Reasons to read that next year's Chinese economy is prepared for low growth or that the authorities' real estate investment restraint policy will continue for the time being
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This idea aims to create a society in which everyone is equally prosperous by achieving poverty-free, and it can be said to be a socialist idea.
The slowdown in real estate investment, which is currently putting a lot of downward pressure on the Chinese economy, is likely to continue next year ... → Continue reading
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|PoliticsDerived from the series article|
Socialism is, in a broad sense, a system that supports people by organizing society, and historicallySocial reformism,Social democracy,Anarchism,Syndicalism,Communism,National socialismEtc. are also included.
The etymology of "society" is the Latin word ""socius"(friend,AlliesEtc.). There are various theories about the first use of the word "socialism", but "Freedom, equality, fraternityPopularized the wordPierre LerouxIn 1832personality(This is French, personalized, personalized,PersonalizeAs a contrasting word of)socialism"(This is French, literally" socialism ", socialism) is said to be the first., Leroux1834 IsIndividualismAnd socialism ”was published.Another 1827Henri de Saint-SimonThere are theories such as, but all of themFrench RevolutionIt occurred in the flow of. The word "socialism" was used by various claims in the later modern sense...Thus, historically, the word "socialism" is mainly individualistic.LiberalismAnd that as the basic principle資本主義It is used as a contrasting concept such as.
There are various types of "socialism"Definition,trendThere is.In a narrow sense, aim for social sharing and management of means of productionCommunism,In particularMarxismAnd that tide.Various in a broad senseSocial reformism,Social democracy,Part ofAnarchism,National socialismIt is a general term including.
Historically,Civil revolutionCitizens gained political freedom and equality, including basic human rights,資本主義Due to the progress ofCapitalistAnd the majorityWorkerThe gap between rich and poor has widened and fixed, and the lives of workers have become poor and social unrest has expanded.Working classIt is alleged to have claimed economic equality and rights, including.The Bourgeois Revolution and the Socialist MovementEnlightenment ThoughtとModernizationIn common, early capitalism is economicallyLaissez-faire(Night watchman), While socialismMarket economyRestrictions and abolitions,Planned economy,社会 保障,Welfare stateInsist on such things.
The 19th century social reform movement, including socialism, is not only about material aspects such as improving the living environment, but also about an ideal society (secular).Millennium KingdomIt was also a mental movement that included the theme of construction of), and was a mental movement with the same theme.SpiritualismHad a close relationship from the beginning.
World War IlaterRussian RevolutionHappened and was the first in the worldSocialist countryThe Soviet Union was born.Second World WarThe rest is between the socialist and liberal campsCold WarAndKorean War,Vietnam WarSuch asProxy warContinued.Western countriesWithin, a conflict between capitalist, socialist, and social democratic forces was born.Eastern countriesButSoviet socialismとSelf-managed socialismConflict,Sino-Soviet conflictAnd so on.On the other hand, even in non-communist countries, in Western countriesNew Deal Policyな どMixed economyThe progress has been made.
Communist party OfOne-party dictatorshipUnderCentralizationType ofOfficialsThe system was builtSoviet socialismIt is,USSRからEastern Europe,East Asia,Middle East,AfricaExpanded to a part of, but especiallyBrezhnevIt will be stagnant after the guidance system is established. In 1989Eastern European RevolutionOutbreak, in 1991Soviet Union collapsesHowever, the image of Soviet socialism has fallen worldwide.Currently, one-party rule of the Communist Party continuesPeople's Republic of China,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu TheMarket principleWe are promoting the introduction of the system and building a de facto mixed economy system.Economic developmentIs remarkable.But,north koreaRefused to introduce market forces and is economically stagnant.
On the other hand,Social democracyEven after World War I, the power was criticized by the Communists, but expanded in the parliaments of Western countries.British labor party,French Socialist Party,German Social Democratic PartyAre typical European social democratic parties.thesePolitical party TheLiberalismとDemocracyAnd took a critical attitude towards Soviet socialist dictatorship, after World War IISocialism internationalWas formed. In the 1980sNeoliberalismTemporarily retreated the party due to the rise ofMarket principle"I gave a certain evaluation to"The third way"(Blair) and other routes regained power in the 1990s.United Kingdom,France,Germany,Italy,Spain,NordicOften in countriesRuling partyI'm on the seat.
