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💴 | Is the annual income of parents proportional to the educational background of children?


Is the annual income of parents proportional to the educational background of children?

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According to the "Children's Learning Expense Survey" conducted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the breakdown of education expenses is diverse, but it can be classified into "school education expenses" and "out-of-school activity expenses".

A paper published that parents'annual income is one of the factors that affect their children's educational background ... → Continue reading

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    school education

    school educationWhat is (Gakukoukyo)?Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularDone inTeaching languagebyEducation.


    Public educationHave a close relationship with. Public education is education that has a public nature and is conducted by the state, local governments, and school corporations and is provided through schools.

    The education itself is not limited to school education.Social education,family EducationTherefore, it is considered ideal to achieve the purpose of education by linking each education.

    Japanese school education

    Japanese educationIn the narrow sense, school education meansSchool education law[1]School prescribed in Article 1 of (Ichijo school) Refers to what is done in. In particular,Kindergarten,primary school,Junior high school,high school,UniversityIs a typical school, and the period from 6 to 15 years old (School agePeriod)Compulsory education.

    However, even if it does not correspond to school education in the narrow sense (Article 1 school), the place of education that is similar to school education is also modern.JapanThen importantmeaningHave EspeciallyVocational school[2],Various schoolsAlthough it is not stipulated in Article 1 of the School Education Law, it is treated as school education because it is stipulated in the School Education Law.

    School educationThe Constitution of Japan,Basic Education Law[3] Of精神According toConstitutionThe School Education Law and other laws have been enacted in accordance with the Basic Law. Article 6 of the Basic Education Law stipulates that a school that conducts school education has "public nature." For example,School education lawso,Secondary schoolEducation, we must endeavor to achieve the following goals:[4].

    1. To cultivate the necessary qualities as an important architect of the nation and society.
    2. Based on the awareness of the mission that must be fulfilled in society, determine the future course according to individuality, improve general education, and master specialized skills.
    3. To develop a wide and deep understanding of society and sound criticism, and strive to establish individuality.

    Stages and contents of school education

    School education in Japan is generallyEducational stageIt is established from.

    1. Preschool education
    2. Primary Education
    3. Lower secondary education
    4. Lower secondary education
    5. Higher education

    In addition, there are the following educational contents, which are provided at each stage.

    1. Normal education (primary to secondary education)
    2. General education (higher education)
    3. Professional education (secondary to higher education)
    4. Special support education

    Yoho unification

    Licensed Nursery School TheChild Welfare Actbased onChild welfare facilityThe position is different from the kindergarten, which is an educational facility based on the School Education Law. However, in recent years, there has been a trend toward "unification of childcare" (or unification of childcare).[5],2002/(14) of JulyStructural Reform Special Area LawBy the establishment ofSARIf the application was approved, it became possible to construct a daycare/kindergarten integrated facility. For exampleGunmaOldRokugo Village(CurrentNakanojo Town) Is2003/It has been certified as a "special area for integrated childcare" (15), and a facility for integrated childcare has been opened.[6].

    College and school education

    Agricultural college TheAgricultural improvement promotion methodbased onFarmer training educational facilityAlthough it is positioned differently from school education, in recent years many facilities have been certified as specialized courses, so the corresponding facilities are[7]Is positioned as[8].

    In general,UniversityThere is no fixed position in the facility called, and there is no provision of a college in the School Education Law. However, there are many specialized schools called "○○ University", and these are positioned as school education.[8].

    またMinistry CollegeSome of them provide education equivalent to the undergraduate or graduate school of a university.Independent administrative agencyUniversity Reform Support and Degree Conferring OrganizationThere are accredited facilities, and upon graduation or completion of these facilities, a bachelor's, master's, or PhDBachelor of ScienceCan be awarded[9].

    School education and vocational training

    Occupational Ability Development Promotion Actbased onPublic vocational capacity building[10]Is a school education[11]notJob training[12]It is a facility for people and is positioned to have a character completely different from that of school. The reason why public vocational ability development facilities are clearly distinguished from school education is as follows.[13].

    the 1990sOf the endrecessionAnd the decline in the 18-year-old population made it difficult to secure students at vocational schools, and1997/(HeiseiIn 9, the Act on Promotion of Vocational Skills Development was amended and the new Vocational Skills Development Institute was established as a new public vocational development facility.[14]The country[15]Being able to set up a machine further exacerbated the problem.

    thereNational special training schools"The overlap between public vocational ability development facilities and school education such as vocational schools is the pressure on the private sector by the government. As a result of urging the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Labor, and the Parliamentary Union to make a strong contribution,1998/(10)Ministry of EducationとMinistry of LaborCame to an agreement that school education and vocational training should avoid duplication[16].. Furthermore, in the same year, the Ministry of EducationBoard of educationIn response, “Occupational capacity development colleges such as Vocational Ability Development College, Vocational Ability Development Junior College, Vocational Ability Development School, etc. are training facilities based on the Vocational Ability Development Promotion Act of the Ministry of Labor and A "school" is a facility with a completely different character. (Omitted) Please make sure that students do not confuse the Vocational Ability Development Facility with the school. "[17]I am informed.

