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Wasp

Wasp(Wasp, hornet)HymenopteraWasp familyBelongs to昆虫Out ofWasp subfamilyIt is a general term for those belonging to (Vespinae).

Wasp subfamilyBeeAmong them, relatively largeThere are many, and the nature is generally high in aggression. 1 animalQueen beeForm a large society centered on, and attack large animals to defend it.It is also known to be ferocious, warlike, and aggressively stabbing, but this is to protect the nest, and what seems to attack without doing anything is that humans are near the nest. Because you do n’t notice[1]..Wasp family is 4Genus67 species are knownJapanToHornets7 kinds,Vespula5 kinds,Dolichovespula4 species total 3 genera 16 species[2]Inhabit.According to Tatsuo Ogawara, a doctor of medicine, wasps are the leading cause of death in Japan due to wild animals in 2019.[3].

Wasps are from friends進化It is believed that it was donePotter wasp,Paper waspAlso belongs to the wasp family.The wasp familyAnt family,ApidaeIncluded in the same Hymenoptera.In the old classification, pollen wasps, potter wasps, and vespids are often placed under the superfamily Vespids, and of these three families, only the wasps live in society.[4]: 38.

WaspsHoney beeAlong withSocialA large bee with tens of thousands of growing roomsnestThere are also seeds to make.Unlike paper wasps, male bees do not work at all, and while the queen bee is alive, no other beesSpawningdo not.In the group that lost the queen bee, spawning by worker bees is also carried out, but all the bees that are born are male and the nest will be abolished soon.

Wasps are oldLaurasiaBorn and evolved inEurasia,North America,African continentWidely distributed in the north.The center of the distribution isSoutheast AsiaInBig hornet,ProvespaVarious species inhabit.OldGondwana ContinentIsOceaniaSouth AmericaOriginally there were no wild wasps, but nowOceania,South AmericaHowever, artificially invaded wasps are expanding their habitat.

Name

The name of "hornet" is "sparrowIt comes from "there is a lot" or "the pattern of the nest resembles the pattern of a sparrow".Also, depending on the region, it refers to a carpenter bee or a wasp.Carpenter bee'[5][6](Carpenter bee.WaspIs a different species[5]Carpenter bees are often confused with hornets in Japan because they are called ), but hornets are hornets.[7]Also,"Kamebachi"(From the shape of the nest).AlsoFormosanThen, because of the color of the body and head, it is called "hornets".

Proto-Indo-EuropeanIn terms derived from, the word meaning wasp comes from a common etymology.Latinof"scooter(Vespa) ”LithuanianStarting with "vapsva"Dutch"Wesp",German"Wespe",Englishof"WASP(ワ ス プ)",Spanishof"wasp(Avispa) "[Annotation 1] Is a word that means wasp.However, in English, not only wasps,AmmophilinaeIt is a term that refers to bees that hunt aggressively, including.

Another word for wasps in English, "hornet(Hornet) ”Is“ harnette ”,“ hernet ”, in the Middle Ages,Old englishThen it is spelled as "hyrnet" etc.[8], Related to Latin "crabro", "onis", etc.[9]..This word also refers to the carpenter bee in addition to the wasp.

Food habit

AdultFood is mainly at the end of lifeLarvaHugely developedSalivary glandsIt is a nutrient solution secreted from[10]..The solution contains 5-20 percent sugar and 1.3-1.8 percent soluble protein, which is close to the composition of human milk.During this nutrient deficiency and when the last-instar larvae are not yet growingCarbohydrateIngests nectar, sap, etc. that contain a large amount of.Insufficient food may use larvae as extra food[4]: 179..In addition, adults may exchange food in the body by mouth transfer, which is an important energy source for hunting.[4]: 184.

Also, in the fallBasidiomycetesKind ofmushroomIs a kind ofFruiting bodyInsidesporeLiquefied part containingGreva) Prefer to be ingested.It is believed to be an important dietary source of carbohydrates or proteins during the last instar larval reduction period.[11].

The food of the larva varies depending on the type, but basically otherInsectsIn many cases, small animals such as insects captured by adults and, in some cases, fresh vertebrate carcasses are cut and chewed into meat balls.However, as will be described later, in the paper wasp pupa and larvae-eating Vespa ducalis, instead of meatballs, the prey is chewed to produce body fluids.CropGive it to the larvae for (crop).Adults ingest nutrients by mouth transfer from larvae.

The giant hornet catches fewer insects and becomes very aggressive in the fall, when large numbers of drones and new queen bees must be bred, making it an exceptional group of wasps.Honey beeAttacks social beehives that form huge colonies such as Vespa simillima and Vespa simillima.

The giant hornet is a Japanese bee (Apis cerana) If you attack the nest, before the mass attackBee ballIf not repelled by, you can occupy the nest.Has little way to counter this speciesHoney bee (A. melliferaIn the case of), the offensive and defensive relationship is one-sided, and without the protection of a beekeeper, it is almost always annihilated (if there are dozens of giant hornets, 4 honeybees can be destroyed in about two hours. Be annihilated[12]).This is a factor that prevents Western honey bees from expanding in Japan, despite the fact that wild bees from breeding groups are becoming wild every year.In fact, the giant hornet does not inhabitOgasawara IslandsIt has been confirmed that the number of wild bees in the wild is increasing, and that they are oppressing and decreasing the native bees.Co-evolutionThere are concerns about adverse effects on endemic plants that depend on pollination.

Like the giant hornet, the giant hornet also attacks nests such as the Japanese giant hornet.In many cases, they fly around the nest mainly aiming at individuals who return to their nests or individuals who happen to be away from the group.In such a nest, a large number of Japanese honeybees gather around the nest mouth and take alert, and when the Vespa simillima approaches within about 15 cm, a wave that shakes the wings while raising the abdomen occurs starting from the nearest individual, and a group The whole makes an intermittent humming sound.Hunting in the immediate vicinity of such large populations is also very dangerous for Vespa simillima, so it is observed to be very careful not to approach the population more than necessary.[Source required]..After successfully catching a working bee, the next moment it flies away very quickly with its prey, carrying it to a place far enough away from the population, such as a tall tree branch, and then chewing it again.On the other hand, if it takes a little time to capture, it is often attacked by a group of Japanese bees that notice it and steamed inside the bee ball.

