragraph 3). When a city becomes a town or village, or a town becomes a village, some tasks can be transferred to the prefectural jurisdiction. This can be expected to reduce the burden, but on the other handLocal allocation taxThere is a demerit that the amount of delivery will be reduced, and the amount of office work such as changing the notation of staff business cards and printed materials will occur.
According to the Local Autonomy Law, there is no difference in the “case” or hierarchical relationships between municipalities. Therefore, there is no concept of "demotion" or "promotion", but the consciousness that the city feels higher than the town/village and the town feels higher than the village exists among the residents... For these reasons, in order to avoid negative impacts on motivation of residents and staff, attachment to the local area, image, etc., it is unlikely that migration to towns and villages will be considered in the first place, 2019 (Reiwa 4) There is no example that has been done so far. For example, at the peak, it had a population of about 6000.HokkaidoUtashinai CityIs below the population requirement (5000 people) to become a town due to the later depopulation, but it is not a village and suffers from serious financial difficulties.2006/Hokkaido where the transition to the town was examined in earnest (18)YubariBut in the end it wasn't selected.
"Demotion" due to decommissioning
When a city or town is abandoned and a new town or village is created at the same time, it appears that the city or town has been “relegated” to a town or village. However, in this case, the old city/town and the new town/village are separate local public bodies even if they have the same name (excluding the “city”, “town”, and “village” parts), and the legal personality is not continuous. In fact otherAbandonmentThere is such a case when the or boundary change is involved. For example, the following examples are given.
- Shibuya Town, Kanagawa Prefecture →Shibuya Village(CurrentYamato）
- Part of the town area was transferred to another city, the remaining town area was abolished, and at the same time a new village was established.
- Miyata Town, Nagano Prefecture →Komagane→Miyata
- After becoming a city by merging with other local governments, it was separated and reestablished as a new village.
As a case where "demotion" is avoided,Kami TownThere is.Great Heisei mergerAt the time of MiyagiKami-gunThen.Nakashinta Town,Onoda Town,Miyazaki Town,Sima TownThere was a plan to create Kami city by merging four towns. However, because Sekima-cho left the merger talks on the way, the total population fell below 4 and the conditions of the municipal system were not met, and the density of buildings in the center did not meet the requirements of the town prescribed by the prefectural ordinance. However, it was said that the merger would "regrade" to the village. There is no difference in “rank” between cities, towns, or villages, but the terms “demotion” and “promotion” are used in the news of Nishinihon Shimbun, for example, and the voices of the citizens who say “sorry” or “poor story” are covered. It was being done. As a result of amending the prefectural ordinance, it was finally decided to merge as Kami-cho..
Differences between cities, towns and villages
Regarding the handling under the Local Autonomy Law, there is no big difference between the names of cities, towns and villages. Rather, there are large differences in population size and administrative capacity between cities that share the same name,Government-designated city,Core cityandSpecial city(The system was abolished in 2015 and integrated into the core city system. However, there are transitional measures) and the special provisions regarding the distribution of office work and the administrative district system (only for ordinance-designated cities) are established (252-19,Article 252-20), is very different from other cities and towns.
Municipalities do not have parliamentary ordinances, but instead are general meetings of voters.Municipal general meetingCan be provided (Articles 94 and 95 of the same law), but there are only a few examples. A case of Ashinoyu Village (now part of Hakone Town) in Ashigarashimo District, Kanagawa Prefecture under the enforcement of the town and village system, and Utsuki Village (current part of Hachijo Town. (See section)) has been reported.2006/(Heisei18 years) with multiple debtFiscal rebuilding organizationKiso County, Nagano PrefectureOtaki VillageHave been considered as a bill (rejection in the parliamentary resolution).
6 villages in the Northern Territories
Russia Effective dominationdoingNorthern TerritoriesHas 6 villages in Japan.. However, it has lost its function as a basic municipality in Japan, and can only perform business related to family register.NemuroIs acting on your behalf.
As a voting body for municipalitiesMunicipal assemblyBut as an executive agencyMayor, VariousAdministrative committeeAnd so on. Municipalities have no councilsVoting rightIt is also possible to set up a general meeting of all persons.Chief(Mayor,Mayor, The village chief,special areaWard mayor)WhenLocal assemblyDepends on the residentselectionElected by.
