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市町村

市町村(Shichoson) isJapan OfBasic local public bodiesIsCity() ""town(Machi / Cho) ""village(Mura / Son) "is a general term.Municipalities are wide-area local public organizations (comprehensive organizations)PrefecturesWith (Todofuken)Local government lawInOrdinary local governmentHas been defined.

The municipalities areSpecial local governmentIsTokyo Ward(special area) Together with JapanBasic municipalityIs. In general, including municipalities and special wardsMunicipality(Municipalities) orMunicipal DistrictIt ’s called (Shichosonku),TokyoInspecial area(23 wards of Tokyo) Is the central part,Municipalities(Kushichoson)[1].

2018/(Heisei30 years)10/1Current(FukuokaNakagawa CityThe number of municipalities and special wards (enforcement of the city system) is as shown in the table below.Great Heisei mergerBefore1999/(11)3/31Compared to the number at the time, it has decreased to more than half[2].

Basic municipality2018/10/1(December 1999, 3)
  City792(670)
town743(1,994)
village183[Annotation 1](568)
Municipalities total1,718(3,232)
special area23(23)
Grand total1,741(3,255)

Local government lawIn the following, only the article name is described.

Statistics and listings

Number of municipalities by prefecture

Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsThe number of municipalities based on the summary of is shown below. The latest merger of municipalities was April 2014, 4, and the latest municipal organization came into effect on October 5, 2018.[3].

PrefecturesBasic municipality(BasicLocal government) Number
Number of municipalitiesCitytownvillagespecial areaTotal number of basic municipalities
Hokkaido flag Hokkaido1793512915[Annotation 1]0179
Aomori prefecture flag Aomori4010228040
Iwate prefecture flag Iwate3314154033
Miyagi prefecture flag Miyagi3514201035
Akita prefecture flag Akita251393025
Yamagata prefecture flag Yamagata3513193035
Fukushima flag Fukushima59133115059
Ibaraki prefecture flag Ibaraki4432102044
Tochigi prefecture flag Tochigi2514110025
Gunma prefecture flag Gunma3512158035
Saitama prefecture flag Saitama6340221063
Chiba prefecture flag Chiba5437161054
Tokyo flag Tokyo3926582362
Kanagawa prefecture flag Kanagawa3319131033
Niigata Prefecture Flag Niigata302064030
Toyama Prefecture Flag Toyama151041015
Ishikawa Prefecture Flag Ishikawa191180019
Fukui prefecture flag Fukui17980017
Yamanashi prefecture flag Yamanashi271386027
Nagano Prefecture Flag Nagano77192335077
Gifu Prefecture Flag Gifu4221192042
Shizuoka prefecture flag Shizuoka3523120035
Aichi prefecture flag Aichi5438142054
Mie prefecture flag Mie2914150029
Shiga prefecture flag Shiga191360019
Kyoto Prefecture Flag Kyoto2615101026
Osaka Prefecture Flag Osaka433391043
Hyogo prefecture flag Hyogo4129120041
Nara prefecture flag Nara39121512039
Wakayama prefecture flag Wakayama309201030
Tottori prefecture flag Tottori194141019
Shimane prefecture flag Shimane 198101019
Okayama prefecture flag Okayama2715102027
Hiroshima prefecture flag Hiroshima231490023
Yamaguchi prefecture flag Yamaguchi 191360019
Tokushima prefecture flag Tokushima248151024
Kagawa prefecture flag Kagawa17890017
Ehime prefecture flag Ehime201190020
Kochi prefecture flag Kochi3411176034
Fukuoka prefecture flag Fukuoka6029292060
Saga Prefecture Flag Saga2010100020
Nagasaki Prefecture Flag Nagasaki211380021
Kumamoto prefecture flag Kumamoto4514238045
Oita Prefecture Flag Oita181431018
Miyazaki Prefecture Flag Miyazaki269143026
Kagoshima prefecture flag Kagoshima4319204043
Okinawa prefecture flag Okinawa41111119041
Grand total1718792743183[Annotation 1]231741

List

Link to list by prefecture

Prefectures where villages have disappeared

"Cities" and "towns" still exist in all prefectures, but "villages" have begun to appear in prefectures that have completely disappeared.

