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Carefully selected Taiwanese designer brands gathered together

 
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"Fresh Taiwan" is the driving force to convey Taiwan's cultural soft power, and participates in exhibitions in various markets such as Europe, North America, Japan, mainland China, and Southeast Asia.
 

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia(Finally Asia,English: Southeast Asia, Southeastern Asia) IsEast AsiaThansouth,South AsiaThanto East Malaysia OfAsiaRefers to the area.Indochina Peninsula,Malay Peninsula,Indonesian Islands,Philippine IslandsWith AsiaIslands Southeast AsiaIt is divided into

Map of Southeast Asia

the term

The term Southeast Asia is relatively new, first appearing in the 1830s. Geography and history at that time were biased toward national theory and rule theory, and initially became popular only as archaeological and ethnographic terms.[2].. It was generalized as a geographic concept in 1942.AlliesThe military has "Southeast Asia Command"CeylonIt was set up in, and became officially politically named as the name of the operational area of ​​the Allied Forces that promotes post-war processing. However, even now, in British English and French, the concept of Southeast Asia often does not include islands.[3]..In Japanese travel guides, etc., "Hong Kong-Macau-TaiwanEtc. ", but usuallyEast AsiaWill be treated as.

Geography

climate

Mostly above 25 degrees CelsiusKöppen climate classificationSay熱 帯[Annotation 1]And a sudden thunderstorm peculiar to the tropics,SquallIs often seen in the rainy season. The islands that belong to the moist tropics have a lot of rainfall all year round, but the continental areas andIndochina Peninsula Themonsoon[Annotation 2]Under the influence ofSavanna climateThe rainy season and the dry season are clear.

Environmental classification

Rainforest-Islands from the Philippine Islands to Borneo, the northern half of Sulawesi, western Java, Sumatra, the Arakan coast, the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. It is a treasure trove of plants due to high temperatures exceeding 25 degrees Celsius and heavy rainfall of 2000 to 4000 mm per year.

Tropical Highlands-Pamas (South Sumatra), Minangkabau (West Sumatra) and other basins in the Sumatra Mountains of Sumatra are around 1500 meters high, humid but cool climate. People have lived in the area for a long time and intensive rice cultivation has been carried out.

Coastal Lowlands-The coast of the rainforest is peat forest except for dunesmangroveAlthough it is not suitable for agriculture in the forest, it is a base for fishing and shipping along with the sand dunes.

Savannah Plain-In continental Southeast Asia, due to the influence of the dry northeast monsoon, there is a strong dry season in winter, and there are many rainy green forests that grow in the rainy season and fall in the dry season. The Burmese plain becomes arid due to the influence of the southwest monsoon. Plain upland farming has progressed since the old days, and irrigation using running water from the surrounding mountains has been developed. In the Korat Plain and Cambodia Plain in northeastern Thailand, rainy green forests are formed although there is a difference in precipitation between the rainy season and the dry season. In the summer, there is long-term precipitation, and rain-fed rice cultivation is widespread.

Delta-The three major deltas (Iwaraj, Chao Playa, Mekong)Savannah climateIs. There is almost no rainfall in the dry season. However, in the rainy season, rivers cause floods.

Country name list

The nations belonging to Southeast Asia are listed below. capital Notated in the order of.

History

See below for the history of each Southeast Asian country.

Indonesian history - Cambodian history - History of Singapore - Thai history - Philippine history - Brunei history - Vietnamese history - Malaysian history - Myanmar history - Laos history - History of East Timor

Original history of Southeast Asia

The history of Southeast Asia is often written as the history of each country. But especially in the Malay Peninsula and the islands, the territories of each country19st centuryから20st centuryTo the beginningWesternGreat powerColonyThe result of dividing Southeast Asia based on the principle was later recognized as an independent nation, and it can be said that it has a very strong political color.

The history of Southeast Asia departs from the history of such political modern nations and, in other words, the history of the traditional political sphere, the political and cultural center of the city and its surrounding spheres.Historical zoneIs the target. Also, originally this areaFeudalism,Centralization,emperorDifferent from tyranny,Mandala theoryIn recent years, it has been emphasized that the region has a multi-layered power structure that is clarified by the theory. AlsoJapanSome relationships withFirst ResidentCame toPacific WarEntered each country inHigh economic growth periodThere is something very deep, such as a large number of companies entering the market.

Stone age

Human culture in Southeast Asia is in the latter half of 2 to 3 years agoPaleolithicYou can start from. This is because you can get traces of human life in caves and ledges in both continents and islands.

