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🍴 | [Lawson] I want to eat everything if I can ♡ The "local cream puffs" in 8 areas nationwide look delicious.


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[Lawson] I want to eat everything if I can ♡ The "local cream puffs" in 8 areas nationwide look delicious.

 
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Available in Kyoto, Shiga, Nara, Wakayama, Osaka, Hyogo, <including some stores in Mie and Fukui prefectures>.
 

From June 2022, 6, Lawson will offer the popular sweet "Raw Custard Cream Puff" in eight areas nationwide ... → Continue reading

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Shiga

Shiga(Shigaken,(British: Shiga Prefecture) IsJapan OfKinkiに 位置 す るPrefecture.Prefectural office location TheOtsu City.

Overview

Regulatory country OfOmi country(Jiangzhou) exactly matches. The prefecture name is the name of the county to which Otsu belonged.ShigaWas adopted from. The pronunciation of "Shiga" is "shi" in the common language.accentIs placed (head-height accent), but in the local area, an accent is often placed on "ga" (tail-height accent) (when "Shiga prefecture" is used, the common language and the local dialect are the same).

"Omi" originated from "Chichitsutankai", and Shiga Prefecture still has "Lake countryBiwa lakeIs a symbol of the prefecture. ,drinking waterIts existence is large as a source of tourism and tourism resources, and its regional characteristics differ across Lake Biwa.Only inland prefecture due to Lake BiwaFishing portAnd also the number20 portsAnd many. In the Middle Ages and early modern times when water trade was popularWakasa BayAboveAs a connecting point connecting Otsu andKatataA number of important inland water ports have developed.Tokaido-Higashisendo(Nakasendo)・Hokuriku RoadIs a key point of land transportation whereThose who control Omi control the world[1]It was often the stage of war.

The convenience of transportation led to the outflow of human resources, and before the war, Shiga Prefecture had more outflow population than inflow population. Many people from the Middle Ages to the modern ageOmi MerchantAs a result, he made a foray to all over the country, and even came to the saying that "ayu from Lake Biwa goes out and grows."[Note 1].. After the Pacific War, the convenience of transportation was re-recognized due to the development of highways and the rise of truck distribution, and distribution centers, factories and R&D facilities have advanced one after another.JR West Japan OfUrban networkWith the expansionKyoto,Osaka OfBed townAs a result,Capital AreaIn regions other than Japan, it has become one of the few prefectures with population increase[2].. Development is progressing in the southern part of Kyoto and Osaka, and there is an economic gap with the northern part. In the southern part, there is a new residential area and in front of the station, there are lively apartments, while in the northern part and the western part, the rural scenery spreads out and there is a peaceful atmosphere. However, even in the Hubei and Koto regions where the population is stagnant,Regional regenerationActive discussions and practices[3].

Shiga PrefectureKinkiIt has a strong cultural and economic ties with Kyoto and Osaka,Chubu regionThe exchange with is also active.Kinki Area Improvement Law"Kinki area" defined inCentral Region Development and Maintenance ActIncluded in both of the “Chubu area” defined byKinki Block Governor's AssociationChubu Governor MeetingAttended both (as well as Fukui and Mie). In addition, together with Fukui prefecture, Gifu prefecture, Mie prefectureJapan Manaka RepublicWas established and is engaged in governor summits and cultural exchange projects.Aichi ExpoNow with 8 prefectures in ChubuChubu Millennium Symbiotic VillageWas jointly exhibited. The north is the intersection of Kinki, Chukyo, and Hokuriku,工場And distribution center installation plans are in progress.

Incidentally,NHK Nagoya Broadcasting StationThe forecasts for Shiga prefecture are always displayed in the weather forecasts for the three Tokai prefectures produced in.In addition, it was once broadcast on the TV Tokyo network and was broadcast in Shiga.Biwako BroadcastingBut it was broadcastMega TON News TODAYLast weather forecast[Note 2] Then, at least after October 1985, when reporting the weather in each place after the national weather forecast, it was reported in the "Shiga / Tokai region" category, and the next "Kinki / Setouchi region" was reported to be west of Kyoto prefecture / Nara prefecture. Only was displayed.

With Lake Biwa, the people of the prefecture and the government are highly aware of the environment, and because of the concentration of environment-related companies and human resources, it is one of the best in Japan.Environmentally advanced prefectureKnown as[4][5].

This prefecture has Lake Biwa and the surrounding mountains (Hiei-san, Hira-san, Mt. Ibukiyama, Suzuka-san), and since the capital was established early on, it was an important hub for transportation from ancient times and the Middle Ages.Japanese historyThe above relationship is extremely strong, and there are abundant natural, historical, and cultural resources throughout the prefecture (see below).

Geography/Region

AroundMountains-MountainIs surrounded by Lake Biwa and the Omi basin.areaIs the 10th narrowest in Japan. More than half of the area is mountainous, and about 6/1 is Lake Biwa,Residential area TheOsakaNarrower than.

terrain

climate

The whole areaInland climateHowever, the north is of the Hokuriku/San'in typeSea of ​​Japan side climate, In the southPacific climateandSeto Inland Sea climateAlso has. Unlike other regions, there are no mountains at the boundary between the climate on the Sea of ​​Japan side and the climate on the Pacific side, and the major feature is that the climate gradually changes in the same flat land extending along the lakeshore. However, due to Lake Biwa, summer heat and winter cold are rather mild compared to other basins. Most of Kosai and Hubei are in heavy snowfall areasHeavy snowfallHas been designated asYogo TownIs the only region west of Kinki and is the southernmost special heavy snowfall area in Japan.

Record of deepest snowfall and snowfall in the past

At Mt. Ibukiyama on February 2, 2, 14MetersI observed the snowfall. This is the world record for officially observed snowfall[6].The main heavy snowfall areas in Shiga Prefecture are divided into four regions: Kuchiki Village in the western part of the prefecture, Makino Hara in the northwestern part of the prefecture, Yogo Town in the northernmost part of the prefecture, and Maibara Kotsuhara in the northeastern part of the prefecture.[Source required]

Above all, former Yogo-cho, Nagahama CityKataoka-Niu VillageHas recorded high numbers of snowfall. Nakagawachi, located in the northernmost part of the town, in 1981Heavy snowfallSometimes 6 meters 55centimeterRecorded[7].. Especially in 1936, when it was said that there was a lot of snow, none of them came from an official meteorological observation facility, but it recorded 7 meters and 30 centimeters at Obari and 7 meters and 20 centimeters at Nakagawachi. "The Cruel Story of Japan, Part 4 Society without Security" (Heibonsha, 1960) states that the northern part of Niu is a disaster of snow: "In this area, there are 20 shaku (about 6 meters) normal and 30 shaku (about 9 shaku). It piled up more than 30 shaku in the heavy snow this year. That place is like a village in Okugawa.”[8].. Also at the eastern foot of the Hira MountainsHira gratedNorthwestLocal windAnd the one that blows in late March is "Hira eight lecturesIt's called "" and has become a feature of the coming of spring.

Normal values ​​in various areas of Shiga Prefecture (statistical period: 1981-2010)[9], Maibara 2001-2010)[10]
Average price
(Monthly)
HubeiKotoWestern OmiSouthern OmiHigashiomiKoga
NagahamaMaibara
Asahi
HikoneTakashima
Imazu
Otsu CityOmi HachimanHigashiomi City
Sakuragawa East
Koka City
Yogo Town YanagaseTang GuoMinami KomatsuKayanouraShigarakiTsuchiyama
average
temperature
(
Warmest month26.3
(May)
25.8
(May)
27.1
(May)
25.9
(May)
26.6
(May)
27.1
(May)
26.1
(May)
24.3
(May)
25.0
(May)
Coldest month2.6
(May)
2.0
(May)
3.7
(May)
2.5
(May)
3.6
(May)
3.9
(May)
2.8
(May)
1.4
(May)
1.9
(May)
Precipitation amount
(mm)
Most months320.1
(May)
189.9
(May)
260.1
(May)
217.7
(May)
208.6
(May)
242.1
(May)
229.2
(May)
204.2
(May)
194.4
(May)
207.7
(May)
212.1
(May)
Minimum month159.1
(May)
96.1
(May)
94.2
(May)
84.5
(May)
112.3
(May)
100.9
(May)
50.4
(May)
70.5
(May)
64.1
(May)
53.6
(May)
56.7
(May)
precipitation
Number of days
(Day)
Most months21.8
(May)
17.6
(May)
17.4
(May)
14.1
(May)
19.2
(May)
15.8
(May)
12.6
(May)
12.4
(May)
12.7
(May)
13.1
(May)
13.7
(May)
Minimum month10.0
(May)
8.0
(August)
9.2
(May)
8.7
(May)
8.8
(May)
9.0
(May)
7.1
(May)
7.8
(May)
8.4
(May)
8.2
(May)
8.4
(May)
Normal values ​​in various areas of Shiga Prefecture (statistical period: 1979-2000)[9]
Average price
(Monthly)
HubeiKotoWestern OmiSouthern OmiHigashiomiKoga
Yogo Town
Yanagase
Torahime Town
Tang Guo
Mt. IbukiyamaHikoneImazu TownShiga Town
Minami Komatsu
Otsu City
Kayanoura
OmihachimanGamo Town
Sakuragawa East
Shigaraki TownTsuchiyama Town
average
temperature
(
Warmest month25.9
(May)
18.1
(May)
26.7
(May)
25.6
(May)
26.3
(May)
26.9
(May)
25.8
(May)
24.0
(May)
24.7
(May)
Coldest month2.6
(May)
−5.2
(May)
3.6
(January/February)
2.5
(May)
3.5
(May)
4.0
(January/February)
2.8
(January/February)
1.3
(May)
1.9
(January/February)
Precipitation amount
(mm)
Most months299.8
(May)
189.9
(May)
204.5
(May)
215.8
(May)
259.2
(May)
244.5
(May)
218.0
(May)
205.9
(May)
223.4
(May)
221.4
(May)
Minimum month161.2
(May)
96.2
(May)
83.1
(May)
106.0
(May)
97.3
(May)
41.1
(May)
58.2
(May)
51.9
(May)
42.9
(May)
46.2
(May)
precipitation
Number of days
(Day)
Most months21.7
(May)
17.2
(May)
13.5
(May)
19.1
(May)
16.4
(May)
12.9
(May)
12.6
(May)
12.6
(May)
13.5
(May)
14.0
(May)
Minimum month9.7
(May)
7.8
(August)
8.2
(May)
8.7
(May)
9.0
(May)
6.8
(May)
7.6
(May)
8.5
(May)
7.5
(May)
9.0
(May)
Average annual number of days for each element of the prefecture (statistical period: 1981-2010[11])
Extremely hot day真 夏日SummerTropical nightWinter day真 冬日
Nagahama3.645.9109.14.459.50.4
Imazu0.637.0100.42.957.40.4
Minami Komatsu2.243.7107.64.940.40.2
Hikone2.048.3110.411.829.70.1
Higashiomi6.253.6117.61.472.10.3
Otsu5.956.8121.85.938.60.0
Shigaraki0.233.899.90.0117.00.6
Tsuchiyama0.532.695.00.288.61.1

nature Park

The ratio of natural park area to total area is 37.6 %(Average of 14.5%)2007As of (19), it was number one.