In addition,ColonyIndependent fromThird worldThen, there are many countries that advocate socialism.The famous oneIndiaAndIndian Constitution"India is a socialist country."IndiaWest Bengal,KeralaThen oftenIndian Communist PartyHas been elected to the state government.Also in the Middle East(I.e.,(I.e.,(I.e.And so onArab socialismUnder one-party rule, in 2003Iraq warAnd from 2012Arab springThese dictatorships have collapsed or are on the verge of collapse.Also,Cyprus,ネ パ ー ルThen, the Communist Party is the ruling party and is in charge of national affairs.
Suffering from neoliberalismLatin AmericaIn each country, the growth of socialist regimes is remarkable in the 21st century.ベネズエラIn such cases, raise socialism through electionsadministrationHas been established and is advancing the socialist route.Anti-AmericanLeftIn that respect, the Venezuelan route isCuba,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,EcuadorIt is consistent with the governments of.Also,BrazilBut it ’s a kind of social democratic party.Labor PartyIs in charge of the administrationSocial justiceとeconomic growthIs being promoted at the same time.
|PoliticsDerived from the series article|
Charles Fourier,Henri de Saint-Simon,Robert OwenEarly socialist ideas represented by.However, "Fantasy socialismThe name "" refers to itselfScientific socialismIt is a name from the standpoint of Marxism, not a self-proclaimed advocate.Therefore, there is no strict definition, and there are many disagreements about what kind of thought is called utopian socialism.
Social democracy TheParliamentary politicsAiming for democratic change throughMarxism OfViolent revolutionDeny the argument (Anti-communism).Social reformism,Democratic socialismAnd so on, in a broad senseMarxismWhile adhering to the position ofMulti-party systemAnd denied the violent revolutionRevisionism,Structural reformism,Euro communismAnd so on.internationalTo the organizationSocialism internationaland so on.
AnarchismIs a general term for various ideas such as individualistic, liberal, and socialist positions, but from a socialist position, it aims at local communities and trade unionism against the concentration of power.MarxismAuthoritarianismCriticize.
Sandy charisme(UnionPrinciple)CorporatismIt has a (communist) aspect, and the labor uniongeneral strikeOverthrow the capitalist system with, and after the revolution, not the governmentCollectivismAim to manage the economy and society by a coalition of traditional labor unions.For more radical and revolutionary ideasAnalco Sandy CharismeThere is.
|PoliticsDerived from the series article|
CommunismBy sharing the industryexploitationAlsoclassAim for a society withoutFrench Revolutionof timeBabuhuAims for an egalitarian society by distributing goods, saying that "land belongs to all," and is also called "the pioneer of communism."It should be noted thatMarx-LeninismThen,資本主義The intermediate stage of development from society to communist society is also called "socialist society".
|PoliticsDerived from the series article|
- Marxism(Scientific socialism)
- MarxismMarxとEngelsDeployed by.Criticizing traditional socialism as "utopian socialism"Material historyとSurplus value theoryContrary to "scientific socialism" by, the communist revolution was inevitable in history. From the experience of revolutions such as 1848 and 1871Parliamentary democracy TheBourgeois democracyAsViolent revolutionとProletarian dictatorshipHowever, in the latter half of the 19th century, Marx acknowledged the possibility of a peace revolution, and Engels stated that the violent revolution was out of date. "Unite the workers of the worldStanding on the proletarian internationalism.
- Marxism-Leninism is the "inheritance and development of Marxism and Leninism" formulated by Stalin.While based on MarxismImperialismByProfessional revolutionariesComposed byAvant-garde partyInstructed by anti-imperialismUnderdeveloped countryInsisted on a revolution.Russian RevolutionEven after theCounterrevolutionDepends on the powerRecoilAs to counterOne-party dictatorshipContinue,Soviet socialismBecame the basis of.
|PoliticsDerived from the series article|
- TrotskyMarxist theory by.Marx'sWorld revolution theoryAnd the revolutionary theory of developing countriesPerpetual revolution theoryInsist on Stalin'sUnilateral socialism theoryCriticized.In the Communist Party of each country, the Trotskyist term was often used as a synonym for traitor.
|PoliticsDerived from the series article|
- Stalin(Stalin called his position "Marxism-Leninism", which is why Stalinism is another name).World revolution theoryCriticizeUnilateral socialism theoryInsisted.LaterStalin criticismThen thatDictatorship-Personal worship-Nationalism-nationalismEtc. were criticized.
|PoliticsDerived from the series article|
- Mao Zedong Thought
- Mao ZedongCentered onChinese Communist PartyThought.In particularCultural RevolutionRefers to the theory and claims of the Chinese Communist Party during the period.Despite advocating Marxism-Leninism農民CentralGuerrillaHe insisted on the armed revolution method by tactics.It is also called Maoism, but this is just another name, and the name of the Chinese Communist Party's own theory is consistently Maoism.However, during the Cultural RevolutionRed GuardThere are only a few examples of such things using the Maoist name.
