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💴 | The tax for one election is about 1 billion yen!Does it cost about 600 million yen per person to elect a member of the Diet?


Photo Have you ever wondered, "How much tax is being spent on election costs?"Taking a member of the House of Representatives as an example, about 1 million yen is used to elect one person, and about 3000 billion yen is spent in one election.

The tax on one election is about 1 billion yen!Does it cost about 600 million yen per person to elect a member of the Diet?

 
If you write the contents roughly
"Is it necessary to have political broadcasts and party leader debates on terrestrial broadcasting?"
 

The voting date for the 2021 House of Representatives election is approaching October 2021, 10, but on the contrary, "Our tax ... → Continue reading

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Party debate

Party debateWhat is (Toshutoron)?Political party OfParty leaderDiscuss with each other.ParliamentWhen it is carried out as a public system inelectionIn the periodMass mediaIt may be done through.

Regarding the party leader debate held in the Japanese Diet,Budget CommitteeTV / radio broadcast and online distribution will be performed in the same way as[1].

Diet of Japan

Japan Of国会Then, as a general rule, once a week during the opening of the meeting,National Basic Policy CommitteeAs a joint examination committee ofprime minister(Ruling partyParty leader)OppositionDiscussions will be held by the leaders of each party.Coalition governmentIn, the ruling party leaders other than the prime minister are not supposed to participate.Unlike budget deliberation, the prime minister is also allowed to ask the opposition leader the opposite question, and the opposition party is not only required to criticize the administration, but is required to present alternatives.

Ichiro OzawaIs said to be the creator of OzawaLDP secretary generalSince the times, he has been positively trying to set up a party leader debate in the Diet.British ParliamentInQuestion timeAs a model,1999 Stipulated that a National Basic Policy Committee should be established in JulyParliamentary deliberation activation lawWas established, the same yearMay 11At the 146th Diet sessionLDP OfPrime MinisterKeizo ObuchiAnd the leader of the opposition (Democratic Party RepresentativeYukio Hatoyama,Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Central Committee of the Japanese Communist PartyTetsuzo Fuwa,Social DemocratsParty leaderTakako Doi) Participated in the party leader debate.[2]at firstDainiin ClubThe criteria for the opposition parties to participate in the party leader debate were unclear, such as being unable to participate even though they had offered to participate.

By the way, the first question in the party leader debate was the representative of the Democratic Party.Yukio Hatoyama"What did the Prime Minister eat in the morning?pizzaI have eaten.In particular, we have enjoyed the warm and very hot pizza.First of all, this is the Prime MinisterOfficialsI don't need any help from all of you, so I would like to ask you what you ate. "Prime MinisterKeizo Obuchi"As usual日本 食 OfMealI have beenI heard that you could eat hot pizza,America OfOrbrightSecretary of StateI've been told that cold pizza is also delicious before. "[3]..This is for ObuchiNew York TimesDescribed as a "chilled pizza",United KingdomQuestion time starts by asking the Prime Minister's schedule[4].

Since then, the party leader debate has continued to this day.Initially, both houses of the DietBudget CommitteeIt is held as a joint examination committee ofNational Basic Policy CommitteeThe first party leader debate in2000 May 2Was done in.At that timeMay 2At the request of the joint secretary meeting of both houses of the Dietprime ministerAnd more than 10 people in the lower house or upper houseMemberConsists ofIn-hospital negotiation groupQualifiedOpposition(Parliamentary groupWe will hold face-to-face discussions with the party leader. ”The above-mentioned Dainiin Club has set a clear standard that it cannot participate in the party leader debate.

However, in addition to the criticism that the time for the party leader debate is short (45 minutes in total) and the qualification of the opposition party who can speak as mentioned above, it is an in-hospital negotiation group, and the party leader belongs to the National Basic Policy Committee as a member of the Diet Only if you havePolitical party・ There are also voices that the system may not be fully utilized, such as the fact that the parliamentary group is not allowed to participate and that the difference from the budget deliberation is unclear because there are not many reverse questions from the prime minister.Also,Main ConventionThe ruling and opposition parties have agreed not to hold a party leader debate during the week when the prime minister attends the budget committee, and the party leader debate is often not held.

In some cases, the party leaders who used to have discussions with the party leaders were unable to participate because they could not meet the requirements of the above-mentioned in-hospital negotiation group and the requirements of the party leader belonging to the National Basic Policy Committee due to the results of elections.[5].

When the Democratic Party was an opposition party, there was a movement to allocate its own time to other parties,KomeitoIt didn't happen due to strong opposition.The Komeito was the ruling party that had not issued a prime minister from the beginning until September 2009, so it joined for the first time in February 9.Everyone's partyWas qualified as an in-hospital negotiating organization in the House of Councilors after July 2010, but was unable to participate because the party leader did not belong to the National Basic Policy Committee as a member of the Diet at first, but in the party leader debate in April 7. By accommodating the Liberal Democratic Party and the committee to which it belongs, the leader of the party agreed to belong to the National Basic Policy Committee as a member of the Diet, and participated.Japan Communist PartyRegained the qualifications of an in-hospital negotiating organization that had been lost since 2003, but since the party leader did not belong to the National Basic Policy Committee as a member of the Diet, he became the leader of the National Basic Policy Committee again. I couldn't participate until I rejoined.The Japanese Communist Party has returned to the party leader debate for the first time in 2013 years after the party leader debate in May 7, which was held for the first time since the party leader rejoined the National Basic Policy Committee.

However, the question time in the British Parliament is, as the name implies, "question time", which is nothing more than a question to the prime minister and the prime minister to answer.Since the opposition leader has the right to ask questions with priority, the prime minister cannot ask the opposite question, the opposition leader is not obliged to show an alternative, and members other than the leader can ask questions. ..In these respects, the debate over the leaders of the Japanese Diet was with the United Kingdom.CommonwealthIt is very different from that of other countries such as countries.

Past party leader debate

prime ministerdiscuss
Number of times
First debate dayLast debate day
NameFaction
Keizo ObuchiLDP6 times1999/11/102000/3/29
MoriLDP6 times2000/4/192001/4/4
Junichiro KoizumiLDP29 times2001/6/62006/5/17
Shinzo AbeLDP13 times2006/10/182019/6/19
Fukuda YasuoLDP2 times2008/1/92008/4/9
Taro AsoLDP3 times2008/11/282009/6/17
Yukio HatoyamaDemocratic Party3 times2010/2/172010/4/21
Naoto KanDemocratic Party3 times2011/2/92011/6/1
Yoshihiko NodaDemocratic Party4 times2011/11/302012/11/14
Yoshii KanLDP1 times2021/6/92021/6/9
Opposition leaderdiscuss
Number of times
First debate dayLast debate day
NameFaction
Yukio HatoyamaDemocratic Party24 times1999/11/102009/6/17
Tetsuzo FuwaJapan Communist Party10 times1999/11/102000/11/1
Takako DoiSocial Democrats28 times1999/11/102003/10/9
Ichiro OzawaLiberal party19 times2000/4/192012/11/14
Democratic Party
People's lives are the first
Shizu KazuoJapan Communist Party26 times2001/2/142021/6/9
Naoto KanDemocratic Party8 times2003/2/122004/4/14
Katsuya OkadaDemocratic Party11 times2004/10/272018/6/27
Democratic Party
Independent society
Seiji MaeharaDemocratic Party3 times2005/10/192006/2/22
Sadakazu TanigakiLDP9 times2010/2/172012/4/11
Yamaguchi NatsuoKomeito10 times2010/2/172012/11/14
Yoshimi WatanabeEveryone's party3 times2012/4/112013/12/4
Shinzo AbeLDP1 times2012/11/142012/11/14
Mari EedaDemocratic Party3 times2013/4/172014/6/11
Shintaro IshiharaJapan Restoration Party3 times2013/4/172014/6/11
Keiichiro AsaoEveryone's party1 times2014/6/112014/6/11
Matsuno YorihisaRestoration Party2 times2015/5/202015/6/17
Toranosuke KatayamaOsaka Restoration Society4 times2016/5/182021/6/9
Japan Restoration Party
LotusDemocratic Party1 times2016/12/72016/12/7
Yukio EdanoConstitutional Democratic Party3 times2019/6/192021/6/9
Constitutional Democratic Party
Yuichiro TamakiNational Democratic Party3 times2019/6/192021/6/9
National Democratic Party

As of May 2018, only two people, Obuchi, who was the prime minister, and Doi, who was the leader of the opposition party, were the dead.