Prefectural nature park
  • Mikami/Tagami/Shigaraki Prefectural Natural Park
  • Kuchiki/Kuzukawa Prefectural Natural Park
  • Koto Prefectural Natural Park

Area classification

Location map of each municipality

: Otsu area : Southern area :Koka area
: Higashiomi area :Koto area :Hubei area :Takashima area

There are 13 cities, 3 districts, and 6 towns (all towns are read as "cho"). Also, the village disappeared in 2005. During the Edo period, it was divided into three parts: Konan (present-day Konan), Kosai (present-day Konishi), and Koto (present-day Koto/Hubei), but since the Meiji era, there was mainly Konan/Koto (mainly around Lake Biwa). It has become common to divide it into four categories: Koto, Kohoku, and Kosei.[12]..It may be divided into 4 areas other than these 2017 areas. For example, as of 7, Shiga Prefecture is divided into XNUMX areas: Otsu area, Southern area, Koka area, Higashiomi area, Koto area, Hubei area, and Takashima area.[13]..The local governments that belong to each are as follows.The county is1878(11th year of Meiji)Asai DistrictEast-west division of1897Other than the transfer of Nishi-Asai-gun to Ika-gun (Meiji 30),Great treasure lawSubsequent county names and divisions were largely followed until the Great Showa period.[Note 3].

*Population is as of June 2022, 7

TaiziThe municipality ofPrefectural office(Joint Government Building)

湖南

National Route 1(OldTokaido) Is a key point of transportation and there are many plains, soEmperor TenchiBy the timeOtsuDevelopment has progressed since ancient times, such as the location of the capital in Japan.Kyoto CityIncluding Otsu City, which forms a de facto twin city, and Kusatsu City, which was a traditional satellite city of Otsu, there is now a strong connection with Keihan as a commuting / school zone, so-called "Shiga citizenIt has become a region with many. Koka is located across the prefectural borderMieIgaAlongside the regionNinja(mercenary) And known as the pharmaceutical town.Once in the Koka region for a short period of timeShikakura PalaceHas been placed there, and is now highly regarded in terms of culture as a village of Shigaraki ware.

Koto

Along with the Hunan region, the plains are wide open, prospering as a granary area and a transportation hub, and beef cattle breeding is thriving.It is also the area that produced the largest number of Omi merchants.

Hubei

It is the region farthest from Keihan, is the eastern end of the Kansai Cultural Area, and is a buffer zone with the Hokuriku and Tokai regions. In modern timesSericultureHowever, the development of housing sites and offices and the advancement of factories are now delayed compared to the Hunan and Hudong regions (so-called “North-South disparity”). However, this preserves the traditional culture and landscape.

Huxi

It is a highway that connects Kinai with the Wakasa Bay and Hokuriku regions, and has a strong connection with Kyoto along with the Konan region. It was left out of development because it was off the main transit network in modern times. Except for the Azumigawa Fan and the Ishidagawa Fan, there are few plains and the mountains are close to Lake Biwa. Historically and culturally, the northern part of Otsu City is also included in Kosai.

Abolished municipality

mergerBy2004The municipalities that were abolished after (16) are as follows.

History

Due to its geographical characteristics, Shiga Prefecture has developed as a supply source and supply point for goods and human resources to Nara, Kyo, and Osaka, or as an important point connecting Kinai with Eastern and Northern countries, and has been greatly involved in the central history of Japan.

Shirasu MasakoDescribed in the essay “Omi Yamakawasho” as “Omi is the backstage of Japan”. Also for historiansAkira ImayaSaid in his book "Rereading Japanese History from Omi" that "writing the history of Omi is the same as writing the history of Japan", and whether the historical value and importance of Omi are equivalent to those of Nara and Kyo. I highly appreciate it.

Ancient times

Many since the Yayoi periodMigrantWas settled and development was advanced from an early stage because it is close to the capital.

Although it is a folklore era, according to an article in Kiki, the 12th generationEmperor Kageyuki, 13th generationEmperor Shigeru, 14th generationEmperor Nakaso Shiga Takaanaho ShrineIt is said that it ruled the world in (Otsu City), suggesting that it has been a politically important area since ancient times.

National constructionWere separated, Shiga PrefectureTamami KunizoAnkuzukuWas the area of.In addition, Inukami prefecture ownerMr. Breath,Gamo Inaoki,Mikami celebrationThere were many influential tribes.

Kofun periodIn the middle of the 5th century, he was the direct ancestor of the current imperial family.Emperor KeitaiWas born in Omi,Nintoku25th generation in the morningEmperor TakeruWas cut off, and in 507 he was crowned the 26th emperor.In the Asuka periodOmi Otsunomiya(Emperor Tenchi), In the Nara periodShikakura Palace(Emperor Shomu) AndHoramiya(Emperor Junin) Was placed.Rebellion,Fujiwara Nakamaro RebellionIt was often the stage of the war.

In the Nara periodMaru FujiwaraAccording to Mr. Fujiwara's "Ieden" compiled by "Omi Province is a land with a name in the universe. . "[14] The ancient Omi was a rich land with many people living in a wide plain, intervening in the fresh water of Lake Biwa.

OmiEnki ceremony internal companyIn the Kinki region, the total number of sardines is second only to Yamato, and in Japan it is the fourth largest after Yamato, Ise, and Izumo, and it can be said that Omi has played an important position in Japan since ancient times. ((List of Shikinai companies in Omi

中 世

A monk from Omi in the early Heian periodClearest TheMt. HieiToEnryakuji TempleWas invented. Enryakuji produced a number of famous monks and greatly developed the modern Japanese Buddhist culture.

From the middle Heian periodMr. SasakiHappened to Omi. Mr. SasakiYoritomo Gengen Kanto regionWhen he got up in, he actively participated in this and gained the guardianship of Omi Ikuni. Or later,Mr. Rokkaku,Mr. KyogokuWhile being divided intoSengoku periodDominated Omi Province. In the Northern and Northern DynastiesBasaraFamous for daimyoMichiho Sasaki(Takashi) came out and extended the power of the Kyogoku family.

Hongwanji TempleLotusWhen the evangelism started,Ikko SectThe color has become stronger.For this reason, Mt. Hiei, who was not pleased with this, often launched attacks.At the eastern foot of Mt. Hiei坂 本Is of Ikko MuneKatataSince they were in economic conflict with each other, conflicts between them were frequent. After this, Renyo set up the Ikko Municipal Office in Otsu.

Sengoku period

Sengoku periodOnce you enter, in the northMr. AsaiEmerges. Mr. Asai who served Mr. Kyogoku on the shape occupies the southMr. RokkakuConflict with.Oda NobunagaTied withAsai NagamasaIn order to destroy Mr. Rokkaku, he later joined the general Nobunaga siege network and resisted Nobunaga.Battle of Otari CastleBy1573It died in (Tensho first year).

Nobunaga, who put Omi in the area of ​​control,Omi BasinToAzuchi castleBuild a castle. After Nobunaga's death, the ground is in KinaiHideyoshi HashibaWhen,Echizen countryNorth ShoTo the groundKatsuie ShibataWas held in the northBattle of Mt.It was settled by Hideyoshi's victory in.Hideyoshi's first territoryNagahamaBecause of this, a large number of Omi residents were appointed mainly as clerical staff.Mitsunari IshidaIs one of them.He is also Hideyoshi's nephewToyotomi Shuji TheHachimanyama CastleAnd the canal that builds the castle town and connects to Lake BiwaHachimanboriTo improve commerce and promote commerce.

In addition, from OmiGamo Ujisato-Takato Todo-Yoshitsugu OtaniProduced many famous military commanders. In Koka-gun from the Warring States period to the Edo periodKoga styleNinjaWas active.

The early modern period

Tokugawa IeyasuIt is,TokugawaLeading elite troops inMr. IiClose to SekigaharaHikoneTo keep it from being held in western countries, and most of the northHikone clanBecame the territory of. The Hikone clan is the only large clan that has been gathered, and the others areZensho Clan,Mizuguchi Clan,Omizohan,Nishioji Domain,Miyagawa Domain,Yamagami Domain,Mikami domainThe small clan, Omori Jinya, the Mogami clan of the replacement, the Kutsuki Jinya of the Kuchiki family of the replacement, and the territories and tenryo of other countries are mixed, and the territory of Omi province in the Edo period has a complicated appearance. rice field.In the early Edo period, the Shogun Joraku palace was Minakuchi Castle, Nagahara palace, Iba palace, and Kashiwabara palace, but the third shogunIemitsuAfter that, Joraku was interrupted and the palace gradually deteriorated and became obsolete.

In terms of culture, the Confucian scholar who was also known as the saint Omi in the early Edo periodNakae FujikiIs active in JapanPositive studyDeveloped.Matsuo Basho(Ginji TemplePrefer to call Omi as a former village.HaikuAlong withOmi BamonHas produced a large number of people called.

In the Edo era, the commerce and industry that continued from the Kamakura era has developed dramatically, and the counties of Inugami, Aichi, Kanzaki, Gamo and Takashima, especiallyHachiman-Hino-GokasoFromOmi MerchantProduced many. Although some merchants fell from the end of the Edo era due to the turmoil of the Meiji Restoration, many Omi merchants continued to play an active part in the modern era and contributed to the development of the Japanese economy to this day.

Modern

Meiji RestorationByShogunate-Flag territoryToOtsu prefectureAfter is installed,Abandoned DomainEach clan was moved to each prefecture by the newOtsu prefecture(Shiga-gun and Gamo-gun south)Nagahama(North of Takashima and Kanzaki counties). The following day, on January 1872, 1, Otsu PrefectureShigaTo[15], Nagahama Prefecture on February 2InugamiThe two prefectures were merged on September 9th, and Omi Province and a new area with the same area as the presentShigaWas established. afterwards,1876From December 81881Four and a half years until February 2th, the currentFukuiReinanRegion (TsurugaWest)[16].. During this time, Shiga PrefectureWakasa BayWas facing[17].. When separating the west of Tsuruga City, an opposition movement happened locally, Shiga Prefecture's order at the time,Kageta StableHowever, in February 1881, an opposition document (a proposal for the Wakasa/Echizen four-gun departure)[18]),MinisterMimi SanjoLord of the InteriorMasayoshi MatsukataI sent it to you.The main government building was located in Otsu, but because it is unevenly distributed in the southwest, Hikone, which was the largest castle town in Omi Province, was also a candidate.18911936Twice, there was a movement to move the main government building from Otsu to Hikone.[19].

population

Although it is close to Kyoto and Osaka, it is rich in nature and the land price is relatively low, so housing demand is high as a commuting area for Kyoto and Osaka, and housing development is active.With the development of manufacturing bases and the opening and expansion of commercial facilities based on the improvement of transportation convenience, the population has continued to increase in rural areas.2020Carried out inCensusAccording to Shiga Prefecture, the population growth rate is +0.05 %47th among 8 prefectures[20].KinkiThen only Shiga prefecture increased[20]..Kusatsu City's + 4.86%, Moriyama City's + 4.23%, and Ritto City's + 3.10% are among the top 100 municipalities nationwide.

National Institute of Population and Social Security ResearchAccording to the future estimation (announced in March 2018), the population index from 3 to 2015 (the population in 2045 when the population in 2015 is 100) is 2045, which is nationwide.Tokyo-Okinawa-Aichi-Kanagawa-SaitamaIt is expected that the rate of decrease will be moderate next to that.In particular, Kusatsu City, Moriyama City, and Ritto City have high population indexes of over 3 from 2015 to 2045.[21].

While many local governments are increasing in population in the Hunan region, the northern part of the prefecture and the counties are becoming more polarized due to the large population decline rate. According to the 2020 census, the population of Kora Town decreased by 9.62% and that of Takashima City decreased by 7.29%.[20].


Changes in the population of Shiga prefecture
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

Statistics by municipality

Local government codeEvery市町村Are listed below. Currently, there are 19 municipalities (13 cities and 6 towns).Legal populationIs 2015 (Heisei 27)10/1ImplementationCensusThe value of the,Estimated populationIs the value as of June 2022, 7.The population densityIs the estimated population/area.