- The Juche idea isDPR Korea(North Korea)'s original idea.At first, he called himself the development of Marxism, but now he calls it "although it is based on Marxism, it has already overcome it."
Third World Socialism
After World War II, the national movement against the colonial rule of the imperialist countries so far rose.Anti-colonial national movements tended to be socialist, as advanced capitalist countries were inextricably linked to the interests of colonial rule.
China, Vietnam,Laos, North Korea and other countries have created a Soviet-style socialist government.
India is a socialist partyIndian National AssemblyAchieved independence under the guidance of, and stipulated in the Constitution that "India is a socialist nation."
In the Middle East from the 1950s to the 1960sArab socialismHas spread.Anti-colonial such as nationalizationnationalismHas a tendency of.Egypt OfNacelle, LibyaCaddafiEtc. are typical.Also, in Iraq and Syria, Arab socialist parties (Baath party) Was born.
In Africa, the 1960 "African yearSince then, the number of independent nations has increased rapidly, but many nations claim to be socialist nations, and in many cases there was a civil war in conflict with the former imperialist nations and the United States.
- Christian socialism
- Buddhist socialism
- Islamic socialism
- JudaismSocialism(Jewish left）
It is used in the following meanings.
- Japanese translation of State Socialism.La SalleSocialism,BismarckSocial security policy,Soviet socialismetc.
- Japanese translation of National Socialism.National socialismIt was also translated, and the scope of socialist system asylum was narrowed down to specific ethnic groups.National socialismIs said to be.As a typical example of national socialismNational Socialist German Labor Party(For details, seeNational socialism,Totalitarianism, See).
- JapaneseMotoyuki Takahata,Katsumaro AkamatsuOrIkki KitaThoughts such as.
New LeftA general term for various factions.Soviet socialismAnd each countryCommunist party,Social democracyPolitical partyOld LeftCriticize.There are many trends, ideas, and parties, and in JapanTrotskyism OfFourth Inter, "Anti-imperialismAnti-Stalinism"ofLeather martialとCore,MarxismAs reinstatementLeninismDenyCompany, OtherAnarchism,Maoist principle,Structural reformersand so on.Trotskyists and Mao Tse-tung often dislike being called the "New Left" because they recognize that their tide is orthodox Marxism.
The following are not usually called "socialist", but are also said to have a socialist aspect.
- Ancient land ownership system
- Make all farmland publicly owned and distribute it evenly to farmers for fairness唐 OfAverage systemAndNara period OfSada acquisition law,Inca EmpireThe public (prohibition of private ownership) system of the means of production is under the tyranny system, but it is often pointed out that it is similar to socialism..
- John Maynard KeynesAdvocated byKeynesian economicsWas criticized for being socialist from the standpoint of opposition to it, including socialist elements such as state intervention in the economy.From the standpoint of Marxian economics,National monopoly capitalismIt has been criticized as being.In general, a mix of capitalism and socialism, free economy and planned economyMixed economyIt is said that
- Japanese socialism
- Postwar Japan built a unique mixed economy system that had both decentralized and centralized characteristics, and was an economist'sYasuo TakeuchiByJapanese socialismSometimes called.in this case"The most successful communist country in the worldMay be called with praise or irony.
- Eco socialism
- Alter-globalization,Anti-globalizationFrom the standpoint ofGreen politics,Ecology-EnvironmentalismIt is an ideology that fuses socialism with.
- MoreEco socialismSee.
- Cooperative movement
- CooperativeThe movement is a utopian socialistRobert OwenIt is a kind of socialist movement that forms a cooperative as an organization different from capitalism, which originated from the idea of.Production and supply that are not affected by the market, such as direct contracts with production areas, production participation by union members, and organizational management are also carried out.However, it compromised a little from Owen's ideas and is accepted by non-socialist nations.As a result, co-operatives are building relationships that coexist or complement each other with capitalism and the free market, such as partnering with private companies in distribution, having private companies as subsidiaries, or gathering private companies to form co-operatives. ..
- National trust movement
- National trust movementIs in each countryvolunteerHas a socialist aspect in terms of purchasing vast land with a joint philosophy, not for profit, and for permanent maintenance.LegallyPrivate propertyIsTourism resourcesThere is also an aspect as, but on the contraryNational parkUnlike nationalization such as nationalization, there is no risk of privatization by the administration, and economic activities by private companies can be excluded and regulated in the future.