Media

tv setIt is also called "leader debate" that the leaders of each major political party hold discussions on TV programs, Internet programs, and lectures on the stage.This is different in nature from the public system in the Diet.

footnote

  1. ^ NHKTV / radio broadcasts onNico Nico Live BroadcastAtLive streamingIn the delivery, "Diet broadcastIt will be broadcast and distributed (the color of the thumbnail of Nico Nama is green). At NHK, depending on the situation,NHK News(The party leaders' debate on November 2012, 11 corresponds to this).
  2. ^ First party leader debate (November XNUMX, XNUMX) - YouTube(TBS NEWS)
  3. ^ Minutes of both Houses Council Minutes Information 146th Diet Budget Committee Meeting Joint Examination Committee No. 1 --The minutes of the same day.
  4. ^ Satoshi Shima (October 2009, 5). “Hatoyama's party leader debate began with "pizza." --Satoshi Shima's "Political Dignity"”. Satoshi Shima. 2012/11/21Browse.
  5. ^ Participated at the beginning of the party leader debateJapan Communist Party The2004 Upper House electionから2013 Upper House electionUntilSocial Democrats The2003 House of Representatives electionSince then, they have not been able to meet the qualifications of in-hospital negotiation groups. Of these, the Japanese Communist Party was elected to the House of Councilors in 2013.In-hospital negotiation groupAlthough the requirements have been restoredNational Basic Policy CommitteeBecause the party leader did not belong to the committee, the participation conditions could not be met until the party leader rejoined the committee. You cannot participate unless both of them meet the requirements.

Related item

Politics broadcast

Politics broadcastWhat is (Seikenhoso)?Japanese electionAtPublic office election lawBased onCandidateIndividual andPolitical party・ Political groups announce their political views on TV and radioBroadcast program.Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting in Japan OfElectronic program guideIs classified as "news / news".

Overview

The political broadcastPublic office election law(Hereafter, abbreviated as "law")Japanese ParliamentarianandPrefectural governorChooseelectionAtCabinet OrderAs specified inElection campaignDuring the period ofJapan Broadcasting Corporation(NHK) andCore broadcaster(By lawBroadcasting lawFrom what is defined in NHK andOUJ AcademyIt is stipulated that is excluded. In particularCommercial broadcastersOf)radio-tv set OfBroadcast facilityByPublic interestBecause of thatPolitical ViewsCan be broadcast free of charge (Article 150, Paragraph 1, First Section, Paragraph 3, First Section of the Law).By convention, each regionTerrestrial backbone broadcastingIs used,Satellite backbone broadcasting(Excluding some) andNationwide broadcastingThere is no example done in.

NHK and core broadcasters must broadcast their political views as they are (the latter part of Article 150, Paragraph 1 and the latter part of Paragraph 3 of the Act).

In addition, the use of broadcasting equipment for election campaigns is limited to cases permitted by law, such as political broadcasting and career broadcasting (Article 151, Paragraph 5 of the Law).

Incidentally,WalkoverIf no vote is taken next to the party, the political broadcast will not be carried out (Article 151-2, Paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Act).

Background of the start

In April 1946 (Showa 21), which was the first general election after the war.22th House of Representatives general electionOn the occasion,Japan Broadcasting Corporation(NHK)Radio first broadcastWas carried out for the first time in[1].

at that timeMinistry of CommunicationsUnder the concept of Yoshio Miyamoto, who was the director of the radio wave stationAllied Supreme Commander General Command(Ghq) Staff DepartmentPrivate Information Education BureauThrough negotiations with (CIE), two types of broadcasting have been decided: "party broadcasting" by national broadcasting and "candidate political viewing broadcasting" by local broadcasting.[2].. Of these, the "Candidate Political Broadcast" was held from March 3 to April 14 of the same year, and broadcasted the political views of three or more candidates each time for 4 minutes in the evening.[2].. "Political party broadcasting" was approved only for political parties that had candidates in more than 12 prefectures, and in addition to the five major political parties at that time, three of the various parties participated.[1].. Back thenRecordingThe technology is underdeveloped and all of these broadcastsLive broadcastwas[1].. Also, the speech manuscriptCCDHas been rigorously censored. It is said that some candidates abandoned broadcasting because the manuscript was disapproved by censorship.[1].

In 1947 (Showa 22), the new constitution (The Constitution of Japan) Before enforcement1th Unified Local Election(February 4th),1rd House of Councilors ordinary election(February 4th),23th House of Representatives general election(April 4th) was carried out. At this time, political broadcasts were broadcast in the elections of both Houses of Representatives and the Unified Local Elections in the elections of the governors of 25 prefectures and the mayors of 46 cities with a population of 10 or more. In addition, the prefectural assembly election and the city assembly election with a population of 42 or more were also held in some areas at stations that can broadcast due to the relationship between the number of candidates and the broadcasting time. As a result, the political broadcast was broadcast for a long period from March 10st to April 3th of the same year, with peak hours of 21 hours a day.[2].

There was no legal support up to the above, but in July 1948 (Showa 23), broadcasting based on was obligatory for NHK Radio.[3]The following year, January 1949 (Showa 24)24th House of Representatives general electionApplied from. At this time, in addition to the political broadcast, a candidate introduction broadcast (later a career broadcast) was also started. In 1950 (Showa 25), the new integrated law on public office elections, the "Public Offices Election Law," was enacted and enforced, and the provisions of political broadcasting were included in the law following the conventional laws and regulations.

Even after the main broadcast of television began in 1953 (Showa 28), political broadcasts were long limited to radio only. In the early days of television broadcasting, technical problems related to program organization and issues related to program organization were issues to ensure the fairness of election broadcasting.Broadcast areaAnd there was a problem of difference in the constituency area[4].. In 1968 (Showa 43), when television was beginning to spread nationwide, discussions became active in the Diet.[5][Note 1]The following year, in September 1969 (Showa 44), the revised Public Offices Election Act came into effect, and the ban on political broadcasting on television was lifted.[3][Note 2].. The first TV political broadcast after the revisionTokushima prefectural governor election in September of the same yearMet[3][5].. The initial rules were that each candidate had a career of 1 seconds and a political view of 30 minutes and 4 seconds, only once for wide-area broadcasting, and twice per channel for prefectural broadcasting.[3].

In Okinawa, which was under the administration of the US military, prior to the mainland,Ryukyu BroadcastingOn September 1960, 10,5th Legislative Assembly General ElectionAt that time, the political broadcasts of the four leaders (free democracy, social masses, people, and society) were broadcast simultaneously on radio and television.[6].

Regulations (method, number of times, time)

Broadcast schedule

The political broadcast schedule is based on the lawCentral Election Commission·PrefecturesElection Management CommitteeAnd the broadcasting station will discuss and decide in advance, and it will always be broadcast on the specified date and time.It will be broadcast sequentially from the day after the election announcement / notification to the day before the voting day.