Population by municipality in Shiga Prefecture (13 cities and 6 towns)
MunicipalityGroup codecountyLegal population
(Man)
Estimated population
(Man)
area[Note 9]
(km2)
The population density
(People/km2
Rate of change
(%)
Otsu City25201 – 8City340,973343,059464.51739+0.61
Hikone25202 – 6City113,679112,543196.87572-1.00
Nagahama25203 – 4City118,193112,434681.02165-4.87
Omihachiman25204 – 2City81,31281,163177.45457-0.18
Kusatsu City25206 – 9City137,247145,31267.822,143+5.88
Moriyama25207 – 7City79,85984,41955.741,515+5.71
Ritto City25208 – 5City66,74969,56652.691,320+4.22
Koka City25209 – 3City90,90187,724481.62182-3.50
Yasu25210 – 7City49,88949,82280.14622-0.13
Hunan25211 – 5City54,28954,21970.40770-0.13
Takashima25212 – 3City50,02545,392693.0565-9.26
Higashiomi City25213 – 1City114,180111,551388.37287-2.30
Maibara25214 – 0City38,71936,889250.39147-4.73
Hino Town25383 – 9Gamo-gun21,87320,730117.60176-5.23
Ryuo Town25384 – 7Gamo-gun12,43411,66844.55262-6.16
Aisyo-cho25425 – 8Aichi-gun20,77820,93537.97551+0.76
Toyosato Town25441 – 0Inukami District7,4227,2557.80930-2.25
Kora Town25442 – 8Inukami District7,0396,25213.63459-11.18
Taga Town25443 – 6Inukami District7,3557,181135.7753-2.37
Shiga25000 – 7Prefecture1,412,9161,408,1144017.38351-0.34

Politics

Prefectural government

Successive governors

Excerpts from successive governors (public elections)

finance

  • 2011
  • 2010
  • 2009
  • 2008
  • 2007
  • 2006
    • Fiscal Power Index 0.51-I Group (Fiscal Power Index 0.5 or more, less than 1.0) 16th out of 15 municipalities
    • Standard financial scale-2798 million yen
    • Current account ratio -91.8% (prefecture average is 92.6%)
    • Real balance ratio-0.38% Slightly in the black
    • Personnel expenses, property expenses, etc. per person per person-1 yen (prefectural average is 13 yen, slightly high)
    • Number of employees per 100,000 population-1,285.89 (prefectural average is 1,173.11, somewhat high)
      • About 75% of the total number of staff is faculty and police officers
    • Laspeyres index --98.6
    • Real debt service ratio -13.6% (prefecture average is 14.7%)
    • Municipal debt present per capita-1 yen (prefectural average is 65 yen)
      • Only local bond balance for ordinary account
  • Balance of local bonds
    • Current amount of local bonds for ordinary account-9022 million yen
    • Current amount of local bonds for special accounts other than the above-1057 million yen
      • Main breakdown Basin sewer accounting-585 billion yen Hospital business 246 billion yen Water supply business 182 billion yen
    • Third sectorDebt status (such as debt balances related to debt guarantee)-616 million yen
      • Main breakdown: Shiga Prefectural Forestry Corporation 106 billion yen Biwako Forestry Corporation-337 billion yen
    • Debt balance of Shiga prefecture-1 billion yen (consolidated accounting)
    • Debt balance per citizen of Shiga prefecture-1 yen
  • 2005
    • Fiscal Power Index 0.45-II Group (Fiscal Power Index 0.4 or more, less than 0.5) 8th out of 6 municipalities
  • 2004
    • Fiscal Power Index 0.44-II Group (Fiscal Power Index 0.4 or more, less than 0.5) 10th out of 8 municipalities

National politics

House of Representatives OfSmall districtIs 4.House of CouncilorsThen, 1 ward is constructed in all prefectures.

Economic and industrial

Shiga Prefecture was an agricultural prefecture supporting Kyoto and Osaka, which are Japan's leading consumers. Agriculture in Shiga Prefecture is centered on rice cultivation, and paddy fields occupy most of the cultivated area in the prefecture (the second largest rice field rate in 2011 in Japan).[23].. Rice produced in Shiga Prefecture is "Jiangzhou Rice" or "Omi riceKnown as. With the development of secondary and tertiary industries after the war, most of the farmers in the prefecture are part-time farmers (the third largest farming rate in Japan in 2).[23].. In addition, Shiga PrefectureJapanese teaIt is said to be the birthplace and during the Edo periodGovernment office teaBecame famous as a brand tea alongside Uji tea, and is still in Tsuchiyama-cho, Koka city (Tsuchiyama tea.. The largest cultivation area and production volume in the prefecture and Shigaraki Town Asamiya ("Asamiya tea". Cultivation is centered around one of Japan's five major teas)[24].. In addition, in the primary industry, the fishing industry in Lake Biwa (Sweetfish-Loquat・SetaShijimi, Etc., mainly in the Koto regionOmi beefProduction is active.

Today it is one of the leading industrial prefectures in western Japan[25],2010(22) industrial production shipment value reaches 6 billion yen[26].. Major industrial products include pharmaceuticals from the Hino and Koka regions, which are traditional industries from the early modern period (especiallyMedicine),2011The value of pharmaceutical production in (23) is 2,506 billion yen (11th place in Japan, 3.6% share).[27].. In Shiga prefecture, there are 9Local industryExists[28].

It is also known as an "environmentally advanced prefecture" and within the prefectureNew energy-Energy saving-Storage battery-Water treatment-BioIn addition to the concentration of environment-related companies, technologies, human resources, and educational institutions, the "medical-engineering collaboration" project is expected to grow in the medical and health equipment fields.[29].. In addition, the number of workers in the prefecture is increasing consistently, mainly in the tertiary industry.

2012 in Shiga GDP(Gross product of the prefecture) exceeds populationKagoshima-KumamotoGreater than that of[30].. Prefectural income per capita (Prefectural economic calculation) Was also ranked 2013th in 4, making it the top class in Japan.[31].. Regarding the medium-term economic growth rate, according to a private think tank, “Solid demographics and high proportion of young people”, “Keihanshin and Nagoya location and transportation convenience as an intermediate economic zone”, “Industrial concentration and Promotion of industry-academia-government collaboration, etc.[32] Is predicted.

According to a report by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, “27 Labor Economy Analysis”, the number of professional human resources per number of employees in Shiga prefecture as of 2012 (researchers, engineers, doctors, accountants, teachers, etc. The ratio of employees is the second highest after Tokyo, Kanagawa, and Kyoto prefectures, and human resources in specialized and technical occupations are concentrated in this prefecture.[33].Unemployment rateIs less than the national average[34] And is relatively solid.

Regarding the third industrial activity in Shiga prefecture, it is slightly biased towards the Hunan area centered on Otsu city, where the prefectural capital is located, and Kusatsu city, where the population is dense. AlsoLake Biwa Environmental Business MesseAnd economic events such as Shiga business partners are held, and at the Shiga economic clubOmi MerchantActivities to protect and expand the philosophy and spirit of

The company that has the head office

Companies related to Shiga Prefecture

Many others.

Life and transportation

Policemen

Transportation

空港

Currently, there is no airport in the prefecture. Before and during the war, the Imperial Japanese ArmyYokaichi Airfieldexist. After the war, around Hino TownBiwako AirportThere was a plan to make. The main airports around the prefecture are as follows. Public transportation that directly connects the prefecture with each airportKansai Airport StationKusatsu StationandYasu StationLimited express train connectingHALCA"Only. As of 2021Limousine busThere is no such service.

Railway line

Excluding Shigaraki Kogen RailwayElectrificationAnd all JR lines areMain line.

bus

Business operators operating general route buses

道路

High standardization is delayed even on major national and prefectural roads, and congestion is occurring everywhere. In particular, national highways 1 and 8 still have many 1-lane sections on each side of the prefecture, causing chronic congestion due to traffic concentration.

Route

Centering around Otsu Port and Takebujima PortLake Biwa Kisen(Keihan Group)WhenOhmi Marine(Omi RailwayThe group's Omi Travel operation) has opened a sightseeing tour boat,OkishimaWith Okishima and the ferry that connectsChomei-ji TempleConnect the harborFerryExists. Below is a list of regular sightseeing routes by Lake Biwa Kisen and Omi Marine.


License plate

Cars registered in Shiga PrefectureLicense plateIs all "Shiga",Shiga Transportation BureauIssued at. From other prefecturesGejiIt is sometimes ridiculed as "Nan", "Gejigeji", or "Inazuma number", which is associated with the "jumbo" part of "Shigeru". From YasuNishikawa TakanoriAt the call of2009Large outdoor music live "(21) held in Kusatsu City"Inazuma Rock Festival"Inazuma" was named after the popular name for the license plate[35].

Medical and welfare

Education

2013As of (25), there are 13 universities and junior colleges, and the number of university students per capita is the third largest in Japan after Kyoto and Tokyo.[36][37].. With elementary school KyotoLanric(Run backpack) is very popular. Also for the safety of childrenJump out boyThere are many installations ofJun MiuraIs also receiving attention from[38].. Shiga Prefecture's original education business is held on Lake Biwa for fifth grade elementary school studentsShiga Prefectural Lake Biwa Floating School(Received the 24th Prime Minister's Award of the 5th Maritime Nation Promotion Merit Award[39]).

University

National

public

private

Correspondence University

private

Junior college

private

Vocational school
Special school
high school
Junior high school
primary school
Kindergarten
Foreign school

Mass media

broadcast

The parent station of broadcasting stations that cover the Shiga prefecture area is Otsu City for terrestrial digital television.Usayama, FM radioHunan OfTwelve BoIt is divided by.In addition, the transmission station of the FM complementary relay station of KBS Kyoto, which covers 1 prefecture and 1 prefecture with Kyoto prefecture, is the prefectural border.Mt. HieiIt is located in

Prefectural broadcasting station

tv set
radio
Community FM
National broadcasting and network stations
tv set

About TV broadcasting, this prefectureBroadcast target areaAsKinki wide area(OsakaOsakaThe key station in Osaka, which has its main station in the broadcasting area covering the entire Kinki region)Every day broadcasting-Asahi Broadcasting TV-Kansai TV-Yomiuri TelevisionFor, there is a relay station in the prefecture. Depending on the area, it is located on Mt. Hiei.KBS KyotoFrom the relay stationSpilloverbyKyoto broadcastingIs available for viewing (KBS Kyoto official coverage map[40][Note 12].

radio

AM radio can be received by both stations in Osaka and names.

About FM radio in KyotoFM KyotoBesides, in OsakaFM Osaka,FM802Is partially audible. AlsoNHK Kyoto-OsakaCan also be heard.

News (Chinese)

Culture/Sport

Belonging to the cultural areas of Kyoto and Osaka, the influence from Kyoto is particularly great. Gifu PrefectureSekigahara TownFrom Maibara City, Shiga Prefecture, forms the boundary of East-West culture (Are you stupid?,Zoni is a round rice cake or a square rice cakeSuch). The Hubei region is also a buffer zone for the culture of the Hokuriku and Tokai regions. For example, the seasoning of ozoni is Hokuriku-style clear soup (mainly miso tailoring except in the Hubei region), and the block papers of the Tokai 3 prefectures.Chunichi ShimbunAre widely delivered (Maibara City has a market share of over 6%)[41]).

Prefectural character

In the Kadokawa Japan Geographical Name Dictionary, he says, "Gentle, not thorough, bright in counting, sensitive to interests, and prosperous in saving money. Even though it is a sentence, Take is not that much." "Solid, steady, gentle and tenacious efforts Yes.”[42].. Shrine (in Shiga prefectureJodo ShinshuIt has been pointed out that it is conservative and closed because it is a traditional land-based society centered on many people.[43].Takao SobueSays that the image of Shiga prefecture's citizenship is largely due to the stereotype of Omi merchants.[44].

dialect

The dialect spoken in Shiga PrefectureKinki dialect(So-calledKansai dialect),Kyoto languageHas many features in common with Omi-kuni in the early modern period restricted domestic exchanges due to the geographical factors of Lake Biwa in the center and the political factors of the small clan, while the development of highways allowed each region to interact with neighboring countries (Mino, Wakasa, etc.). Because it has a small area, there are small regional differences despite its small area, and the dialect of the Hubei region is particularly unique. The dialect of Shiga Prefecture is characterized by the heavy use of third-party treatment expressions and the beginning of "so".DirectiveThe cueing sound (eg, it → hore), the final particle "hon" (Koto, Hubei), etc.

