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Market

Market(Ichiba, Shijo,British: market, market) Means that people gather regularlyBusinessRefers to the concept of a social mechanism similar to the trading mechanism in this market (Ichiba). "City(Ichi) ”also called“ city garden ”.

Overview

The market (Ichiba) isbusinessmanIs a plaza where a partition is set up and the buyer wants a product.transactionIt is a place of.This type of market is very old and there are countless markets operating all over the world.mainlyVegetables,fruit,seafoodSuch asFresh produceAndstock,Bondな どSecurities,exchangeSuch as金融Often refers to the place of trading.It is read as "shijo" in financial relations such as securities and foreign exchange.In many cases, the name of the facility is also "Shijo".

Etymology

JapaneseThe word "city" or "market" inChugokuof"I Ching』\ In the copulaShennongLegend of "Nichichu Tamashii, Shitenkanomin, Jutenkanozai, Trade Retirement, Each Tokusho"[1]It is also said to be derived from.In ancient China, business was prohibited outside of certain areas of the city where the government office was located, which was called the "city".

The English word "market" isLatinThe etymology is "mercari" which means "to do business"[2].

Market history

起源

Gliasun TheSilent tradeThrough this research, we suggested the following types of market formation.[3].

  1. Invisible trade
  2. Visible trade
  3. Guest friendship
  4. Middleman trade that shows up
  5. Depot
  6. Neutral trade
  7. Armed market
  8. Regular market

Gleasun is a human group平和We have defined the market as a neutral place to interact with.He also said that the existence of the market preserves peace in a specific place and spreads it to the roads and people to the market, further expanding the scope of peace.[4].

Karl Polanyi cites two sources for the development of the market system: the external market and the regional market (internal market).The external marketTradeIn connection with the acquisition of goods from outside the community, the regional market is in the communityfood OfdistributionRelated to.Regional markets are further divided into two forms.The first is the centralized collection and distribution of supplies, which is prominent in irrigated nations.The second is to sell local food,The Ancient GreekWill be prominent in the small farm economy and the forest-type economy[5].

Ancient Mesopotamia / West Asia

Sumer,BabyloniaThen, food and other necessities were stored and distributed at the palace and city gates.Also in PersianBazaarHandicraft products were sold in the corresponding market.There was foreign trade separate from the regional market, but there was no external market.For this reasonCyrus II TheGreekBlame for not understanding the market system of[5]..Eventually, the distribution system of the irrigated nation declined.IslamWith the penetration of commerce, the bazaar has also become a local food market.

Ancient Greece and Rome

Ancient greekPoliceIs a plaza used for meetingsAgoraWas also used as a market.The regional market and the external market are separated, with Agora for the regional market and the external market for the external market.EmporiumExisted.Expedition at Emporium軍隊We also replenished and disposed of loot for the sake of.Mesopotamia,EgyptIn Greece, which does not have vast irrigated agricultural land like this, it is important to secure grain, and as the first international market where prices fluctuate,Alexander IIIIs a vassal ofCleomenes of NaucratisThere was also a grain market operated by[5].Ancient rome TheGreekAgora's systemFormEmporium was also used as the name of the place where goods were transshipped.

Chugoku

唐During this era, the city system was improved and commerce was strictly controlled.The person registered in the company made a transaction, and the city registrant was stipulated to belong to the trade association called "row" by deciding the division for each type of product.Cities are located in the east and west in Chang'an and in the south and northwest in Luoyang, and merchants from all over the country traded through city register.In the cities where trade takes place, there was an official named City Ordinance / City.In areas with heavy traffic as control loosensMound cityA market called (Kusaichi) was also opened to handle daily necessities.In addition, "protecting economic points"TownThere was a town city that developed under the army, and a mausoleum city that was opened in front of the temple.