Vespula flaviceps are known to bring not only live insects, but also frogs and snakes, as well as grilled fish and boiled eggs eaten by humans to their nests.[4]: 160.

Natural enemies, predators and competitors

WaspNatural enemyBesides humans as predatorsWild bird,Chicken,bear[13]Can be mentioned.Also for insects that prey on waspsMantis,OniyamaSuch as largeDragonfly,ク モ,Robber fly,ScallopHowever, there are records of both predator-prey and prey on the relationship with these insects.However, there are not many cases where wasps are preyed on, and large dragonflies such as Anotogaster sieboldii, which have many records of predating wasps, also have a limited habitat, so it is rare to witness the scene in nature.[Annotation 2]..When wasps collect in the sap, they attack small beetles (pseudotorynorrhea, stag beetle, etc.), while attacking large beetles (beetles, large stag beetles, longhorn beetles, etc.), although they are not predatory. There is also a risk of being killed by a counterattack, and there are few cases of approaching from the side of the wasp.Especially from July to August, when the activity of beetles is at its peak, there are scenes where the feeding grounds are driven away and the good position is monopolized.In addition to large beetles, it is also an insect that drives away wasps.OmurasakiThere is.OmurasakiBecause they collect in the sap, they compete with wasps for feeding, but it is known that males with a strong temper spread their wings to drive out wasps.

As an organism that parasitizes this speciesFungi,Nematode[Annotation 3]and so on.Life historyLooking throughParasitismUnusual for many insectsParasiteIsStrepsipteraThere are () etc.Worker bees parasitized by Strepsiptera live a little longer and survive the winter, but rather take a life history that matches Strepsiptera.[13].

Bees are examples of parasitoids that prey on larvae.The hornet lays eggs on its leaves, which are eaten by larvae such as moths, and then brought back to the hornet's nest to feed the larvae, and parasitism begins.[13]..ofbeetleAlso has this habit.

Often in wasp nestsTortoiseshell hoverfliesLarvae parasitize and feed on excrement and carcasses of adults and larvae discarded at the bottom of the nest during the nesting period.When the nest is in decline in late autumn, it invades the upper part of the nest and preys on live larvae to grow.Also, the new queen bee hibernating by digging a wintering room in Kutsuki is oftenClick beetlePredated by beetle larvae.Ants are also natural enemies and may abandon their nests if attacked, especially when the number of worker bees is small in the early stages of nesting.As a result, several queen bees may jointly start nesting.[13]: 58.

MeigaFellow(Pyraloid moth) Pyralis regalisHypsopygia mauritialis Parasitizes the hornet's nest.

hawkIs a type ofHoney bearAttacks wasp nests, brings back nest boards, and feeds on larvae and pupae for chicks.[13]..The wasp that was attacked by the honey buzzer escaped to scatter the spider cubs and did not take defensive actions using poisonous needles (the needle does not reach through the feathers of the honey buzzer and the attack does not work).

Humans exterminate wasps along with their nests and collect larvae, pupae and adults for food.Bears destroy their nests and devour the larvae and pupae inside.

There is also a predator-prey relationship among the same wasps.The giant hornet frequently attacks the reproductive drone and other wasp nests during the rearing season.In addition, Vespa simillima attacks and hijacks early stage colonies such as Vespa simillima.

Wasp's natural enemy

Natural enemy
Oriental Honey-buzzard (Pernis ptilorhynchus)-Male at Kolkata I IMG 7451.jpg
1500stenopogon martini DSC0957 DxO.jpg
Anotogaster sieboldii in hand.jpg
Tenodera aridifolia DSCN9675.jpg
(I.e. Bird
Honey bear Honey buzzard
Robber fly Assassin flyOniyama Jumbo dragonflyMantis Giant mantis
Pyralis regalis.jpg
Hypsopygia mauritialis.jpg
Stylops melittae m3.JPG
C elegans male.svg
Snout worm Snout wormStrepsiptera Twisted-wing parasiteNematode Roundworm

Life history

Gender, queen bee, and worker bee decisions are basically similar to bees.As a common property of Hymenoptera, unfertilized eggs become male bees and fertilized eggs become female bees.Therefore, the queen bee determines sex by removing or not removing sperm from the seminal vesicles.All worker bees are female.

Eggs that become queen bees and eggs that become worker bees are the same, and their status is determined by the food fed during the larval period.

Queen beeAround August-DecemberemergenceThen (there is a difference depending on the species)[4]: 54), Leave the nest after getting enough nutrients from the last instar larvae.With a droneMatingAfter that, do not eat at all, dig a wintering room in Kuchiki etc., and in ithibernationto go into.

In the spring of the following year, the queen bee awakens from hibernation and begins nesting.Nest material collection and larval food hunting are the main roles, but the queen bee alone until the birth of the worker bee, and the nest together with the worker bee until the nest grows to a certain scale after the birth of the worker bee. Maintain and hunt.

Worker bees begin to emerge from around July, and the population reaches its maximum from September to October.Depending on the species and climate, for example, the giant hornet can grow to hundreds in a single nest.Shortly before the maximum number of worker bees, the training of next-generation queen bee candidates begins.[13]: 36..When the queen bee in the nest dies, the worker bee will lay eggs instead, but since the worker bee is unfertilized, only males will be born, and the male will not become a worker bee, so the colony will soon perish.[4]: 196..The next-generation queen bee candidate basically does not work until she leaves the nest for marriage, but if the number of worker bees decreases for some reason, she will start working as a worker bee.In this case, the fat stored as a queen will be consumed, so the male will not try to mate and will not become a queen.[4]: 208.

Drones are born around September-November, a little earlier than the next-generation queen bee candidates.Drones are only there to leave offspring and do not work at all.However, behaviors such as feeding larvae may be seen in traces of the same family of wasps of the Vespidaceae family.

During the breeding season, young queen bee candidates take off from their nests, and drones follow them all at once for mating.Most are preyed on or exhausted by natural enemies, and only a few of them succeed in mating.The male who succeeded in mating died shortly afterwards and ended his short life.

