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carbohydrate(Carbohydrate,British: carbohydrates,alone: Carbohydrates) OrCarbohydrate(Finally,Buddha: carbohydrates,British: saccharides) IsMonosaccharideIs a constituentOrganic compoundIt is a general term for.Very diverse and most abundant of naturally occurring organic compounds..Carbohydrates among organic nutrients,protein,fatIs in many speciesNutrientsIt is also called the "three major nutrients".
NutritionAbove is carbohydrate is sugarDietary fiberIt is treated as a general term for, and the one excluding dietary fiber, which cannot be decomposed by digestive enzymes and is difficult to be an energy source, is called sugar...When we use the term carbohydrate as one of the three major nutrients, we mainly refer to sugar.
Most of the carbohydratesMolecular formulaIs CmH2nOn Represented by Cm(H2O)n When expressed ascarbonToWedCalled carbohydrates because they look like bound substances, and were oncecarbohydrateAlso called..Later the definition expanded, carbohydratessugarAnd thatDerivativeIt becomes a general term for and, and the molecular formula CmH2nOn Some carbohydrates are not represented by.As such an exampleDeoxyribose C5H10O4 , Polyalcohol,Ketone,acidAnd so on..Also, the molecular formula is CmH2nOn Even soFormaldehyde (CH2O, m = n = 1) is not called carbohydrate.Today, there are more scenes called sugar or sugar as a general term.
It is an indispensable substance for living things骨 格Formation, storage,metabolismWidely used for..Articles on sugar matters other than nutritional or energy metabolism (eg, chemical and molecular biological properties) sugarFamiliar with.
1G4 perKilocalieThere is energy.CarbohydratesMonosaccharides,Disaccharide,PolysaccharideIt is divided into.Carbohydrates are usually polysaccharidesStarchContains a lot.Carbohydrates are the most needed nutrients in JapanDietary guidelinesFoods high in carbohydrates are the staple food.. In 2003WHO/FAOIn the report of, type 2Diabetes mellitus,obesityAs reducing the risk ofDietary fiberWith vegetables and fruits as a source ofWhole grainIs also listed..Whole grainsGlycemic loadIt is characterized by a low blood sugar level and difficulty in raising the blood sugar level rapidly.Berkit, who had reported the importance of dietary fiber, joined Trowell in 1975 in "Refined Carbohydrates and Diseases-Effects of Dietary Fiber."Published and not pearledWhole grainThis has been confirmed and supported by scientific research since then..
sugar TheSucroseIt is a crystal of sugar whose main component is.Sugar contains few nutrients other than carbohydrates, and there are several research reports suggesting adverse health effects.Therefore, since the beginning of the 21st century, the movement to promote sugar intake restrictions has become active mainly in Western European countries... According to the guidelines published by WHO in 2015, increased sugar intake and obesity andCariesPointed out the relationship with (cavities) and strongly recommends that sugar intake be kept below 10% of total energy intake...It is also recommended to keep it below 5% or less than 25g (about 6 teaspoons) a day for further health promotion.[Annotation 1].Drug addictionFrom the relationship withSugar addictionResearch reports on sugar addiction suggest a link between sugar addiction and obesity.
Included in fruitsfructoseIs highly effective in increasing triglycerides, so intake restrictions may be instructed in lifestyle-related diseases...Sugars that are easily decomposed in the intestine, such as oligosaccharides,ProbioticsKnown as and usefulIntestinal bacteriaHas the effect of increasing.
In the case of agricultural society, supply carbohydratesStaple foodHas traditionally played a major role in the diet.In the pre-modern period, people lived a diet that relied on a single staple food that supplies carbohydrates, but due to economic growth and improved distribution, a wide variety of foods are now on the table in developed countries, and dependence on staple foods has become apparent. It decreased significantly.On the other hand, in developing countries, many diets still depend on staple foods such as grains and potatoes..
What is classified as carbohydrate
Classification by nutrition labeling
in Japan,Health promotionbased onNutrition labeling standardsTherefore, when labeling nutritional components on foods sold to consumers, the labeling method is stipulated. Labeling of the content of "carbohydrate", "sugar" and "dietary fiber" is permitted.
In addition to this, the content of "sugar" may be indicated depending on the situation.for example,"Sugarless(The same meaning applies to the indication of sugar-free, non-sugar, and zero sugar) "and" low sugar, conventional ratio sugar XX% cut "may be used.
The classification is as follows.
- carbohydrate[Annotation 2]
For example, of a certain foodNutrition ingredient displayIf there is a description of the content of carbohydrates, sugars, dietary fiber, and sugars, the amount of sugars and dietary fiber is a part of the amount of carbohydrates, and the amount of sugars is a part of the amount of sugars. be.
More precisely, carbohydrate is a general name that includes:
- sugar - Aldehyde group or Ketone groupMultivalued withalcohol(Carbonyl groupMultivalued withalcohol）
- Oligosaccharides (classes) – Condensation of 2 to 10 monosaccharides.oligosaccharideAlso called (class)..Depending on the number of monosaccharides bound, it may be called disaccharide, trisaccharide, etc. in particular.