The origin of socialism is the so-called primitive of each nation.communityIn variousTotal,equalityAnd forms of mutual aid (these areMarxismThen "Primitive communistAlso called).Private propertyThe concept ofModernAfter that,Right to joinPartial sharing by communities such as is allowed.AlsoPlato OfTetsujin politicsIt is,philosopher OfDictatorshipAiming for a peaceful and equal ideal societyCommunismSometimes called.
Modern forms of socialism and communism began to appear in the late 18th century.Industrial revolutionbyModernizationWhen,Market principleRaiseLaissez-faireType of資本主義Has progressed and the traditional community has been destroyedWorking classAnd thatclassAnd immobilizationWealth differenceExpansion, constantpovertySuch as社会 問題And social unrest has become apparent.
18st centuryFrom the second half onwards, later "early socialism" (from a Marxist standpointFantasy socialism) Has appeared.Robert Owen TheManagementFrom the standpoint of workers' early childhood educationCooperativeAnd aimed at a more communist community.Saint-SimonEmphasizes the production of wealth by the industrial class (managers and workers)キ リ ス ト 教 OfHumanitarianismPreached the relief of the poor.Charles FourierQuestioning both national violence and revolutionary violence and not being ruled by the stateSelf-sufficiencyAdvocated an efficient cooperative society.BritishFabian SocietyLaterSocial democracy,Labor PartyIt also became the source of.these areSocial reformismAlso called.
また1789 ToFrench RevolutionWhen the outbreak broke out, many revolutionary ideas emerged.BabuhuAs "land belongs to all people", joint management and equal distribution of goods by the state,Avant-gardeHe insisted on the armed uprising and class dictatorship by the molecule, and was later called the "pioneer of communism", and the idea wasBlankiAnd laterLeninWas also inherited.WeidlingWorkers in Western citiesAssociationAnd preached the so-called Messianic Communism.Moses Hess TheHegelian leftHe was born in Japan and advocated the theory of money abolition.
On the other hand, among the socialists, the position that denies all authorityAnarchismAlso called (anarchism).France OfProudhonAdvocated "association" against any centralized organization, saying that "property is theft"Russia OfBakunin,KropotkinWas inherited by.
The revolution that took place in various parts of Europe in 1848 (1848 revolution), Workers and socialists participated from the beginning.
Marxism and the First International
Karl MarxとEngelsIn 1848Communist declaration』Written.MarxismIt is,Material historyとSurplus value theoryHad traditional socialismClass struggle,UnionProviding an analysis of capitalism as a theoretical weapon in the theory of movement and political movement,EuropeHas had a wide range of influence on a global scale.
1862 Is an international organization of European workers and socialistsDaiichi InternationalWas established and resolved to encourage trade unions, shorten working hours, and abolish private land ownership.But the authoritative Marx and the anarchistsBakuninOpponents such as and others criticized and dismissed each other, and the First International collapsed.
As parliamentary politics developed, socialist parties with the support of the working class expanded their power in Germany, Great Britain, France and elsewhere.GermanyThe German Workers' Association, a socialist party that won the seat for the first time in the world, was formed.BismarckBut,Socialist suppressionAt the same time, the world's first(I.e.Was founded.is this"Candy and whipIt was called a policy, but then Germany and other countriesSocial security systemIt also became the basis of.
1889 Focusing on MarxistsSecond InternationalWas formed and became the centerpiece of it.German Social Democratic PartyFrom insideRevisionismA controversy arose.BernsteinEtc.Parliamentary democracybyPeace revolutionCalled "revisionism" in recognition ofViolent revolution,Proletarian dictatorshipShould be adhered toKautskyEt al.DoctrineWas called, but Kautsky also joined later.Social democracyWas systematized.However1914 ToWorld War IThe Second International collapsed as socialists in each country supported their own wars.
JapanThen,1901 Is Japan's first socialist partySocial DemocratsBut,1906 Is Japan's first legal socialist party (Childless party)Japanese Socialist PartyWas formed.キ リ ス ト 教Turned from a socialist to a socialistKatayama TheGeneral electionPreaching the "parliamentary policy theory" by the movement,Anarchism,Analco Sandy CharismeWas also influenced byKotoku Shusui Thegeneral strikeInsisted on "direct action theory" such as1910 OfGreat reverse case(High Treason Incident) Etc.
After World War I
With the outbreak of World War I, the socialist parties of the warring nations, with the exception of Russia and Serbia, supported the war of their homeland.The Social Democratic Party of Germany insisted on "burgfriedenspolitik," and the Socialist Party of France and Belgium joined the wartime cabinet.On the other hand, leftist socialists appealed against the war and engaged in anti-war activities.