The original queen bee almost always dies before the fledgling of the queen bee candidate, and the worker and drone basically do not overwinter.In other words, only the queen bee candidate overwinters.Queen bee candidate overwinters in Kutsuki[4]: 42.. As an exceptionStrepsipteraThe parasitized worker bees do not participate in labor and also overwinter.

Nest structure

The hornet's nest is basically similar to that of the paper wasp.The material is a tree that has been gnawing from a dead treefiberIs hardened with saliva protein, etc.paperIt is like.A tube made from this material is the building block of the nest, which lays eggs and expands and extends the room as the larvae hatch and grow.When the larva becomes a pupa, it is covered, and when it emerges and the adult escapes, the role of the nest ends.

A nest of paper wasps is made by adding such a nest to the outside in a plane and hanging a disk-shaped one from a tree branch with a handle, but in the case of wasps, the same material is used around this nest. Cover with what is called a coat made of[4]: 52..In addition to acting as a heat insulating material, the outer cover also functions as a barrier to prevent ants.For paper wasps that do not make a coat, apply a substance that ants avoid to the stalk of the nest to prevent this.Due to the structure with the outer cover, the hornet's nest has only one entrance and exit, and it is possible to distinguish it from other bees by the shape of the nest.

The queen bee's first nest often has features not found in the large-grown nests of the birth of worker bees.For example, the initial nest of Vespa analis has a shape like hanging a tokuri upside down, and the mouth part is a doorway, and in the case of Vespula flaviceps, the attachment part to the substrate of the nest becomes a twisted triangular plate. It is designed to absorb shocks with elasticity.These early nest-specific features are also lost as the nest expands with the birth of worker bees.

The nest board is not one step like a paper wasp, but is newly added under it, and several steps of nest boards are connected to each other by pillars, and the outer cover also becomes spherical.The enclosure has different collection sites for dead trees, decayed trees, bark, etc. for each individual worker bee that collects nest material.The same individual often brings back materials repeatedly from the same place.The ingredients are chopped with a jaw, mixed with saliva to make a few millimeters of balls, and then brought back, and the balls are applied one by one so that the scales of the fish grow.Since the materials to be brought back are different for each individual who works, the nest is colored with different colored scale patterns.[13]: 51.

The size of a large one is such that there is a handful.Due to the nesting activity of the worker bees, this outer cover gradually becomes thicker while holding voids as if the scales curved in a dish shape were piled up, and has an excellent heat insulating effect.In addition, worker bees scrape off the nest material inside the outer cover, which has become thicker to some extent.proteinIncludingsalivaRe-knead with and expand the internal nesting area as a tougher nesting material.

The struts that connect the multi-stage overlapping nests require more strength.When the larva becomes a pupa, it spits silk thread from its mouth to block the nest chamber and form a cocoon, but the worker bees involved in the construction of the pillars chew and loosen the silk thread of this cocoon that became unnecessary after the pupa emerged. , Knead the pupa and saliva scraped from the inside to make the material of the support.

In this way, the nest grows huge when the next generation of new queen bees and drones are raised, but like Japan.TemperateThen, at the end of autumn, we mate outside the nestWinteringThe nest becomes vacant as all bees die, except for the new queen bee.

However, this is the case in Japan, where in the tropics without winter it can grow into a huge nest with dozens of queens and millions of worker bees in a single nest.For many years, scholars believed that wasps nest in single females, but studies such as the 1s revealed that they have multi-female nests.[4]: 126[13]: 183..In very rare cases, colonies of two female Vespa simillima can be found even in temperate zones.[13]: 182.

poison

Wasps are powerfulpoisonIt is a very dangerous bee that has many of them and is highly aggressive to others.Like other bees, the stinger, sac, and venom gland are genital alterations and only females sting.[14]..The queen bee also has a poison stinger, but its aggression is low, and it rarely stings.Males do not have poison needles, so they do not stab them, but because of the threat, they only take a stab posture.[13]: 48.

Poison needle structure

The poison needle issawThe structure is such that two needles with densely-shaped fine blades cover the outside of the needle, and the needles move alternately to form the needle.皮膚 OfcollagenIt sticks while cutting the fiber.Honey beeUnlike, even if you stab it once, you will not die.The saw-shaped blade of the piercing needle is not a coarse "return" like a honey bee, and it does not get caught in the collagen fibers of the skin and cannot be pulled out, so it pierces as many times as long as the venom remains.

In addition, the venom is not only stabbed and injected, but may also be sprayed from the air.The sprayed venomAlarm pheromoneThey attack in groups to gather and excite their friends.Unless you have special equipment, it is desirable to leave the place as soon as possible.

Even if you are wearing protective clothing, you may be stabbed, and you may also splash venom from your breathing holes to your face.In addition to blindness when it gets into the eyes, it causes inflammation when it touches the skin.

Ingredients and mechanism

Venom is a variety of trace amountsPhysiologically active substanceComplexmixtureAnd also known as "Poison cocktailCalled "[15]..The ratio and composition of each component is different for each species[16].

Many of these toxic substances are from animals, including humansImmune system,Nervous systemIt is also related to the decomposition of animal tissue constituents contained in venom.酵素Rapidly spreads and even spreads through tissues digested and destroyed byBlood vesselIt goes around the whole body through the system and disturbs the information processing mechanism of the immune system and nervous system.This causes severe pain and an acute allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock) due to the disruption of the immune system.Therefore, when stabbed, anaphylactic shock may cause red swelling like urticaria, although it is extremely rare. (In fact, some urticaria is caused by anaphylactic shock and may occur in response to histamine in fish, etc., but its association with wasp venom is unknown.)

Correspondence to avoid being stabbed

Behavioral precautions

WaspsnestBecause it has a strong defensive action of territory and territory, it takes a vigilant action when approaching within 10 m from the nest or territory and flies around the approaching person.In addition, some of them have a warlike personality, so they may be stabbed for the purpose of attack.If you are surprised by the approaching bees and make a loud noise or try to knock them down, the bees will get excited and the risk will increase.Excited giant hornets are so warlike that they are even more dangerous.