Islamic dynasty

ArabicでSouk,Persian languageA market called Bazaar was opened in.at firstcaravanA store was set up every time the city opened in line with the arrival of the city, but eventually a permanent store appeared.AbbasidIn the city of New Moon, a regular market was held on the day of the new moon, and a market for each festival was added to this, and commerce flourished due to various markets.Large cities are divided into large markets where merchants from all over the world gather and small markets in blocks, and retailers open stores in the same area for each occupation.of marketSecurityTo maintainMuhtasibA supervisor called has cracked down on fraud.

Medieval europe

Cities have been opened in cities, castles and monasteries since the Roman Empire,Northern EuropeThere was a trading area called Vic.EnglandIn Northern EuropeMarket townWas built and the local market was opened.As a regular city, the city of Saint-Denis monasteryStourbridge fairThere were international yearly markets such as, and weekly markets associated with the ten-member ecclesia.CrusaderSince then, north-south exchanges have flourished, especiallyChampagne fairsWas a large one[6].

Early markets in Western Europe developed near monasteries, castles and royal palaces.Monasteries and aristocrats created considerable demand for both goods and services-both luxury goods and necessities-and provided some protection to merchants and intermediaries.These trading centers attracted sellers. The 1086 Domesday Book lists 50 markets in England, but many historians consider this number to be less than the actual number of markets at the time.Approximately 1200 new markets were established in England between 1349 and 2,000[7].. In 1516, England had about 2,464 markets and 2,767 trade fairs, and Wales had 138 markets and 166 trade fairs.[8].

From the 12th century, the King of England granted letters to local lords to establish markets and trade fairs for towns and villages.The letter granted the privilege of trading in the town in exchange for annual tribute.If there was a market patented for a particular date, neighboring rival markets could not be held on the same day[9].

Trade fairs (fairs) were usually held annually and were largely associated with local festivals.[10]..Trade fairs deal with expensive merchandise, while weekly or biweekly markets mainly deal with perishables and necessities.[11]..The main purpose of the trade fair was trade, but it also usually included entertainment elements such as dance, music and games (tournaments).As the number of markets increased, the towns where the event was held were some distance away due to competition, but they were still about 10 kilometers away for local producers to make a day trip.[12].

Some UK open-air markets have been open continuously since the 12th century.

Japan

in Japan7st centuryIsAsuka(Tsubaichi) andHanoiThe fact that there was a kind of regulated market in (Eganoichi) and (later Kuwanoichi)Japanese calligraphy』It can be understood from the description.Also"Fudoki』FromHitachi countryTakahama,IzumoIt can be seen that the city was established before the issuance of money at places where fishermen and farmers come and go and at key points of transportation.

In ancient nations, referring to the Chinese system,Great treasure lawThe city system was improved by the Seki City Ordinance.都East and West City is set up inIchijiThere is a supervisory agency calledKyo Fujiwara-Heijokyo-Nambakyo-Nagaokakyo-HeianjingThe government-run Tozai City was operated.The regulated market opened at noon and closed at sunset, and the price of the goods was decided by the city boss.It was also used not only as a commercial facility, but also as a place to commend those who have done well and to publicly punish those who have sinned.Initially outside a specific areaCommercialWas forbidden,Ritual systemAlong with the relaxation of the commuter pass, regular markets have been formed in places where people gather, such as important points of transportation.A local market was born in the villa, mainly in the Kinki region, and merchants were active.There are many "eight days" and "Sansaiichi" as the days when the regular market stands (city days).If the city day is "eight days", the city will stand on August 8, 18, and 28.Depending on the time of opening the city, it was called the morning market, night market, night market, evening market, etc. In the 15th and 16th centuries, "Rokusai City" is born six times a month.