- Chief (Mayor）
- EmirateAuxiliary organization
- Local public enterprise
- Water supply business, sewer business, hospital business, etc.
- Administrative committee
- Board of education -Secretariat- Kindergarten,primary school-Junior high school(,high school,Special school),library,Public hallWait
- Election Management Committee -Secretariat
- Audit Committee -Secretariat
- Human Resources CommitteeOrFairness committee -Secretariat
- Agricultural committee -Secretariat
- Fixed Asset Evaluation Review Committee -Secretariat
- Parliament -Secretariat
- Local autonomous district
"Towns" and "villages" of local governments and "towns" and "villages" of villages
In Japan, apart from the "towns" and "villages" that are local public organizations, in the area (lower)VillageOr in the cityBlockThere are a group of "towns" and "villages".Most of them, even if they are official, except as described below.wordLike (bruises), it does not have legal personality and is only a geographical area.When writing the address, "○○ city〇〇 townWith the name of the city, ward, town, and village, such as "○○ address"addressDesignated as a level between.
When distinguishing by statistical field, the former is referred to as an administrative town or village, and the latter is referred to as an administrative village.Town streetIt may be called (butterfly).An example that the government office officially defines as an address notation such as a resident's card, and an example that is used in addressing and local events as a common name that has been familiar for a long time apart from the official notation (the postal code classification is set by the common name) It may be).
There are a large number of "towns" in the plot name, and a relatively small number of "villages" (Village # Former administrative village that remains in the place nameSee).HistoricallyEdo PeriodSome of them are derived from the towns and villages of Japan, but they are often abandoned for a long time and do not have a simple correspondence.Also, the names of towns and villages in the Edo period wereLarge printHowever, it may remain.
It is also a subordinate organization of municipalities.Local autonomous district,Special merger wardAs a "~ town" may be established.The special merger zone has legal personality andspecial areaSame asSpecial local governmentAnd in most cases it was an independent municipality until very recently.
How to read "town" and "village"
"town"Is"Butterfly"Or"Town","village"Is"So"Or"MuraHowever, the reading is clearly defined for each town and village.
Basically, the reading of “town” and “village” tends to be fixed in each prefecture, but there may be a small number of exceptions due to phonological relations and customs.
There are variations in how to read "town", but all the towns in the Kanto region are "towns", and the towns in the Kinki and Shikoku regions are "cho".Excluding HokkaidoEast JapanThere are many "towns", but especiallyIwateとMiyagiThen, both are mixed in a ratio that cannot be said to be large. vice versa,West JapanTends to have a lot of "butterflies",KyusyuHowever, there is no clear law because there are variations in each prefecture.
The reading of “village” is fixed for each prefecture except Kagoshima prefecture. Everything from eastern Japan to the Kinki region is "mura", but in some parts of western Japan it is "son", and Okinawa Prefecture, which has 19 villages, is all "son".
Reading of "town"
* Of the mixed examples, when the same reading accounts for about 8% or more of the total number of towns in each prefecture, the reading on the majority side is shown, and the rest is noted as an exception. In addition, when listing individually, the multiple side is on the upper side.