When the target approaches or glares at the nest, the wasp may bite the left and right mandibles and make a beating sound, making a "tick" warning sound, but this is the final warning stage. Even so, if you do not leave the place, you will call in fellow bees and attack in a group.

However, the giant hornet and Vespa simillima often suddenly attack the approaching person without making a warning sound, and it is very dangerous to approach the nest regardless of the situation.The giant hornet, in particular, feeds adults, while other wasps basically defend only their nests.KunugiIf the sap exudate is occupied by members of the same nest, it may be subject to defensive actions in the same way as its own nest.Also in the fall, by a mass attackHoney beeAfter attacking the nests of other species of wasps and eradicating their counterattacking adults, they take action to carry out larvae and pupae from those nests as food for their larvae, but during the action they take action. Is also dangerous because it is subject to defensive actions as well as its own nest.

Autumn season when giant hornets attack the nests of other species of wasps (especially after September)[2]) Also, it should be noted that many wasps have strengthened their alertness to the giant hornet and activated the defense behavior of the nest even more strongly.

perfumeAnd black clothes can also excite wasps,Summer: -Fall:To(I.e.,WoodsYou should refrain from perfumes and black clothing when you go to.Perfumes often contain the same substances as wasp alarm pheromones.2-Pentanol, which is also contained in many fruits, is said to be the most active in the case of the giant hornet.Black clothing is often targeted by wasps as predators of larvae and pupae.The weak point of large mammals including humans is the black part (eyeThere is also a theory that it stimulates behavioral characteristics that activate aggressive behavior by identifying black or dark parts because it is (or ear canal, etc.).In fact, Sumatran's Provespa often come to stab people's eyes, and if they are stabbed, they often lose their eyesight.[4]: 18Also, protective clothing is generally white, but that does not mean that white clothing is safe.For example, at night, even white clothes can be aggressively attacked, which is thought to identify color contrast.[17]..Excited wasps attack even white in the daytime (more attack on black ones)[13]: 102.

barbecueWaitOutdoorWhen eating and drinking in Japan, it is often left unattended or left unattended while drinking.Soft drink,Alcoholic beverage OfcanThis is an accident in which a wasp sneaks inside and is stabbed in the mouth when trying to drink again.Wasps seek the sugar needed for adult activitybeerAnd cansChu-HiYou will be attracted to a series of alcoholic beverages called, and various soft drinks, so when you do not drinkCooler boxCare must be taken to keep wasps away, such as rinsing cans after drinking with water and avoiding canned beverages.

If about one wasp is flying around indoors, it is unlikely that it will be stabbed unless it is shaken by hand or squeezed directly.Flying close to the human body is a vigilant action from the point of interest, and it is very unlikely that it will move to an aggressive attack, but it will be surprised by the size of the body and the sound of the wings and stimulate it. This is the main cause of bee damage (in recent years, there have been an increasing number of cases in which male wasps of Vespa ducalis search independently and fly indoors such as apartments, but males do not have poisonous needles. There is no need to worry about being stabbed).

Flies, mosquitoes, etc.sprayformulaInsecticideIt is possible to remove it with, but it is not effective for bees, it takes a long time to weaken and die, and it flies violently, so take a certain distance (1-2 m) for a few seconds and immediately after spraying directly for a few seconds It is possible to significantly prevent damage by completely closing the room and leaving the site until it is weakened and there is no movement at all.If it attacks, it is also effective to lower the posture.This is because wasps are not good at moving up and down.In addition, wasps are a component of the scent of flowers.2-PhenylethanolAnd its derivatives are repelled[18].

Bees often die on their backs with their poison needles facing up, and even if the corpse is only on the abdomen, it may react and sting when touched, so care must be taken.

Nest extermination

Protective clothingAnd wearing equipment, and with reduced activity of bees at nightSmoke screenAnd powerfulInsecticideIn combination, remove the entire nest.

Nest control by inexperienced civilians is dangerous andIt is desirable to ask a contractor specializing in extermination..Depending on the local government, the cost of exterminating wasps may be undertaken by the local government, or protective clothing may be rented out.[19]..Larger nests require more pesticides, so humans must be careful not to inhale too much pesticides, especially in poorly ventilated areas.

Regarding the extermination method by incinerator, on September 2013, 9, the fire burned to the house because I tried to exterminate it by burning the nest with fire.火災There are also cases where[20][21].

Attempts have been made to destroy the entire nest with high-pressure water discharge or rubber bullets, but this is not common.In addition, the material of the nest and the body fluid of the wasp may scatter and pollute the area.

It is known among beekeepers that traps with PET bottles containing a liquid mixed with soft drinks and liquor and large adhesive sheets for mousetraps can be used for efficient extermination.

In 2020, an insecticide that brought food back to the nest and annihilated it was released, and it became a hot topic as a means to exterminate it without preparing large-scale equipment or approaching the nest.[22].

What to do if you are stabbed

There is a nest nearby and there is a risk that fellow bees will gather due to the smell of wasp venom, so first take first aid away from that place.[2].

First aid

  • In advance by receiving a prescription from a doctorア ド レ ナ リ ンAdrenaline preparation of self-injection drug withEpipenIf you have one, you can use it to temporarily relieve the symptoms of anaphylactic shock.However, this also only plays an auxiliary role.
  • The venom is expelled from the body by squeezing the wound strongly or using a suction device.At this time, do not suck out the venom with your mouth (because if there is a scratch on your mouth, the venom may seep through it).[23].
  • Rinse the wound with running water (to cool the affected area and drain venom)[23].

Examples of treatment by a doctor

According to Japan's 15 vital statistics, 24 people have died from wasp stings.[24]..This is several times the number of bear deaths and the highest number of toxic organism casualties by species.Cause of deathAnaphylaxisbyshockDeath is the main cause, and it is said that there are few cases due to the direct action of venom.[25]..The direct action of injecting a large amount of bee venom also causes an anaphylaxis-like reaction, which may be treated as anaphylaxis.[26].