The government-made East-West city declines along with the Ritsuryo nation, and some of the city's people are engaged in wholesale trade, creating a wholesale market with a collection of wholesalers.this isseatFormed, but since the 16th centuryRakuichi/RakuzaThe seat will be dismantled and divided into a central market in the castle town and a retail market for local residents.While wholesalers gather in the central market, in the retail marketFuriuri,,, etc. were seen.In the early modern period, the wholesale market by wholesalers prospered, especially supported by lords.Your marketAn exclusive monopoly arose in.As a result, the markets of the people and towns were banned, while the payments (fish and vegetables) for the market were borne by the residents, who are middlemen and general buyers.

Old cities include Gojome (Minamiakita District, Akita Prefecture) and Yokote (Akita Prefecture).Yokote City), Atsumi (Atsumi, Nishitagawa-gun, Yamagata Prefecture), Rikuzentakata (Iwate Prefecture)Rikuzentakata City), Otaki (Chiba)Isumi City), Katsuura (Chiba)Katsuura), Takayama (Gifu Prefecture)Takayama), Wajima (Ishikawa Prefecture)Wajima City), Suzu (Suzu, Ishikawa Prefecture)Suzu City), Echizen Ono (Fukui Prefecture)Ono City)etcEdo PeriodGo back to.Also,Miefour daysCityCityAnd oldShigaThe XNUMXthCityCity(CurrentHigashiomi City),HiroshimaOld dayCityCity, OldChibaThe XNUMXthMarketCity(CurrentSosa) And other names show the remnants of the past.

Market under Japanese law

Wholesale market

in Japan,Cabinet OrderA place for auctioning agricultural, livestock and marine products specified inWholesale market lawIs stipulated by.In the law, the country, that is,Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries(Ministry of Agriculture) Approves and supervises "Central wholesale market"When,RegionIePrefectural governor(Prefectures) Approves and supervises "Local wholesale marketIs stipulated[13][14]..In the case of the central wholesale market, the founder can be "prefectures with a population of 20 or more."City, Or these joinSome office associationsOrWide area unionThat is, over a certain scaleLocal governmentHowever, in the case of local wholesale markets, local governmentsPrivate enterprises-combination-Third sectorEither[13][14].2011 (Heisei23 years)May 3According to the "9th Central Wholesale Market Development Plan" formulated in, large-scale ones will be defined as "base market", large-scale central wholesale market will be "central base market", and large-scale local wholesale. The market is classified as a "regional base market"[15].

Retail market

The public retail market1918 (Taisho7 years)May 4ToOsaka"Osaka Municipal Retail Market" opened in[16]..Currently the retail market isRetail Commercial Adjustment Special Measures Law[17]Is stipulated by the law enforcement order[18]Cities that regulate the retail market by[† 1]And items are specified.In Osaka Prefecture, where there are many retail markets, the facility names of the retail market are "○○ market", "○○ specialty store", "○○ shop", "○○ market", "○○ shopping center", "○○ department store", etc. It has become[19], It is difficult to recognize the difference from other commercial facility formats only by the name.

Markets in economics

People are in the marketexchangeA mechanism that enablesSupply and demandIs dominated by the theory of.There are both specific and abstract markets where single commodities are exchanged.There is a physical place like a wholesale market, and the auctioneer actuallyNeedyとSupplierThere are cases where there is no bidder and there is no physical market as in the case of pricing general goods and services.EconomicsIn terms of the latter case, it is considered that the market exists abstractly.We call it a market even if it does not physically exist because each exchange transaction is related to another exchange transaction.For exampleチ ョ コ レ ー トIf the price of a store is low and customers gather there, the store with fewer customers will need to lower the price.Even if they are not physically linked in this way, the situation in which they are economically affected and synchronized can be called a market.In this sense, it is often called a market.If you want to divide the range of influence, "JapanAutomobile"Market" and "ChinesesoyIt is also called "market".Of each countryNational economyNowadays, the cooperation ofWorld marketThere are also usages such as "global market (from Chinese)".

