Niigaki Risa, a dish made in response to her husband's request "Easy to make with a rice cooker"
If you write the contents roughly
Continuing with the food, he said, "I was happy that it was easy to make with a rice cooker and it was delicious!
Morning Musume.Her former member and talent Risa Niigaki updated her own ameblo on the 12th.In response to her husband's request... → Continue reading
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High economic growth periodIt is an important home appliance that supports the staple food of Japan after that.家庭In useElectricalWith the ceremony (electric rice cooker)gasThere are formulas (gas cookers) and those that are used in combination with other cooking equipment.Electric rice-cooker-Gas kettle-Rice cookerAlso called.Rice for business useboilerLarge ones that are said to be, and fully automatic rice cookers that handle everything from washing rice to cooking rice (this is rice cooking)MachineThere are various types up to (also called).
JapanThen.Cooked rice OfLabor savingDemand forPrewarからProduct developmentHas been done,A humanAs detailed asheatingDifficult to controlHigh qualityICooked riceIt has taken more than 50 years before it becomes possible.1923Mitsubishi Electric introduced the world's first electric rice cooker for business use, but it was not automatic yet and was difficult for the general public to use.After that, automatic rice cookers that became popular became popular.High economic growth period Of1955Released for the first time in the world by Tokyo Shibaura Electric (currently Toshiba)..The background to the invention of the automatic rice cooker in Japan is that rice is an important staple food for Japanese people, and there is a detailed commitment to how to cook rice, and the fact that cooking rice with the traditional "kamado" was hard work and ingenuity. It can be mentioned that many home appliance makers have appeared and there was a cultural foundation for creating automatic rice cookers...Mainstream in JapanJaponica riceThe rice cooking process is completed only with a kettle, so it is easy to automate, and it is the mainstream overseas.Indica riceThe rice cooking process requires boiling spills (boiled like pasta in a pot rather than cooked in a kettle), so it is difficult to automate, which also makes a difference in the development status of rice cookers in Japan and overseas.
With the electric type, it takes about 30 minutes to cook rice (a little less than 1 hour including steaming time).in Japanthe 1990sMore mainstreamMicrocomputerIn some advanced models with built-in, the calculation function of the built-in microcomputer is used to calculate the start time of rice cooking back from the set time of cooking, and some products can be cooked at any time.Also, the fact that the software was installed in the microcomputerBeing influenced by the second AI boom[Original research?], Break away from heating ON / OFF control,Fuzzy control.Neuro fuzzyIt has also become possible to perform rudimentary optimization of heating.The time it takes to cook rice is the amount of rice and the capacity of the heat source (electric heating).heater OfWattNumbers and inputsVoltageOrFirepower),Outside temperature,(I.e.It is not uniform due to such factors.It seems that high-end models are not easily affected by external air pressurePressure cookerMany products have a similar function,Cheap editionWith cheap and simple function only productsDifferentiationIs planned.For the general publicthe 1990sAlthough it is possible to cook rice of sufficient quality for practical use,the 2020sAt the beginning, under the influence of the third AI boom[Original research?]In cooperation with AI implemented in the cloud, products that can determine the state of rice that has been put in and enable high-quality rice cooking are beginning to appear on the market.
Electric and household, so-calledWhite goodsWhen the rice cooker belonging to 1955 was first released in XNUMX, it was manufactured, sold, and purchased only in Japan.日本 食On the boomWesternTo againAsiaRiding the wave of rising household income and labor saving even in regions that eat rice in each countryOutputAfter that, it was produced locally and then exported to Japan.
Further increase in single-person householdsIndividual dietWith the conversion, even a small amount of 1 go or less can cook ricemicrowaveRice cookers for rice cookers, electric rice cookers (mini electric rice cookers), and rice cookers for gas stoves are also on the market, and the range of choices is expanding.