Immediately after being stabbed, the pain was very strong, and after a few minutes, the affected areaInflammationSymptoms such as swelling and increased body temperature occur.Also in the bee venomNeurotoxinBecause it also contains the ingredients of, if you are stung by a large amount of bees at once and the amount of poison injected is large, the bee venom itself is the cause.paralysisOccurs, eventually leading to respiratory failure and cardiac arrest.In particular, when a group of hundreds of animals is attacked, they may die instantly without a lump.

If you are stabbed, you may be attacked in a group, so you should leave the place promptly while refraining from large gestures that may stimulate the attacking behavior of wasps.And you should go to the hospital as soon as possible while cooling the affected area.Worst case if venom gets in your eyescornea OfUlcerCauseblindnessYou should immediately rinse your eyes with water and seek medical attention at the hospital.If you have been stabbed in the past, in a short time even if it was not important last timeAnaphylactic shockIt is very dangerous because it is more likely to cause death and in some cases it may lead to death.If you have anaphylactic shock, you will die of dyspnea due to edema in the airways and obstruction by a large amount of secretions.Many deaths within 1 hour of being stabbed have been reported.[27].

Immediately in the following casesambulanceHead to the hospital[28][23].

  • rash,headacheI feel sicknauseaWhen symptoms such as, etc. appear or when symptoms appear within tens of minutes.
  • If your face is hot flashes, your eyes are itchy, tears come out, your eyes are irritated, and you have difficulty breathing.
  • If your eyes are stabbed.
  • When a person who was previously stung by a bee and had symptoms such as rash or nausea was stung again.
  • If you are stabbed a lot (especially near the neck, head, face and heart).
  • When itching redness and worm swelling appear on the skin other than the stabbed area.

AntihistaminesSteroidal anti-inflammatory drugIf you have an ointment containing, you can apply it[23].

In addition, it is commonly said"For bee venomammoniaWorks = contains ammoniaPeeIt ’s a superstition.Is[2]..This is the same hymenopteraBeeア リExceptionally, ants of the subfamily Formicinae, which do not have needles, were found in an era when the analysis of venom components was not sufficient.Formic acidSince it was known to attack the enemy by flying a venom containing a large amount of venom like a water gun, it is considered to be a misunderstanding due to the expanded interpretation that the main components of other venoms of Hymenoptera are the same.Hymenoptera venoms other than Formicinae do not contain formic acid and are due to ammonianeutralizeNo effect can be expected.In the first place, the nitrogen excrement contained in human urineUreaAmmonia cannot be obtained unless it is decomposed to decompose urea.

Number

Biopesticide

Living thingsPesticideThe use for pest control instead of is being studied.One way to use wasps is for adults to catch large numbers of insects as food for their larvae.pestPest control using the property that is also abundantBeneficial insectIt is used as.A wasp that does not attack peopleMexicoIt was once used to exterminate pests.Even in Japan, some local governments raise and maintain nests of wasps captured from residential areas in urban areas by request for extermination in nest boxes installed on the roof of the government building, while forest parks so as not to harm people. There are cases where it is used for pest control.

teaVespula flaviceps are beneficial insects that help control tea pests in cultivated areas.Therefore, in the large production areaShizuokaIn some areas, the habit of eating vespula flavice larvae and pupae is popular.NaganoIt is appealing to cross-border collectors from Japan for a ban on capture.

edible

Other uses are primarily edible.Nagano OfInataniIt is well known in other regions that larvae of Vespula flaviceps (local name Sugare) and pupae are edible, mainly in rural areas, but in reality, larvae such as larger vespa simillima and pupal nests are captured in this region. , Edible is also popular.AlsoGifu OfEna City-NakatsugawaIn the Tono region, the larvae of Vespula flaviceps are called "hebo" and "hebomeshi".Cooked riceI have a habit of eating.SweetenedBottling is also made and sold.

Other eating habits in JapanKyusyu OfKumamoto,Oita,Kagoshima,MiyazakiStraddleKyushu Backbone MountainsHowever, it is thriving, and there is a strong habit of collecting giant hornets, which produce large larvae, in this region.

As a harvesting method, I killedRed dragonflyKind, cut into small pieceschicken,カ エ ルPlace the meat on the legs and let the worker bees make meatballs, and skillfully intervene in the processing process of the meatballs to make the twisted cotton entwined with the meatballs and bee's torso to make it stand out, and track the worker bees. A bee chasing is performed to find out the nesting place.This takes advantage of the habit of not showing interest in other things while feeding the meatballs.On the other hand, recently, instead of collecting large-grown nests in nature, we collect small nests that are still young in the early stages of nesting, house them in nest boxes in the gardens of private houses, and feed them with river fish meat, etc., to increase the number of larvae. It is also becoming popular to obtain large nests containing pupae.In addition, for the huge nest of Vespa simillima formed under the eaves, some people wear protective clothing and inhale all the adults attacking with a powerful vacuum cleaner for business use to collect the nest.

When collecting nests, it burns relatively gently, such as sparklers.Black powder OfThe attack of worker bees is blocked by spraying, and the nest is broken to collect larvae and pupae.Since the collection of such nests is popular in this region, smoke glass (Hachitori Smoke Screen), which is a black powder product with a high sulfur content, is commercially available.

Also, these days, it's not just a local food culture, but a variety of food cultures.amino acidAttention was paid to the fact that it contained, and the components were extracted.SupplementEtc. are also attracting attention.

Species diversity of large wasps is highest outside JapanChugoku OfYunnanHowever, the eating habits for hornet larvae and pupae are very popular.[13]: 64There are concerns about overfishing for active commercialization due to the recent economic opening policy.In Yunnan, fried adultssaltSprinkle with and eat as a side dish.It is also found in various parts of tropical Asia where the population density of wasps and the size of their nests are large (for example).Myanmar[13]), Many regions have similar eating habits.

Other

It is also used for medicinal purposes,Chinese medicineNow, let ’s take a hornet's nest that hit the rain soup with animal origin.Crude drugIt is called Rohobo, and it is either powdered or black-baked and decocted, or taken with sake.It is said to have bactericidal detoxification, antispasmodic and sedative effects.As mentioned above, the components of this nest are crushed dead trees and decayed trees mixed with a large amount of adult wasp saliva components and kneaded, and these may contain bioactive substances as active ingredients. There is sex.