The Russian Revolution broke out in February 1917, and in October of the same yearLenin,TrotskyOurBolsheviksDeveloped into a socialist revolution led by.LeninImperialism"Capitalism prolongs life, so traditionalFree market economyからMonopoly capitalismとImperialismHe argued that the imperialist stage was the final stage of capitalist society.HeProfessional revolutionariesComposed byAvant-garde partyGuided the working class and argued that socialism should be built.Russia was in a state of civil war due to the conflict between the Revolutionary Army and the Counter-Revolutionary Army, and in the process, it shifted to a one-party dictatorship by the Communist Party (Bolsheviks).
1919 Is a communist international organizationThird International (Comintern)Was formed, and the Communist Party, which is also a branch, was established in each major country.However1924 After Lenin's death, he took controlStalinIt is,Marx-LeninismWhile formulating, "fascismSocial democratic forces should be prioritized over forces to attack. "Social Fascism"The Soviet Union can build a socialist society even in one country."Unilateral socialism theoryInsist, and evensecret police,purgeReign of terror byPersonal worshipThorough (Stalinism).TrotskyIs a MarxistWorld revolution theoryHe criticized Stalin from his standpoint, but was expelled and overseas.Fourth InternationalFormed anti-capitalistAnti-StalinismContinued to exercise (Trotskyism)But,assassinationWas done.
On the other hand, Marxism-LeninismSoviet socialismSocial democracies who oppose1923 ToAnti-communismRaiseLabor Socialism InternationalEstablished (predecessor of Socialist International).They defended the value of democracy and thought that socialism should be realized through democracy.British labor party,French Socialist Party,German Social Democratic PartyEtc. gathered at this international and became one of the political pillars of interwar Europe.In englandRamsey McDonaldLabor Cabinet in FranceLeon BlumThe Popular Front Cabinet was established.
in Japan1922 Illegal as the Japanese branch of the Communist InternationalXNUMXst Communist PartyWas formed.Also, the non-Japanese Communist Party systemLabor groupCalled1926 ToLabor Peasant PartyWas formed, but "Emperor System TheAbsoluteismAnd the current situation is halfFeudalismBy stipulatingTwo-stage revolution theoryInsistLecture groupWhen,"Meiji Restoration ThebourgeoisIn the revolution, the current situation isImperialismBy stipulatingOne-step revolution theoryInsistLabor groupBetweenJapanese capitalist debateWas done.Later, the theory of the lecture groupJapan Communist PartyIn addition, the theory of labor and agriculture isSocialist Left,New LeftIt was inherited by each school.
1929 ToGreat DepressionWhen unemployment and poverty occurred, it became clear that unemployment and poverty were not only "problems of individual efforts" but also contradictions inherent in capitalism, and socialist and communist forces increased in each country.United Kingdom-France-AmericaAnd so onBlock economyIt is becoming more and more popular, and it cannot form its own block economy without having a vast colony.Italy-Germany-SpainAnd so onnationalismとSocialistControlled economy[Source required]IncorporatedfascismSuch asMilitarismEmerged,Second World WarIt also became a factor in the outbreak.in Japan1937 OfPeople's Front CaseThe crackdown on socialists intensified, and on the other handIkki Kitaof"Japan remodeling bill outline』Is also influenced byShowa RestorationRaiseImperial schoolEmerged.
After World War II
Second World WarAfter that, mainly in the areas occupied by the Soviet Union,Eastern Europe,East AsiaSocialist nations were born one after anotherSatellite countryAlso known as an international organizationComin FormWas also founded.Howeverユ ー ゴ ス ラ ビ ア OfTitoIt is,Direct democracyUniqueSelf-managed socialismAdoptSoviet socialismI kept a certain distance from.AlsoChugoku OfMao ZedongIs guided by Marxism,農民CentralGuerrilla tacticsClaim (Mao Zedong Thought) And1949 ToNational warVictory and established a socialist government.These socialist campsEastern countriesIs a capitalist campWestern countriesWhen,Cold War,Proxy warContinued.
In many eastern countries, as important as the Soviet UnionnationalizationAndFive-year planSuch asPlanned economy, Education is free of charge, etc.InfrastructureMaintenanceModernizationIs promoted, and at one pointHydrogen bombDevelopment andSpace development competitionHowever, "the superiority of socialism" was widely communicated, such as being superior.Also, "capitalism is a war force, socialism is a peace force", "capitalismnuclear weapons TheInvasionThere were also claims such as "for defense, socialist nuclear weapons are for defense" (Anti-nuclear movement # Neutrality of anti-nuclear movementSee also).