1962/(Showa 37)Hyogo,1970/(Showa 45)KagawaThe village disappeared because the village that remained until the end enforced the town system.For a long time, these two prefectures had no villages,2004/(16)HiroshimaStarting with the disappearance of the village in Heisei, the village disappeared in 11 prefectures due to the great merger of Heisei.As a result, the number of prefectures without villages was 13 prefectures, which was a quarter of all prefectures.

List of prefectures without villages
RegionPrefecture nameExtinction dateRemarks
Kanto regionTochigi prefecture flag Tochigi2006/(18)3/20Flag of Kuriyama Tochigi.JPGKuriyama VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Nikko, Tochigi.svg NikkoBe part of.
Chubu regionIshikawa Prefecture Flag Ishikawa2005/(17)3/1Yanagita VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Noto, Ishikawa.svg Noto TownBe part of.
Fukui prefecture flag Fukui20063/3Nadasho VillageDue to the new mergerEmblem of Oi, Fukui.svg Oi TownBe part of.
Shizuoka prefecture flag Shizuoka20057/1Yongsan VillageBut,Flag of Hamamatsu, Shizuoka.svg Hamamatsu cityMerged into.
KinkiMie prefecture flag Mie20061/10UdonomuraDue to the new mergerFlag of Kiho Mie.JPG New systemKihochoBe part of.
Miyagawa VillageIs a new system due to a new mergerFlag of Odai Mie.png OdaimachiBe part of.
Shiga prefecture flag Shiga20051/1Kuchiki VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Takashima Shiga.JPG TakashimaBe part of.
Hyogo prefecture flag Hyogo1962/(37)4/1Due to the enforcement of the town system in AyamuraFlag of Harima, Hyogo.svg Harima TownBecomes
ChugokuHiroshima prefecture flag Hiroshima2004/(16)11/5Toyomatsu VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Jinsekigogen Hiroshima.JPG Kamiishi Kogen TownBe part of.
Yamaguchi prefecture flag Yamaguchi 20063/20Hongo VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Iwakuni, Yamaguchi.svg IwakuniBe part of.
Shikoku regionKagawa prefecture flag Kagawa1970/(45)2/15(Old) due to the enforcement of the town system in Saita VillageZaita TownBecomes
→2006/(18)1/1, New systemFlag of Mitoyo, Kagawa.svg MitoyoBecomes
Ehime prefecture flag Ehime20051/16Asakura VillageとSekizen VillageIs a new system due to a new mergerFlag of Imabari Ehime.svg ImabariBe part of.
Kyushu regionSaga Prefecture Flag Saga20063/20Sifuri VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Kanzaki Saga.JPG KanzakiBe part of.
Nagasaki Prefecture Flag Nagasaki200510/1Oshima villageDue to the new mergerFlag of Hirado, Nagasaki.svg Hirado CityBe part of.

History

1889/(Meiji 22), alongside the prefectural systemMeiji constitutionAs the local system below,Hokkaido-OkinawaOn the mainland exceptMunicipal system and municipal system(Law No. 21, April 4, 25) came into effect. They areLocal governmentAs a law targeting municipalities andAdministrationOffice workPolicemenLocal government system (Meiji 19Royal Decree No. 54) has been established separately.

1911/(Meiji 44)Municipal system(Act No. 44 of April 4, 7)Municipal system(Law No. 44 of April 4, 7) and has undergone major revisions since then.

1947/(Showa 22)Local government lawIt was abolished due to the enactment, but it is said that there is still a "disposal that the town (village) becomes a city""Municipal system enforcementIs the remnant of this.

At the time of the 2015 census, 91% of Japan's total population lived in cities and the remaining 9% lived in towns and villages.In terms of area ratio, 57% are cities and 43% are towns and villages.The proportion of cities in the population ratio gradually increased from 1947% in 33 immediately after the end of the war to 2000% in 79 after the great merger of Showa and the progress of urbanization.On the other hand, in the 2000 years since 15, after the Great Heisei Consolidation, the proportion of towns and villages that exceeded 7% of the area ratio decreased, the proportion of cities doubled, and the proportion of towns and villages in the population ratio decreased to about one-third. Diminished.