A huge nest of Vespa simillima is nesting under the eaves, but in the San'in region, it is a "divisional bee", in northern Mie prefecture and Gifu prefecture.Yoro TownIn the vicinity, it is called "Odaibachi", and in some regions it is called "Chief Bee", and while coexisting so as not to stimulate it.Lucky charmThere is also a custom that is respected as[4]: 253..Also, in some regions, hornet nests where bees have disappearedtalismanThere is also a custom of hanging it on the eaves.Taiwan'sAtayalThere is also a belief in wasps, and the head is sometimes used as a necklace to protect children.[4]: 253.

honeyIs producingBeekeepingBetween the housesHoney beeA hornet that tries to attack the hornet is caught by a net, and honey andDistilled spiritsSuch asliqueurIt is pickled in honey, pickled in honey, and produces wasp liquor.

In the case of honey pickling, the adult wasp caught in the insect net is dropped into a bottle containing honey, a poison needle is taken out while drowning, and the poison discharged from it is mixed with honey.[29]..Effective in recovering from fatigue, improving physical strength, and improving blood circulation disorders[30]It is said that it is used in the same way as ordinary honey.In the case of hornet liquor, as in the case of pickled honey, adult hornets caught in a bug net are dropped into a bottle containing liquor, a poison needle is taken out while drowning, and the poison discharged from it is mixed with liquor. Be[31]..Effective for recovery from fatigue, skin beautification, and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases[32]It is said that.In this case, it is drunk like ordinary sake.In either case, the scientific basis is unclear.

Main types

Hornets are divided into four groups: hornets, vespula, hornets, and hornets.Of these, 4 species of 3 genera, excluding the genus Provespa, inhabit Japan.

Big hornet

Big hornet(Giant hornet,British: Japanese giant hornet, Scientific name:Vespa mandarinia japonica) Is the largest wasp among the wasps (the largest in the world), with a body length of 40-45 mm for the queen bee, 27-40 mm for the worker bee, and 35-40 mm for the male wasp.It is distributed in East Asia and from Hokkaido to Kyushu in Japan, and the southern limit inhabits Yakushima and Tanegashima.It has a wide range of feeding habits and preys on various types of insects, mainly small and medium, including adults and larvae.Hawk mothSuch as largeCaterpillarEtc. may be caught.While food is reduced in the fall, it becomes more ferocious due to the increased burden of raising many new queen bees and male bees, and while risking revenge, sometimes in groups such as grasshoppers and mantis. Increasing cases of attacking large carnivorous insects[Annotation 4]. AlsoHoney beeIt attacks social beehives that form huge colonies such as wasps and other species, and plunders larvae and pupae.It is extremely ferocious and aggressive, and because it nests in closed spaces such as soil and tree hollows, it may approach and be attacked without noticing the existence of the nest.

Vespa ducalis

Vespa ducalis(Himejaku bee,Vespa ducalis) Is the second largest wasp after the giant hornet, with a body length of 24-37 mm.The black tail distinguishes it from other species of wasps.[13]..Hornets are common in the city, but their aggression is the weakest of the large hornets.[13]: 70It is not very toxic (although it is threatening and will fly around the intruder as it approaches the nest).Nests are built in closed spaces such as soil, tree hollows, and attics, but the nesting scale is much smaller than other wasps, and the number of worker bees is about several tens even in the heyday.[13]: 70Is.The size of common wasps is in the order of queen bee> male bee> worker bee, but there is no particular difference in the hornet.

Since the larvae of Vespa ducalis basically feed only on paper wasp larvae and larvae, adults attack the nests of paper wasps and hunt larvae and larvae.[13]..At this time, instead of cutting out only the muscle part to make meatballs like other wasps, the body fluid of the chewed prey is put in a crop and brought back to the nest and given to the larvae.It has also been observed that they attack nests of Vespa simillima and Vespa analis and hunt their larvae and pupae.

In temperate zones such as Japan, where the breeding period of prey paper wasps is short and the nest size and population density are not so high, only very small nests can be formed as described above, and a small number of valuable worker bees. The aggression is also extremely low because there is no choice but to prevent the consumption of.On the other hand, in tropical Asia, where the nest size and population density are larger than in Japan due to the breeding of paper wasps all year round, the size of the nest of Vespa ducalis is also significantly larger, and the aggression is also high like other wasps. It has been known.

Yellow hornet

Yellow hornet(Yellow wasp,British: Japanese yellow hornet, Scientific name:Vespa simillima xanthoptera) Is distributed in Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and the Korean Peninsula.Distributed north of HokkaidoVespa simillima(Hair Fukajaku Bee,Vespa simillima simillima)ofSubspeciesIs said to be.The queen bee is 25-28 mm, the worker bee is 17-24 mm, and the male bee is 28 mm, which is the smallest of the five species of hornets widely distributed in Japan.It has the largest nesting scale of any wasp inhabiting Japan, with large nests close to 5 meter in diameter and up to 1 bees.In the early stages of nesting, nests are created in closed spaces such as attics and tree hollows, but when the nest grows and there is no room for space, there is a habit of moving to another location and re-nesting.Therefore, as a result, nests can be seen not only in closed spaces but also in open spaces such as under the eaves of houses and tree branches.It is a bee with many damages in Japan because it is quite aggressive and adapts well to living in urban areas.[13].

Vespa analis

Vespa analis(Small hornet,Vespa analis) Is a medium-sized bee among the five main species of the hornets.Adults have a very similar appearance and physique to the giant hornet, and are difficult to distinguish in antagonized individuals.In that case, it is often distinguished by the difference in the shape of the head and the length of the cilia.[Annotation 5]..The body length is 25-30 mm for the queen bee, 22-28 mm for the worker bee, and 23-27 mm for the male bee.It feeds on medium-sized and smaller insects.Build nests in open spaces such as tree branches, plantings, and under eaves.The nest is shaped like a sake bottle or a flask hung upside down in the early stages when the queen bee is building its own nest (sometimes mistaken for a nest for this purpose), and the worker bees emerge. When it comes, the neck of the sake bottle is bitten and changes into a ball shape.Especially waiting at the entomophily where other bees often gather,BeeIn many cases, the chest muscles are turned into meatballs and brought back to the nest.The nesting scale is relatively small and not very threatening or aggressive, but when the nest is directly stimulated, it counterattacks violently, so it is often the case that the nest is stimulated and damaged during pruning work.For this reason, there are many cases of damage in Japan.[13]..Due to its flexibility in nesting location and food type, it is well adapted in the city alongside Vespa simillima.