However1953 After Stalin's death1956 OfStalin criticismAnd continueHungarian uprisingThen, it had a great impact on the Communist Party and Communists in each country.Italy,Spainな どWestern EuropeIn the Communist PartyProletarian dictatorshipAbandonedMulti-party systemAdmitEuro communismSpread.Japan Communist PartyThen, repeated dispute with pro-Soviet and pro-Chinese, expulsion and sect,1960 eraToVoluntary independent routeWas established, but at the same time "Old LeftMany criticizingNew LeftExpanded its power.Also China is the Soviet UnionKhrushchevbyPeaceful coexistenceRoute "RevisionismThe Soviet Union called ChinaDoctrine"Or"Far leftCriticizing "adventurism"Sino-Soviet conflictHas begun, and in China there is a large-scale power struggle.Cultural RevolutionWas started and intervened in the Communist Party of each country.AfterIndia-Para War,Chuetsu WarThere is also an aspect of proxy war in the Sino-Soviet conflict.
Rebuilt after the war in JapanJapan Communist PartyWas originallyAlliesDefined the army as the "Liberation Army"Peace revolutionI also argued,Comin FormCriticized the peace revolution in response to the intention ofArmed struggleOf the mainstreamImpressionistAnd conflictInternational factionThrough conflicts and divisions such as1955 OfRokuzenkyoでEnemy's theoryShelved the armed struggle byTwo-stage revolution theory OfVoluntary independent routeConverted to.Due to this shift and the criticism of Stalin, a large number of party membersNew LeftI turned to each school.Also, the non-Communist legitimate socialist forcesJapanese Socialist PartyWas formed, but from the beginningLabor groupBased on MarxismOne-step revolution theory-Peace revolutionIs the theoryJapanese social democracyRaiseSocialist LeftAnd advocated Western-style social democracyRightist Socialist PartyHowever, conflicts and divisionsReunificationRepeat, and laterAnti-communism OfSuehiro NishioetcDemocratic socialismRaiseDemocratic PartyFormed, and furtherStructural reformPrinciple (Eda Vision) ClaimedSaburo Eda Social Democratic UnionWas formed.Also in 1970Security struggle,Vietnam anti-war movementMany new leftists and citizen groups also participated, but the new leftists andUnion Red Army TheInner GebaAnd continued the armed struggle and became isolated.
In Western European countries in the 1960sNew LeftExtends power,Vietnam anti-warWas raisedStudent movementBecame popular.In particularMao Zedong ThoughtとCultural RevolutionIs in FranceGodard,SartreHas a great influence on1968 revolutionHappened.People democracyIn the Eastern European countries that had been holding up, the Soviet Union was moving away,CzechoslovakiaThen in 1968Spring in pragueBut the movement was cracked down by Soviet troops, as in the Hungarian case.Also,TitoLeadユ ー ゴ ス ラ ビ アIt is,TitoismExpanded relations with non-aligned countries. In the 1970s, the Communist Party of Western Europe became more Eurocommunist-oriented, while Eastern European countries also moved away from the Soviet Union. It was the longest dictatorship in Europe in 1974Estado NovoThe systemCarnation revolutionCollapsed byPortugalThen, it was thought that a radical revolution would proceed, such as the aim of building socialism in the new constitution enacted in 1976, but in the end the revolution moderated and the socialist system remained unborn.European CommunityWas integrated into.
on the other hand,Third worldThen,1959 OfCuban revolution, 1954-1962Algerian war,1965 から1975 OfVietnam WarEtc. on the west sideColonialismThere was a socialist revolution with a strong side of the colonial liberation war against.Also,IndiaThe number of nations and governments that advocate socialist policies has increased.
In 1960African yearWas welcomedAfricaSo communism (Marxism-Leninism) Is the nationPeople's Republic of the Congo,People's Republic of Benin,Democratic Republic of Somalia,Socialist Ethiopia, Independent all at once in 1975Former Portuguese colony OfPeople's Republic of Angola,People's Republic of MozambiqueThe military personnel who caused the coup d'etat and the factions that succeeded in the war of independence remained in a small number of governments that advocated Marxism-Leninism, but for nations that advocated their own socialism not based on Marxism-LeninismAlgerian warAchieved independence by defeating FranceアルジェリアAnd raised Dustour socialismチュニジア, Ujamaa socialismTanzania, Aiming for the realization of the United States of AfricaKwame NkrummerOf the regimeガーナSuch asNon-allianceBesides the nation of the systemZaire OfMobutuThere are also nations from the west, such as the administration, and many newly independent nations have a wide variety of ideas for their formation.African socialismWas raised.