Food culture:

Traditional crafts

Traditional performing arts, festivals, and other major events

Sports

There are no outstanding sports in Shiga Prefecture,2008(20)B League(at that timebj league)ofShiga Lake StarsThere was no professional sports team based in Shiga until the establishment of. Since 2017, Shiga United Baseball Club (currentlyShiga GO Blacks) Is an independent leagueBaseball Challenge League(Since 2022Sea of ​​Japan Ocean League) Participated in the war.high school baseballBut I'm the only Kinki member who has never wonJapanese high school baseball #Kinkireference). On the other hand, the level of soccer has improved in recent years,2005(17)Shiga Prefectural Yasu High School National High School Soccer ChampionshipHas won the championship. As a soccer club based in Shiga Prefecture,Japan Football League (JFL)ToJ LeagueAim to enterMIO Biwako Shiga(Headquarters:Kusatsu City) Exists. Besides, in Ritto cityJapan Central Horse Racing OfRitto Training CenterIs located.

Tourism

Biwa lakeToKaizu OsakiThere are many scenic spots, among othersOmi HakkeiWas known as one of Japan's leading scenic spots since the early modern times. further,Hikone clanMaster/Koroku MorikawaThe selection of "genre and literature" (published in 1706 (Hoei 3))[45]In the section of "," the historical sites of Omi are described in detail.

Even in recent yearsLake Biwa Eight ViewsIs set and is known both inside and outside for its beautiful scenery.In addition, the capital was set up early in history, and it was an important base for transportation from the Middle Ages to the early modern period, and because there were relatively few war damages and postwar overdevelopment in the Pacific War, shrines and temples, castles, traditional landscapes, etc. The historical tourism resources of the Pacific Ocean are abundant.In the olden days, the depth of nature, culture, and climateMatsuo BashoBut even in modern timesRyotaro Shiba,Shirasu MasakoFascinated and deeply loved the land of Shiga[46][47].

Famous nationally as a major tourist destinationNagahama-Hikone-Omi Hachiman-ShigarakiIn addition,world HeritageHiei, which is a cultural heritage siteEnryakuji TempleIt has the largest scale and history of lake countries, including numerous temples and historic sitesOgoto OnsenAnd so on. In the natural environment of Lake Biwa and its surroundings, fishing, boating, yachting,MichiganCruise, skiing, mountaineering, camping, bicycle biking around Lake Biwa (commonly known asBiwaichi) And other outdoor activities and leisure activities are popular, and tourism resources are extremely rich in nature, history, culture, etc.Keihanshin-Chukyo area-Hokuriku areaMany tourists are visiting from such places. In 2011, the total number of tourists in Shiga Prefecture reached a record high of 4,735 million in XNUMX.[48].

In recent years, in natural environments other than Lake BiwaSatoyamaOr countryside,CabataetcGreen tourism-Eco tourismIs being reviewed from the perspective of. It is one of the largest opera bases in western Japan as other notable cultural facilities and events.Biwako HallThere is also a large outdoor typeRock festivalof"Inazuma Rock Festival] Of HikoneYuru Chara"Hikonyan"The beginning of the boomYuru Chara Grand Prix], traditionalOtsu Festival, One of the three Mt. Ooyama car festivals in JapanNagahama Hikiyama Festival,La Folle Journey Biwako,Bird human contest,Lake Biwa Fireworks FestivalMany people from outside the prefecture also visit these events.

One of the finest Japanese beef brands in gourmetOmi beefOmi riceSalmon sushi・Ayu rolls and HieiYuba-Duck food・Uvagamochi・Red konjac・Grilled mackerel somenIn addition to traditional food such asClub HarrierBaumkuchen is popular. More recently, Lake Country Black and OmiChampon, And other up-and-coming individual ramen shops are competing with each other, and it is showing excitement both inside and outside Shiga as local ramen.[49].

The above-mentioned "Biwaichi" (nicknamed around Lake Biwa) is highly recognized by bicycle enthusiasts, and in recent years, sightseeing to explore and experience the abundant natural, historical, and cultural resources scattered around Lake Biwa and its surroundings. The planned brand "Biwaichi no Tabi" is being transmitted inside and outside the prefecture.[50]National cycle routeCertified by[51].

Cultural property

As of September 2012, 9 world heritage (cultural heritage), 1 national treasures, and 55 important cultural properties have been designated in Shiga Prefecture.

The number of national treasures designated is 5th after Kyoto, Tokyo, Nara and Osaka, and the number of designated important cultural properties is 4th after Tokyo, Kyoto and Nara, especially 22 national treasure buildings. Nara prefecture (64 cases) and Kyoto prefecture (48 cases) are ranked 3rd, behind Hyogo prefecture (4 cases) and 11th place.[52].

In recent years, a lot of historical cultural assets, historic sites, and excellent scenery have been used to actively attract foreigners as filming locations for movies and dramas.

Foreign relations

The friendship cities are as follows.

Works set in Shiga Prefecture

Comic

classic

literature

essay

TV drama

Television Animation

movies

Music

People from Shiga Prefecture

Opened Otsunomiya as a person who is not related to Shibuya and is related to Shiga PrefectureEmperor TenchiLost in Awazu (now Otsu City)Minamoto Yoshinaka, Of Otsu City where Yoshinaka sleepsGinji TempleAs the graveMatsuo Basho, In OtsuEnjoji TempleI was warned and made Homeiin a graveErnest FenollosaWith Omi Hachiman as an activity base, many famous buildings were left in the prefecture.William Merrell VoriesAnd so on.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Sweetfish on Lake BiwaRemains large in Lake Biwa and does not grow significantly. In the same way, it means that Omi merchants can succeed if they leave Omi.
  2. ^ However, it is unknown whether Biwako Broadcasting has posted the weather forecast section online.
  3. ^ Other than the change of Asai-gun and Ika-gun,1950(Showa 25) As of April 4, the following areas differed from counties and areas since the Taiho Ritsuryo.
    Kanzaki-gunHaedami VillageTransition (now Hikone City) to Aichi-gun (1896)
    Transition of Sakata-gun Sumo Garden (now Nagahama City) to Higashi-Asai-gun (1889(Meiji 22)
    Otsu City (1898(Meiji 31) Transition to the city system, leaving Shiga-gun.1950As of (Showa 25), it does not include the north of Sakamoto and the east of Setagawa) ・Hikone City (1937(Showa 12) Transferred to the city system and left Inukami-gun.1950As of (Showa 25) Toriimoto/Takamiya and Kojinyama/Kawase south)/Nagahama City(1943(Showa 18) Transition to the city system, leaving Sakata-gun.1950Withdrawal from the county due to the transition of the municipal system (as of 25)
    Kurita-gunMonobe Village(Current:Moriyama) To Yasu-gun (1921(Taisho 10)) etc.
  4. ^ Previous name was Otsu/Shiga area
  5. ^ The former name was Hunan area.
  6. ^ The former name was Chubu area.
  7. ^ It may be considered as the northeastern region along with the Hubei region.
  8. ^ The former name was Kosai area.
  9. ^ The municipality facing Lake Biwa includes the area of ​​Lake Biwa.
  10. ^ Educational TV is under the jurisdiction of the Osaka Broadcasting Bureau. There is an educational television relay station in the prefecture.
  11. ^ The second broadcast is under the jurisdiction of the Osaka Broadcasting Bureau. Direct reception from the transmitting station in Habikino City, Osaka Prefecture.
  12. ^ Initially, re-transmission on cable TV stations was not allowed, even though it could be received by terrestrial broadcasting due to the problem of the broadcasting license range.

Source

  1. ^ "“What controls Omi controls the world” Nobunaga and “Yoshikuni” “Kuni no Kuni”… excavating buried mountain castles to “local revitalization””. Sankei WEST (October 2015, 3). 2017/1/15Browse.
  2. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications2010(22)Censusaccording to,2005From (17)2010The population change rate for 22 is 47th among 5 prefectures (excluding the Tokyo metropolitan areaOkinawaSecond after)
  3. ^ From the new review "Regional Revitalization Shiga's Challenge" (edited by Minoru Morikawa).
  4. ^ Company "Advancement to advanced environmental prefectures is an advantage"(Yomiuri Shimbun)[Broken link]
  5. ^ Japan WPA "Shiga Prefecture is an environmentally advanced prefecture!"
  6. ^ Tanaka, Masataka (February 2014, 2). “Shiga Prefecture in terms of numbers: World record for snowfall 19 meters / Shiga”. Mainichi Newspaper Local Edition / Shiga (Shiga: Mainichi Newspaper): pp. 27 
  7. ^ National Diet Library Reference Joint Database
  8. ^ "Biwako Research Institute Report (1986)" Read the basin (Anekawa) 2 - Lake Biwa Environmental Science Research Center, Shiga Prefecture
  9. ^ a b Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Meteorological Agency, meteorological statistics
  10. ^ The observation point name is “Hikone Local Meteorological Observatory”Point name used in disaster prevention informationBased on.
  11. ^ Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Meteorological Agency / Meteorological Statistics / Past Meteorological Data Search
  12. ^ Kadokawa Japan Place Name Dictionary 25 Shiga, 1979, Kadokawa Shoten, 24 pages.
  13. ^ List of municipalities in the prefecture / Shiga
  14. ^ Sanraizu Shuppan (2021/3/5) P5
  15. ^ Beginning of Shiga Prefecture - Shiga Prefecture
  16. ^ Abolition of Tsuruga prefecture, transfer of Tsuruga county in Echizen and Wakasa to Shiga prefecture -Shiga historical document [Bright 81(3)]
  17. ^ Shiga Prefectural Government Archives Room -Shiga Prefecture (Map of Shiga Prefecture facing the Sea of ​​Japan)
  18. ^ Wakasa/Echizen four counties departure proposal -Shiga Prefecture Historical Document [Myo 76 Cooperative 5(31)]
  19. ^ [Column 1] Shiga Prefectural Government Office Relocation Disturbance-Shiga Prefecture
  20. ^ a b c Shinya Okuhira. "Slight increase in population in Shiga prefecture, increase in Kusatsu and Moriyama census". Asahi Shimbun. https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASPD36W7KPD1PTJB00F.html 2022/4/29Browse. 
  21. ^ Japan's estimated future population by region (30 estimate)
  22. ^ Financial status of Shiga prefecture compared to other countries[Broken link]Than.
  23. ^ a b Agriculture in Shiga, JA Shiga Chuokai, read January 2014, 1
  24. ^ Omi Tea, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Fisheries, Shiga Prefecture, read January 2014, 1.
  25. ^ Cabinet Office2006According to the prefectural economic calculation (18), the ratio of secondary industry to total production was 2%, which was the highest.
  26. ^ 22 Shiga Prefecture Industrial Statistics Survey by.
  27. ^ Amount of pharmaceutical production by prefecture of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Than.
  28. ^ Local industry in Shiga
  29. ^ Designated by Shiga Special Zone for Healthy Creation
  30. ^ Prefecture Rating Research Institute Than
  31. ^ Cabinet Office 25 prefectural economic calculation per capita income per capita Than
  32. ^ Nissay Research Laboratories Growth Prediction by Prefecture by 2020
  33. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 27 Labor Economy Analysis-Labor Productivity and Response to Employment/Labor Issues-(Chapter 4, Section 3)
  34. ^ Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Labor Force Survey (basic aggregation) Results by prefecture
  35. ^ Shiga Furusato Tourism Ambassador Takanori Nishikawa announces a large outdoor festival, title, and second performing artist!(Prefectural government e-shin)
  36. ^ University of ShigaShiga Prefecture, viewed October 2020, 10.
  37. ^ Number of four-year university students by prefecturePrefectural citizenship as seen by prefecture statistics and rankings, viewed October 2020, 10.
  38. ^ Almost daily itoi newspaper"Ask Miura Jun!-This Island Country-, Retrieved June 2008, 6, June 15, 2010.
  39. ^ Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism announced Prime Minister Award Than.
  40. ^ As of September 2014, viewed on September 9, 2015
  41. ^ Kyoto Shimbunby Data on the number of morning editions of each newspaper by city and district in Kyoto and Shiga prefecturesShare data of newspapers in Kyoto and Shiga prefectures From this, you can see the number and share of the Chunichi Shimbun (former data “other” and latter data “F paper”) in Shiga Prefecture and each prefecture in the prefecture.
  42. ^ Kadokawa Japan Place Name Dictionary 25 Shiga, 1979, Kadokawa Shoten, 25 pages.
  43. ^ According to the "National Survey of Prefectural Citizens" conducted by NHK in 1996, "the word "outside" is still alive in this area."
  44. ^ Takao Sobue "Popularity of Japan/Popularity of Japan" Kawade Shobo New book edited/published (Kizugawa Kei "To Inclusive City" pages 61-62)
  45. ^ "Genre literary selection (Koroku Morikawa selection), Japanese and Chinese literary work (editing each affairs), Oi (Yayoi Yokoi)" Shikage Fujii, Takeshi Sansho various editions, Aritomodo bookstore (Aritomodo Bunko) 1918 (Taisho 7) 38)
  46. ^ From Shinchosha "Omiji Walk"
  47. ^ Ryotaro Shiba "From the Highway" "I like this country so much that I have already started poetry just by humming this fluffy country called Omi."
  48. ^ Kyoto Shimbun article “Shiga Prefecture, 23, the most tourists last year”
  49. ^ Kyoto newspaper article "Lake Country Ramen To Sengoku Period"
  50. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun article "Travel planning, brand recognition by prefecture"
  51. ^ We have designated the XNUMXst National Cycle Route!
  52. ^ Agency for Cultural Affairs "Number of cultural property designations'