Electric rice cooker
Functions / specifications / price
For general household use, small is 1 for singlesTogether(180Milliliter) From about 10 go (1.8)liter=1升) (There are up to 3 squares for commercial products).Depending on size, function, material used, country of originPriceThe difference is wide, ranging from 5000 to 12 yen.Especially for high-end machines, manufacturers are competing to improve the taste and heat retention, and not only high-performance kettles but also products with advanced mechanisms and setting items for optimizing heating control have appeared. There is.Furthermore, the rice is cooked separately for each brand.IoTIn some cases, advanced functions are provided so that it is no longer known whether they are practical or not.
Inexpensive productsAluminumElectric heating of the inner pot made ofheaterIt is heated in.CurrentlyIH (Induction Heating)Many of them use a method that heats the pot itself.In each case, heating, heat retention, timer function, etc. are controlled by a microcomputer. IH formulaPressure cookerThere is also one that uses in combination with higher temperature and high pressure (1.4 atm 110).° CYou can cook rice in just about.Recently, some products are heated and kept warm by steam.For commercial use, there is also a microwave type.
In the inner pot,Thermal conductivityHighcopper,diamondEtc.Far infraredUse charcoal or ceramic that radiates, or dimple processing to give heat storage.Vacuum insulationIngenuity has been made to increase heat generation efficiency and keep heat with low power consumption.
Infrared sensors and weight sensors are used in addition to temperature sensors to reduce the variation in cooking.In addition, for high-end machines, products that reproduce heating unevenness due to fluctuations in flames, and optimization of heating control by allowing the user to input the brand of rice and impressions after meals, etc.IoTThere is also a product that corresponds to.
In addition, in order to improve durability, there are those that use aluminum die-casting for the frame and those that apply a special coating to the inner pot to maintain the inner pot for a long time.On the contrary, there are also kettles that are fragile depending on the material, such as carbon and pottery.
|Manufacturer||Water absorption||Temperature rise||Suppressing uneven cooking||Umami reduction of steam||Keep warm||Durability of inner pot||Other|
|Mitsubishi||Variable ultrasonic water absorption||Carbon kettle||Full heating||Steam sealed / delicious cartridge||Vulnerable to carbon||Optimizing heating control for each brand of rice|
|Toshiba||Vacuum||Pressure cooker||Diamond titanium coat, far-red diamond silver coat, full dimples||Umami dome steam outlet||Vacuum whitening heat retention||Diamond titanium coat|
|Panasonic||Old: Matsushita system||High temperature steam, high hardness hollow ceramics, high heat insulation hollow ceramics||Full heating, far-infrared hard coat (containing diamond)||Steam reheating||Far-red hard coat (containing diamond)|
|Old: Sanyo||Variable pressure water absorption||Pressure cooker||Pure copper brewing pot||Umami tank||Optimal heating|
|日立||Pressure steam||Steam cut||Steam / vacuum insulation||Gold fluorine processing|
|タ イ ガ ー||Pressure cooker, hard fire IH, heat-sealed clay pot coating (ceramic beads + hollow glass beads)||Far-red clay pot coating, clay pot style large stirring technique (large boiling)||High durability fluorine processing|
|Zojirushi||Protein decomposition by water alkalinization using platinum nanoparticles||Pressure cooker||Side heating / feather pot ring||Optimal temperature retention|
|sharp||Separation of grains by stirring||Hollow beads||Suppression of temperature unevenness by stirring||Foam cutting by stirring||Fluorine coat with liquid crystal glass||Washing rice by stirring|
Previously, a rice cooker that had not only a rice cooking function but also a heat retention functionRice cooker,Jar rice cookerEtc.the 1980sThis is the majority of the electric type after that, and it is no longer called that way.Some gas types also have an electric heat retention function.