Changes in the ratio of cities, towns and villages to the whole country
AnnualArea (%)Population (people)
Source: Census ---   city,   Town / village
2015/
2000/
1947/

History of merger of municipalities

1950/Items after (25) are listed on each of the following pages in list format.

Before that,Category: Japanese countiesEach of the followingcountyItems (not belonging to the countyTokyo islandsRefer to items such as each municipality.

Requirements

Requirements to be a city

The towns and villagesCityIn order to be, the following requirements must be met (8 article(Item 1).

  • Population over 5. However1965/After (40),Law on special cases of merger of municipalities(Heisei 16Under the new law of Law No. 59, if the provisions of Article 7) are applied, it will be over 3.
  • There are more than 6% of all units in the central city area.
  • More than 6% of the total population is engaged in commerce, industry and other urban formats and those who belong to the same household.
  • ConcernedPrefectures OfOrdinanceIt has urban facilities and other urban requirements specified in.

Requirements to be a town

VillagetownIn order to become, the prefectures to which the village belongs must meet each requirement (population, number of consecutive units or consecutive rates, required public offices, etc., employment population ratio by industry, etc.) (Article 8) 2). The population requirement is most in 5000 prefectures, followed by 8000 prefectures.

There are no special rules regarding village requirements.If it does not meet the conditions for becoming a town, it is automatically a village.

Population requirements for becoming a town

Lower limitPrefectures(* The presence or absence of a village is as of 2010/22)
There is a villageNo village
1 million 5,000 peopleTochigi prefecture flag Tochigi
1 million 0,000 peopleIwate prefecture flag Iwate Gunma prefecture flag Gunma Tokyo flag Tokyo Niigata Prefecture Flag NiigataFukui prefecture flag Fukui Kagawa prefecture flag Kagawa
8,000Aomori prefecture flag Aomori Yamagata prefecture flag Yamagata Fukushima flag Fukushima Nagano Prefecture Flag Nagano Osaka Prefecture Flag Osaka
Nara prefecture flag Nara Shimane prefecture flag Shimane Kochi prefecture flag Kochi Oita Prefecture Flag Oita Okinawa prefecture flag Okinawa
Ishikawa Prefecture Flag Ishikawa Shizuoka prefecture flag Shizuoka
7,000Saga Prefecture Flag Saga
5,000Hokkaido flag Hokkaido Miyagi prefecture flag Miyagi Akita prefecture flag Akita Ibaraki prefecture flag Ibaraki Saitama prefecture flag Saitama
Chiba prefecture flag Chiba Kanagawa prefecture flag Kanagawa Yamanashi prefecture flag Yamanashi Gifu Prefecture Flag Gifu Aichi prefecture flag Aichi
Kyoto Prefecture Flag Kyoto Wakayama prefecture flag Wakayama Tokushima prefecture flag Tokushima Fukuoka prefecture flag Fukuoka Kumamoto prefecture flag Kumamoto
Miyazaki Prefecture Flag Miyazaki Kagoshima prefecture flag Kagoshima
Mie prefecture flag Mie Shiga prefecture flag Shiga Yamaguchi prefecture flag Yamaguchi Ehime prefecture flag Ehime
4,000Tottori prefecture flag TottoriHiroshima prefecture flag Hiroshima Nagasaki Prefecture Flag Nagasaki
3,000Toyama Prefecture Flag Toyama Okayama prefecture flag OkayamaHyogo prefecture flag Hyogo

In principle, this is the case of a single town system, and some prefectures have established special cases to promote mergers.

Transition to city/town

In order for a town/village to become a city or a village to become a town, based on the application of the relevant municipalityPrefectural governor Prefectural assemblyImmediately after the decisionMinister of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsReport to Article 8 (3).

Transition is not obligatory. For exampleIbarakiMiuraとTokai villageBoth meet the requirements to be a town (Ibaraki Prefecture has a population requirement of 5000), but they are not towns.

"Transition" due to abandonment

When a town or village is abandoned and at the same time a new city or town is created, the town or village appears to have "migrated" to it. However, in this case, the old towns/villages and the new cities/towns are separate local public bodies even if they have the same name (excluding the “city”, “town”, and “village” parts), and the legality is not continuous.

actuallyAbandonmentAlthough such cases occur due to (merging/transferring, so-called municipal mergers), it is not obligatory to select a new municipality even if it meets the requirements of the city or town.Great Heisei mergerBecame the first new "village" inKumamotoMinamiaso villageHas a population more than double the population requirement (3 people) to become a town due to the merger of the three former villages,Mount AsoNango ValleyWe chose to be a village with an emphasis on the natural environment and the image of rural areas.