House of Representatives general election OfProportional representationAs for the election, in principle, it will be broadcast on NHK for each broadcasting station corresponding to the corresponding block (only the House of Representatives North Kanto block and Tokyo block are commercial broadcasters).House of Councilors ordinary election OfProportional representationRegarding the election, it will be broadcast nationwide with the same content only on NHK. In addition, the House of Representatives small constituency election, the Upper House constituency election, and the governor's election will be broadcast for each broadcasting station corresponding to the relevant prefecture.

Detailed special broadcasting exceptions for each region and regulations when broadcasting is interrupted will be detailed in sequence.

Candidates who cannot broadcast politically

1996 Part of the House of Representatives election in (8)Single-seat constituency systemSince the transition toIndependentAnd candidates for small constituencies of political groups that do not meet party requirementsLegalI can no longer appear on the political broadcast. It is not well known to general voters that there are no candidates for political groups or no affiliation in the political broadcasting of the lower house election district, and there is a concern that they may be seen as neglecting the political broadcasting. There is an extremely large gap with the political party candidates who have been recognized. In addition, on November 1999, 11 (Heisei 11),Supreme CourtThe en banc ruling said, "The provision that allows political party broadcasting only to candidates for political party notification isEquality under the lawContrary toThe Constitution of JapanIt's not a violation. "

On the other hand, in the constituency elections for the Upper House election and the prefectural governor elections, all candidates can broadcast political views.

Style

There are two cases, one is to submit audio / video material freely produced by a political party, and the other is to give a speech by each candidate or multiple people in a studio with a defined format. House of RepresentativesProportional representation, The House of CouncilorsProportional representation, The political broadcast of the governor's election is limited to studio recording. House of RepresentativesSmall districtAnd the House of Councilors (25rd House of Councilors ordinary electionFrom. Electoral districts are limited to political party-approved / recommended candidates.) Political party candidates can be selected from the method produced by the candidate or the conventional station recording method. Many are like promotional videos for each party.

In the case of the studio method, in most cases, the audio part of the material recorded and recorded in the TV studio becomes the broadcast content on the radio as it is.In addition, the size of letters on name tags and the positions of cameras and microphones are strictly determined by NHK's internal regulations.As will be described later, the time limit is also set, the part that exceeds the time is not broadcast, and retakes due to mistakes are allowed only once.[7].

Deaf personFor the House of Representatives Proportional Representation and the House of Councilors Proportional RepresentationSign language interpreterHowever, with regard to the constituency election of the House of Representatives, a sign language interpreter字幕SuperimposeHowever, each can be inserted.

Speech disorderCandidate withMutant) Is allowed to broadcast the recorded material that the announcer or the like has read the manuscript submitted in advance by the candidate in order to prevent the content from being transmitted by the political broadcast on the radio. This measure14rd House of Councilors ordinary electionThe so-called "silent political broadcast incident" that occurred during (1986) when a sign language interpreter was not supposed to speak out (reading interpreter) to assist a candidate who could not speak sufficiently. Was made as a lesson[8].

Even if you have the right to broadcast political broadcasts, you may not broadcast political broadcasts if you do not wish to do so.

The following announcements will be played before and after the broadcast.

  • "This broadcast is based on the Public Offices Election Act."Followed by
    • (In the case of proportional representation of the House of Representatives and proportional representation of the House of Councilors)"In the case of the House of Representatives: I will tell you the political views of the party reporting the candidate (in the case of the regional block name)."
    • (In the case of the House of Representatives small constituency)"I will tell you the political views of the candidate-reporting party as it is. The (current) broadcast that I will tell you is the one that the candidate-reporting party has chosen from the fixed methods."
    • (In the case of the Upper House election district)"The political party produced and submitted by the candidate or the political party recorded by the candidate at the broadcasting station is reported as it is (the candidate's political party is reported as it is). The (current) broadcast to be reported is decided. It was the responsibility of the candidate reporting party to choose from these methods. "
  • (In the case of the prefectural governor)"I will tell you the background and political views of the candidate as it is (I told you). It is up to the candidate to have a sign language interpreter."

For this announcement and the announcement of the career broadcast described later, the station that broadcastsannouncer(In the case of NHK Tokyo, it is in charge of the announcement room, seconded staff of related organizations, and part-time staff).

Career broadcast

In elections that are subject to political broadcasts, apart from political broadcasts, we will briefly introduce only profiles such as educational background and work history.Career broadcastThere will be time to do (career).

In the case of the House of Representatives constituencies, the careers of all candidates will be announced in order for each constituency.

In the Upper House election district and prefectural governor elections, careers are handled within the time of the political broadcast. Broadcast one by one in the order of career and political viewing, and finally broadcast the careers of candidates who did not wish to broadcast political viewing.

The number of broadcasts is 1 on NHK TV and 10 on NHK Radio in the single-seat constituency of the House of Representatives.NHK TV 1 time, NHK Radio 3 times in the Upper House election district / prefectural governor election.

cost

The cost of political broadcasting will be borne by the electoral entity, and will be the election administration committee of each prefecture in the case of the governor's election, and the central election in the case of the general election of members of the House of Representatives.In the case of the House of Representatives election, 119 million yen will be charged to the association if recorded in the NHK studio, and up to 287 million yen to the producer if the political party brings the material to the broadcasting station and broadcast it, and 49 yen to NHK. Will be paid respectively[7].

House of Representatives small constituency

  • 1 minutes per session
  • Candidate notification for each prefecture Determine the number of times according to the number of political party candidates
  • Each political party chooses whether to submit it independently or record it in the studio of a broadcasting station (the former is common)
  • It is also possible to submit different contents for each broadcast (television and radio).
  • The companies that broadcast TV and radio for commercial broadcasting are decided by each prefectural election administration committee in consultation with the business operator.
  • Biography broadcast is 1 seconds per person.
Number of broadcasts
notification
Number of candidates
Number of broadcasts
NHK TVNHK RadioCommercial broadcast
1-2 people1 times1 times2 times
3-5 people2 times1 times3 times
6-8 people4 times2 times6 times
9-11 people6 times3 times9 times
12 people ~8 times4 times12 times

Proportional representation of the House of Representatives

  • 1 minutes per session
  • The number of times is determined according to the number of people listed in the list of political parties that report the list of the House of Representatives for each block.
  • Broadcast only on NHK in principle
  • Each political party, etc. can select or combine one of the independent method (one person speaks method), the interactive method (two people talk), and multiple methods (progressed by the list of registered persons and the moderator) by station recording. Implementation
Regional exception
The Kanto region has three prefectures as defined in the Kita Kanto block.SaitamaBut as a single blockTokyoBut in the South Kanto blockChibaとKanagawaHowever, since they belong to each other, they must be broadcast many times. Due to these circumstances, even after the complete digitalization of television, some of the blocks in Kita-Kantou and Tokyo have been broadcast to commercial broadcasters.[Note 3].. For commercial TV / radio and broadcasting companies,Central Election CommissionWill decide in consultation with the business operator[Note 4].
Number of broadcasts
(Number of times) is for northern Kanto and Tokyo
List listing
Number of candidates
Number of broadcasts
NHK TVNHK RadioCommercial broadcast
1-9 people2 times
(1 times)
1 times-
(1 times)
10-18 people4 times
(2 times)
2 times-
(2 times)
19-27 people6 times
(3 times)
3 times-
(3 times)
28 people ~8 times
(4 times)
4 times-
(4 times)