Latin AmericaThen, influenced by Guevarism in the 1960s,CubaThe uprising of rural guerrilla troops supported byChoi GuevaraIn 1967BoliviaThe death in the war caused a serious setback for the Guevaraist rural guerrilla organization.After the death of Guevara,Brazil,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ArgentineでCarlos MarighellaThe city guerrillas that the guerrillas advocated have grown in power since the end of the 1960s.Peru OfJuan Velasco AlvaradoThe administration and the Juan Jose Torres administration in Bolivia, etc.Coup d'etatRaise socialism byMilitary regimeIs established, the left wingPoprismoPolicy was adopted.Also,チリThen in 1970 the Popular Unity won a democratic election,Socialist PartyからSalvador AllendeThe administration was established, but the Allende administration was in 1973.army OfPinochetIt collapsed due to a general coup.At the same timeSouthern South AmericaCities guerrilla forces were also subdued by their government forces, and South American countries in the 1970s were generally dominated by anti-communist military regimes.Besides this,ガイアナ TheCommonwealthWhile maintaining the position of being a memberCooperativeAdopted a moderate socialist policy centered on the system.on the other hand,Costa RicaとパナマMany were conservative dictatorships exceptCentral americaThen in 1979Sandinista National Liberation Front(FSLN)Nicaraguan RevolutionSuccessful and anti-communistSomoza dynastyDestroyed, this revolution is in the neighborhoodEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euHowever, due to the anti-communist policy of Central America in the United StatesCentral American ConflictWas eventually defeated as it continued to expand.On the other hand, in South American countries where the transition to civilian rule progressed in the 1980s, it expanded during the military government.External debtActively due to problemsNeoliberalismA conversion to a model was made.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union
The People's Republic of China, Vietnam, and Laos politically adhere to the one-party dictatorship of the Communist Party, but in terms of economic policy.Market economyIntroduced, a kind ofMixed economyThe conversion has progressed.AlsoDPR Korea(North Korea) has its own "Subjectivity”, And firmly adheres to the isolated military dictatorship system.1990 era"Although it was based on Marxism, it had already overcome it."For this reason, so-calledSoviet socialismState no longer exists (unofficiallyEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIs part ofTransnistriaMaintains de facto Soviet socialism under Russian influence.However, no country in the international community has approved the country).
in Japan,Japan Communist PartyBased on the independent route from before1991 OfSoviet Communist PartyDissolution of "Great Power"HegemonyWelcome the end of the historic villainous party. "2000 From the party rulesAvant-garde partyThe regulation was deleted.Japanese Socialist Party The1996 ToIn-house coalitionIsMurayama Cabinetso,US-Japan Security-SDFTurned into acceptance,1996 ToSocial DemocratsRenamed to.Opposing these route changes, from the leftNew Socialist PartyIs independent, and the middle and right wingDemocratic Party (first generation)Joined the formation of, the party shrank, but2006 In the platform ofProletarian dictatorshipDisappears,2009 FromHatoyama Cabinet OfCoalition governmentparticipated in. In 2018Democratic PartyIs dismantled, and the political party that follows the flow of the former Socialist PartyConstitutional Democratic Party, Social Democratic Party, and New Socialist Party.
On the other hand, in Latin AmericaCubaIn addition to the survival of the socialist government1990 eraAccelerated toNeoliberalismDue to the opening of the market, the domestic industry has been destroyed and the gap between rich and poor has widened.ベネズエラ,Bolivia,Ecuador,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euEtc21st century socialismThe countries that advocate and take the socialist route continue,Americas Bolivar AllianceIt forms a mutual aid international organization such as.In Western Europe, social democracies are often in power with the slogan "Third Way."Even in Eastern EuropeSocial democracyOld who turned into a political partyCommunist party NeoliberalismIt is returning to the administration against the backdrop of the expansion of rich and poor.
Criticism / criticism
There have been many criticisms and criticisms of socialism from many standpoints.However, much of its content is more than a critique of socialism in general.Marxism(Leninism,Starlinism, Each countryCommunist partyEtc.) may be a criticism.The so-called "anti-communist" claim against communism is often made from a socialist standpoint other than communism.
The following is a list of typical criticisms and criticisms from the standpoint of major political ideas.
- AnarchismEspecially from the standpoint of aiming for a society in which power is completely abolishedMarxism,LeninismSuch asProletarian dictatorship,Avant-garde partyOr existingSocialist country OfNationalismAnd centralized bureaucracyAuthoritarianismIt is criticized as.HoweverSocial anarchismHas much in common with socialism, on the contraryIndividualist anarchism TheLibertarianismHas a lot in common with.