"Relegation" to a town/village

"Demotion" due to migration

If a city that does not meet the requirements after becoming a city becomes a town or village, or if a city that does not meet the requirements after becoming a town becomes a village, follow the same procedure as above for moving to a city or town. Take (Article 8 paragraph 3). When a city becomes a town or village, or a town becomes a village, some tasks can be transferred to the prefectural jurisdiction. This can be expected to reduce the burden, but on the other handLocal allocation taxThere is a demerit that the amount of delivery will be reduced, and the amount of office work such as changing the notation of staff business cards and printed materials will occur.

According to the Local Autonomy Law, there is no difference in the “case” or hierarchical relationships between municipalities. Therefore, there is no concept of "demotion" or "promotion", but the consciousness that the city feels higher than the town/village and the town feels higher than the village exists among the residents.[4].. For these reasons, in order to avoid negative impacts on motivation of residents and staff, attachment to the local area, image, etc., it is unlikely that migration to towns and villages will be considered in the first place, 2019 (Reiwa 4) There is no example that has been done so far. For example, at the peak, it had a population of about 6000.HokkaidoUtashinai CityIs below the population requirement (5000 people) to become a town due to the later depopulation, but it is not a village and suffers from serious financial difficulties.2006/Hokkaido where the transition to the town was examined in earnest (18)YubariBut in the end it wasn't selected[5].

"Demotion" due to decommissioning

When a city or town is abandoned and a new town or village is created at the same time, it appears that the city or town has been “relegated” to a town or village. However, in this case, the old city/town and the new town/village are separate local public bodies even if they have the same name (excluding the “city”, “town”, and “village” parts), and the legal personality is not continuous. In fact otherAbandonmentThere is such a case when the or boundary change is involved. For example, the following examples are given.

Shibuya Town, Kanagawa Prefecture →Shibuya Village(CurrentYamato)
Part of the town area was transferred to another city, the remaining town area was abolished, and at the same time a new village was established.
Miyata Town, Nagano Prefecture →Komagane→Miyata
After becoming a city by merging with other local governments, it was separated and reestablished as a new village.

As a case where "demotion" is avoided,Kami TownThere is.Great Heisei mergerAt the time of MiyagiKami-gunThen.Nakashinta Town,Onoda Town,Miyazaki Town,Sima TownThere was a plan to create Kami city by merging four towns. However, because Sekima-cho left the merger talks on the way, the total population fell below 4 and the conditions of the municipal system were not met, and the density of buildings in the center did not meet the requirements of the town prescribed by the prefectural ordinance. However, it was said that the merger would "regrade" to the village. There is no difference in “rank” between cities, towns, or villages, but the terms “demotion” and “promotion” are used in the news of Nishinihon Shimbun, for example, and the voices of the citizens who say “sorry” or “poor story” are covered. It was being done. As a result of amending the prefectural ordinance, it was finally decided to merge as Kami-cho.[4].

Features

The municipalities areSelf-governmentAndOrdinance,RuleHas the autonomy legislative power to enact etc.

Differences between cities, towns and villages

Regarding the handling under the Local Autonomy Law, there is no big difference between the names of cities, towns and villages. Rather, there are large differences in population size and administrative capacity between cities that share the same name,Government-designated city,Core cityandSpecial city(The system was abolished in 2015 and integrated into the core city system. However, there are transitional measures) and the special provisions regarding the distribution of office work and the administrative district system (only for ordinance-designated cities) are established (252-19,Article 252-20), is very different from other cities and towns.

Municipalities do not have parliamentary ordinances, but instead are general meetings of voters.Municipal general meetingCan be provided (Articles 94 and 95 of the same law), but there are only a few examples. A case of Ashinoyu Village (now part of Hakone Town) in Ashigarashimo District, Kanagawa Prefecture under the enforcement of the town and village system, and Utsuki Village (current part of Hachijo Town. (See section)) has been reported.2006/(Heisei18 years) with multiple debtFiscal rebuilding organizationKiso County, Nagano PrefectureOtaki VillageHave been considered as a bill (rejection in the parliamentary resolution).