House of Councilors election district / governor

  • 1 seconds of career per candidate, 30 minutes and 5 seconds of political viewing (candidates who do not wish to broadcast political viewing will only broadcast their career)
  • The number of broadcasts is the same for all prefectures, NHK TV 2 times, NHK Radio 2 times, commercial broadcasting 4 times[Note 5]
  • The distinction between commercial TV and radio and broadcasting companies are decided by each prefectural election administration committee in consultation with the business operator.
  • Independent production or station recording method can be selected for candidates officially recognized and recommended by the House of Councilors election district. Other candidates are station recording format only[10].
  • Governor only station recording format

House of Councilors Proportional

  • 1 minutes per session
  • Broadcast nationwide only on NHK
  • Implemented according to the number of registered parties in each House of Councilors list notification party, etc.
  • Each political party, etc. can select or combine one of the independent method (one person speaks method), the interactive method (two people talk), and multiple methods (progressed by the list of registered persons and the moderator) by station recording. Implementation
    • Multiple types of political viewing are also possible
    • It is possible for a sign language interpreter to interpret the sign language at the discretion of each political party.
    • Subtitled broadcasting can be added (the political party reporting the list submits the manuscript to NHK).
    • One set each for morning and evening on TV, one set on radio
Number of broadcasts
List listing
Number of candidates
Number of broadcasts
tv setradio
1-8 people2 times1 times
9-16 people4 times2 times
17-24 people6 times3 times
25 people ~8 times4 times

By-election

  • Conduct in the same way as the relevant election.
  • In the case of the House of Representatives constituency, the broadcast is given to the political parties as in the general election, so all the given 9 minutes can be used for one candidate, whileOpposition unification candidate,Additional official approvalBroadcast time is not given to independent candidates who are premised on.

House of Representatives medium-sized electoral district

  • 1 seconds of career per candidate, 30 minutes and 5 seconds of political viewing (candidates who do not wish to broadcast political viewing will only broadcast their career)
  • 40th House of Representatives general electionUntil.
  • All candidates were able to appear on the political broadcast.

Political broadcasting system, sign language interpreter, subtitles for each election

House of Representatives
Small district
House of Representatives
Proportional representation
House of Councilors
Constituency
Prefectural governorHouse of Councilors
Proportional section
House of Representatives
Middle district
the way41th House of Representatives general electionから
Self-created submissions or station recordings in broadcast studios
Station recording in the studio of the broadcasting station24rd House of Councilors ordinary electionUntil
Station recording in the studio of the broadcasting station
25rd House of Councilors ordinary electionから
Political party official approval / recommendation candidates are submitted by self-preparation or recorded in the studio of a broadcasting station.Other candidates are station recording format only
Station recording in the studio of the broadcasting stationStation recording in the studio of the broadcasting stationStation recording in the studio of the broadcasting station
Sign language interpreterFrom the 41st House of Representatives general election
Can be inserted into self-created
44th House of Representatives general electionUntil
Improper
45th House of Representatives general electionから
Possible
Until the 24th House of Councilors general election
Improper
From the 25th House of Councilors general election
Possible
Elections to be voted by March 2011, 23
Improper
From elections where votes will be held after April 2011, 23 (Heisei 4)
Possible
16rd House of Councilors ordinary electionUntil
Improper
17rd House of Councilors ordinary electionから
Possible
Improper
字幕From the 41st House of Representatives general election
Can be inserted into self-created
ImproperUntil the 24th House of Councilors general election
Improper
From the 25th House of Councilors general election
Can be inserted into self-created
Improper22rd House of Councilors ordinary electionUntil
Improper
23rd House of Councilors ordinary electionから
Possible
Improper

Remarks about broadcasting

■Internet simulcastThe case of is described later.

Due to the strict schedule from the perspective of fair election opportunitiesTransfer broadcastCannot be done in principle. In the case of NHKGeneral TVとRadio No. 1In the case of a sudden incident or earthquake during the political broadcast, the news broadcastE Tele,FMIt is transferred with. HoweverEarthquake early warning-National Instant Warning System(J-ALERT) interrupts and broadcasts even in the middle of the political broadcast.In this case, at a later date, only the Earthquake Early Warning / J-ALERT and the candidate / political party who suffered it will be rebroadcast (as a result, it will be broadcast more than the specified number of times).The rules regarding disasters will be described later.

NowadaysTerrestrial waveThe current situation is that commercial TV stations, especially wide-area stations in the Kanto and Kansai regions, can only broadcast early in the morning or late at night due to organizational reasons.For commercial broadcasters, the production cost and sponsorship fee (publicized price) are paid from public expenses (national and governor elections are prefectural), but the publicly announced sponsorship fee and the actual fee are the farthest apart in the early morning. There are many late-night broadcasts.Prefectural stations (affiliated stations) often broadcast during the day on weekdays.On the other hand, at independent stations (television), the published fee and the actual fee are always different, so it is broadcast at the highest prime time (except for some). In the case of NHK, it was previously held in the golden time of 19:20 to 21:22 and the latter half of XNUMX:XNUMX to XNUMX:XNUMX, but from the viewpoint of securing viewers for regular broadcasts, political broadcasts are now being broadcast in the golden frame. Not.

Saturday's political broadcast is when it is not possible to secure broadcast time only on weekdays (Kanto wide areaEtc.) may be done.There are often no political broadcasts on Sundays.

In the case of NHKInternational broadcasting-NHK World JAPAN(NHK World TV-NHK World Radio JapanEtc.) and Internet simulcast (described later) will not be distributed in principle.overseasSimul broadcastingof"NHK World PremiumIn the case of simultaneous broadcasting areaBack-feedCorrespondence differs depending on the organization situation at that time in the case of normal organization broadcasting by sending and staggered broadcasting area.

In the era when analog broadcasting was taking placeKanto(Yamanashiexcept),Tokai(Shizuokaexcept for),Kinki OfWide area broadcasting areaIn the case of the parliamentary elections, the general television of the area, and in the case of the prefectural governor elections, the core broadcasting station of the area (Tokyo Broadcasting Center,Nagoya,Osaka(Each station) and NHK stations in the relevant prefecture, andIndependent UHF stationIt was being broadcast on. Both elections and broadcastsMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsDue to the jurisdiction, the broadcasting area of ​​television has become stricter due to the completion of digitization, and in principle, only political broadcasting in the prefecture where the broadcasting station exists is possible.[Note 6].. For broadcasting stations and broadcasting times, please refer to the prefecture where the broadcasting station is located.Election Management CommitteeAnd the broadcasting station, and the broadcasting time will be decided at the discretion of the broadcasting station on the condition that the broadcasting time of the political broadcasting does not overlap at each broadcasting station.[11].

In the political broadcast on TV, the "" that is usually displayed in the upper rightWatermarkIs not displayed.

In the political broadcast on TVDigital terrestrial broadcastingの放送開始以降も完全デジタル化まではアナログ放送・地上デジタル放送ともに同じ放送条件とする為に、4:3の画面サイズ(2010年(平成22年)頃からはハイビジョンカメラでの撮影が多くなっている)での放送となっている放送局が多かった。例えば、NHKの場合アスペクト比4:3・走査線方式1125iで放送され、地上デジタル放送では左右に灰色のサイドパネルが入り、右上に表示しているロゴマークの透かしも自粛している。また、アナログ放送では2008年7月24日から実施していた地上デジタル放送切り替え推進の為の地上波アナログ放送終了告知マーク表示を自粛していた[12].. On cable TVDigi-ana conversionIn many cases, the mark displayed during the election period is also refrained from doing so. In commercial broadcasting, there are cases where full high-definition broadcasting with an aspect ratio of 16: 9 and a scanning line system of 1125i is being carried out.2010 In NHK's political broadcast in the regular election of the House of Councilors (22), digital broadcasting was broadcast with high-definition image quality with an aspect ratio of 16: 9 and scanning line system 1125i, and analog broadcasting was 16: 9 letterbox broadcasting. After full digitization, it will be broadcast in high-definition image quality with an aspect ratio of 16: 9 and a scanning line system of 1125i, regardless of whether it is NHK or commercial broadcasting.