Putting many interested sellers in one place makes it easier for the market to work and to rate them in favor of expected buyers.An economy that relies primarily on the interaction between buyers and sellers to allocate resourcesMarket economyKnown asControlled economyAnd giftsNon-market economyIs said to be in contrast to.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Source

  1. ^ Translation: "(Shennong) opened the market at noon and called the people. Everything was gathered in the market, and when people traded home, each got what they wanted (this is I Ching's). I think I went there with reference to the market.) ”Full text“I Ching / Copula』Chapter XNUMX-Wikisource
  2. ^ "Uno's founder's new company Kozo released iPhone version of flea market application "Mercali"' CNET Japan, August 2013, 7.
  3. ^ Masaru Nakamura "Anthropological Direction of Market History Research-Learn from H. Grierson-" (included in "Silent Trade")
  4. ^ "Silent Trade" Section 40
  5. ^ a b c "Human Economy 2"
  6. ^ "Social History of Market and Distribution" Volume 1
  7. ^ "Shops and Shopping in Britain: from market stalls to chain stores”. University of Dartmouth (2011). 2019/12/28Browse.
  8. ^ "Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516". archives.history.ac.uk. 2019/12/28Browse.
  9. ^ Dyer, C., Everyday Life in Medieval England, London, Hambledon and London, 1994, pp 283-303
  10. ^ "Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516". archives.history.ac.uk. 2019/12/28Browse.
  11. ^ Casson, M. and Lee, J., "The Origin and Development of Markets: A Business History Perspective," Business History Review, Vol 85, Spring, 2011, pp 9–37. doi: 10.1017 / S0007680511000018
  12. ^ Nicholas, DM, The Growth of the Medieval City: From Late Antiquity to the Early Fourteenth Century, Oxon, Routledge, 2014, p. 182
  13. ^ a b "Wholesale Market Law (Law No. XNUMX of XNUMX)”. E-Gov Law Search. Administrative Management Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (December 2018, 6). 2019/12/28Browse.
  14. ^ a b Main differences and advantages / disadvantages between central and local wholesale markets (PDF) (Tokyo Central Wholesale Market)
  15. ^ Wholesale market information(Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries)
  16. ^ Recovery period from the beginning to the postwar period(Osaka Municipal Central Wholesale Market Home)
  17. ^ "Retail and Commercial Adjustment Special Measures Law (Act No. XNUMX of XNUMX)”. E-Gov Law Search. Administrative Management Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (December 2014, 6). 2019/12/28Browse. “For enforcement on June 2016, 4”
  18. ^ "Ordinance for Enforcement of the Act on Special Measures for Retail and Commercial Adjustment (Cabinet Order No. XNUMX of XNUMX)”. E-Gov Law Search. Administrative Management Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (December 2015, 1). 2019/12/28Browse. “For enforcement on June 2016, 4”
  19. ^ Federation member list(Osaka Prefecture Retail Market Association)

注 釈

References

  • Masaki Anno "Rakuichi Theory-Early Nobunaga's Distribution Policy," Hosei University Press, 2009.
  • Hiroshi Ishihara "Study of Regular Market: Function and Structure" The University of Nagoya Press, 1987.
  • Tsugutaka Sato-Mio KishimotoHen "Regional History of the Market" Yamakawa Shuppansha, 1999.
  • Philip James Hamilton Grierson, "Introduction to the Primitive Mechanism of Silent Trade and Cross-Cultural Contact" Masaru NakamuraTranslated by Harvest, 1997.
  • Masaru Nakamura "Modern Japan Talking about the Market" Supplementary Revised Edition In addition, 1989.
  • Fernand Broder "Material Civilization, Economy, Capitalism-15-18th Century" All 6 Volumes Mitsuhiko Murakami-Junichi YamamotoTranslated by Misuzu Shobo, 1985-1999.
  • Karl Polanyi "Human economy2-The emergence of trade, money and markets ” Tamanoi Yoshiro・ Translated by Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Modern Classics>, 2005.
  • Masahiko Yamada・ ・ Hen "Social History of Market and Distribution", 3 volumes, Seibundo Publishing, 2010-2011.

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