|Region||Name of prefectures||reading||Remarks|
|Hokkaido region||Hokkaido||Butterfly*||*129 towns out of all 128 towns.Mori TownOnly one town is "town"|
|Tohoku region||Aomori||Town※||*22 towns out of all 19 towns.Oirase Town-Nanbu Town-Hashikami3 towns are "chou"|
|Iwate||Mixed||Butterfly||Shizukuishi Town-Shiwa Town-Yahaba Town-Kanegasaki Town-Hiraizumi Town-Sumita Town-Otsuchi Town-Iwaizumi Town-Hirono Town(9 towns)|
|Town||Kuzumaki-Iwate-Nishiwaga Town-Yamada Town-Karumai Town-Ichinohe(6 towns)|
|Miyagi||Town||Misato Town-Kami Town-Matsushima Town-Shichigahama Town-Kawasaki Town-Murata-Okawara Town-Shibata Town-Marumori Town-Zao Town-Shichikashuku Town(11 towns)|
|Butterfly||Rifu Town-Yamato Town-Osato Town-Watari Town-Yamamoto Town-Onagawa-Sima Town-Wakuya Town-Minamisanriku Town(9 towns)|
|Akita||Town||Gojome Town-Hachirogata Town-Igawa Town-Fujisato-Ugo Town-Kosaka Town(6 towns)|
|Butterfly||Misato Town-Santan Town-Happo Town(3 towns)[Annotation 2]|
|Yamagata||Town※||*19 towns out of all 18 towns.KawakitaOnly one town is "chou"|
|Fukushima||Town||(All 31 towns)|
|Kanto region||Ibaraki||(All 10 towns)|
|Tochigi||(All 11 towns)|
|Gunma||(All 15 towns)|
|Saitama||(All 22 towns)|
|Chiba||(All 16 towns)|
|Tokyo||(All 5 towns)|
|Kanagawa||(All 13 towns)|
|Chubu region||Niigata||(All 6 towns)|
|Toyama||(All 4 towns)|
|Ishikawa||Mixed||Town||Kawakita Town-Tsubata Town-Uchinada Town-Shiga Town-Nakanoto Town-Anamizu Town(6 towns)|
|Butterfly||Hodatsu Shimizu Town-Noto Town(2 towns)[Annotation 2]|
|Fukui||Butterfly||(All 8 towns)|
|Yamanashi||Butterfly*||*8 towns out of all 7 towns.Fujikawaguchiko TownOnly one town is "town"|
|Nagano||Town※||*23 towns out of all 22 towns.AnanOnly one town is "chou"|
|Gifu||Butterfly||(All 19 towns)|
|Shizuoka||Butterfly*||*12 towns out of all 11 towns.Mori TownOnly one town is "town"|
|Aichi||Butterfly||(All 14 towns)|
|Kinki||Mie||(All 15 towns)|
|Shiga||(All 6 towns)|
|Kyoto||(All 10 towns)|
|Osaka||(All 9 towns)|
|Hyogo||(All 12 towns)|
|Nara||(All 15 towns)|
|Wakayama||(All 20 towns)|
|Chugoku||Tottori||(All 14 towns)|
|Shimane||Butterfly*||*10 towns out of all 9 towns.KawamotoOnly one town is "town"|
|Okayama||Butterfly||(All 10 towns)|
|Hiroshima||(All 9 towns)|
|Yamaguchi||(All 6 towns)|
|Shikoku region||Tokushima||(All 15 towns)|
|Kagawa||(All 9 towns)|
|Ehime||(All 9 towns)|
|Kochi||(All 17 towns)|
|Kyushu region||Fukuoka||Town※||*30 towns out of all 29 towns.Onga TownOnly one town is "chou"|
|Saga||Butterfly*||*10 towns out of all 9 towns.Kohoku TownOnly one town is "town"|
|Nagasaki||Butterfly||(All 8 towns)|
|Kumamoto||Town※||*23 towns out of all 20 towns.Asagiri Town-Yamato-cho-Hikawa Town3 towns are "chou"[Annotation 2]|
|Oita||Town||(All 3 towns)|
|Miyazaki||Butterfly||(All 14 towns)|
|Kagoshima||(All 20 towns)|
|Okinawa region||Okinawa||(All 11 towns)|
Reading of "village" (Son / Mura)
Prefectures that do not have any villages are omitted from the table.