In the continental part, it can be traced to the Songvi culture, Hoangbin culture, Baxon culture, and Daboot culture in northern Vietnam.Sonvie cultureMainly stone tools that are cut out around the gravel. Discovered in the old province,Radiocarbon datingThen, it was 2 to 1 years ago.Polished stonewareBecause it is not accompanied byPaleolithicBelongs to. nextHoa Binh cultureIs a culture named after the cave and rock shelters in Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam. In addition to the original form of stone tools, it is characterized by advanced forms such as Smatrias, and partially ground stone tools also appear. Seashells (freshwater) on food debrisSnail,snails), Accompanied by a layer of animal bone.

Dating is almost 1 to 1000 years ago,Mesolithic cultureLocated in. This culture is from all over the continent to the Malay Peninsula,SumatraWidely distributed. Found in the Baxon Mountains, Lan Son ProvinceBaxon cultureIt is,Blade ground stone axIs the main subject. SometimesEarthenwareAccompanied by. Thanh Hoa ProvinceTabooThe ruins are big freshwaterShell moundThere are few changes in stone tools at the ruins, but the important change is the appearance of earthenware. There are few things that can be seen as a whole, but it is a round deep bowl shape. Thick, soft and unpatterned, there are traces of fibers wound around the stick that is struck by the slamming technique. This technique went south from China. It is about 6000 years ago in the radiocarbon dating. Nghe AnQuinn VanThe ruins are large shell mounds of sea snails, accompanied by stone tools that smash large stones, a small amount of ground stone ax, and coarsely pointed earthenware. The radiocarbon dating is 4700 years ago.

Agriculture

Southeast Asia is basically a lot of ethnic groupsAgriculture raceIs. Agriculture began in Vietnam about 4000 years ago, and even around the present Kingdom of Thailand, agriculture began around 300 BC. Even in Cambodia, it was one of the leading rice-growing areas in Southeast Asia around the 4th century. Southeast Asia is still one of the world's leading agricultural nations.

Influence of China and India and establishment of traditional nation

Southeast Asia (excluding the Philippines) is located in the middle of the trade route between China and India, and has developed as a relay point for a long time, and traditional nations are established in various places under the cultural influence of China or India. become(Indianization), After that, each achieved its own historical development. The ancient Indians called this land "Golden State" or "Golden Land (Swannapum)", and the Chinese called it "Nankai".

Political forces in Southeast Asian watersHonanViaSouthern ChinaIn the first half of the 6th century, countries were formed in the South China Sea, the Malay Peninsula, the Straits of Malacca, Java, and Bali, respectively.[Annotation 3]He came to have direct negotiations with him and began to actively tribute to him. However, the Chinese perception of Southeast Asia remains on the islands or continental coasts.Port city nationIt was a world of groups.

Since the end of the 4th century, Indian thought has influenced the royal power system itself in Southeast Asia. From the 4th century to the 6th century, inscriptions using the South Indian alphabet appeared in various parts of Southeast Asia. In the islands of East Kalimantan in the 4th centuryKutai KingdomThe Mula Valman inscription is excavated from, and the Bourna Valman inscription is excavated from around Bogor in West Java. In the Mekong Delta, a group of inscriptions collectively called "Funan inscriptions" was excavated in the 5th and 6th centuries. AlsoOkeoThe statues of Indian gods and Buddhas found in various places, including the above, prove the large-scale influx of Indian thought.

Colonization by Western powers

19st century, By Western powers in Southeast Asian countriesColonyThe conversion was promoted. As you can see below, various control systems have been adopted in each region, but there are often three points in common: "", "complex society", and "division." In other words, there are three points: the coexistence of the modern capitalist economy and the traditional agricultural economy, the social composition based on ethnic diversity, the preservation of order by the former rulers, and the division and indirect rule using it.

Looking at the characteristics of colonization by region, first of all, the area around Java and Sumatra (Greater Sunda IslandsIn the south), only certain ports and coastal areas were dominated in the early 19th century, but graduallyUnited Kingdom- NetherlandsThe competition for control between them began to intensify. The Dutch governmentJavaでsugar cane,coffee,tobaccoThe local farmers were forced into poverty by exploitation. Along with that, resistance wars began in various places from the end of the 19th century.20st centuryIt occurred frequently until the beginning.

In the northern and western parts of BorneoEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euSultan gave local sovereignty as a reward to the oppressors of the tribal rebellion, so the current state of Sarawak is a nation by the White King.Kingdom of SarawakWas established, and the current state of Sabah was colonized by Britain, who boarded in the name of Sikh protection. In southern Borneo, it is the first Hakka republic in Asia.Lanfang RepublicExisted, but Lanfang Republic's foreign policyclearIt uses the authority of the dynasty,Opium WarWhen Qing was defeated, he was attacked by the Netherlands and was destroyed.