European hornet

European hornet(Crest hornet,British: European hornet, Scientific name:Vespa crabro) Is a medium-sized wasp that is similar in size to the vespa analis, with a body length of 28-30 mm for the queen bee and 21-28 mm for the worker and male wasps.It is widely distributed from Europe to Japan.Nests are created in closed spaces such as the attic and tree hollows with a large opening at the bottom of the outer cover, but in rare cases they also nest in open spaces such as under the eaves.In addition, cases of nesting inside the old nest of Vespa simillima have been confirmed.Similar to Vespa simillima, it has a habit of moving when the nesting area becomes too small, but this species also creates a nest in a closed space.Aggression is a little strong.The yellow and black stripes on the abdomen are wavy and highly variable.

The main food for the larvae isCicadaAnd also feed on other large insects such as grasshoppers and dragonflies.[4]: 161..In Japan, it has been decreasing in recent years because it can only live in an environment where various cicadas can be hunted throughout the nesting period, from early summer harzemi to early autumn Tsukutsukuboushi.[13]..This is the only large hornet that preys on bees in Europe, and it rarely attacks bees, so it is thought that honeybees did not evolve their behavior against hunting of hornets. ing[Source required]..Unusual for the hornets, it is active for a while after sunset[13]The feature is. Red dataIs specified as lack of information.

Vespa dybowis

Vespa dybowis(Brown sparrow bee,Vespa dybowskii) Is 17-27 mm long and is covered in a deep black-brown color.It is a northern species that inhabits north of the Chubu region in Japan.The number of individuals is small.

Take over nests of European hornet, Vespa simillima, etc.[13]Therefore, it is called "sex wasp".The queen, who wakes up from wintering later than the other wasps, attacks the early nests of other wasps, which have only a queen, and stabs and kills the other queen.After that, have the hijacked worker bees work until their worker bees emerge.It has a well-developed chitinous outer skin, and has a protective power that cannot be easily penetrated not only by the giant hornet but also by the mandible and poisonous sting of the giant hornet, which is advantageous when hijacking.

Another hornet that hijacks the nest of other hornets is the Dolichovespula hornet (Dolichovespula adulterina) And the wasp (Vespula austriaca) Is known, but this does not make its own worker bee.

Asian hornet

Asian hornet(British: Asian hornet, Scientific name:Vespa velutina) Is a medium-sized wasp with a queen of 30 mm, a male of 24 mm, and a worker bee with an average of 20 mm.The body is blackish as a whole, and the tip of the abdomen becomes reddish brown.It nests in bushes, shrubs, and underground, and moves onto trees as the colony grows.It catches all insects and especially likes flies, bees and dragonflies.The aggression is very high, and those who approach the nest are relentlessly tracked.It is native to Asia from Afghanistan to Indonesia and has spread to China and Taiwan. Invasion of France before 2004, South Korea in 2003, Spain in 2010, and Japan (Tsushima) in 2013 was confirmed. ..In South Korea, in addition to damage to beekeeping, the number of native wasps is decreasing.

Vespa affinis

Vespa affinis(Vespa affinis,Vespa affinis) Is JapaneseNansei IslandsInhabit such as.The feature is that the abdomen is clearly divided into yellow and black.Nests often nest near the ground to prevent typhoon damage[13]..The nest in the early stage of nesting is shaped like a flask or sake bottle like the vespa analis, but the neck of the sake bottle does not develop as much as the vespa analis.

Oriental hornet

Oriental hornet(Vespa orientalis) Is very similar in appearance to the European hornet, but is characterized by a distinct abdomen in yellow and brown.The queen bee is 25-35 mm long, and male and worker bees are smaller.MaleAntennaeIs 13 verses, but female is 12 verses.

The yellow stripes on the belly can take in the sunlight and convert it into energy.Unlike most wasps, they are active during the intense sunlight.

地中海Often seen on the coast,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,IndiaBut you can find it.However, humanMove inBecause of thatHabitat TheSouth America,MexicoIs beginning to spread.

Cross hornet

Cross hornet(Vespula flaviceps, wasps,British: Wasp, Scientific name:Vespula flaviceps) Is the genus Vespula with a body length of 10-18 mm.It is small, black throughout, and features white or pale yellow horizontal stripes.Distributed in Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Amami Oshima.Most of them form multi-layered nests in the soil such as forests and fields on flat land and banks of rivers, and emerge from around June.It is also skillful to feed small insects, spiders, etc. and catch flies in the air.On the other hand, they often cut muscles from fresh animal carcasses to make meatballs.Meat dumplings may also be made from grilled fish meat on the table.The aggression is not so high and the toxicity is not so strong, but there are reports of passing near the nest and being stabbed in the lips while drinking canned juice.Vespula flaviceps, which belong to the same genus and have a similar appearance, preferentially inhabit forests and highlands above sea level, and are slightly larger than Vespula flaviceps, and their nests are often brown and colonies are also slightly larger.

Depending on the region in JapanHebo,Vespula flaviceps,Takabu,Vespula flavicepsAquaculture is also carried out, and larvae and pupae are edible.NaganoThen it will be canned.In some regions where Vespula flaviceps are traditionally edible, there is also a competition for hobbyists who compete for the size of the autumn nest, which is called the "Hebo Contest".GifuHowever, the food culture is developing as a hebo, and with local loversEna Agricultural High SchoolByEna CityHebo Museum is built in Kushihara, and "Hebo Festival" is held.[33].

A neighboring species of European wasp native to Europe (Wasp,British: European wasp, Scientific name:Vespula germanica) Is originally one year old, but those that invaded New Zealand are two years old, and the size of the colony is also large.[4]: 49.

To closely related species (Vespula vulgaris) And so on.