6 villages in the Northern Territories

Russia Effective dominationdoingNorthern TerritoriesHas 6 villages in Japan[6].. However, it has lost its function as a basic municipality in Japan, and can only perform business related to family register.NemuroIs acting on your behalf.

Main infrastructure

As a voting body for municipalitiesMunicipal assemblyBut as an executive agencyMayor, VariousAdministrative committeeAnd so on. Municipalities have no councilsVoting rightIt is also possible to set up a general meeting of all persons.Chief(Mayor,Mayor, The village chief,special areaWard mayor)WhenLocal assemblyDepends on the residentselectionElected by.

"Towns" and "villages" of local governments and "towns" and "villages" of villages

In Japan, apart from the "towns" and "villages" that are local public organizations, in the area (lower)VillageOr in the cityBlockThere are a group of "towns" and "villages".Most of them, even if they are official, except as described below.wordLike (bruises), it does not have legal personality and is only a geographical area.When writing the address, "○○ city〇〇 townWith the name of the city, ward, town, and village, such as "○○ address"addressDesignated as a level between.

When distinguishing by statistical field, the former is referred to as an administrative town or village, and the latter is referred to as an administrative village.Town streetIt may be called (butterfly).An example that the government office officially defines as an address notation such as a resident's card, and an example that is used in addressing and local events as a common name that has been familiar for a long time apart from the official notation (the postal code classification is set by the common name) It may be)[7][8].

There are a large number of "towns" in the plot name, and a relatively small number of "villages" (Village # Former administrative village that remains in the place nameSee).HistoricallyEdo PeriodSome of them are derived from the towns and villages of Japan, but they are often abandoned for a long time and do not have a simple correspondence.Also, the names of towns and villages in the Edo period wereLarge printHowever, it may remain.

It is also a subordinate organization of municipalities.Local autonomous district,Special merger wardAs a "~ town" may be established.The special merger zone has legal personality andspecial areaSame asSpecial local governmentAnd in most cases it was an independent municipality until very recently.

How to read "town" and "village"

"town"Is"Butterfly"Or"Town","village"Is"So"Or"MuraHowever, the reading is clearly defined for each town and village.

Basically, the reading of “town” and “village” tends to be fixed in each prefecture, but there may be a small number of exceptions due to phonological relations and customs.

There are variations in how to read "town", but all the towns in the Kanto region are "towns", and the towns in the Kinki and Shikoku regions are "cho".Excluding HokkaidoEast JapanThere are many "towns", but especiallyIwateとMiyagiThen, both are mixed in a ratio that cannot be said to be large. vice versa,West JapanTends to have a lot of "butterflies",KyusyuHowever, there is no clear law because there are variations in each prefecture.

The reading of “village” is fixed for each prefecture except Kagoshima prefecture. Everything from eastern Japan to the Kinki region is "mura", but in some parts of western Japan it is "son", and Okinawa Prefecture, which has 19 villages, is all "son".

Reading of "town"

* Of the mixed examples, when the same reading accounts for about 8% or more of the total number of towns in each prefecture, the reading on the majority side is shown, and the rest is noted as an exception. In addition, when listing individually, the multiple side is on the upper side.