The political broadcast broadcast on NHK is produced and broadcast in the NHK studio, but because NHK does not have a copyright,NHK ArchivesNot registered in[13].

The political broadcast of the proportional representation election will be broadcast only on NHK, except for the proportional north Kanto block and the Tokyo block of the House of Representatives. On the other hand, during the election period, major political parties and political groups in commercial broadcastingSpot CMFrame etc.Commercial message(CM) slots are often purchased as political activity and broadcast frequently.

NHK General TV Broadcasting

NHK General TV secures time for political broadcasting (especiallyKanto wide area), The time zone in which regular programs are broadcast is often set as the time frame for political broadcasting.this house,Live broadcastIsNHK NEWS Good morning Japan"When"News Shiv 5:XNUMX], The jumping / jumping points are set in advance in consideration of the area where the political broadcast is broadcast.

The following is 202149th House of Representatives general electionIt is the time frame of the political broadcast in (October 2021nd, 10rd, 22th-23th, 25).It should be noted that political broadcasts are not carried out during all of the following times, including the Kanto area.

(*) Is the time zone when the political broadcast will be held on Saturday (October 10).

  • 6: 25 - 6: 53
  • 7: 25 - 7: 45
  • 8: 15 - 8: 55
  • 9:05 --9:35 (*)
  • 10:05 - 10:45
  • 11:05 - 11:45
  • 13:05 - 13:35
  • 14:05 - 14:50
  • 15:20 --15:50 (*)
  • 16:05 - 16:45
  • 17:05 - 17:45
  • 22:30 - 23:10

In areas where political broadcasts are not broadcast, broadcast as described below (even if the political broadcast ends early).

  • "NHK NEWS Good Morning Japan" / "News Shibu 5 o'clock" --Broadcast as usual[14]
  • Programs other than the above-Special editions and masterpiece selections of regular programs that are originally broadcast during the relevant time period (Fill-in-the-blank programIncludes).

Regional exceptions at NHK

NHK and commercial broadcasters have their own broadcasting stationsBroadcast target areaAlthough it is supposed to broadcast the political broadcast of, some NHK may broadcast the political broadcast outside the region (In / out relayと 呼 ば れ る[15]). This is a measure taken because of the remnants of the era when wide-area broadcasting was performed across multiple prefectures in the past, and because broadcasting stations that are not originally under the jurisdiction are received on a daily basis due to geographical circumstances.

Although this special case has been gradually resolved due to changes in the radio wave environment such as the development of radio relay stations and the digitization of television broadcasting, some of the special cases are still being taken over.

Regional exceptions as of 2017 (Heisei 29)

  • Kanto wide areaEach station located in
    • House of Representatives constituencies, House of Councilors elections, governor ... Broadcast all political views in the seven Kanto prefectures
    • House of Representatives proportional ... Broadcast all three blocks of North Kanto, Tokyo, and South Kanto
  • Chukyo wide areaEach station located in
    • House of Representatives constituency, House of Councilors election, governor ... Broadcast all three Tokai prefectures
  • Kinki wide areaEach station located in
    • House of Representatives constituencies, Upper House constituencies, governors ... Broadcast all political views of the six Kinki prefectures
  • Fukuoka Bureau
    • House of Representatives constituency, House of Representatives constituency, Governor ... Broadcasting political views of Fukuoka prefecture, Nagasaki prefecture (radio only), Oita prefecture (radio only)
    Nagasaki prefectureIki City,Tsushima cityBut in Oita prefectureHita CityThe western mountainous areas, such as each prefecture area AM broadcast (Nagasaki station-Oita station) Is difficult to receive, and is covered by the Fukuoka Bureau, which is not under the jurisdiction.

Regional exceptions up to 2010 (Heisei 22)

  • Kitakyushu Bureau(Dissolved as of 2014 (Heisei 29)[Note 7])
    • House of Representatives constituency, House of Councilors election, Governor ... Broadcasting political views of Fukuoka and Yamaguchi prefectures (TV only)
    In TV broadcastingShimonosekiThis is because the Kitakyushu station was received by many households in Japan, but it was resolved with the complete transition to digital broadcasting. Regarding this matterYamaguchi stationWas calling attention on a special site for a limited time when digitizing Shimonoseki City.

In order to eliminate these special cases, it is technically possible to strictly protect the broadcasting target area, but in many areas, the habit of receiving broadcasting stations outside the jurisdiction is deeply rooted, and all It is unclear whether the special case will be resolved like the Kitakyushu station mentioned above.

Provisions in case of interruption

The political broadcast is by lawImageInwardtelop-L-shaped screenInsert or interruptExtraordinary newsEtc. cannot be broadcast[17][Note 8].NHKIn the case of other broadcast waves (E Tele・ Alternative measures such as sending extraordinary news on BS) will be taken.

However, on a large scaledisasterThis is no longer the case if a time or disaster is expected or occurs. As an organization condition by NHK's "Kyunami Zenchu" (all 9 domestic broadcasts are the same), "(I.e.Observations of less than 6 ""Tokai earthquake OfDeclaration of cautionWhen was announced[18]""Meteorological Service LawStipulated in Article 15, Paragraph 1alarm(Tsunami warningetcJapanese Meteorological AgencyWhen announced from[Note 9]"Based on Article 57 of the Disaster Countermeasures Basic ActPrefectural governor,MayorRequest from ", etc.J-ALERTIn case of considerable urgency, political broadcasts and extraordinary news may overlap. In addition, even if it is not all over the nine waves, the minimum necessary telop such as earthquake information may be sent in order to fulfill NHK's responsibility of reporting disasters. In addition, operation on TV and radio began in October 2007.Earthquake early warningHowever, since it is broadcast as it is without the human intervention of the broadcasting station, breaking news will be broadcast even during the political broadcast.

According to the law, "If political broadcasts or career broadcasts become impossible due to natural disasters or other unavoidable accidents or other special circumstances, we will not provide political broadcasts or career broadcasts in place of them" (Article 151 of the Act). 2 Paragraph 3), but at the discretion of the Election Commissionre-airIn some cases (described later).