- LiberalismIs basicallyFree marketIs a liberal economy based on資本主義Support.HoweverSocial justiceFocus onliberalAlso calledSocial liberalismIs especiallyDemocratic socialismThere are many things in common with.vice versaLessefer,IndividualismLibertarianism that emphasizesNeoliberalismIs all socialismPrivate ownershipInfringeCollectivismI disagree as it is.
- manyMaintenanceFrom the standpoint of emphasizing traditional social stratification and cultural continuityEnlightenmentTypicalModernization,EgalitarianismThere is a backlash against socialism that pushes forward.manyNationalist,fascistIt is,Country,PeopleFrom the standpoint of emphasizing independence and unity, especially MarxistClass struggle,InternationalismThere is a backlash against such things.manyReligiousFrom the standpoint of many socialistsEnlightenmentTypicalModernizationDisgust for, especially MarxistMaterialism,Material historyThere is a backlash against.
- Many othersDemocracy,human rights,平和,EnvironmentFrom such a standpoint, especially MarxismBolsheviks OfProletarian dictatorship,One-party dictatorshipOr existingSocialist countryWas seen inGenocide,purge,secret police,censorship,Concentration campIncluding,TotalitarianismLarge scale also calledBasic human rightsInfringementMilitarismAnd evenNo Men KraturaBureaucracy by privileged class such ascorruption, There is a backlash against the disregard for the environment due to industry priority.
- ^ a b c The Oxford English Dictionary (1970) C --701p
- ^ a b Sharing of means of production is a major feature of socialism and is often talked about as an essential condition, but later on.Henri de Saint-SimonThere are also examples of thinkers who do not raise it.Emile Durkheim"Socialism may ultimately result in linking economic life to the central institutions that regulate it" (Socialism and Saint-Simon, Japanese translation: Hiroshi Mori) Company Welfare Pavilion ISBN-4 769-90190-9).According to this word, institutions that support people by organizing society can be included in the category of socialism, even if only the redistribution of wealth, for example.
- ^ Masakazu Yoshimura, "Cultural History of the Spirit: Spiritual British Modernity," Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 2010
- ^ Shinichi Inagaki, "Dream of Ideal National Construction-Utopian Thought, Spiritualism and Social Reform Movement" 實 踐 English Literature 63, 89-104, 2011-02-28
- ^ Kovel, J .; Löwy, M. (2001). An ecosocialist manifesto
- ^ Japanese Communist Party Platform
- Max Weber (translated by Akira Hamashima) "Socialism" (Kodansha Academic Bunko)
- Friedrich A. Hayek (translated by Toichiro Ichitani / Eriko Ichitani) "The Road to Serfdom" (Tokyo Sogensha)
- Francis Fukuyama (Shoichi Watanabe Translation) "End of History" Top and Bottom (Mikasa Shobo)
- Georges Bourgin, Pierre Lambert (translated by Akira Funakoshi and Toshihiko Tominaga) "Socialism" ("Que Sais-jeu"), Hakusuisha, October 1953 (Georges Bourgin, Pierre Rimbert,) Le Socialisme, "Que Sais-Je? 387", Presse Universitaires de France, 1949.)
- Karl Marx (supervised by the Institute of Social Sciences / translated by the Capital Theory Translation Committee) "[New Edition] Capital Theory" (Shinnihon Shuppansha 1989)
- G. Lichtheim (translated by Kokichi Shoji), A Brief History of Socialism, Misuzu Shobo, June 1979 (George Lichtheim,) A Short History of Socialism, Praeger, 1970.)
- Charles Fourier (translated by Kunio Iwaya) "Theory of Four Movements" (Gendai Shichosha)
- Kojin Karatani "To the World Republic" (Iwanami Shinsho)
- Esekiel Adamowski (translated by Ika Kyoko) "Introduction to Manga Anti-Capitalism" (Akashi Shoten) "
- Korn, Norman, Pursuit of the Millennium Kingdom, Kinokuniya Bookstore, 1978.About anarchist communism and the obvious historicism of the Millennial Kingdom
- Socialist country
- Eastern countries
- Socialist Party
- Communist party
- International (Socialism)
- Big government
- Social patriotism
- Social imperialism
- Japanese social democracy
- Society for Socialist Theory
- Socialist market economy
- Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach
- Vissarion Belinsky
- Alexander Herzen
- Karl Marx
- Nikolay Chernyshevsky
- Georgy Prekhanov
- Vladimir Lenin