Gyoza set meal 690 yen at the new store in Ichibancho XNUMX-chome shopping street!
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Garlic oil and vinegar + white pepper are the recommended ways to eat.
I went to "Original Sendai Hitokuchi Dumplings Azuma Ichibancho Store" in Ichibancho XNUMX-chome Shopping Street.Yakiton Daikoku series ... → Continue reading
Sendai Minami Tsushin
Local media in Sendai and Sennan. The couple is actually experiencing and sending out real information.
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pepper(pepper,scientific name: Piper nigrum) IsPiperaceaePepper genusBelongs toVineOne of the plants, or itsfruitMade fromSpicesThat is.IndiaNative, but all over the world熱 帯Widely cultivated in the area.It is the starting point of the scientific name of plantsLinnaeusof"(English edition）''(1753/) soDescriptionIt is one of the plants that have been given (that is, the plant that was first given the scientific name)..
fruitHas a strong aroma and spiciness,SpicesWidely used in various dishes, it is also called the "King of Spices".Essential oilBecomes an aroma componentalkaloid OfPiperine,ChavicineIs a stimulating and pungent ingredient.Depending on the fruit processing method, etc.Black pepper (Black pepper) AndWhite pepper (White pepper) And so on. Europe's eastern expansion since the 15th century was also associated with the benefits of the pepper trade.
Vine OfKimoto (Fujimoto), sometimes 10 in lengthMeters (m) When it reaches the above, the knots swell, and the adventitious roots come out from the lower knots and become entangled with other things. (Fig. 1a, b below).Leaves alternate, petioles 1-2Centimeter (cm), leaf blade is oval to long oval, 10-15 x 5-9 cm, pointed tip, hairless and leathery, surface is shiny dark green, leaf vein is palm-shaped 5-7 (- 9) The vein, the central vein, branches 1.5-3.5 cm from the base (Fig. 1c below).
The flowering season is June-October, usually dioecious and monoecious, but sometimes amphoteric flowers occur...The flowers form spikes, the peduncles are about the same length as the petioles, the spikes are about 10 cm long, and they are opposite to the leaves. (Fig. 2a, d below).Bracts from spatula to oval, approximately 3-3.5 x 0.8 mm (mm), lacking perianth..Two stamens, thick and short filaments (Fig. 2d below).Pistil ovary is spherical, stigma is 3–4 (–5) (Fig. 2d below).
The ears are about 15–17 cm long and have 50–60 pieces.fruitConsists of (Fig. 2b, c above).The fruit isDrupe, Of 1seedSpherical, 5-6 mm in diameter, green immature fruits but black when dried (→#Blue pepper,#Black pepper), Turns red when ripe (→#Red pepper,#White pepper) (Fig. 2b, c above).
Relationship with humans
PepperfruitHas a strong aroma and intense spiciness, and is most often used.Spices Because it is (spice), "King of spicesAlso called "king of spice"..The spiciness of pepper is different from the spiciness of salted fish...PepperMeat dish,fish dishes,Vegetable dishes,SoupIt is used in various dishes (Fig. 4 below), and alsoHam,sausageAlso used in the manufacture of.. Otherソ ー ス,ketchupIt is also the main raw material for seasonings such as.
Pepper can be divided into the following four types (black pepper, white pepper, green pepper, and red pepper) depending on the timing of harvest (immature fruit, ripe fruit), drying method, and removal of outer pericarp.
- Black pepper, Black pepper, black pepper,Black pepper (black pepper)
- Green before ripenessfruitHarvested and dried in the sun, it turns black..When dried, wrinkles occur on the pericarp (outer pericarp), but use it as it is without peeling it off (Fig. 5f on the right).The outer pericarp contains a lot of spicy ingredients and has a strong aroma and spiciness, so it is said to be compatible with strong-tasting meat dishes and blue fish..