  • 1993 (5)May 7 - Hokkaido Southwest EarthquakeAround 22:17 when the event occurred, in some areasGeneral TVThen from 21:3040th House of Representatives electionWas being broadcast (at that time)Prime timeThere were many examples of political broadcasts in Japan)[19].. At 22:24 during thatEmergency alert broadcastSignal is generated. Once the earthquake early warning was put in common to all waves[20].
  • 2000 (12)May 6 - Empress Kasumi(At the timeQueen Mother)demiseAt the time when the news was transmitted (17:14), on NHK General TV in some areas42th House of Representatives electionBecause the constituency political broadcast was being broadcast[21]In areas where news cannot be broadcast and political broadcasts are performedEducation tvThe news was broadcast by transferring to[22].
  • 2005 (17)May 9 -"Typhoon 14"Disaster" From the 5th of the previous day, NHK General TV has been reporting typhoon-related news, and this day also from 4:30Good morning japanWas reporting intensively from.However, in some areas, at each time zone of 6:25 --6:50, 7:30 --8:00, 8:30 --9:4544th House of Representatives electionIn the area where the political broadcast is broadcast, the typhoon information was transferred to the educational television.
  • 2007 (19)May 7 "Niigata Chuetsu-oki EarthquakeOn the night of the day when "" happened, on NHK General TV in some areas21th Upper House electionAn earthquake with an epicenter off the coast of Kyoto Prefecture occurred during the time when the proportional ward political broadcast was being broadcast, but no telops were included, and a special program was organized to convey information after the political broadcast. When an aftershock occurred the next day or later, an L-shaped screen was displayed and a telop was inserted.
  • 2009 (21)May 8 --The Earthquake Early Warning (actually a false alarm caused by a system malfunction) with the epicenter off the east coast of Chiba Prefecture announced at 6:37Shizuoka-KofuBoth stations[Note 10]It was being broadcast in each region on NHK General TV nationwide except45th House of Representatives electionBecause it overlapped with the political broadcast of the party, each election administration committee rebroadcasted the political broadcast of one affected party on the 1th, saying that "there was an effect such as difficulty in hearing the voice".[23].
  • 2012 (24)
    • May 12 -Around 17:18,M7.3 earthquake with epicenter off SanrikuThe earthquake early warning chime and telop were broadcast on NHK General TV in the Kanto region and Yamanashi prefecture.46th House of Representatives electionProportional District (South Kanto) Political Broadcasting[Note 11]It flowed in the middle of.Approximately one minute after the breaking news was announced, the news was switched to earthquake-related news, and the political broadcast was discontinued on the way.After that, a tsunami warning was announced, followed by an emergency warning broadcast and disaster coverage by all seven waves, so the proportional ward (Tokyo) political broadcast scheduled for 1:7 on Radio No. 1 in the Kanto region was also canceled.The affected political broadcast was rebroadcast on the 18th.[24][Note 12].
    • May 12 - north koreabyMissile launch experimentRegarding, NHK is each wave[Note 13]Broadcasted extraordinary news for about an hour from 9:56 (emergency coverage equivalent to J-ALERT)[25].. As a result, the 10th House of Representatives election proportional district (South Kanto) political broadcast scheduled on NHK General TV in the Kanto region and Yamanashi prefecture at around 46 o'clock, and the small constituency scheduled on Radio 1 in the Kanto region ( Gunma Prefecture) The political broadcasts have been cancelled. All of these were broadcast again by the 14th.

Broadcast accident, etc.

  • 2009 (21)
    • Ibaraki prefectural governor's electionOn the occasionMay 8とMay 8During the biography and political broadcast that was broadcast on NHK General TV in the Kanto region,Tomohiro NagatsukaWhere the candidate subtitles should be "Tomohiro Nagatsuka" "Satoshi Nagatsuka"HiroshiBecause it was mistakenly written, the chief announcer (at that time) at the end of the career and political broadcast of the House of Representatives election proportional (Tokyo) from 28:22 on the 50th.Keishi NaitoAppeared and made an apology and correction.
    • May 8 --The first radio in the Kanto region, which was broadcasting the 45th House of Representatives election small constituency (Tokyo) political broadcast, became silent for 1 seconds from 19:58. The person in charge mistakenly operated the device while preparing to insert the weather warning after the broadcast ended.Tokyo Election CommissionSaid that the degree of loss related to the broadcast accident was minor and there was no need to rebroadcast.[15].
  • 2013 (21)May 7 - 23th Upper House electionIn the Shizuoka prefectural election districtNHK Shizuoka Broadcasting StationDuring the political broadcast that was broadcast from 1:12 pm on Radio No. 30, the candidate who was scheduled to be broadcast third according to the order of the lottery in advance was broadcast first, so the broadcast was canceled about one and a half minutes later. We suspect that the cause was a device problem, so we broadcast it again at the same time on the 3th.[26].

Content and trends

In principle, the content recorded / recorded by the candidate must not be edited at all and must be broadcast as it is, and the candidate's remarks and other broadcast content (dressing strangely or defaming others). Broadcasters are not liable for (including slander). In addition, even if the broadcasting station in charge of producing and broadcasting the political broadcast has unfavorable remarks or actions, it will be broadcast as it is because the broadcasting station cannot intervene in editing for the same reason (in principle).Mini party-Foam candidateNot onlyFreedom of speechIt can be said that it is a natural consequence from the fact that[27][28][Note 14].

Therefore, there is an advantage that you can appeal yourself through broadcasting, so you will be rejected andDeposit moneyIt also contributes to the large number of foam candidates running for elections, prepared to be confiscated.[28][30].

However, the law states that "maintaining dignity in political broadcasting" means "candidates for public office and notification of candidates".Political party,House of RepresentativesPolitical parties notifying the list andHouse of CouncilorsPolitical parties notifying the list are aware of their responsibilities, and when broadcasting (political broadcasting) prescribed in paragraph 1 or 3 of the preceding article, they damage the honor of others or other political parties or other political organizations or have good manners and customs. To hurt or advertise a specific product or other business (Broadcasting law(Acts prohibited by Article 83), etc.) must not be said or acted to impair the dignity of the political broadcast (Article 150-2 of the Act). If there is a statement that conflicts with this, immediately before the relevant political broadcast,"Part of the audio has been deleted based on the provisions of Article 150-2 of the Public Offices Election Act."And the deleted part is silent only for the voice. In addition, the number of persons who have made public false matters regarding candidates for public office, etc. for the purpose of not winning the election in the political broadcast is 5 years or less.ImprisonmentPenalty orimprisonmentPenalty or less than 100 million yenfineA fine of up to 100 million yen and a criminal penalty are stipulated for those who advertise a specific product or other business in the sentence or political broadcast (Article 235-3 of the Act).

As an example of partially deleting the audio in the political broadcast1983 (Showa 58)13rd House of Councilors ordinary electionInPeople's PartyPolitical Broadcasting (For details, see "Political broadcast deletion case)),2016 (28)Tokyo Governor ElectionTeruki Goto's political broadcast on NHK (genitalRepresentsColloquialismWas continued and repeated, and it was judged that he had harmed good manners and customs.)[31][32][33],2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)Tokyo Governor ElectionTeruki Goto's commercial broadcasting inTOKYO MX) There is an example of political broadcasting[34][35].

Other happenings, etc.

Foam candidateThe political broadcast of a unique candidate called, has a lot of happening content,Election bulletinThere are many lovers who like it together.

  • 2007 Governor of Tokyo ElectionThen, 14 people (one of them has only a background)Governor of TokyoCandidates expressed their opinions for about 5 minutes. for that reasonTV AsahiThen, the broadcast time reached 80 minutes until the political broadcast of all the candidates ended.2016 Governor of Tokyo ElectionThen there are 21 candidates for governor,Nippon TVThen, the broadcast of about 1 hour was divided into two times (a total of about 2 hours).
  • In the 2010 (Heisei 22) House of Councilors electionTachiagare JapanWas running in the proportional districtYoshinobu AshitakaCandidates were expelled and removed from the proportional list during the election. At that time, the party's political broadcast broadcast that party executives read out the names of proportional candidates and introduced them, and the name of Ashikaga was also introduced. Since the political broadcast was recorded only once and the content could not be modified by the broadcasting station, it continued to be introduced as a candidate for the party even after the name of Ashikaga was deleted.

Correspondence on the Internet

Self-regulation in simulcast service

The provisions of Article 150 of the Public Offices Election Act are based on the premise of broadcasting on radio and television, and do not assume simultaneous distribution on the Internet. Considering Article 150 "for the public interest" as it is, as long as it is a paid and free-competitive infrastructure, the provision of political broadcasting on the Internet, where each household or individual may or may not enjoy the service, is a candidate. It will be interpreted as disturbing the fairness of the opportunity to know information. (However, with the official websites of political parties, political groups, and candidatesYouTubeIt may be uploaded on the channel. For this reason, each broadcaster's simulcast service has various responses as follows.