Median wasp

Median wasp(Yellow belt cheek hornet,British: Median wasp, Scientific name:Dolichovespula media) Is 14-22 mm in length and belongs to the genus Dolichovespula.It feeds on small insects and builds nests on trees.It is the most aggressive of the genus Dolichovespula.The hornets of the genus Hornets are similar to the hornets at first glance, but unlike the genus Vespula and the large hornets, the nest material is not centered on the wood fibers of dead trees and decayed trees, but dead trees and dead branches like the wasps. The nest is not brittle and tough because it is collected from the hornets.The Honshu subspeciesRed dataIs specified as lack of information.

Provespa

Provespa(ProvespaGenus) inhabits Southeast Asia.As the Japanese name suggests, it is nocturnal.Therefore, extermination companies are the weakest.Unlike the above-mentioned wasps, it breeds by splitting bees like honeybees.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ J LeagueTeam ofAvispa FukuokaIs named after this.
  2. ^ This is not limited to wasps, but can be said in all cases where large predators collide with each other.
  3. ^ A nematode that sterilizes the wasp queen was found.The world's first discovery of a parasitic nematode that sterilizes the wasp queen(Forest Research and Management Organization)
  4. ^ In particular, the mantis is a dangerous opponent, and there are many cases in which it is hit back.
  5. ^ Vespa analis has a slightly deeper dent on its head and slightly longer cilia.

Source

  1. ^ "How to protect yourself from wasps that attack residential areas?”. SAFETY JAPAN BPnet. As of July 2013, 7オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2013/9/17Browse.
  2. ^ a b c d "Beware of wasps!”. Fukuoka Forestry and Forestry Technology Center. As of July 2013, 7オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2013/5/22Browse.
  3. ^ Tatsuo Ogawara, "Reports from 4482 Cases of Bees Attacking People," Yamato Valley, June 2019, p. 6.ISBN 978-4-635-23010-0.. NCID BB28243939.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Makoto Matsuura "Mysterious Society of Social Bees" Animal Company, 1988
  5. ^ a b "Carpenter bee". Japanese dictionary (First edition ed.). Kodansha. 6 November 1989. p. 556. ISBN 4-06-121057-2.
  6. ^ "Carpenter bee", Shinmei Solution Japanese Dictionary (4th edition small ed.), Sanseido, (December 1989, 12), p. 10, ISBN 4-385-13142-2 
  7. ^ "Bee classification". Mitsubachi Institute of Health Sciences. 2017/6/10Browse.
  8. ^ Yoshio Terasawa ed., "English Source Dictionary", Kenkyusha, 1997 wasp, hornet section
  9. ^ Gen Yamanaka, "English-Japanese-Latin Language Source Dictionary", Kokusai Gogakusha, 2009
  10. ^ RIKENPublic Relations Office (2005-11-07). “Sports drink VAAM learned from wasps”. RIKEN News 293: 2-4. https://www.riken.jp/medialibrary/riken/pr/publications/news/2005/rn200511.pdf. 
  11. ^ Naohiko Sagara 1989.
  12. ^ Identify the components of the "alarm pheromone" of the giant hornet, Masato Ono, MATSUNAGA Waki, Environmental goo, 2010/04/17
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Wasp Urban Advancement and Survival Strategy Augmented Revised Edition"
  14. ^ "Surprising new common sense 100 of familiar Musi"
  15. ^ Bee bean knowledgeChiba Central Museum
  16. ^ Hideo Inoue, Kenichi Hagiwara, Akira Nakajima "Comparison of Vespa simillima and Vespa simillima and hornet venom sac extract components by pattern analysis", Vespa simillima, Vol. 44, No. 4, Japan Society of Medical Entomology, December 1993, 12, Pages 15-307, NOT 110003818256.
  17. ^ Learn and rest assured wasps
  18. ^ Japanese Patent Application No. 2015-221379, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2017-088548, Wasp family bee repellent, Kim et al.
  19. ^ "Wasp! !!How to deal with it?Different "correspondence" in each municipality". Sankei News. Sankei Shimbun (September 2017, 9). 2019/5/23Browse.
  20. ^ "Burning a private house in Samegawa Exterminating wasp nests, burning fire". Minyu Net. Fukushima Minyu newspaper company (February 2013, 9). As of February 8, 2013オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2013/9/8Browse.
  21. ^ Masashi Houda (May 2013, 9). “Fire: Extermination of wasps, partial burning of houses ?? Samegawa / Fukushima". Daily jp. Mainichi Shimbun.As of August 2013, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2013/9/8Browse.
  22. ^ "Is "Nest Defeat" Too Powerful?Uproar over new products against wasps”. Asahi Shimbun (September 2020, 2). 2020/2/6Browse.
  23. ^ a b c d e f "First aid when stung by a bee". Toshima (September 2015, 2). 2017/7/4Browse.
  24. ^ About allergy measures (PDF) Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  25. ^ Bee sting in Japan The Topic of This Month Vol.18 No.8 (No.210)National Institute of Infectious Diseases
  26. ^ Hirokuni Hirata; Yoshiki Ishii "Clinical bee venom allergy" Dokkyo Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 295–306, October 2014, 10.ISSN 03855023.http://id.nii.ac.jp/1199/00001237/.2019/4/29Browse. 
  27. ^ Masahisa Otoshi, Mio Hiyama, "An example of anaphylactic shock caused by the sting of Vespa tropica", "Seisei Animal", Vol. 28, No. 3, Japan Society of Medical Entomology, September 1977, 9, pp. 15-281, NOT 110003815418.
  28. ^ "First aid when stung by a bee". HokkaidoOkhotsk General Promotion Bureau (September 2014, 6). 2017/7/4Browse.
  29. ^ Catch the ferocious giant hornet with an insect net and make honey pickles! However, there is a note that "capture with insect nets is dangerous".
  30. ^ Wasp also makes honey?
  31. ^ Wasp liquor manufacturing method
  32. ^ I drank shochu made from live wasps → it tasted salty → "it's a poisonous ingredient"
  33. ^ "Kushihara Nihebo Museum Ena Agricultural High School students maintain". Gifu Shimbun Web. Gifu Shimbun (February 2017, 11). As of February 2, 2017オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2017/11/2Browse.

References

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