RegionName of prefecturesreadingRemarks
Hokkaido regionHokkaido flag HokkaidoButterfly**129 towns out of all 128 towns.Mori TownOnly one town is "town"
Tohoku regionAomori prefecture flag AomoriTown※*22 towns out of all 19 towns.Oirase Town-Nanbu Town-Hashikami3 towns are "chou"
Iwate prefecture flag IwateMixedButterflyShizukuishi Town-Shiwa Town-Yahaba Town-Kanegasaki Town-Hiraizumi Town-Sumita Town-Otsuchi Town-Iwaizumi Town-Hirono Town(9 towns)
TownKuzumaki-Iwate-Nishiwaga Town-Yamada Town-Karumai Town-Ichinohe(6 towns)
Miyagi prefecture flag MiyagiTownMisato Town-Kami Town-Matsushima Town-Shichigahama Town-Kawasaki Town-Murata-Okawara Town-Shibata Town-Marumori Town-Zao Town-Shichikashuku Town(11 towns)
ButterflyRifu Town-Yamato Town-Osato Town-Watari Town-Yamamoto Town-Onagawa-Sima Town-Wakuya Town-Minamisanriku Town(9 towns)
Akita prefecture flag AkitaTownGojome Town-Hachirogata Town-Igawa Town-Fujisato-Ugo Town-Kosaka Town(6 towns)
ButterflyMisato Town-Santan Town-Happo Town(3 towns)[Annotation 2]
Yamagata prefecture flag YamagataTown※*19 towns out of all 18 towns.KawakitaOnly one town is "chou"
Fukushima flag FukushimaTown(All 31 towns)
Kanto regionIbaraki prefecture flag Ibaraki(All 10 towns)
Tochigi prefecture flag Tochigi(All 11 towns)
Gunma prefecture flag Gunma(All 15 towns)
Saitama prefecture flag Saitama(All 22 towns)
Chiba prefecture flag Chiba(All 16 towns)
Tokyo flag Tokyo(All 5 towns)
Kanagawa prefecture flag Kanagawa(All 13 towns)
Chubu regionNiigata Prefecture Flag Niigata(All 6 towns)
Toyama Prefecture Flag Toyama(All 4 towns)
Ishikawa Prefecture Flag IshikawaMixedTownKawakita Town-Tsubata Town-Uchinada Town-Shiga Town-Nakanoto Town-Anamizu Town(6 towns)
ButterflyHodatsu Shimizu Town-Noto Town(2 towns)[Annotation 2]
Fukui prefecture flag FukuiButterfly(All 8 towns)
Yamanashi prefecture flag YamanashiButterfly**8 towns out of all 7 towns.Fujikawaguchiko TownOnly one town is "town"
Nagano Prefecture Flag NaganoTown※*23 towns out of all 22 towns.AnanOnly one town is "chou"
Gifu Prefecture Flag GifuButterfly(All 19 towns)
Shizuoka prefecture flag ShizuokaButterfly**12 towns out of all 11 towns.Mori TownOnly one town is "town"
Aichi prefecture flag AichiButterfly(All 14 towns)
KinkiMie prefecture flag Mie(All 15 towns)
Shiga prefecture flag Shiga(All 6 towns)
Kyoto Prefecture Flag Kyoto(All 10 towns)
Osaka Prefecture Flag Osaka(All 9 towns)
Hyogo prefecture flag Hyogo(All 12 towns)
Nara prefecture flag Nara(All 15 towns)
Wakayama prefecture flag Wakayama(All 20 towns)
ChugokuTottori prefecture flag Tottori(All 14 towns)
Shimane prefecture flag Shimane Butterfly**10 towns out of all 9 towns.KawamotoOnly one town is "town"
Okayama prefecture flag OkayamaButterfly(All 10 towns)
Hiroshima prefecture flag Hiroshima(All 9 towns)
Yamaguchi prefecture flag Yamaguchi (All 6 towns)
Shikoku regionTokushima prefecture flag Tokushima(All 15 towns)
Kagawa prefecture flag Kagawa(All 9 towns)
Ehime prefecture flag Ehime(All 9 towns)
Kochi prefecture flag Kochi(All 17 towns)
Kyushu regionFukuoka prefecture flag FukuokaTown※*30 towns out of all 29 towns.Onga TownOnly one town is "chou"
Saga Prefecture Flag SagaButterfly**10 towns out of all 9 towns.Kohoku TownOnly one town is "town"
Nagasaki Prefecture Flag NagasakiButterfly(All 8 towns)
Kumamoto prefecture flag KumamotoTown※*23 towns out of all 20 towns.Asagiri Town-Yamato-cho-Hikawa Town3 towns are "chou"[Annotation 2]
Oita Prefecture Flag OitaTown(All 3 towns)
Miyazaki Prefecture Flag MiyazakiButterfly(All 14 towns)
Kagoshima prefecture flag Kagoshima(All 20 towns)
Okinawa regionOkinawa prefecture flag Okinawa(All 11 towns)

Reading of "village" (Son / Mura)

Prefectures that do not have any villages are omitted from the table.