In the Philippine Islands, the chieftainLapu-LapuBut once due to skillful tacticsMagellanDefeated his army, but was gradually eroded by Spanish forces, and the defeat of Brunei weakened Islamic authority, which determined it. Under Spanish governanceSpainUnder a large landowner centered on peopleKosakuFarmers are forced to work hardHacienda systemWas rampant. Emerging landowners and intellectuals have rebelled against these social contradictions, (1892 Formed) and other nationalist movements.1898 OfUS-West WarWonAmericaWith the cooperation ofEmilio AguinaldoAnnounced the Philippines Declaration of Independence and became the first president. However, after that, Aguinaldo was captured after being cracked down by the United States claiming territory.

Malay PeninsulaWas colonized during the Portuguese conquest of Malacca in 1511 and later became British. Singapore prospered as a British trade and military hub.

Since Cambodia has been suffering from severe pressures from both Vietnam and Thailand since the last century, and there were many dangers of land loss,Mekong RiverFeared that the country would be divided into two countriesAng Duongwith KingNorodomThe king himself became a French protectorate.

Vietnam is the last dynastyMorningWith the help of France and other powers when the country was founded, it later became a protectorate of France, and some became a crown colony.

In Laos, the enslaved kingdoms of Luang Prabang, Vientiane, and Champasak became French territories as a result of the Franco-Siamese War.

Myanmar invades Britain three times (Anglo-Burmese War), And was incorporated into a state of the British Indian Empire.

Thailand is England,FranceSuffered from the invasion of, but modernization policies such as politics and education and skillful diplomacy,Territory cededAt the cost of this, it became the only Southeast Asian country to maintain its independence and become a buffer state for Britain and France.

The establishment of such colonial rule caused a backlash from the local people, and from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the buds of nationalism were born in the Southeast Asian world, although there was a slow difference.

Pacific War

The reason why the name "Southeast Asia" became widely used was in 1942.AlliesIt was when the military set up the "Southeast Asian Command". There is no concept that covers the four colonies of British Burma and Malaya, French Indies, Dutch East Indies, American Philippines, and the Kingdom of Thailand, which are the areas of operation of the Japanese military, and the term "Southeast Asia" is used at this time. It was taken up. further,Pacific WarLater, it was politically formalized as the name of the Allied operational area for post-war processing. After this, it became widely used by "Southeast Asian" researchers, mainly in the United States, and eventually became commonly used.[4].. There were researchers who used the term "Southeast Asia" in Japan during the war, but in Japan before and during the war, it was often referred to as the "Southern" or "South Sea", including the current Pacific region. ..

Cooperation system of Southeast Asian countries after the establishment of ASEAN (ASEAN)

1967 In August, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. at first,Cold WarAn autonomous relationship with the structure andRegional conflictThe purpose is for a voluntary and peaceful solution (although all member states areAnti-communityWas), above all1975 OfSaigonAs a result of overcoming the tension after the fall, it has come to the attention of the international community. After that, along with the closer economic relations against the background of the powerful economic development of each country, the framework of regional economic cooperation centered on trade, resources, technology, etc. was established (expansion of preferential system in the region, reduction of tariffs, etc.) ) Has begun to proceed.

1986 February Revolution of the Philippines,1998 OfSuhartoThe democratization movement in Southeast Asia, which is seen in the resignation, is progressing rapidly, and Southeast Asian nations are accelerating the movement of their own political and cultural nation-building. Since the 1990s, the trend of building political populism and popular cultural nationalism has become prominent. Especially1999 By joining CambodiaASEAN10The establishment of the national territory was established and approved by both international and Southeast Asian countries. Since 1999, studies of Southeast Asian history have centered on the process of forming Southeast Asian nations.

言语

Works set in Southeast Asia

Excludes those created in Southeast Asian countries.

A movie dealing with the Vietnam WarSee also

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Areas where the average temperature in the coldest month is 18 degrees Celsius or higher
  2. ^ The southwest monsoon brings heavy rainfall in the summer and the northeast (northwest) monsoon in the winter.
  3. ^ Reign of Emperor Wu Zhong (502-549)

Source

References

  • Setsuho Ikehata (1994) "Approach to the History of Southeast Asia" Setsuho Ikehata, "The Changing History of Southeast Asia" Yamakawa Shuppansha.
  • Akira Nagazumi (1977) "History of Southeast Asia New Book Oriental History (7)" Kodansha.
  • Shiro Momoki (1996) "Southeast Asia as a Historical World" Yamakawa Shuppansha ISBN 978-4-63-434120-3

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