Related item

外部 リンク

Predecessor
Otsu prefecture-Inugami
Changes in administrative districts
1872 -
(* To be exact, renamed Otsu Prefecture)
Next generation
-----

Osaka

Osaka(Osaka Prefecture,British: Osaka Prefecture) IsJapan OfKinkiに 位置 す るPrefecture.Prefectural office TheOsaka.

Overview

Of Japanese historyDawn, Japan's oldestcityWas born asNamba/Naniwa/Naniwa(Naniwa) has always been at the forefront of history along with its long history as the city of Osaka today.Emperor JimmuBefore the coronation, in NambazakiIkutama ShrineFounded.Yayoi PeriodLate ~Kofun period,Emperor OshinNanba Osumi Shrine, the shrine ofThe country of Wa called OokimiChiefIsEmperor Nintoku OfNamba Takatsunomiya(Naniwa no Takatsunomiya),Emperor KinmeiThe capital of Japan, such as Naniwa Danshi Tsunomiya, has long been a shrine of Ikukunitama Shrine on the Kamimachi plateau.Osaka CastleWas run around[1].Emperor Kotoku OfNamba PalaceThan,JapanWith the national nameEraBegins to be used.In addition, there are many rivers and moats in Osaka,Water transportationBecause it was also a well-developed port cityWater cityCalled.

The location of the government office isOsaka..Osaka prefecture has 33 cities (of whichGovernment-designated city2 cities (31 wards),Core city7 cities,Special city2 cities) 9 towns and 1 village, consisting of 43 cities, towns and villages.In the prefecturepopulationIs 883 people,The population densityIs 4638.63 people / ㎢ (Reiwa 2nd year census).The area is 1905.32㎢, the name of the prefectureGross domestic productIs about 41 trillion yen 1884 billion yen[2](Osaka Prefecture Statistics / First year of Reiwa / Second place in Japan), average temperature is 2 ℃, annual precipitation is 17.6mm (Japan Meteorological Agency / first year of Reiwa).

Osaka prefectureKinki area OfEconomy-TransportationIt is the center of the city and has a central function of the city.OsakaThe world's leading metropolitan area centered onOsaka metropolitan area,Hanshin metropolitan area,Keihanshin metropolitan area) Is formed.The entire prefecture belongs to these metropolitan areas and is highly advanced.UrbanizationWas doneRegionThere are many.

Economist Intelligence UnitIn the "Most Liveable Cities" ranking (2019 edition) byVienna,Melbourne,SydneyIt was evaluated as the 4th largest city in the world and the XNUMXst largest city in Asia.[3]..Also in the latest 2022 editionToronto,AmsterdamIt is evaluated as the 10th largest city in the world and the XNUMXst largest city in Asia after[4].

Regulatory country OfSettsuEastern (7county)andKawachi countryIzumi countryIt consists of the whole area ofSetagawa IzumiIt is also called (impossible), but from Kyoto PrefectureKashidaWhole area andKameokaPart ofTransboundary transferSince 1958Tamba countryThe southeastern part (a small part) is also included. In addition,Sakai prefectureFrom 1881 of transfer to 1887 of Nara re-installation,YamatoIt also included the entire area of.

中 世The names "Osaka" and "Osaka" have appeared inMeijiTo "Osaka(OsakaWas revised." "Slope"Uemachi PlateauIt is said to be derived from.In addition, "Naniwa" (Naniwa), which is said to be a corruption of "Namihaya"Naniwa-Namba・ Naniwa / Naniwa) ”has been called until now.Central TokyoIt is often used as another name for a department.

For Osaka before modern timesOsakaSee also.

Geography

Osaka Prefecture is located in the central part of the Kinki region and borders Kyoto Prefecture, Nara Prefecture, Hyogo Prefecture and Wakayama Prefecture. Since ancient timesAboveIt is a key point for water transportation leading to. SouthwestOsaka Bay.

Formerly the smallest prefectures (46th isKagawa), but on October 1988, 10Geographical Survey InstituteReviewed the calculation method,OkayamaTamano-shiKagawa Prefecture where there is an undecided part betweenNaoshima TownBecause the area of ​​Kagawa prefecture (14.2km²) was not included in the total area of ​​the prefecture, the area of ​​Kagawa prefecture decreased and it was reversed to Osaka prefecture, and it was ranked 46th.[5][6].. Then in OsakaKIXLand reclamation was promoted due to the opening of the port and the development of the western part of Osaka City, etc.[7].

Wide bowl(Kobo

According to the Geographical Survey Institute's national prefectural areas by area, Osaka Prefecture has an area of ​​1905.14 square kilometers.[8].

The ends of north, south, east, and west of Osaka Prefecture are as follows:[9][10].. North endTenno PassNear the south endOsaka Prefectural Route 751The west-southwest and eastern end of the Saruzaka Pass isTanabe Nishi InterchangeThe southwest and west ends are just west of Sumiyoshi Shrine in Misaki Town.According to the 22 census, the center of population is near 1-chome, Tsuruhashi, Ikuno-ku, Osaka.[11].

Center of gravity
North Latitude 34 Degrees 37 Minutes 34 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 30 min 30 sec /34.62611 degrees north latitude 135.50833 degrees east longitude / 34.62611; 135.50833 (Center of gravity of Osaka)

Northern end
North Latitude 35 Degrees 03 Minutes 05 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 21 min 06 sec /35.05139 degrees north latitude 135.35167 degrees east longitude / 35.05139; 135.35167 (The northernmost tip of Osaka Prefecture)
Center of gravity
North Latitude 34 Degrees 39 Minutes 47.55 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 31 min 53.29 sec /34.6632083 degrees north latitude 135.5314694 degrees east longitude / 34.6632083; 135.5314694 (Osaka center of population)
West end
North Latitude 34 Degrees 18 Minutes 54 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 05 min 36 sec /34.31500 degrees north latitude 135.09333 degrees east longitude / 34.31500; 135.09333 (The westernmost part of Osaka Prefecture)
Osaka Prefectural Government Office Location
North Latitude 34 Degrees 41 Minutes 11 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 31 min 12 sec /34.68639 degrees north latitude 135.52000 degrees east longitude / 34.68639; 135.52000 (Osaka Prefectural Government)
Eastern end
North Latitude 34 Degrees 48 Minutes 06 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 44 min 48 sec /34.80167 degrees north latitude 135.74667 degrees east longitude / 34.80167; 135.74667 (The easternmost point of Osaka Prefecture)

Southern tip
North Latitude 34 Degrees 16 Minutes 19 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 06 min 41 sec /34.27194 degrees north latitude 135.11139 degrees east longitude / 34.27194; 135.11139 (The southernmost tip of Osaka Prefecture)

terrain

climate

The whole area of ​​Osaka prefectureSeto Inland Sea climate, Which is warm throughout the year, has few rainy days in Japan, andHeat islandThe phenomenon is remarkable, the temperature at night does not drop easily, and in summerTropical nightIs also very many.In winter, there is often little snow in the plains, even if it is a few centimeters.

Region

nature Park

Adjacent municipalities

Municipalities

Currently, there are a total of 33 cities, 9 cities, 1 towns and 43 village in Osaka Prefecture.MunicipalitiesThere is (of these,Government-designated city2 cities,Core city7 cities,Special city at the time of enforcement2 cities).The reading of the town is all "chou".There is only one village, Chihayaakasaka Village, and the village is read as "mura".Osaka Prefecture has 1 cities with a population of 10 or more, which is the largest number in Japan.The eight divisions of Osaka Prefecture are Osaka City, Mishima Area, Toyono Area, Senboku Area, Sennan Area, Minamikawachi Area, Nakakawachi Area, and Kitakawachi Area. On April 22, 8, Sakai City moved to an ordinance-designated city.FukuokaAfter Kanagawa Prefecture, it became a prefecture with multiple ordinance-designated cities. In addition, on April 4 of the following year, following Osaka Prefecture,ShizuokaIs also a prefecture with multiple ordinance-designated cities.

List of municipalities

Core cities in order of transition, other市町村Are arranged in the order of enforcement.Area classification is defined by Osaka Prefecture[12]by.

OsakaMishimaToyonoSenbokuSennanMinamikawachiNakakochiKitakawachi
Government-designated city
      
Core city
    
Special city at the time of enforcement
      
Other municipalities
 

Administrative region of ordinance-designated city

Osaka City is now 4 wards as of November 5 after undergoing 2017 reorganizations from the original 11 wards. It is the largest number of administrative districts in ordinance-designated cities. In addition, at the maximum, it was 24 wards, which is two more wards.