RegionName of prefecturesreadingRemarks
Hokkaido regionHokkaido flag HokkaidoMura(15 villages in total)
Tohoku regionAomori prefecture flag Aomori(8 villages in total)
Iwate prefecture flag Iwate(5 villages in total)
Miyagi prefecture flag Miyagi■Ohira VillageOnly one village
Akita prefecture flag Akita(3 villages in total)
Yamagata prefecture flag Yamagata(3 villages in total)
Fukushima flag Fukushima(15 villages in total)
Kanto regionIbaraki prefecture flag Ibaraki(2 villages in total)
Gunma prefecture flag Gunma(8 villages in total)
Saitama prefecture flag Saitama■HigashichichibuOnly one village
Chiba prefecture flag Chiba■Chosei VillageOnly one village
Tokyo flag Tokyo(8 villages)
Kanagawa prefecture flag Kanagawa■Kiyokawa VillageOnly one village
Chubu regionNiigata Prefecture Flag Niigata(4 villages in total)
Toyama Prefecture Flag Toyama■Funabashi VillageOnly one village
Yamanashi prefecture flag Yamanashi(6 villages in total)
Nagano Prefecture Flag Nagano(35 villages in total)
Gifu Prefecture Flag Gifu(2 villages in total)
Aichi prefecture flag Aichi(2 villages in total)
KinkiKyoto Prefecture Flag Kyoto■Minamiyamashiro VillageOnly one village
Osaka Prefecture Flag Osaka■Chihaya Akasaka VillageOnly one village
Nara prefecture flag Nara(12 villages in total)
Wakayama prefecture flag Wakayama■Kitayama VillageOnly one village
ChugokuTottori prefecture flag TottoriSo■Hiyoshitsu VillageOnly one village
Shimane prefecture flag Shimane Mura■Tomio VillageOnly one village
Okayama prefecture flag OkayamaSo(2 villages in total)
Shikoku regionTokushima prefecture flag Tokushima■Sanagawauchi VillageOnly one village
Kochi prefecture flag KochiMura(6 villages in total)
Kyushu regionFukuoka prefecture flag Fukuoka(2 villages in total)
Kumamoto prefecture flag Kumamoto(8 villages in total)
Oita Prefecture Flag Oita■Himejima villageOnly one village
Miyazaki Prefecture Flag MiyazakiSo(3 villages in total)
Kagoshima prefecture flag KagoshimaMixedMuraMishima village-Toshima Village(2 villages)
SoYamato Village-Uken Village(2 villages)
Okinawa regionOkinawa prefecture flag OkinawaSo(19 villages in total)

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office What is (office)?Office workThe room where the work is done.The office,Secretariat,officeEtc. Also generallyBusinessFacilityIn that case, I also used the officeFacility-House(buildingEtc.) is often referred to.

Overview

WesternThen.office Work in the (office) includes organizational management, rules, planning, public works,Board Member,LawyerIt may have the meaning of work such as office work. Also, it may have the meaning of work or work dedicated to one person.

製造工場And storesCommercial facilityEven in such cases, the office is the place where office work is performed to support it. To work in the officeOffice work(Office work). A building created mainly for the purpose of performing office workoffice buildingTo design the office itselfOffice designThat.

As described above, the office also has a morphological meaning representing a place or a space facility and a conceptual meaning representing a functional aspect such as performing business information processing.Information and communication technology,ComputerWith the development of, it has become possible to perform information processing "anytime" and "anywhere", so a conceptual office created on a computer can be created.Virtual office(Virtual office,Virtual office).

With the development of computers in the office, the meaning of the place of intellectual labor is becoming more important.Advance Your CareerAt the site depends on the office environmentIntellectual productivityImprovement is coming to be questioned.

Office space elements

Working space

The form of the work space (work space) is classified into several according to the presence or absence of the partition of each space, the height, face-to-face or non-face-to-face, and how they are arranged.

Other elements

footnote

  1. ^ Open office, Shogakukan, "Digital Daijisen" (recorded by Koto Bank), viewed June 2019, 6
  2. ^ Stallings, William (2016). Foundations of modern networking: SDN, NFV, QoE, IoT, and CloudFlorence Agboma, Sofiene Jelassi. Indianapolis, Indiana. ISBN 978-0-13-417547-8. OCLC 927715441. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/927715441 

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