|Region||Name of prefectures||reading||Remarks|
|Hokkaido region||Hokkaido||Mura||(15 villages in total)|
|Tohoku region||Aomori||(8 villages in total)|
|Iwate||(5 villages in total)|
|Miyagi||■Ohira VillageOnly one village|
|Akita||(3 villages in total)|
|Yamagata||(3 villages in total)|
|Fukushima||(15 villages in total)|
|Kanto region||Ibaraki||(2 villages in total)|
|Gunma||(8 villages in total)|
|Saitama||■HigashichichibuOnly one village|
|Chiba||■Chosei VillageOnly one village|
|Kanagawa||■Kiyokawa VillageOnly one village|
|Chubu region||Niigata||(4 villages in total)|
|Toyama||■Funabashi VillageOnly one village|
|Yamanashi||(6 villages in total)|
|Nagano||(35 villages in total)|
|Gifu||(2 villages in total)|
|Aichi||(2 villages in total)|
|Kinki||Kyoto||■Minamiyamashiro VillageOnly one village|
|Osaka||■Chihaya Akasaka VillageOnly one village|
|Nara||(12 villages in total)|
|Wakayama||■Kitayama VillageOnly one village|
|Chugoku||Tottori||So||■Hiyoshitsu VillageOnly one village|
|Shimane||Mura||■Tomio VillageOnly one village|
|Okayama||So||(2 villages in total)|
|Shikoku region||Tokushima||■Sanagawauchi VillageOnly one village|
|Kochi||Mura||(6 villages in total)|
|Kyushu region||Fukuoka||(2 villages in total)|
|Kumamoto||(8 villages in total)|
|Oita||■Himejima villageOnly one village|
|Miyazaki||So||(3 villages in total)|
|Kagoshima||Mixed||Mura||Mishima village-Toshima Village(2 villages)|
|So||Yamato Village-Uken Village(2 villages)|
|Okinawa region||Okinawa||So||(19 villages in total)|
- ^ Tokyo Metropolitan RulebookPart 1 Chapter 7 Municipal Administration
- ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications | Local Autonomy System | Wide Area Administration / Municipal Merger, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications 2021/3/18Browse.
- ^ "Wide area administration/Municipalities merger, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, read November 2016, 11
- ^ a b “Whereabouts of decentralization  Puzzle/Frontiers of regional reform”. West Japan Newspaper (Fukuoka City). (January 2002, 12). originalArchived as of October 2012, 9. 2013/10/15Browse.
- ^ “Hokkaido and 3 cities in Sorachi area have population less than 1. 9% reduction at peak time “Migration” to town has little merit”. Hokkaido Shimbun (Sapporo). (January 2013, 10). originalArchived as of October 2013, 10. 2013/10/15Browse.
- ^ Shikotan Village,Tomari village,Torubetsu Village,Tobetsu Village,Sanamura,Tottori Village
- ^ "Glossary> What is an address?, PASCO CORPORATION, viewed on November 2021, 11
- ^ "Q. "1234, 〇〇machi, Suzaka-shi" and "1234, Oaza, Suzaka-shi" Why are there two address notations in Suzaka-shi?, Suzaka City, viewed on November 2021, 11
office What is (office)?Office workThe room where the work is done.The office,Secretariat,officeEtc. Also generallyBusinessFacilityIn that case, I also used the officeFacility-House(buildingEtc.) is often referred to.
WesternThen.office Work in the (office) includes organizational management, rules, planning, public works,Board Member,LawyerIt may have the meaning of work such as office work. Also, it may have the meaning of work or work dedicated to one person.
製造工場And storesCommercial facilityEven in such cases, the office is the place where office work is performed to support it. To work in the officeOffice work(Office work). A building created mainly for the purpose of performing office workoffice buildingTo design the office itselfOffice designThat.
As described above, the office also has a morphological meaning representing a place or a space facility and a conceptual meaning representing a functional aspect such as performing business information processing.Information and communication technology,ComputerWith the development of, it has become possible to perform information processing "anytime" and "anywhere", so a conceptual office created on a computer can be created.Virtual office(Virtual office,Virtual office).
With the development of computers in the office, the meaning of the place of intellectual labor is becoming more important.Advance Your CareerAt the site depends on the office environmentIntellectual productivityImprovement is coming to be questioned.
Office space elements
The form of the work space (work space) is classified into several according to the presence or absence of the partition of each space, the height, face-to-face or non-face-to-face, and how they are arranged.
Open office: A large room with a large number of desks lined up so that you can see far.
- conference room-MeetingSpace-There are various forms such as an independent meeting room, a small meeting space for small groups, a meeting space where you can talk easily.
- Rest rooms
- Smoking room
- Wi-Fi-Ethernet --The combination of Wi-Fi and Ethernet is currently the most common found in office environments.ア ー キ テ ク チ ャIs.