NHK stipulates that political broadcasts cannot be distributed on the Internet at the same time.[36]..Therefore, during the political broadcast time, the simultaneous TV distribution service "NHK PlusIn ""Futakabuse videoIs delivered.Simultaneous radio distribution service "NHK Net Radio Rajiru Rajiru"and"radikoNHK channels[Note 15]Then, in the case of broadcasting only in some areas (prefectural FM broadcasting, etc.), the channel will be replaced with another program centering on music programs (normal programs will be distributed as backtracking at each station other than the area), and the distribution station. In the case of broadcasting in the entire area, it will be replaced with its own filler music and an announcement that refuses to interrupt the distribution.

In the live distribution of each channel of "radiko" of each commercial radio station, the correspondence of each station is different (there are two types, one is the station that distributes live as it is and the other is the station that sends the filler).The paid services "Area-free listening" service and "Time-free listening" service will not be distributed, and the frame will be replaced with "Distribution suspension filler" common to radiko and fillers unique to the station.Especially in the latter case, it leads to disturbing the predetermined broadcasting order and number of times, which violates the Public Offices Election Act.

By all means sharing broadcast materials

The political broadcastCopyright lawIn the "publicly made political speech or statement" stipulated in Article 40, it is understood that "it can be used regardless of which method is used."[37].. The political broadcast during the electionYouTubeEtc.Video sharing siteUploading to is sometimes a problem, but this is not under copyright lawPublic office election lawThe above problem. For example, fairness cannot be guaranteed by uploading only the political broadcasts of a specific candidate.16th Unified Local ElectionDuring the voting periodAmebaVisionWas uploaded to YouTubeTokyo Governor ElectionThere was a request from both video sharing sites to delete the political broadcast, but this is also because the fairness is lost because only the videos of specific candidates are uploaded.[38][39].. The fact that the requester for deletion is not the broadcasting station that broadcast the political broadcast but the Tokyo Metropolitan Election Commission also shows that it is not a copyright law reason but a deletion request under the Public Offices Election Law. ..

Broadcast for public relations of constitutional amendment

Constitutional Amendment Procedure LawBased on Article 106, at the time of the referendum for constitutional amendment, the referendum public relations council and the political parties that support or disagree (one or more members of the House of Representatives or the party or other political organization to which the members of the House of Councilors belong and the chairman of both houses The referendum and public relations council have been notified as determined by the discussions), but the broadcast for publicity of the constitutional amendment is to be broadcast on NHK or private broadcasting by TV and radio.

Broadcasts conducted by the referendum public relations council are supposed to objectively and neutrally publicize the constitutional amendment bill and its summary and other matters that should be referred to, and political parties, etc. give opinions in favor of or against the constitutional amendment bill. It can be broadcast for free. At that time, it is necessary to provide the same number of hours and the same time zone to both the political parties that agree with the constitutional amendment and the parties that oppose it, and the political parties, etc. must provide the same convenience. Part of this can be done by the designated organization.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ From TV personalitiesMember of the House of CouncilorsTurned intoAoshima YukioHowever, at the Diet in 1975, "This Committee (Note:House of CouncilorsBudget Committee) And oncePrime Minister SatoWhen I asked him (omitted), I suggested that the political broadcasting should be done not only on the radio but also on the TV. "The 75th House of Councilors Budget Committee No. 9 March 50, 3 13 Yukio Aoshima). Qingdao's remark (1968) said, "I think we should make significant use of the developing mass communication regarding the issue of election technology," and did not use the word "television."The 59th House of Councilors Budget Committee No. 2 March 43, 8 10 Yukio Aoshima). "I think it is important for the House of Councilors to think about this separately from the House of Representatives," he said, suggesting a request to lift the ban only for the Upper House election.
  2. ^ Specific matters for the implementation of television political broadcasting are entrusted to the "Public Offices Election Law Enforcement Ordinance" and the Ministry of Autonomy Notification, and the "Cabinet Order to partially revise the Public Offices Election Law Enforcement Ordinance" (Cabinet Order of 44) No. 228) and "Cabinet Order and Career Broadcasting Implementation Regulations" (September 44, 9, Ministry of Autonomy Notification No. 1)1969 (44)May 9It was enforced from. The "Candidate Political Broadcasting Implementation Regulations" (March 28, 3, Autonomous Agency Notification No. 19) for political broadcasting by conventional radio broadcasting have been abolished, and the implementation regulations newly established through television broadcasting and radio broadcasting The election broadcast will be held. Later, the "Political Broadcasting and Career Broadcasting Implementation Regulations" were all revised in Notification No. 7 of the Ministry of Home Affairs on November 6, 11.
  3. ^ At the moment, there is no political broadcasting by NHK's prefectural broadcasting located in the wide area, and Saitama, Chiba, and Kanagawa prefectures have not broadcast prefectural television. See belowRegional exceptions at NHKSee also
  4. ^ 46th House of Representatives general electionIn the official bulletin dated November 2012, 11, the central election is all about the Northern Kanto block.Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.In addition, in the block of Tokyo alone, only once out of the commercial broadcasting quotaNittele, The restTBS TVAnnounced that each would be carried out.
  5. ^ Joint constituencyIf the broadcasting station of the corresponding prefecture is different depending on the prefecture, adjustment is made so that the broadcasting is performed the same number of times in each prefecture.24 timesApplicable at the timeTokushima Prefecture/Kochi Prefecture Election DistrictOnly (Tottori Prefecture/Shimane Prefecture Election DistrictThe commercial broadcasting area spans two prefectures), at the same timeTokushimaThe only commercial broadcasterShikoku Broadcasting3 times (and once on the same station's radio),Kochi3 commercial broadcasters (Kochi Broadcasting-TV Kochi-Kochi-san TV, And once on Kochi Broadcasting Radio) broadcast once each[9].
  6. ^ TokyoUntil the 2007 (Heisei 19) Governor of Tokyo electionTokyo Metropolitan Television(TOKYO MX) was not broadcast because it was judged that the antenna penetration rate was low, but since the regulations were revised in anticipation of digitization, it became possible to broadcast after the upper house election in 2007 (Heisei 19). Instead of TOKYO MX in the 2007 (Heisei 19) Governor of Tokyo electionTV AsahiBroadcasted politically. However, the broadcast is usually early in the morning before the start of the program.
  7. ^ 22rd House of Councilors ordinary electionAs of 2010, when the event was held, the entry / exit was relayed.[16].
  8. ^ The sentence "I will broadcast what was submitted as it is" at the beginning of the political broadcast isImageEtc.EditSince it is prohibited to do so, inserting telops, L-shaped screens, etc. also corresponds to "editing video".
  9. ^ Meteorological Service LawIn Article 15, Paragraph 6, "I received the notification of Paragraph 1.Japan Broadcasting CorporationInstitutionImmediately the notified matterbroadcastMust doIt is stipulated.
  10. ^ At this time, with the general TV of both Shizuoka and Kofu stations that are not broadcasting politicallyBS2, As usual at NHK World Premium, "NHK News Good morning JapanWas being broadcast, but the telop of the Earthquake Early Warning was displayed on the general TV, BS2.
  11. ^ Other areas are "" except for the Kansai region.Yudoki NetworkIn the Kansai region, the regional program "I'm sorry!Was being broadcast as usual.
  12. ^ In addition, when the earthquake occurs, Radio No. 1 in the Kanto region also broadcasts the biography of candidates for the small constituency (Kanagawa Prefecture), and at around 18:XNUMX, the biography of the Tokyo Governor's election, which is executed at the same time as the House of Representatives election, is scheduled. However, all of them were similarly discontinued or canceled, and then broadcast again.
  13. ^ General TV, BS1, radio 3 waves and NHK World. BS1 and NHK World Premium have the same content as General TV, and 3 radio waves and NHK World Radio Japan have the same content from the news studio of the Radio Center. NHK World TV has its own content.
  14. ^ in the past,"JewIs planning to dominate the world "and" the governmentUFOI'm hiding information. "Conspiracy theoryThere are candidates who have developedKomeitoAnd supportive motherSoka GakkaiCriticizedIshin political party, new style,People's Party,Japan Lovers PartyIt seems that it is used as a kind of appealing placeMini partyThere is also. Also in 201925rd House of Councilors ordinary electionThen,Oita Prefectural constituencyKeiichiro Makihara who ran forA party protecting the people from NHK)But,Broadcasting accidentWe are doing a political broadcast that we dare not speak at all to make it look like[29].
  15. ^ NHK / Private Radio Joint Radio CampaignIt was carried out during the NHK experimental distribution period of the commercial radio simultaneous distribution service accompanying the implementation48th House of Representatives general electionAnd after the transition to this distribution25rd House of Councilors ordinary electionThe same measures were taken in.