CityYearAdministrative district
L
Saka
City
April 1889
April 1925
April 1932
April 1943
April 1974
April 1989
  • Chuo(Prefecture building location)
  • Kita(City Hall location)
Sakai
City
April 2006

History

Ancient to modern

Mr. Otomo,Mr. Monobeetc. are based here,Seto Inland Seaas the terminus of the route throughSumiyoshi Taisha(Sumiyoshi Ward, Osaka City) NearbySumiyoshitsu,Nambatsuwas working.Since ancient times, Osaka has been a port city and the center of domestic distribution.Sumiyoshizu isYamato kingshipSumiyoshi Taisha, which was in charge of managing Sumiyoshitsu, had a deep connection withShrinewas.Emperor Jimmuis before the enthronementUemachi Plateauat Naniwasaki, the tip ofIkutama ShrineFounded.Yayoi PeriodLate ~Kofun period,Emperor OshinIs Namba Osumimiya (Naniwa Danshi)Gyomiyaage,"Record of Ancient Matters"Or"Japanese calligraphy"According to the Wakoku, who was called the Great King (Ookimi),ChiefIsEmperor Nintokudecided Naniwa as the capital and made Naniwa no Takatsunomiya the Imperial Palace.Other places in NambaEmperor KinmeiNaniwa no Hafuritsunomiya, the first capital of Japan and the beginning of the name of the country and the era of Japan.Emperor Kotoku,Emperor Shomu OfNamba Palace(Naniwa no Miya) was also run (#Overviewreference). Also,Anti-Emperor OfTanbi Shiba Umiya,Emperor KeitaiThe camphor tree (Emperor Keitai #Imperial Palace),Emperor SatatsuBaekje Oimiya (Emperor Satada # Imperial PalaceThe current land of Osaka Prefecture, etc.Palace,Miyakonojo,PalaceAnd the capital were placed.Daisenryo Ancient Tomb (Emperor Nintoku/Sakai City)Mozu Bird Burial Mounds,Old city tombsLarge and smallTomb of the Emperor/Old tombwas built mainly in the Kawachi area.again,Emperor SuikoNew Year (593) is said to be the oldest in Japan on the Uemachi Plateau, where Ikukunitama Shrine and Sumiyoshi Taisha Shrine already existed.TempleIsShitennoji(Tennoji Ward, Osaka City)Prince Shotokuwas erected by

Heian periodIs located at the mouth of the Yodo River,京都And tied by water transport (Watanabe Tsu), The relationship through this water transport thenMeiji EraWill continue until the railway is laid. In the early Heian periodConqueror General OfSakaue Tamura MaroThe third son ofHirono Sakagami SettsuSumiyoshi-gunHiranoshoBecame the lord of (Hirano Ward, Osaka City) and said to be the descendantMr. SakagamiThe clan was responsible for the autonomy of the plains of the Middle Ages.

In the middle of Heian period,GenmanchuEldest son ofYorimitsuIs Tada of Settsu (currently:HyogoKawanishi CityNear), the third sonTrustTsuboi of Kawachi Province (currentlyHabikino) Respectively. Of this,Gen Seiwathe first classGen KawachiBecame known and was known as Yorinobu's grandson, Taro HachimanOriginatorBecame the master of the samurai following the Bando warriors, and Minamikawachi in Osaka PrefecturesamuraiBecome the center of The XNUMXth generation descendants of this source familyKamakura ShogunateopenYoritomo GengenIs. Also, start with Minamoto no YorimitsuGenji SettsuAt the Noro Party,Gen Saga OfSourceDraw the flow ofWatanabe TsunaAncestorMr. WatanabeNear the current NakanoshimaWatanabe Tsuwas based in. [In the late Heian period, it was called Motokasuga in the middle of Kawachi Province.Hiraoka ShrineBecame a samurai group fromMr. MizusashiA clan emerged and became a major force by controlling the water transportation of the Yamato River and its tributaries.

Kamakura PeriodFrom the endNorthern and Northern Dynastiesto Kawachi ProvinceVillainOf a local Australian calledMasanari SuzukiCame out and played an active part. Mr. Kusunoki, including Masanari,Southern DynastyHe often visited Kawachi Province as an influential military commander of theTakashi AshikagaEt al.North morningBut MasanariBattle of MinatogawaAnd that childStraight lineAlsoBattle of ShijonawateHe died in battle and eventually weakened his power.

Muromachi PeriodWhen you enter Kawachi ProvinceMr. HatakeyamaHowever, in Settsu and IzumiMr. HosokawaRespectivelyGuardianWas entrusted to. However, both houses are three of the ShogunateJurisdictionIt is a family name that is named after the house, and the actual political affairs areGuardian feeWas often held byHigo countryKumamoto DomainThe Hosokawa clan, who were the main members of the family, belonged to a branch family that served as the governor of Izumi Province).

Onin's rebellionrear,Sengoku periodWhen entering, both Mr. Hatakeyama and Mr. HosokawaFamilyIt was extremely confusing from the battle over.At this time, Sakai (Sakai City) IsCongregationWealthy calledTownspeopleAroundAutonomous cityAnd replaces the previous Hyogo MinatoNichimei TradingProsperous as a relay port oftea ceremonyculture such asSettsu ProvincePlainsAlsoConqueror General OfSakaue Tamura MaroOf the childHirono SakagamiIs said to be a descendant ofSueyoshiIt prospered as an autonomous city by the townspeople centering on the seven famous families of Hirano, and in Ishiyama of Settsu ProvinceHokkeI left Kyoto because of the conflict with my followers.Jodo Shinshu OfLotus Ishiyama HonganjiErected. On the other hand, it is the vassals of Mr. Hosokawa who newly gained power in this area.AwakuniMr. Miyoshi, who was originally from Japan, was once proud of his power as a backing for the general,Nagayoshi MiyoshiAfter his death, he was weakened by the struggles of his family and then emerged.Oda NobunagaSuccumbed to. Was the head of the Jodo Shinshu sect for Nobunaga, who is expanding power in this regionObviousCalled on uprising to followers all over the country, and also held himself at Ishiyama Honganji Temple to confront Oda. thisIshiyama battleLasts for 10 years, but in the endTensho8 years(1580The end was reached by surrendering the Honganji Temple.

After Nobunaga's death, he inherited that territoryHideyoshi ToyotomiStarted the construction of Osaka Castle, which is their residence, on the site of Ishiyama Honganji Temple. This castle uses the terrain that originates from the mouth of the Yodo and Yamato rivers, and even the castle town is surrounded by a moat to be part of the castle.Delicate structureIt was a huge one. Its unrivaled firmnessOsaka winter teamAt this time, Yosete was unable to enter the inside of the Sokan.However, the moat was filled in until the summer camp, and the castle lost its function.ToyotomiWas destroyed.

Edo PeriodUpon entering Osaka, Osaka prospered again as a major economic and commercial center of the country.World kitchenWas called. Osaka, where routes from all over the country are gathered, is lined with warehouses of various domains, and since it was also a gathering place for products from various countries, we handle them.YodoyaA big merchant also appeared. Above all, it was a concentrated area of ​​annual tribute riceDojimaThen the world's first public establishmentFutures tradingSword "Dojima Rice ChamberIs opened,NakanoshimaWith it became the center of the Osaka economy. In an environment that matures as an economic city, various arts have also grown and developed. The center of the upper culture gradually moved from Kyoto to Osaka,Ibara NishitsuruAnd playwrightChikamatsu MonzaemonSuch a writer,Akinari Ueda-Tominaga NakamotoHas produced a number of excellent scholars who have a name in the history of posterity. It also originated from the Uemura Bunrakuken play that emerged in the same period.Bunraku(OsakaNingyo JoruriPlay)2009(Heisei21 years)UNESCO OfIntangible cultural heritageRegistered in.Tempo8 years(1837)Positive studyWas holding a private school, Senshin-dongHeihachiro OshioTo help the poorHeihachiro Oshio's RebellionCausedBakumatsu,Ogata KoanWas openVocational schoolFromFukuzawa Yukichi,Masashiro Omura,Keisuke OtoriIt created a talent that represents the later Meiji era.The feudal clan placed in the Edo period has Osaka Castle (Settsu Province) under the direct control of the Shogunate.Takatsuki Domain,Asada Domain, In KawachiTannan Domain,Sayama DomainHowever, in Izumi countryHakuta Domain,Kishiwada Domainwas there.

Transition of local system in the first year of the Meiji era

Keio4 years/MeijiFirst year1/22(1868On February 2th, the Meiji governmentOsakazindaiDecided to install.1/27, Osaka Garrison Osaka Court[Annotation 1]Renamed to. In April, the Agricultural Administration Bureau was established in the Osaka Court, which has jurisdiction over the surrounding areas except for the town. Established in Osaka Prefecture on May 4. Established in Nara Prefecture on May 5. On June 2, the Osaka Prefectural Agriculture Bureau split into north and south. Established in Sakai Prefecture on June 5nd.19nd year of Meiji1/20(1869February 2), Hokuji Agricultural BureauSettsu prefecture, Nanji Agriculture BureauKawachi PrefectureRenamed to. May 5th, Toyosaki PrefectureToyosaki PrefectureRenamed to. On August 8, Toyosaki prefecture was merged into Hyogo prefecture and Kawachi prefecture into Sakai prefecture. September 2, former Sumiyoshi-gun, Toyosaki PrefectureTosei District-Nishinari-gunIncorporated. On December 12, the Sayama clan was merged into Sakai prefecture.26rd year of Meiji2/27(18703/28), Sakai PrefectureIshikawa-Nishikibe-gunPart ofGojo prefectureTransferred to. 4th year of Meiji7/14(18718/29),Abandoned Domain.11/20(February 12th),Takatsuki Prefecture,AsadaMerged with Osaka Prefecture. Former Toyosaki PrefectureShimakami-gun-Shimashita-Toshima-Nose-gunIncorporated.November 4, 11 (Meiji 22)1872October 1th),Kishiwada-Haku prefecture-Yoshimi Prefecture-TannanAnd a part of Gojo prefecture was transferred to Sakai prefecture.1876(Meiji 9) On April 4, Nara prefecture was merged into Sakai prefecture.1881(Meiji 14) On February 2, Sakai prefecture was merged into Osaka prefecture.1887(Meiji 20) Relocated Nara Prefecture on November 11th. (The dates up to 4 are the lunar calendar, and the current Nara prefecture area is outlined)

The area of ​​jurisdiction at the time of the establishment of Osaka Prefecture was 61 villages in Tosei-gun, Settsu-gun (Osaka Town Magistrate34 villages,Osaka castle22 villages,Kyoto office2 villages,Odawara Domain5 villages), 132 villages in Nishinari-gun (117 villages in Osaka Prefecture,Flag territory6 villages,Tayasu Tokugawa family9 villages,Kannomiya2 villages in the family territory, 37 villages in Sumiyoshi-gun (17 villages in Osaka, 14 villages in Sumiyoshi Taisha, 8 villages in the Odawara domain), Kawachi countryKatano-gun1 villages (Kano DomainDepository)Met.

Since modern times

Meiji RestorationAfter that, the capital function is from KyotoTokyoOsaka temporarily declined due to the fact that it moved to Osaka and that the warehouse was no longer needed.Osaka was hit hard by the Meiji government's disposal of clan bonds, but commerce and industry developed mainly in the textile-related and other light industry sectors, and "OrientalManchester"The best commercial and industrial area in the Orient"[13]Is called, and the company that survives as a large company has risenMecenatWas actively done. In this eraHanshin ModernismIs called.1925(TaishoIn 14), the city of Osaka merged with the surrounding area to expand the city area, and at that timeGreat Kanto EarthquakeWas hit byTokyo cityIt has become the city with the largest population in Japan (Great Osaka era).

Immediately after the beginning of World War II1942As early as February 2stmisoSoy sauce Distribution systemIt became.Initially, in Osaka Prefecture, Osaka City,Fuse City,Toyonaka City,Kishiwada,Sakai City,Suita City,Ikeda,Moriguchicho7 cities and 1 town were targeted, and miso was allocated 1 momme a day and soy sauce was allocated 1 go a month.[14]..At the same time, the target items and target areas expanded, such as the point ticket system for clothing.Citizens were forced to live in poverty.At the end of the war, the city was returned to ash due to a thorough bombing of the Amagasaki machine shop, the Chuo Ward Mining Bureau, the central commercial district, and the port facilities.Also, during this period, a factory was relocated to the prefecture to avoid air raids, which became the basis of industry in the postwar satellite city.

January 1945, 20 (Showa 9),Makurazaki TyphoonBy approachclimaxDamage.The areas of Tsukiko, Minato, Taisho, Nishiyodo, Konohana, Nishi, Joto, and Fukushima have become lakes.About 40000 flooded houses.Damage such as 118000 victims[15].