- Polysaccharide(Category) – Monosaccharides bound to oligosaccharides or higher..Of these, those with one type of sugar are said to have two or more types...Also, carbohydrates are proteins and lipidsCovalent bondWhat was combined withComplex sugarと 呼 ば れ る.
- Of sugarDerivative
It is also classified by the number of constituent carbons..
Due to the bases they haveAldehyde grouphaveAldoseWhen,Ketone grouphaveKetoseare categorized.Aldehyde group and ketone groupHydroxyl groupWhen you make a ring structure by connecting with, a five-membered ring (from that moldFuranose) And six-membered ring (Pyranose).
Asymmetric carbonFrom the three-dimensional arrangement of, it is also divided into D series and L series...If you have a ring structure, this is anotherAsymmetricProduces α-AnomerAnd β-anomers.
Physiological effects of carbohydrates
When the human body ingests carbohydratesStarch, this means a salivaHydrolyzed inGastric juice,Pancreatic juiceでDisaccharide OfMaltoseDisassembled to and finallySmall intestine OfEpithelial cellsExists inMaltase,Sucrase,Lactase,TrehalaseBy disaccharide hydrolase such asMonosaccharides Ofglucose,Fructose,GalactoseIt is possible to absorb from the intestinal tract only after it is decomposed into..This is a lipidfatty acid,Monoglyceride, Proteinamino acid,Nucleic acidIs decomposed into bases and sugars, and these substances in the absorbed state are called...Unlike water-insoluble lipid-based final degradation productsMicelleIf it is absorbed without making such things, it will dissolve in the portal vein blood as it is..
The main function of sugar in the body is細胞It is to be an energy source in.Glucose dissolved in the bloodblood sugarIs called, and when it is taken up by cells as appropriateInternal breathing(Aerobic breathing) orAnaerobic breathingBecomes an energy source for various biological activitiesATPSynthesize.
Glucose, which is important as an energy source,HomeostasisAdjusts the concentration in the body.When it rises, the pancreasBeta cellsからInsulinIs secreted into the liverThe cellsActivates the movement to take in and promotes conversion to glycogen and fat..On the contrary, when it decreases, from the α cells of the pancreasGlucagon,Adrenal cortexFrom chromafin cellscatecholamineIs secreted, glycogen in cells is decomposed, and blood sugar level rises..
Glucose is stored in the body as starch in plants.The body of the plantcelluloseIt is composed of the polysaccharide.Cellulose is a multimer of glucose, which is the same as starch, but has a chemically extremely tough structure due to the different binding mode.CelluloseCell wallIt is used as the main component of.
Food intake standards
brainConsidering the metabolism of glucose, the minimum required amount of carbohydrates to be glucose is estimated to be 100 g / day, but even if the intake is less than this, it is estimated.liverInGluconeogenesisMay supply glucose.
|Standard male||Standard woman|
|Life strength||Low[Annotation 4]||ordinary[Annotation 5]||high[Annotation 6]||Low||ordinary||high|
|18-29 (years old)||288-400g||331-464g||381-534g||219-306g||256-359g||294-411g|
|70 years old or older||200-280g||231-324g||263-368g||169-237g||194-271g||219-306g|
The daily energy requirement is 2660 (kcal) for men and 1995 (kcal) for women, and the energy content of carbohydrates is 4 kcal / g. If the value of 60% is applied, it will be as follows. ..
- For men, 2660 kcal / day x 0.6 / 4 kcal / g = 400 g / day (White rice3.3Together/ Equivalent to a day)
- For women, 1995 kcal / day x 0.6 / 4 kcal / g = 300 g / day (equivalent to 2.5 go / day of white rice)
To the standard daily basal metabolic rate in Japan (boys: 1450 kcal: girls: 1210 kcal)White riceWhen applied as a staple food, 100g is carbohydrate in 358kcal per 80g.A humanThe daily carbohydrate requirement is targeted at 1% of the total energy requirement, which is as follows.