Not just regular riceOwa,PorridgeMany of them have added value so that they can be cooked deliciously, and depending on the model,BreadBaking function, bread dough,Yogurt OffermentationIn some cases, a function to maintain a temperature suitable for the above is also added.
the 2000sEnter, in Japan, with a rice cookerSoup,Meat and potatoesStewed dishes such assponge cakeIt is popular among consumers to cook such things, and it can be cooked only with a rice cooker.RecipesA book containing the above is also published.However, depending on the model used, the inner pot and the rice cooker itself may be damaged.Especially inside the kettleTeflonFor models that have been processed, insideChinaThere is a risk that the Teflon processing will be scratched at the bottom of the thread when the tableware is put in and cooked.In addition, the inner pot may be scorched, the packing inside may be damaged, or the smell may stain the rice when cooking rice.smellThere are also problems such as remaining (of course, when used for other purposes)malfunctionFree repairsecurityDoes not apply).Outside of Japan, such functions have become standard, including products from Japanese manufacturers, and some have become automatic cooking electric pans.
Japan's first consumer rice cooker was launched in 1923Mitsubishi ElectricIt is a rice cooker.However, it was used for ships because it had a kettle on top of a heater.In addition, Mitsubishi Electric also produced rice cookers around 1930, which had a mechanism to automatically turn off the electricity when the temperature was reached... The idea of "cooking rice using electricity" has existed for a long time.ActuallyImperial Japanese Army 1937Adopted formalType XNUMX cooking carWas equipped with a primitive electric rice cooker called a rice cooker.This is a square wooden box with electrodes on both ends.When sharpened rice, water and a small amount of salt are put in a rice cooker and the electrode is energized, the water inside heats up and cooks rice.Then, when the rice was cooked, the water content decreased, so the resistance value increased and the calorific value decreased, and the principle was that the heat retention was maintained as it was.However, with this method, the calorific value changes depending on the type of water and the degree of sharpening of the rice, and the amount of cooking varies, and the risk of electric shock is large, making it unsuitable for home use.
The electric rice cookers for home use had a simple structure in which the ones under development were simply heated by a heater and turned off when the temperature reached a certain level.However, this method is easily affected by the outside temperature (in addition, in Japan(I.e.By(I.e.Due to the large difference in temperature), there was variation in cooking.Each manufacturer remains unsuccessfultrial and errorWas repeated.At this stage, even a prototype with a heating wire in the chest was seen.About this, Tokyo Telecommunications Industry (currentlySony) Is working at the beginning of establishment..In the 1950s, the heat source was briquettes, and there was also a briquette rice cooker that used an electric buzzer to notify the cooked rice..
Development of electric rice cooker
The first practical electric rice cooker was invented by Koshinsha, a factory in Tokyo.Yoshitada SannamiIs.By adopting the method of triple-layering the kettle, practical rice cooking became possible (this is a heat retention function by the air layer, which raises the temperature).
In due time1955ToAutomatic electric kettleThe world's first invention was released by Tokyo Shibaura Electric (currently Toshiba) under the name.. "Double pot indirect cooking"Was introduced.This is done by putting a small amount of water between the outer pot and the inner pot, and when it is cooked, the bimetal detects that the water content decreases and the temperature rises.自動formulaIt is a function to turn off the power with.Another thing is that the magnet keeps the switch on and the temperature is the magnet.Curie pointWhen it exceeded, the magnetic force was lost and the power was turned off.
Thanks to this, once the power is turned on, the power is automatically turned off, so there is no need to keep an eye on the rice while cooking.In addition, it automatically powers ontimerWas also sold separately.As a result, the power was turned on and off automatically, so once the timer was set, rice was cooked while sleeping at night, and when waking up in the morning, it was cooked.The electric kettle became a big hit because it was fully automated and convenient.(In Toshiba, when commercializing, there was a voice saying "Do you want to marry a woman who wants to cook rice while sleeping?" Or opposed to commercializing, or even if commercialized, it will not sell).[Source required]
The misunderstanding that "Toshiba has developed an electric kettle" is widespread, such as the development of an electric kettle being confused with the development of automation, and the development of an electric kettle being confused with the commercialization of an electric kettle. This is incorrect.Toshiba cooperated with Koshinsha in the process of developing the electric kettle, but did not take the lead.
