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🧁 | Rena Takeda, Super Mini Skirt Legs All the sweets served at the scene are pelori

Photo Rena Takeda

Rena Takeda, Super Mini Skirt Legs All the sweets served at the scene are pelori

If you write the contents roughly
Rena Takeda, who plays Shinobu Senke, a signboard girl loved by regular customers at the tavern "Nobu" run by chef Nobuyuki Yazawa (Ryohei Otani), will be on stage in a super miniskirt on this day.

Ryohei Otani, Rena Takeda, Hiroshi Shinagawa, Yuzumi Shintani, Hagoromo Mihara performed "WOWOW Original ..." in Tokyo on the 23rd. → Continue reading


Music & Entertainment News Site.Disseminate entertainment information such as idols, movies, theatrical performances, and gravure from music information (reports and columns).

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Nobuyuki Yazawa (Ryohei Otani)


customer (Kokyaku,British: customer) isCommercial,EconomicsAtObject,Products,Services,ideaEtc.SaleAn individual or corporation that is the target of[1].client (client),buyer (buyer),buyer Sometimes called (purchaser).

Electric power company-Gas companySuch asEnergyIn the supply relationship,ConsumerThe term (juyoka) is also often used[2]..Also, depending on the target of the servicepassenger-audienceWords such as are also used.

"Customer" is a littleBusiness AdministrationCloser term (ie, slightlyLearningIn an organization, it is common to express feelings and clarify the relationship with the customer as "customer", and in the case of a deeper relationship, as "customer".

者 売 者,vendor, AndsupplierIt is sold to customers viacurrencyExchange and other value exchanges take place[3][4].

Peter DruckerIs "The purpose of business is to create customer"the purposeIs the creation of the customer) ".The purpose of the business is (shallowManagementIt shouldn't be about pursuing your organization's financial interests or just being selfish (unlike what you often think), but creating customers, that is, helping society. He said that it is to provide such products and services and to form a good relationship so that they can use them, and to become a good existence that society wants.


In a primitive society, acquaintancesBarter economyWas dependent on.afterwards,CommercePermanent social asdesireNot temporaryneedsNon-permanent relationships have come to be formed that depend on.In modern times, these distinctions are not so conscious, but industries with short-term relationships areclientThe word, an industry with a more stable and repetitive relationshipcustomerWordTend to prefer.


clientThe term is a Latin word meaning "tilt" or "bend"clientem or to clinareIt is related to the feeling of origin.People are貪欲fearIt is widely believed to change habits only when motivated by[5]..As a result, client acquisition is a one-off event, and professionals dealing with specific issues are asked to be one-off clients rather than always-related customers. 


Clients who constantly buy from a particular seller enable regular and sustainable business transactionsCustomTo produce.This allows the seller to生産With the process (the nature and form of goods and services)Supply chainYou will be able to develop statistical models that optimize (location and transactions).


Various classifications are known.

Two categories: end user and reseller

Marketers and economists often classify into the following two categories.

Customers and consumers have different concepts[6] [3]..client TheProductsBuyer,consumer TheProducts使用Is a person to do[7] [8]..client TheIn the consumerThere may be, May have been purchased for consumption by someone else (Intermediate customer).Intermediate customers are not consumers[6] [3]. IndustrialIn the case of products and services, the relationship is a bit more complicated, the customer is a legal entity such as a government agency, manufacturer, educational medical institution, etc.ProductIncorporate into.In this case, it is logically a consumer,Industrial customers(industrial customers)Business-to-business customers (B2B customer, Business-to-business customers)[6]..Similarly, customers who buy services rather than goods are rarely called consumers.[3].

Existing customers, potential customers / prospects

Individuals and corporations who have already purchased and used products and servicesexisting customer Called (existing customers).In addition to this, it may also be a "customer" including individuals and corporations that are likely to purchase.in this casePotential customers,Prospect Sometimes called (leads, prospects, potential customers).

Three categories: customer, non-customer, and non-customer

Six sigmaThe doctrine of is to define active customers, non-customers, and non-customers.

  • specificCompany OfcustomerA person who has been actively involved with a company within a certain recent period of time for a product sold.
  • Not-customersIs a past customer who is no longer a customer, orCompetitorCommunicating withPotential customersAny of.
  • Non-customersIs completely different fromMarket segmentPeople in.Not for sale.

Jeff Tennant, a Six Sigma consultant in the United Kingdom, said:exampleing.A supermarket customer is someone who buys milk from the supermarket.Non-customers are people who buy milk from another supermarket, while non-customers are people who don't buy milk from the supermarket at all and "have traditionally deliver milk to their homes."[9]. '

Two categories, external customers and internal customers

Jeff Tennant alsoMarketingCategorize customers in a different way that is adopted outside of[10].Customer serviceIn the field of, customers are classified into the following two categories.