- For men, 1450 kcal x 0.6 = 870 kcal
- White rice (870kcal / 358kcal) x 100g = 243g
- White rice carbohydrates (870kcal / 358kcal) x 80g = 194g
- For women, 1210 kcal x 0.6 = 726 kcal
- White rice (726kcal / 358kcal) x 100g = 203g
- White rice carbohydrates (726kcal / 358kcal) x 80g = 162g
- Amount of white rice based on daily carbohydrate intake standards in Japan: Men: 1g: Women: 243g
|Standard male||Standard woman|
|Carbohydrate intake energy (60% of total energy intake)||978-1170kcal||1170-1360kcal||1360-1560kcal||834-1002kcal||1002-1170kcal||1170-1338kcal|
|Amount of white rice||273-326g||326-382g||382-436g||233-280g||280-326g||326-373g|
|Amount of carbohydrates in white rice||218-261g||261-306g||306-348g||186-306g||224-261g||261-298g|
|Dietary fiber of white rice||1.9-2.3g||2.3-2.8g||2.8-3.1g||1.6-2.0g||2.0-2.3g||2.3-2.6g|
It is necessary to eat a meal that matches the intensity of daily life.As a guide,
- Total energy (kcal) = standard weight (kg) x life activity intensity index (kcal)
- Living activity intensity index
- Light labor (housewife / desk work): 25-30 kcal
- Medium labor (manufacturing / sales / restaurant): 30-35 kcal
- Heavy labor (construction / agriculture / fishing): 35-40 kcal
- Living activity intensity index
|Country||Boys||woman||Age range||Survey year|
|Japan||171.82 cm||158.84 cm||20-24||2010|
The appropriateness of nutrient distribution by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare is as follows.
- Carbohydrates: 60% of total energy requirements
- Dietary fiber: 25g or more
- ^ Due to the lack of epidemiological studies on low sugar intake populations as of 2015, WHO states that limiting to less than 5% or less than 25 g per day is a "conditional" recommendation.
- ^ In the nutrition labeling standard, "From the weight of food,protein,Lipid,ashAnd the value calculated by deducting the amount of water.Therefore, it should be noted that components that work in the body differently from general carbohydrates, such as citric acid, are also displayed as carbohydrate content.
- ^ Officially, it is defined as a value "calculated by deducting the amount of protein, fat, dietary fiber, ash and water from the weight of food".
- ^ Low: When most of life is sitting and static activities are the main focus
- ^ Normal: A work centered on sitting, but when moving in the workplace, working in a standing position, serving customers, commuting, shopping, housework, light sports, etc.
- ^ High: Workers in work with a lot of movement and standing.Or if you have active exercise habits in your leisure time such as sports
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Biochemistry Dictionary 2nd Edition, p.908 [Sugar]
- ^ Sho Watanabe, "Exercise / Body Illustrated Basics of Nutrition", 2016, p. 92.
- ^ "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Decision Food Guide (tentative name) Study Group Report(PDF) First Publishing, December 2005.ISBN-4 8041-1117-4.
- ^ Report of a Joint WHO / FAO Expert Consultation Report of a Joint WHO / FAO Expert Consultation 2003
- ^ BURKITT DP, TROWELL HC Refined Carbohydrate Foods and Disease: Some Implications of Dietary Fiber, 1975. ISBN-978 0121447502
- ^ Marquart L, Jacobs DR Jr, Slavin JL. "Whole Grains and Health: An Overview" Journal of the American College of Nutrition Vol.19 (90003), 2000, pp289-290. PMID 10875599
- ^ Burros, Marian; Warner, Melanie (May 2006, 5). “Bottlers Agree to a School Ban on Sweet Drinks (Published 2006)” (English). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 2021/2/27Browse.
- ^ "Guidelines on reducing sugar in food published for industry" (English). GOV.UK. 2021/2/27Browse.
- ^ "WHO guideline: sugar consumption recommendation" (English). www.who.int. 2021/2/27Browse.
- ^ Arrangement of guidelines of each academic society for prevention of lifestyle-related diseases (PDF) (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)
- ^ "World Map of Food" p78-81 by Eric Millstone and Tim Lang Translated by Satomi Nakayama and Naoya Takada Translated by Keiji Oga Maruzen Published October 17, 10
- ^ Kazuhiko Yamada, "Carbohydrate digestion / absorption / fermentation and its use"Nutrition Magazine," 2001, Vol. 59, No. 4, p.169-176, two:10.5264 / eiyogakuzashi.59.169
- ^ a b Sato and Saeki (2009), p.122-141, Chapter 6 2. Digestion and absorption absorption
- ^ Sato and Saeki (2009), p.148-151, Chapter 7 2. Metabolism of substances in the body 1) Sugar
- ^ a b Sato and Saeki (2009), p.379, Chapter 17 Homeostasis and Biological Rhythm 1. Homeostasis 4) Blood sugar level blood suar (blood glucose) adjustment
- ^ a b Sato and Saeki (2009), p.337, Chapter 14 Endocrine 2. Structure and function of endocrine organs 4) Structure and hormones of Langerhans islets in the liver (1) Insulin
- ^ Japanese dietary intake standards (2005 version) (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)
- ^ a b (PDF)
- ^ Report of a Joint WHO / FAO Expert Consultation Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases 2003
- ^ Physical Fitness and Athletic Ability Survey 2010
- "Biochemical Dictionary 2nd Edition" (2nd Edition, 6th Edition)Tokyo Kagaku Doujin, 1995.ISBN 4-8079-0340-3.
- Supervision: Akio Sato, Yuka Saeki "Structure and Function of the Human Body 2nd Edition" (2nd Edition, 6th Edition)Medical and dental drug publishing, 2009.ISBN 978-4-263-23434-1.