After1956IsMatsushita ElectricHas also commercialized an electric rice cooker.By using a two-layer structure of the pot and the kettle, the one made by Matsushita Electric was able to cook rice relatively unaffected by the outside temperature (this method is called a two-layer electric kettle. After that, the two-layer type takes time to cook rice. It has the disadvantages of high power consumption and high power consumption, and has gradually disappeared since the 1960s).
The rice cooker at that time did not have a heat retaining function, and it was necessary to transfer it to the rice cooker at the end, and it cooled down immediately.Under such circumstancesZojirushi MahobinIn 1965semiconductor OfPTCElectronic by heatercontrolReleased an electronic jar with a heat insulating function.The product became a big hit with 200 million units sold annually.after that,Mitsubishi Electric 1967(Showa 42) Launches a rice cooker with a heat retention function.
With these appearances, it has also helped to reduce the work of housewives who have traditionally washed rice, filled it with water, and adjusted the heat at home, and finally moved it from the kettle to the rice cooker.Washing machineAlong with that, it has become a necessity for Japanese households.the 1960sIf you set it the night before with a timer, a model with a function that saves you the trouble of cooking rice in the early morning has appeared and has become popular.At Toshiba, models with a heat retention function are called "heat retention kettles" and those without a heat retention function are called "electric kettles", but pure "electric kettles" were extinct by the 1990s except for commercial use, and from Toshiba's product list. The name has been erased.In addition, there was a time when the name "heat insulation pot" was not used as much as possible, but now it is used normally.
the 1980sThanMicrocomputerModels that incorporate control have appearedMultifunctional(clockBuilt-in, timer settings can be stored up to 2 etc.)the 1990sToMicrocomputerIn addition to being able to select the desired cooking level (hard, soft, etc.) by various functions bybrown rice,wheatRice etc.Health boomIn connection with this, there are some foods that can be cooked.Some models can also be used as a steamer.
Still morethe 1980sAs early as the endIH (Induction Heating)Models that adopted heating by the method also appearedHowever, they claim that more delicious rice can be cooked by finely controlling the heating by combining various settings.1.2 to 1.7 for products with pressure cooker specifications(I.e.The boiling point is set to 1.4 by applying a pressure of about (up to about 100 atm according to the law for household use).° CFor higher or more expensive modelssteamIt often has functions such as heating.
the 1990sIsChugokuSo, rice cookers with limited functions but cheap are now being mass-produced, and in each country including Japan.OutputIt came to be done.For this reason, Japanese manufacturers have decided to counteract by adding value, such as increasing the functions of their products.
the 2000sUses a material other than metal for the inner pot,Far infraredDue to the action ofFlavorLuxury products that are characterized by improving their appearance have appeared and are attracting attention.Mitsubishi ElectricIs "This charcoal kettleCalledcarbonWe sold high-priced products using a machined inner pot.Also,Arita wareSuch as陶器There is also a product that uses the inner pot of.I used potteryPorridgeAnd electric cookware for raw medicine in Chinathe 1980sIn recent years, rice cookers have also been manufactured.
Some of the electric rice cookersPlug from outletEven with theclockTo work,timerAnd to remember the rice cooking settingsLithium batteryIs built-in.When the battery is exhausted, the clock display disappears when the power is off, and timer reservations cannot be made, but most products can cook rice and keep warm without any problems.BatteriessubstrateToSolderingOn the pieceSpot weldingIt has been, and it is not supposed to be replaced by the user himself.Therefore, it will be repaired for a fee, but the battery fee + technical fee (additional parts fee may be added or the board may be replaced) will be about 4000 to 8000 yen.
Japanese rice cooker seen from abroad
Since the XNUM X'sChugoku, South KoreaElectric rice cookers are manufactured and sold in countries that mainly eat rice, but most of them are single-function models with only a simple rice cooking function because of the emphasis on price competition.