- White pepper, White pepper, white pepper,White pepper (white pepper)
- Ripe red fruits are harvested, soaked in water for about a week to ferment, and then the softened outer pericarp is peeled off...Nuclear (seedAnd the hard inner pericarp that wraps it) and no outer pericarp (Fig. 5f on the right), so it is less spicy than black pepper but has a different flavor.fish dishesIt is said that it goes well with things that do not have a strong taste of ingredients such as stew and stew...It is said that it goes well with ramen, and there are also ramen specialty stores that sell white pepper.[Source required]..Some people may feel a strong unpleasant odor in white pepper.This is due to the fact that when the raw material is immersed in water in the manufacturing process to rot and remove the outer skin, components that generally give a person an unpleasant odor are likely to be generated.The strength of this unpleasant odor depends on the manufacturing process of white pepper, and it is also known that if the outer skin is putrefactive while running water for several days, it is possible to produce white pepper in a beautiful state with almost no unpleasant odor...White pepper is also a fermented food,coffee,CacaoIt is also possible to create various flavors by adjusting the fermentation process as in.On the other hand, there is also a case where the outer pericarp of black pepper is peeled off with a machine to make white pepper...Pepper is also used for medicinal purposes as shown below, but in that case, white pepper is usually used (→ ""MedicinalSee section).
- Harvest green fruits before ripeness, but unlike black pepper, do not dry in the sun, boil and salt, orfreeze dryProcessed..Therefore, the color of the fruit remains green (5g in the figure on the right).Characterized by a refreshing aroma and spiciness..Sprinkle on dishes to accentuate or add to soups and salads with a refreshing aroma.タ イ 料理,Cambodian foodNow, let's use the fruit as an "ingredient" for stir-fry, not as a spice.[Source required].
- Red pepper, Red pepper, red pepper,Pink pepper (pink pepper)[Note 2]
- Ripe fruits are harvested in red, but unlike white pepper, they are salted as they are without peeling the outer skin or dried in the sun...The red outer pericarp is wrinkled (5h on the right) and is said to have a mild aroma and spiciness..Peruな どSouth AmericaMay be used in cooking[Source required]..However, "Pink pepper (Pink pepper) "is another plantPepper (Rhus family) Fruit (not spicy) often means (5c-e in the above figure).
Pepper is used in various forms andhole (Original grain condition,Pepper grain),coarsely ground (Coarse grind),powder (Powdered) etc. are commercially available..Also, every time you use itPepper millYou can get a fresh flavor by grinding the whole with..There are various types of pepper mills.
Different types of pepper may be mixed and used, and some of the ones on the market in Japan are a mixture of black and white pepper...There are also some that are commercially available as "seasoned salt and pepper" mixed with salt..
The expiry date of pepper is approximately 2-3 years, depending on the manufacturing method and storage conditions...After grinding, the flavor is easier to fly than before grinding (hole).In addition, dried "black pepper" and "white pepper" will last longer than undried ones such as "blue pepper" and "red pepper".[Source required]..Before the development of logistics such as during the Great Voyage, "blue pepper" and "red pepper" were used as spices and foodstuffs in the place of origin, whereas in Europe, which was far from the place of origin, "black pepper" and "white pepper" were used. Was used.Nowadays, this distinction disappears due to the development of logistics, the ability to produce pepper all over the world, and the spread of national cuisine all over the world.
PepperfruitToalkaloidIsPiperineEtc., and may be used for cooking and topical medicines that are expected to have medicinal properties...It is said to have antibacterial, appetite-promoting, digestive-promoting, stomachic, carminative, sweating-promoting, diuretic, analgesic, etc.Vomiting,diarrhea,stomach ache, Used for abdominal distension, toothache, etc...Also, anti-cancer effect,antioxidant effect, Antidiarrheal has also been reported..It is said that it has a dieting effect by increasing fat burning action and energy metabolism, and has an effect of enhancing the action of medicines taken together by increasing the absorption rate of other components.healthy foodHowever, since it interacts with other medicines when taken in large amounts, the possibility of health hazards cannot be ruled out and caution is required..
alkaloidIsPiperine (piperine; Figure 6a)Chavicine (chavicine; Figure 6b), a component of piperinePiperidine (piperidine; Fig. 6c) etc. become spicy ingredients, andPinene (pinene; Figure 6d),Phellandrene (phellandrene; Figure 6e),Limonene (limonene; Figure 6f),Cariophyllene (caryophyllene; Figure 6g),Piperonal (piperonal; Fig. 6h) etc. are the scent components.