Source

  1. ^ a b c d Japan Broadcasting Corporation(Edit) "Fifty Years of Broadcasting with Showa" (Japan Broadcast Publishing Association, 1977) pp.122-124 "Political Broadcasting on Radio"
  2. ^ a b c Japan Broadcasting Corporation (ed.) "History of 20th Century Broadcasting" (Japan Broadcast Publishing Association, 2001) pp.263-265
  3. ^ a b c d "Fifty Years of Broadcasting with Showa" pp.282-291 "Elections and Broadcasting"
  4. ^ September 1969, 44 (Showa 9) "Government Bulletin Material Version" No. 24 "The main law passed in the 594st Diet, the law to partially revise the Public Offices Election Act using TV"
  5. ^ a b Yasuhiro Iyuda, Tetsuya Uetaki, Mineo Tamura, Yoshito Noda, Nobutada Yagi, Yasuo Soson, "Revision and Supplement of Handbook of TV History" (Jijutsusha, 1998) p.64
  6. ^ Ryukyu Broadcasting Corporation (ed.) "Television XNUMXst week anniversary [Mom] ”(Ryukyu Broadcasting Corporation, 1961)
  7. ^ a b "No editing on the political broadcast, if you bite on the way ... Infiltrate the NHK recording studio". Kahoku Shimpo (September 2021, 10). 2021/10/22Browse.
  8. ^ NHK Sign Language News 845 One corner of the broadcast on July 2013, 7 "Sign Language Hitokuchi Memo"
  9. ^ Takashi Sanshin (July 2016, 7). "[Mystery of the Upper House election] Why is the political broadcast broadcast only on NHK? When I investigate the unexpectedly complicated broadcasting mechanism ...". Sankei Shimbun (Sankei News). http://www.sankei.com/politics/news/160703/plt1607030004-n1.html 2017/10/15Browse. "All 2 pages (→2nd page)" 
  10. ^ "The House of Councilors also enacted the revised Public Offices Election Act for pre-recorded video on political broadcasts". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2018, 6). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO31955420Z10C18A6PP8000/ 2019/4/9Browse. 
  11. ^ Monthly Kansai Criticism September 2005 Issue ※ CurrentlyInternet archiveRemains in
  12. ^ About analog logos, spots, programs, etc. for analog stoppage (PDF) - NHK July 2008, 7 << Retrieved October 24, 2017; Currently remains in the Internet Archive >>
  13. ^ Serial column "Treasure Discovery News" 6th follow-up! Did you discover the whole story of "Kusa Moeru"? | NHK Archives 2009/8/26
  14. ^ However, there may be a special event for a limited time during the period, and in "Shibu 5 o'clock", October 2021-10, 25Taiga drama"Hit the blue skyWas broadcasting a series project "Walk in the Blue Sky".
  15. ^ a b Minutes of the Board of Directors of the Japan Broadcasting Corporation for August 21, 8
  16. ^ “Minute of the Board of Directors of NHK, held on June 22, 6”. Japan Broadcasting Corporation. (2010-07-16). http://www.nhk.or.jp/pr/keiei/rijikai/20100629.html 2017/10/15Browse. 
  17. ^ Is it possible to broadcast the earthquake early warning during the political broadcast? NHK, Tokyo, breaking news of seismic intensity 3 "postponement" - J-CAST News 2016/7/1
  18. ^ Large-scale Earthquake Countermeasures ActApplies mutatis mutandis in Article 20Disaster Countermeasures Basic LawArticle 51 paragraph 1
  19. ^ Candidates for the House of Representatives Biography / Political Broadcasting - NHK Chronicle
  20. ^ Emergency warning broadcast <Large tsunami / tsunami warning> - NHK Chronicle
  21. ^ House of Representatives single-member constituency election - NHK Chronicle Political Broadcasting | Program Guide Search Results Details | NHK Chronicle] Viewed June 2020, 6
  22. ^ NEWS - NHK Chronicle
  23. ^ Political broadcast: Rebroadcast due to false alarm of Earthquake Early Warning - Daily jp July 2009, 8 << Retrieved October 26, 2017; Currently remains in the Internet Archive >>
  24. ^ Political broadcast that was interrupted or canceled due to the earthquake, restarted on the 14th - Yomiuri Shimbun, August 2012, 12.
  25. ^ News "North Korea" missile "launch" related - NHK Chronicle
  26. ^ NHK Shizuoka Misordered political view Canceled in the middle of broadcasting - Sports Nippon, July 2013, 7 << Retrieved October 17, 2017; Currently remains in the Internet Archive >>
  27. ^ In principle, "editing is strictly prohibited" political broadcast. Insulting others with slur ... how much is allowed? Huff postJapanese version February 2016, 2
  28. ^ a b "Tokyo Governor's election "Tondemo" political broadcast with a TV station". Tokyo Sports (September 2020, 6). 2020/7/6Browse.
  29. ^ [House of Councilors election] "Destroy NHK" Tachibana's political power-up power-up denounces in-house affair on the street between station Anna for 4 minutesEast Sports Web February 2019, 7
  30. ^ "Background of the increase in "foam candidates" who run for the purpose of selling the name of the governor of Tokyo". NEWS Post Seven (September 2020, 7). 2020/7/6Browse.
  31. ^ It's Teruki Goto's pocochin time. --Teruki Goto's official blog, July 2016, 7
  32. ^ Inappropriate remarks repeated? Tokyo Governor's election NHK political broadcast mysterious "voice erasure" - Daily Gendai, August 2016, 7
  33. ^ A storm of audio cuts on NHK's political broadcast The reason is [Tokyo Governor's election] --HuffPost Japan Version, July 2016, 7
  34. ^ Teruki Goto made a series of radical remarks on "Political Broadcasting", what can I say? Tokyo governor election
  35. ^ In the 2020 Tokyo Governor's election, Goto's NHK political broadcast was broadcast as it was (protesting that it was deleted in the 2016 broadcast, including the popular words that were subject to deletion in that broadcast. ).
  36. ^ NHK Net Radio "Rajiru ★ Rajiru" has started! You can now listen to NHK radio on your computer. - Wayback machine(October 2017, 10 archive) NHK-FM blog, September 12, 2011
  37. ^ "Takashi Kurita: Copyright Law Note”. Kansai University Faculty of Law Civil Procedure Law Laboratory. 2014/12/11Browse.
  38. ^ Yuasa Harumichi"Survey results and consideration regarding the awareness of political broadcasting (PDF) "Kyushu International University Law Review" Vol. 17, No. 3,Kyushu International University, November 2011, pp. 3-35, ISSN 1341061X, NOT 40018819962,2011/12/12Browse.
  39. ^ “AmebaVision deletes political broadcast, requested by Tokyo Metropolitan Government, YouTube too”. ITmedia(July 2007, 4). http://www.itmedia.co.jp/news/articles/0704/06/news027.html 2011/12/12Browse. 

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