For this reason,JapanToTourismFrom high-income earners who come for the purposeMigrantCome inWorkerA multifunctional rice cooker for Japan that can cook deliciously wellgiftThere were many cases to choose.However, almost all rice cookers sold in Japan are 100VFor exclusive useVoltageIn some cases, it cannot be used as it is outside of Japan due to differences in the above.In addition, it should be notedAkihabaraSuch asElectric TownIf you go to, you can find a wide variety of rice cookers for foreign tourists, such as 115V / 120V / 200V / 240V, which are compatible with power sources in various countries. You can see him holding the box.
In addition, these rice cookers are made from Japanese sticky rice (Japonica rice) Is optimized for cooking, especially the heating patternIndica riceWhen cooked with this (long grain species widely cultivated in Southeast Asia such as Thailand), it is often not possible to cook deliciously.
Originally, indica rice is boiled in boiling water in a pot, and then the water is drained and steamed at the boiled place.This is very different from the method of adjusting the amount of water in Japan, but it is difficult to reproduce this with a rice cooker.For this reason, indica rice is cooked in the same way as Japanese rice (with a little more water), but the flavor seems to be different compared to the traditional cooking method.In particularFried riceIt is said that if you use a rice cooker when you stir-fry and eat like this, the cooked rice will not cook well (the surface will be sticky).
In addition, West AsiaIn areas such as those that prefer to have a dent on the bottom of the inner pot, products for Japan may not be satisfactory.For this reason,ManufacturerIn such areas, products with different heating patterns are introduced.
2005Of the world's home electric rice cookers生産The amount is said to be about 8500 million, of whichChugokuIs about 6000 million units, the majorityGuangdongZhangjiang CityとLianjiangManufactured in.OthersJapan, South KoreaIs the main production area.
By the way,ChineseThen "Rice cookerHowever, this is originallyCantoneseIn the same way, the last kanji is alsoDialectHowever, because Guangdong Province is a production base, the traditional term "rice cooker" has been eliminated.
Rice cooker at about 1,200 degreesburnerThe feature is that it is heated by the direct fire of the rice cooker, which does not require a complicated mechanism compared to the IH rice cooker, and the cooking time is a little short..Gas stoveDue to the shape of the rice cooker placed on top, the overall height is higher than that of an electric rice cooker with the same capacity.City GasFor (12A / 13A)propane gasThere is one for (LPG), and even if it is the same model, the model number is different for each fuel.
器 用 炊 飯 器
restaurantSuch asFor businessIs most often a gas cooker or a large gas cooker, Has the capacity to cook dozens of go (several squares = several liters) at once.This is often focused on shortening the required time rather than cooking.In addition, some kettles can be stacked, and are designed to meet different demands from household use.
Some gas cookers are of the type that discharges and ignites by electricity, and some have a function of keeping warm as an additional function.
Gas rice cookers in Japan1902(Meiji 35)Gas kamadoWas developed, It was sold by each gas company until the 1960s with repeated improvements.It is still used at some restaurants that are particular about taste..
In 1957 (Showa 32), an automatic gas cooker was developed.1979In (54), a gas cooker with an electronic jar (heat retention function) also appeared.
1991In (3), a high-end home-use machine that faithfully reproduced rice cooking in a kamadoα Kamado cookingWas released and became a long-selling product with minor changes.
2011 OfTohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake(Great East Japan Earthquake) After thatPower savingDue to heightened awareness and a series of increases in electricity prices, attention was focused on gas cookers that consume less electricity when cooking rice, causing temporary shortages and recording shipments that far exceeded initial expectations...Not only that, there was an opinion that gas cookers are more delicious than electric rice cookers because they have a higher thermal power than electric rice cookers, and there were strong fans of gas cookers.
2012In (24), the full model change was made for the first time in 21 years.Direct fire master (Takumi Jikabi)"(リ ン ナ イ-Tokyo Gas-Osaka Gas-Toho GasJoint development) is now on sale..Since it was jointly developed with a gas company in each region, it was developed overcoming "regional tastes"..