  1. Of the organizationExternal customerIs a customer who has no direct relationship with the organization[10][11].
  2. Internal customerIs a customer who has a direct relationship with the organization and is usually (but not always) inside the organization.Internal customers are usuallyStakeholders,Employee, AndShareholderBut by definitiona creditorAlso included[12][11].

Before the concept of internal customers was introduced, external customers were simply called customers.[Source required].quality managementWriter Joseph M. Juran spread the concept and in 1988 hisQuality Control Handbook4th edition (Juran 1988) Introduced in[13][14][15]..Since then, this idea has beenComprehensive quality controlAnd widely accepted in the literature on service marketing[13].. As of 2016, many organizations believe that satisfying internal customers is a touchstone for their products to meet the needs of external customers (Tansuhaj, Randall & McCullough 1991)[16]..Various studies on the theory and practice of managing internal customersService departmentContinued in the industry[17][18].  

Discussion against the use of the term "internal customer"

Peter Drucker,Philip Kotler, W. Edwards DemingFamous authors in the fields of management and marketing, such as, in their booksInternal customerThe term is not used.They are,customerIs regarded as an important role in the relationship between supply and demand in society.As a characteristic of customers, customers are not subordinate to suppliers, and all customers are in the same position as suppliers in negotiations."All customers can accept or reject a service or product offer," wrote Peter Dragger.[19].

Contrary to this customer character, relationships between company colleagues are always subordinate.Company employees are obliged to follow company processes and are not authorized to select departments / colleagues to carry out their work.The relationship of "internal customers" is said to be different from that of customers because employees of the company are obliged to act within existing departments / colleagues based on the organizational structure of the company and the determined process.

ITIL,Six sigmaMany authors of the methodologyInternal customerIs defined as a department within the company that uses the results / outputs of another department within the company as input.This definition is more appropriate than the customer-supplier relationship.Peter Dragger believes there are no customers in the organization.He"Within the organizationCost centerThere is only.The only profit center is the customer whose check is not checked.Is written[20]..William Deming told the manager at his ninth point, "Break down the barriers between departments!Each department needs to work as a team.I advise[21]..This means that within a company, teamwork is needed, not a supplier-customer relationship. ITIL's methodology also acknowledges that "the term" colleague "is accurate in the relationship between two departments within an organization."[22].

Related item


  1. ^ What is a customer?-Kotobank
  2. ^ What is a consumer? --Kotobank
  3. ^ a b c d e f Reizenstein 2004, pp. 119.
  4. ^ Kendall 2007, pp. 3.
  5. ^ "Greed and Fear". Psychology Today. 2018/5/9Browse.
  6. ^ a b c d e Frain 1999, p. 161.
  7. ^ Blythe 2008, pp. 18.
  8. ^ Kansal & Rao 2006, pp. 61.
  9. ^ Tennant 2001, pp. 52.
  10. ^ a b Tennant 2001, pp. 52–53.
  11. ^ a b Kendall 2007, pp. 3, 9.
  12. ^ Tennant 2001, pp. 53.
  13. ^ a b Kelemen 2003, pp. 28.
  14. ^ Stracke 2006, p. 87.
  15. ^ Reeves & Bednar 2005, pp. 335.
  16. ^ Papasolomou-Doukakis 2001, pp. 71.
  17. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2014, 2originalMore archives.2013/11/22Browse.
  18. ^ https://scholar.google.com/scholar?as_ylo=2009&q=internal+customer+service+industry&hl=en&as_sdt=1,16
  19. ^ Drucker, Peter F .; Collins, Jim; Kotler, Philip; Kouzes, James; Rodin, Judith; Rangan, V. Kasturi; Hesselbein, Frances (2008). The five most important questions you will ever ask about your organization (Third ed.). Jossey-Bass. P. Under the chapter “Question 2: Who Is Our Customer?”, P. 25. ISBN 978-0-470-22756-5 
  20. ^ Drucker, Peter F. (2002). Management Challenges for the 21st Century. PerfectBound ™, HarperCollins. P. 4 Information Challenges, under the topic “Where the Results Are”. ISBN 0-06-0546794 
  21. ^ Deming, W. Edwards (2000). Out of the crisis.Cambridge, Mass .: MIT Press 
  22. ^ ITIL® Service Strategy (Second ed.). TSO (The Stationery Office). (2011). P. Table 3.1 Differences between internal and external customers; under the line “Link to business strategy and objectives”. ISBN 9780113313044 



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