After the war,High economic growthEntering the period,Hanshin Industrial AreaThe economy of Osaka prefecture, where the ratio of light industry was high, began to look like a blockage. Heavy industry, which was a flower industry at the time, was demilitarized after the war.Osaka Artillery ArsenalIt was hit hard by the disappearance of the ship (although there are many small and medium-sized enterprises as a complementary function, and there are still companies with roots in it), and it is attracted and enlarged on shallow coastlines such as Osaka Prefecture. It is said that it was difficult (as evidenced by the fact that there are many heavy industries in places where large ships can easily enter, such as between Hanshinkan) and that they were relocated to other lands as a measure against pollution.

In addition, the post-war legislation led to the decline of Osaka's unique servant system, and the focus of commerce moved to Tokyo.As a result, donations from wealthy people who supported Osaka culture with soil texture (meaning doshobone) that does not rely on the government decreased.Due to poor government leadership, economic and cultural power has declined.In addition to these1964(Showa39 years)Factories Restriction Law, Industrial Relocation Promotion Act in 1972, 1973Factory location methodSuch asFactory three methodsWas enacted one after another. In 1966Central Region Development and Maintenance ActWas established and the manufacturing industryKinki areaからChukyo areaIt became a trigger to leak to and was a blow to Osaka.

1970From March 3th to September 15th at the Senri Hills in Suita CityJapan World ExpositionWas held.AsiaThe 1970 Osaka Expo, which was held for the first time, attracted about 6,421 million visitors and was the largest expo at that time.The site of the venue is nowExpo Memorial ParkHas been maintained as.

In 1987, the northeastern marginKansai Science CitySpecified as. 1990,Tsurumi green spaceInternational Flower and Green ExpoWas held.

1994 years,QuanzhouOffshoreKIXOpening of port.It will be the world's first fully artificial island maritime airport.After that, with the completion of the second island (second runway) in 2007, it became Japan's first complete 2-hour airport.

1995(Heisei7 years)Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeThen, the seismic intensity is about 4 in Osaka city[Annotation 2]Although there was little direct damage in the area, strong earthquakes hit areas such as Toyonaka City, killing 9 people and causing major damage to homes. Other,life lineIt was affected not a little by the disruption of transportation and paralysis of transportation.

The 1995th meeting held for the first time in Japan on November 11, 19APECSummit meeting held in Osaka City.

From around 1992 to 2008Summer olympicAlthough the idea of ​​attracting people was raised, in July 2001IOC General AssemblyLost in (Details).

In 2002FIFA World CupPart ofNagai StadiumIt was held in.The games will be played against England, against Japan, which decided the final tournament, and in the quarterfinals.

In 2007, at Nagai Stadium in Osaka City2007 World Athletics ChampionshipsWas held.AthleticsIt is the highest international competition for the country, and the number of participating countries has reached 200.

20186/18ToNorthern Osaka EarthquakeOccurs.OsakaKitaChayamachi,Takatsuki,Ibaraki City,Hirakata,Minoh CityWe observed a seismic intensity of 6 lower.It was the first time that an earthquake observing a seismic intensity of 6 lower occurred in Osaka prefecture since we started collecting statistics.

February 2018, 11 (Japan time),France・ Held in ParisBRBy the general meeting2025 International ExpoIt was decided to invite Osaka.

The 2019th G6 Summit, which will be held for the first time in Japan on June 28th and 29th, 14 (G20 Osaka Summit) Is Osaka CitySuminoe WardIt was held in.JapanesePrime Minister AbeAs chairmanPresident Trump(Rice),Putin(Dew),Xi Jinping Jintao(During),Prime Minister May(UK),President Macron(Buddha),Merkel(Germany) and others came to Osaka and became the largest ever at an international conference held in Japan.

population

Osaka PrefecturepopulationHas a nighttime population of about 884 million (3rd in Japan),Daytime populationIs about 924 million (second in the country).At noonCommuting-Commuting to schoolDue to such factors, there is an influx of nearly 70 people from neighboring prefectures (a net inflow of more than 40 people).Vital statistics are from other prefecturesForeign countriesDue to the influx of population fromTransferThe number of deaths is high while it is in excessBornSince the number is much higher than the number, in recent yearsEstimated populationIs on a slight downward trend. The number of over-migrants in Japan in 2020 was +13,356 (5th in Japan), and the number of births in 2020 wasBulletinThe number was 63,277 (second in the country) on a value basis.

2015CensusLooking at the population increase and decrease from the previous survey, there is uneven distribution in Osaka city depending on the ward.9 central wards of OsakaWhile the population is increasing, the northern and southernmost wards are declining.Looking at the entire prefecture,OsakaHokusetsuWhile the population is increasing in the areaHanoiWith the areaQuanzhouIn the area, the population is declining.

The highest rate of increase in 72 cities, wards, towns and villages that divided Osaka and Sakai into wards is

  • 1st = Chuo-ku, Osaka, 2nd = Naniwa-ku, Osaka, 3rd = Kita-ku, 4th = Nishi-ku, Osaka, 5th = Tennoji-ku, Osaka, 6th = Fukushima-ku, Osaka

On the other hand,

  • 1st place = Nose Town, 2nd place = Chihayaakasaka Village, 3rd place = Toyono Town, 4th place = Misaki Town, 5th place = Nishinari Ward, Osaka City, 6th place = Taisho Ward, Osaka City.[16].

According to the preliminary figures for the 2021nd year of the Reiwa census released in June 6, the population of Osaka Prefecture was 2, an increase of 8,842,523 from the previous survey.Osaka Prefecture was the only municipality that turned from a decrease to an increase compared to the previous time.Looking at the population increase and decrease from the previous survey, the uneven distribution of the area became larger, and the uneven distribution of the population in the central part of the city, the coastal area and the southern part became even larger in Osaka city.As in the previous time, the Hokusetsu area increased, with Suita City surpassing 3,054 and Toyonaka City surpassing 38 again.Takatsuki City and Settsu City, which had been on the decline until now, are also increasing, and the Hokusetsu area continues to win by one person.In the Kawachi area, Higashi-Osaka City had less than 40 people and Hirakata City had less than 50 people, and only Moriguchi City and Osakasayama City increased.In the Senboku and Sennan areas, the number is decreasing in all local governments except Tajiri Town.

Demography27000.svg
Population distribution by age in Osaka and Japan (2005)Osaka Prefecture Population Distribution by Age and Gender (2005)
Purple-Osaka
Green-All over Japan
Blue-male
Red-female

Changes in the population of Osaka Prefecture
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

Politics

Prefectural government

Osaka Prefectural Government

Since fiscal 2014, Osaka Prefecture has implemented a business to provide health information such as medicines, infectious diseases, specific medical examinations, and incurable disease subsidy programs to 185 pharmacies in the prefecture to support the health promotion of residents. Satisfaction of visitors is also "Generally well received"[17].

Administrative and financial reform

2006SettlementExpected to be 4 million yendebtThe amount is about 17 trillion yen in Tokyo,HokkaidoIt was the second largest scale after about 5 trillion yen.The real debt service ratio in 2,000 was 18%, the 15.6th in Japan.[18]..Therefore, if the progress is maintained as it is, in 2007Fiscal rebuilding organization(In a private company, "bankruptcyThe outlook specified in) was shown.It seemed that the fall of the financial reconstruction group in 2007 was avoided by the progress of the administrative and financial reforms, but the repayment of government bonds (debt) was partially postponed, and a total of about 3 billion yen was raised in three years. It was nothing more than a drastic solution to the problem.In addition, there was still the possibility of a financial reconstruction group falling due to the huge debt of a huge project such as the second phase of construction at Kansai International Airport.Moreover, in January 2,600, the problem of "hidden deficit" was discovered.

Since 2004, Osaka Prefecture has made it appear that the deficit is less than it actually is by postponing the repayment of debt.However, due to the repayment deadline, the number of government bonds increased sharply."I had no intention of hiding it," said a senior official of the prefecture. "I had to take this approach to avoid falling into a reconstruction organization."Regarding the repayment method of local bonds, 10% of the principal will be repaid in the 42th year and the rest will be refinanced according to the notification of the former Ministry of Home Affairs.[Annotation 3]It is supposed to be[19].Extraordinary financial measures bond[Annotation 4]Increased from 1 billion yen to 7167 billion yen.The balance of government bonds decreased from 2 billion yen to 2,853 billion yen[20].. January 2008, 1, at that timeFusae OtaThe governor of Osaka Prefecture officially acknowledged the fact, saying, "Measures to prevent becoming a reconstruction organization. It may be inappropriate, but it was unavoidable."[21].

2008 year 2 month,Tohashi HashishitaBecame the governor of Osaka Prefecture. "Osaka Metropolitan conceptDouble administrationAnnounced that it aims to "develop Osaka" with the spring of efficiency improvement by eliminating the problem.Osaka Prefecture and Osaka City estimate the "annual effect amount created by the city plan" to be up to 916 billion yen.[22]..In his second year in office, he achieved a financial surplus in Osaka Prefecture.[23].. Under the bridgeOsaka mayor electionAccompanied by a race2011 Osaka Governor ElectionThen, Hashishita will be the representativeOsaka Restoration SocietySecretary-General Ichiro Matsui was elected (Hashishita was elected mayor of Osaka).

In 2012, we achieved repayment of more than 5,500 billion yen of prefectural debt (prefectural bonds), and the prefectural savings increased from 10 billion yen to 800 billion yen.[24].

Successive elected governors

TenureNameNumber of wins
1947/4/12 - 1959/4/22Bunzo Akama(Akaman Bunzou3 times
1959/4/25 - 1971/4/22Yoshitoshi Sato(Ginsen Sato3 times
1971/4/23 - 1979/4/22Ryoichi Kuroda(Kuroda Ryoichi2 times
1979/4/23 - 1991/4/22Kishi Masaru(Kishikae3 times
1991/4/23 - 1995/4/22Kazuo Nakagawa(Nakazu Kazuo1 times
1995/4/23 - 1999/12/27Yamada Isamu(Isamu Yamada(Knock Yokoyama)2 times
2000/2/6 - 2008/2/5Fusae Saito(Saito(Fusae Ota)2 times
2008/2/6 - 2011/10/31Tohashi Hashishita(Toru Hashimoto1 times
2011/11/28[25] - 2019/3/24Ichiro Matsui(Ichirou2 times
2019/4/8 -Yoshimura Hirofumi(Yoshimura Hirofumi1 times

Osaka Prefectural Assembly

finance

30
19
  • Fiscal strength index 0.79
    • I Group (Financial Power Index 0.5 or higher) 17nd out of 2 municipalities
18
  • Fiscal strength index 0.75
    • I Group (Financial Power Index 0.5 or higher) 16nd out of 3 municipalities
  • Standard financial scale ¥1 billion
  • General account revenue 3 billion yen
  • General account expenditure 3 billion yen
  • Real balance of general account △135 million yen (deficit) It is rare that the real balance of the prefecture is in the red.
  • Current account ratio 96.6% (prefectural average 92.6)
  • Real debt service ratio: 16.7% (prefecture average: 14.7%) *Note: The figures are not accurate because the figures were used during the period of governor Ota.
  • Municipal bond per capita current outstanding amount 49 yen (prefectural average 6296 yen)
  • Personnel expenses per person, property expenses, etc. settlement amount 10 yen (prefectural average 6621 yen)
  • Number of employees per population 100,000: 977.61 (prefecture average: 1,173.11)
  • Laspeyres index 97.0 (Prefecture average 99.6)

Balance of local bonds, etc.