    School education in each country

    Each country in the world has its own school education, and its nature varies. In addition, school education isdecreeOften based on.

    The United States of America

    The United States of AmericaThen,StateEach school has a different school system. However, due to its diversity, various forms of school are recognized, and it is thought that flexible choices are possible.

    The conditions for admission to university differ depending on the university, and in many cases the requirements for admission to high schoolGrade evaluationOr a unified testSAT:(Scholastic Aptitude Tests or Scholastic Achievement Tests) will be taken into consideration when deciding whether or not to enroll. Depending on the university,volunteerActivities[18],EssayThere are also places to conduct such examinations.

    The Federal Republic of Germany

    The Federal Republic of GermanyInSecondary educationSince then, for professionalsHigher educationSchools for students are strictly divided. HowevercourseChanges are relatively flexible. To enter the universityAbitur qualificationNeed to get

    With the goal of equality of opportunity to receive education, we have covered everything from university education to state funding, but in recent years,RepetitionInstitutional reform is being screamed against the backdrop of an increase in the number of university students who work.

    United Kingdom

    United KingdomThen, the system differs depending on the region and public/private. However,EnglandとWalesIt is,WelshIt is the same except that it is mandatory.


    5 years from 16 to 11 years are compulsory education. However, there are some elementary schools that accept preschoolers in recent years. Lastschool yearでGCSE[19]Take the exam, and the course after that is decided.
    • Public Schools-Elementary School (5-11 years) + Secondary School (11-18 years)
      • Compulsory education up to 5th grade in secondary school.
    • Private School-Kindergarten (5 to 7 years old) + Primary School (7 to 13 years old) + Secondary School (13 to 18 years old)
      • In the case of a private school, we are accepting kindergartens (along with primary schools) from the age of two.
    • GSCE --- Ordinary Level is required (compulsory education completion level)

    Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu

    Eleven years from 5 to 16 years are compulsory education, but the school system is different.
    • Elementary school (5 to 12 years old) + Secondary education school (12 to 18 years old)
      • Compulsory education is for up to 4th grade students of secondary education, and will take a completion examination at the end of this grade.

    Republic of Korea (Korea)

    Compulsory education is elementary school (6 to 12 years old) + junior high school (12 to 15 years old), but practically most of the people go on to high school (15 to 18 years old). When entering university,University learning ability evaluation test[21]Have to take the exam.



    [How to use footnotes]
    1. ^ Showa 22lawNo.26
    2. ^ College of technology,Vocational schools,Special training school general course
    3. ^ Showa 22Law No. 25
    4. ^ School Education Law, Article 51-3
    5. ^ Unification of kindergarten and nursery school functions, "7% do not know"(Nikkei BP, February 2005, 2)
    6. ^ About construction of nursery school, kindergarten integrated facility(Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture)
    7. ^ Vocational schools
    8. ^ a b List of colleges #Installed by prefectureSee
    9. ^ School Education Law, Article 104, Paragraph 4, Item 2
    10. ^ Vocational development school,Vocational Development College,Vocational Development Junior College,Vocational development school for people with disabilities,Vocational Development Promotion Center5 facilities
    11. ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
    12. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareVocational Development BureauHas jurisdiction
    13. ^ Ayumi's 30 Years of Vocational Education(National College of Science and Technology)
    14. ^ Until then, the Vocational Ability Development CollegeVocational Development CollegeRenamed
    15. ^ Employment Promotion Agency
    16. ^ Regarding the agreement between the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Labor regarding the future state of vocational capacity development facilities (notice)(Ministry of Education Lifelong Learning Bureau Lifelong Learning Promotion Section ManagerTerawaki Lab)
    17. ^ Career guidance for specialized courses at special training schools (notification)(Ministry of Education, Lifelong Learning Bureau, Lifelong Learning Promotion Section/Terawaki Ken, Ministry of Education, Elementary and Secondary Education Bureau, Vocational Education Section/Fukushima Kenro)
    18. ^ Community service
    19. ^ General Certificate of Secondary Education
    20. ^ A level
    21. ^ Unified test

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