Rice cooker that uses other heat sources
Although rice cannot be cooked by itself, cooking utensils that cook rice by using the energy of other cooking equipment are sometimes called rice cookers (""microwaveRice cooker "etc.).However, those that use a gas range or IH cooking heater are often called "rice cookers" even if they are similar.In both cases, the rice cooking capacity is generally small, and there are a wide variety of manufacturers entering the market.
- Zojirushi Mahobin(Top domestic market share of rice cookers)
- Tiger thermos
- Toshiba Home Techno(Sales areToshiba lifestyle）
- Sanyo Electric(Manufactures the variable pressure model "W Odori-cook" series)
- Mitsubishi Electric()
- Hitachi Global Life Solutions
- Iris Oyama
- Cuckoo Electronics
- リ ン ナ イ(Gas rice cooker)
- Paloma(Gas rice cooker)
- Kai(Rice cooker for microwave oven)
- Morii (rice cooker for microwave oven)
- HARIO(Rice cooker for microwave oven)
- (Daido rice cookerTaiwanese company selling)
- ^ a b "Kitchen revolution!The story of the birth of the world's first electric rice cooker”(Japanese). [Marketing] All About. April 2019, 12Browse.
- ^ "Can you explain the history of "automatic rice cookers" born in Japan to people overseas | Freeing from Kamado and returning to Kamado taste”(Japanese). Courier Japon (September 2020, 9). April 2021, 6Browse.
- ^ "Electric machinery and equipment quality indication regulations”. Consumer Affairs Agency. April 2013, 5Browse.
- ^ Mitsubishi Electric Jar Rice Cooker: NJ-XSB10J Steamless IH charcoal cooker prepared with ultrasonic waves / deliciousness
- ^ Vacuum pressure IH heat insulation pot RC-10VXE Product information: Home appliances Toshiba Living Doors
- ^ Feature 1 200° CWith steam, each grain is big and plump! | Steam IH jar rice cooker SR-SX101 | Panasonic
- ^ "Variable pressure IH dance cooking" that makes each grain sweet | Pressure IH jar rice cooker SR-PX101 | Panasonic
- ^ Pressure & Steam IH type RZ-W1000K: Specifications / Functions: RZ-W1000K 1.0L (5.5 go) cooked
- ^ Tiger IH Rice Cooker JKP-A
- ^ Pressure IH rice cooker NP-NU type ｜ Product details ｜ Zojirushi
- ^ Features ｜ KS-PX10A ｜ Helsio Rice Cooker: Sharp
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- ^ "MADE IN JAPAN" (Asahi Shimbun,Akio Morita,Mitsuko Shimomura, Co-authored by EM Rheingold,ISBN-978 4022605825）
- ^ "Living and briquettes" (35) Shinanen HoldingsHistory
- ^ Project X Challengers
- ^ Detailed introduction of Project X
- ^ Toshiba Science Museum
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- ^ Panasonic 1990 (Heisei 2) 5 yen rice cooker, a big boom with word of mouth! | Development story
- ^ Benefits of gas cooker --Tokyo Gas
- ^ Electricity requires a 200V power line, which is time consuming and wet in a kitchen.Electric shock,leakageThere is a great danger such as.Panasonic is an IH jar rice cooker that can cook 3 shoSR-PGB54P / AP(The former is single-phase 200V, the latter is three-phase 200V. OEM for Zojirushi Mahobin Tiger Thermos), but the output is too high and it is not subject to type approval.Radio ActPermits are required (see Induction Cooker section for details).
- ^ Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., ed. (2016), Tokyo Gas: Company Profile / Corporate Message / Tokyo Gas 130 Years, History of Challenges April 2017, 2Browse.
- ^ On February 2, Tokyo Gas Company obtained a proprietary patent for a gas cooker.25 years history of Tokyo Gas
- ^ Direct fire rice "evolution" --Tokyo Gas
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- ^ Interview with developer # 04 --Toho Gas