  • Local account balance of local account 4 million yen
  • Local government bond (corporate bond) balance of special account such as public enterprises 5312 million yen
  • Debt balance of the third sector (including foundations) 3 million yen
    • Major breakdown: Osaka Prefecture Housing Supply Corporation 1390 million yen Osaka Prefecture Highway Corporation 6000 million yen Osaka Prefecture Land Development Corporation 1218 million yen

Total of local bonds, etc. 5 million yen (consolidated accounting)

  • Balance of local bonds, etc. per Osaka citizen 58 yen (consolidated accounting)
    • In terms of the amount of local bond outstanding per citizen of the prefecture, for example, there are prefectures with more severe financial conditions than Osaka prefecture, such as Shimane prefecture 140 yen and Tottori prefecture 3407 100 yen.
17
  • Fiscal strength index 0.71
    • I Group (Financial Power Index 0.5 or higher) 10nd out of 3 municipalities
16
  • Fiscal strength index 0.69
    • I Group (Financial Power Index 0.5 or higher) 8nd out of 3 municipalities

National politics

House of Representatives OfSmall districtIs 19.House of CouncilorsThen, 1 ward is constructed in all prefectures.

Economic and industrial

Chuo Ward and Kita Ward, Osaka City, etc.6 central wards of OsakaThe city center district (Downtown) AsOsaka metropolitan area/Hanshin metropolitan area/Keihanshin metropolitan areaFormed.These are some of the biggest in the worldEconomic zoneAnd Osaka prefectureDefinitionAbove, the whole area belongs to these metropolitan areas.Osaka Prefecture's gross domestic product exceeded 41 trillion yen (first year of Reiwa / second place in Japan),Denmark and Malaysia OfGDPHas an economic scale that exceeds[26]..In the Keihanshin metropolitan areaGross productExceeds 80 trillion yen (7th in the world),Regional powerと 呼 ば れ るSaudi Arabia,Turkey OfGDPComparable to.

Takatsuki,HirakataAlthough the cities in northeastern Osaka are in the Osaka metropolitan areaKyoto CityMany commute to work or school.SimilarlyKyoto,ShigaEach city ofDefinitionAboveKyoto metropolitan areaAlthough it is included in, many people commute to work or school in Osaka.HyogoEven on the sideKobe metropolitan areaA similar case has occurred with Keihanshin, which is rare in the world.Metroplex(Complex metropolitan area) ”(independent metropolitan areas are connected / one metropolitan area → all are applicable).As a similar caseAmerica OfDallas/Fort Worth Complex Metropolitan AreaIs mentioned.

Osaka prefectureCommercial(Primary industry) AndIndustrial(Primary industry) Is highly developedPrimary industryThe ratio is low.In recent yearsInternational tourismThe industry is also thriving, and foreigners in 2019touristThe visit rate was the highest in Japan.In addition, the city of the future prefecturepolicyAs,Life ScienceIndustryInternational financeThe company plans to focus on industry.

United Kingdom Ofthink tank2021 "World" announced byFinancial centerOsaka is ranked as the 32nd largest financial center in the world in the Index (GFCI)[27].

Economy

Gross domestic product
年度nominalSubstanceCertainty
Heisei 1538 billion yen40 billion yenConfirmation
Heisei 1638 billion yen40 billion yenConfirmation
Heisei 1739 billion yen41 billion yenEarly estimation
Heisei 2135 billion yen38 billion yenConfirmation
Heisei 2638 billion yen37 billion yenConfirmation
Heisei 2838 billion yen37 billion yenConfirmation
Heisei 2940 trillion070000 million yen38 billion yenConfirmation
Source: Osaka Prefectural Accounts[28]

industry

Main industrial parks in Osaka

Main companies with head office and head office in Osaka Prefecture

Following the Tokyo metropolitan area, there are the second largest companies with their head office and head office in Osaka Prefecture.

Electric machinery
Panasonic Holdings(Kadoma City)
Content industry, entertainment, sports
Food/Beverage
Fiber products
Chemistry/Pharmaceuticals
Construction/civil engineering
Housing/real estate industry
Distribution/Service
Cars and related
Land/Sea/Air/Warehouse
Other industries
Foundations, corporations, etc.

Life

Policemen

Fire

Medical and welfare

  • Osaka Restoration SocietyWith the cooperation of Osaka Cancer Circulation Prevention Center, based on the analysis result of the receipt data, reviewed the management of the hospital in order to generate the budget necessary for improving medical services.[29]
  • In 2019, the first system in Japan to cover "treatment costs for childhood cancer patients" at public expense was established.Osaka Heavy Ion Therapy CenterNow, let's concentrate the radiation on the cancer cellsHeavy ion radiotherapyHowever, public medical insurance is not currently applied to "treatment costs for childhood cancer patients".[30]. 

Disaster base hospital

Licensed Nursery School

Mass media

Newspapers and news agencies

Broadcaster

National internet programsOf course, for Kansai 2 and 4 prefecturesLocal showThere are many stations that are actively producing.Mostly in the national networkQuasi-key stationIt is positioned in.

Wide area broadcasting, prefectural broadcasting, foreign language broadcasting

Broadcast target areaIs NHK Osaka (general / FM), TV Osaka and FM Osaka, FM802Osaka Prefectureonly. FM COCOLO is located in Osaka City, Sakai City, Higashi Osaka City, and Kansai International Airport.OthersKinki wide area(2 prefectures and 4 prefectures). Except for NHK and Yomiuri TV, there is only one commercial TV station.TokushimaBut it's available on most cable TV.

Regarding the master station transmission station of terrestrial digital television and FM radio, and the main relay station of FM complementary broadcasting, each station included in the broadcasting target area other than Osaka PrefectureIkomayamaIs placed in. NHK Osaka Broadcasting Station's general TV is also a prefectural broadcast, but it is installed in Mt. Ikoma.The stations in the area targeted for broadcasting only in Osaka Prefecture are TV Osaka at the western foot of Mt. Ikoma, and FM stations in Daito City.Mt. IimoriIt is jointly installed in.

In Osaka prefectureradikoIn addition to the stations located in Osaka Prefecture, you can listen to the radio atRadio kansai-Kiss FM Kobe-KBS KyotoHowever, free listening is possible.

Community broadcasting

Cable TV

Operates in OsakaCable TVHas been consolidated and integrated into the following groups.

In Osaka prefecture, HFC cable TV cannot be watched only in Takaishi City, Toyono-gun (Nose-cho/Toyono-cho), Minamikochi-gun (Henan-cho/Taishi-cho/Chihaya-Akasaka-mura), the mountains of Hirakata and Ibaraki. In these areas, FTTH eo optical television can be viewed as an alternative. Hirakata City was onceKay CatWas discontinued due to the merger with K Opticom and the aging of HFC facilities.

Education

  • In Osaka Prefecture, private high schools are basically free.Osaka Restoration SocietyAchieved a free of charge by "reducing the number of members of the Osaka Prefectural Assembly" and "disposing of problematic staff."[31].
  • As an organization for the purpose of exchange between universities in Osaka prefecture, exchange with the Osaka business community, exchange with high schools in Osaka prefecture, dissemination of internships, etc.University Consortium OsakaThere is. Also, as a similar organization by universities and junior colleges in the South Osaka area,South Osaka Area University ConsortiumThere is.

University

National University Corporation

Public university corporation

Private universities

Foreign university branch school

other than thisFudan universityIs reported to be opening a base[32].

Junior college

Vocational schools

College of technology

high school

Junior high school

primary school

Kindergarten

Special school

学会

Transportation

Train

Tokyo·Kanagawa-Nara-OkinawaLike all railroad lines in the prefectureElectrificationHas been done. However,West Japan Railway Company(JR West Japan) from OsakaBantan LineLimited Express viaHamakazeFrom OsakaTakayama Main LineLimited Express viaFolds"When,京都Departs and stops at Shin-Osaka Station, Osaka Station,Sanyo Main Line-Chizu Express-Cause lineLimited express viaSupermarketIsTokaido Main LineTo pass through the prefecture, but to pass the non-electrified section outside OsakaRailcaris used (there is also a diesel limited express Biwako Express No. 2 that runs only on weekdays and completes electrified sections).In addition, regular diesel trains do not operate.All JR lines are the same as those in Kanagawa, Kagawa, and Shiga prefectures.Main lineso,Local transportation lineDoes not exist. In addition, mainly in the suburbs of Osaka on the JR WestUrban networkIC in the areaBoarding cardof"ICOCAHas been introduced (except for some routes/sections).

The railway network in Osaka prefecture has a large proportion of private railways,Private Railway Kingdom/KansaiIs called. In addition, the electric railway companies in Osaka areDepartment store,HotelWe carry out diversified management such as. Furthermore, in October 2006Business integration between Hankyu and HanshinThen,Hankyu Hanshin Toho GroupWas born. Private railway companies andOsaka City High Speed ​​Electric Orbit In (Osaka Metro) etc., the Kansai common card system "Surutto KANSAI""PiTaPa"(All except some routes/sections) are available. Also,Automatic ticket gateHas a high maintenance rate,Kitasenri StationIs the first station installed in Japan. The only railroad track in JapanTransportation IC card nationwide mutual use servicePrefectures that can use IC cards compatible with.

ShinkansenShin-Osaka Station is the only station in the prefecture. However, in the northeastern areas such as Takatsuki and Hirakata,Tokaido ShinkansenTransfer to Kyoto PrefectureKyoto StationIs the mainstream (mainly)TokyoSuch asCapital Area,NagoyaSuch asChukyo areaWhen heading east).Run in Osaka cityOsaka Metro Midosuji LineAnd JROsaka Loop LineThere are severalTerminal stationIs formed, and not only is it a wide area for access within the prefecture, but it is also a base for access to neighboring prefectures. For example,Railway station in Umeda area(Osaka station, Umeda station, etc.) is the largest terminal station in western Japan,Kobe City・To each downtown area of ​​Kyoto,Sannomiya20 minutes at the shortest (using JR),Shijo KawaramachiYou can go to (use Hankyu) in about 40 minutes.

Terminal station

Contact within Osaka Prefecture

Contact to neighboring prefectures

Contact to major cities in Japan

bus

In addition to this, the local government operates by consigning it to a private company.Community busThere is also.

道路

In winter, roads in the plains of Osaka Prefecture are rarely covered with snow, so automobile tires are available all year round.Radial tireYou can drive in.

toll road

General national road

Main local roads/general prefectural roads

空港

KeihanshinMetropolitan areaIs the main airport ofKansai three airportsOf these, 2 airports exist in Osaka Prefecture. The other one isKobe AirportIn KobePort IslandIt exists offshore.

  • Osaka International Airport(Osaka Airport/Itami Airport)-"Osaka Second Airfield" opened in 1939. An airport that spans Toyonaka, Ikeda, and Itami, Hyogo prefectures. Following the opening of Kansai International Airport,international"Airport" is the official name, with a few exceptions[Annotation 10]There are no international flights except for, and it is used as a main airport exclusively for domestic flights.
  • KIX(Kansai Airport/Kanku)-In 1994QuanzhouOpened offshore. Only one of the three Kansai Airports has regular international flights, and millions of passengers serve as the gateway to Japan's air in Kansai every year.[Annotation 11] OfForeignerTourismCustomers visit. Although it has fewer flights than Osaka International Airport, it has a well-developed domestic network.
  • Yao Airport -In 1933 the current Hanshin Flight SchoolTraining facilityInstalled as. No regular flights at small and medium-sized airports[Annotation 12]But,General aviationIt is a base ofwealthy classIs also used.SDF-Osaka Prefectural PoliceIncluding,公共 機関Also use.

Port

SortPort
International strategic port
International base port
Important port
Local port
  • Two-color port
  • Izumisano Port
  • Quanzhou Port
  • Ozaki Port
  • Awawa Port
  • Shenzhen Port
Fishing port
  • Sakai (Dejima) fishing port
  • Ishizu fishing port
  • Takaishi fishing port
  • Kishiwada fishing port
  • Sano Fishing Port (Sano Food Complex)
  • Tajiri fishing port
  • Okada fishing port
  • Nishi Tottori fishing port
  • Shimoso fishing port
  • Awawa Fishing Port
  • Fukaichi Fishing Port
  • Kojima fishing port

culture

dialect

Food culture:

local cuisine

Traditional crafts

Traditional crafts designated by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry

Traditional crafts

Music

Folk song