PepperIndiaIt is native but widely cultivated in the tropics around the world. Production volume as of 2019 (including black pepper and white pepper) Top 10 countries in orderエチオピア,Vietnam,Brazil,Indonesia,India,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Sri Lanka,Chugoku,Malaysia,MexicoIs.
In pepper trading, it may be referred to as follows with the name of the country of origin or place. (Fig. 5e above).
- IndiaProduced-Malabal pepper, Tericherry pepper, Alappuzha pepper
- IndonesiaProduced-Lampon pepper, Mentok pepper
- MalaysiaProduced-Sawarak pepper
- BrazilProduced-Brazilian pepper
seedNot fromcuttingCultivated by.StemIs woodyVineBecomes, wraps around pillars, etc. and grows (Fig. 7a below).From about the third year of cuttingsflowerPut onfruitIt begins to form and reaches its peak in 7-8 years, after which it can be harvested for 15-20 years. (7b, c in the figure below).
For pepper cultivationContinuous cropping disorderMay occur and is phytoparasiticNematodeOccurs,FusariumDiseases caused by bacteria are more likely to occur..Cultivation in South America has been devastating...Pepper cultivationfertilizerSome farms are left unattended because the price is cheap for the cost and labor..
On the other hand, in the 21st centuryInformation technologyWith the progress of, it became possible to check the distribution status and market price quickly, which made it possible to adjust production.People's Republic of China,IndiaDue to increased demand in populous areas, pepper prices have risen again, between 2005 and 2014.Yokohama portCustoms clearance unit price in Japan has quadrupled.
Pepper has been around since ancient timesIndiaIt was a major local export.At the beginning of the 4th century BCThe Ancient GreekBotanistTheoflastusIsFlora』In pepper and long pepper (Long pepper) Is considered.Pepper has been precious since that time and is a Roman historian of the 1st century ADGreat PlinyIs 1lbThe value of long pepper (about 500 grams) is 15Denalius, White pepper is recorded as 7 denarius, and black pepper is recorded as 4 denarius...ancientMediterranean worldSo, it is believed that mature long pepper becomes black pepper, and that mistake continued until it was corrected by the 16th century...Long pepper was treated at a higher price than black and white pepper, but it began to compete with black pepper in the middle ages and was no longer used in Europe by the late medieval period..
Pepper has a strong aroma and spiciness,Antibacterial-AntisepticDue to its effectiveness, it was extremely prized in Europe in the Middle Ages, when refrigeration technology was underdeveloped... The high price in the transaction is1st centuryIn RomePepper of the same weightFri,SilverWas exchanged forIt is also expressed as.Rome West GoatWas the king ofArarique IWhen besieged by Roman citizens in return for breaking the siegeFri5,000 poundsSilver30,000 pounds of silkTunicAgreed to give 4,000 pieces, 3,000 scarlet leather, and 3,000 pounds of pepper..I was importing pepperVenicePeople called pepper "the seed of heaven" and also increased its value..Crusader,Age of DiscoveryIt is well known that one of the purposes was to acquire oriental spices such as pepper..
However, it is believed that in the 12th century, a large amount of pepper was imported from the Orient...Since pepper has flowed into Europe in large quantities, it has come to be used as a pseudo-currency, and there are cases where taxes and salaries are paid with pepper.As a result, pepper loses its rarity, which can be confirmed by the decrease in the description in the cookbooks at that time...In cookbooks written by royal aristocratic cooks who cook court dishes, pepper was a regular spice in Roman times, but in the Middle Ages it was reduced in number.Arnaldus de Villaneuve's "Regimen Sanitatis" states that "pepper is a farmer's sauce and they eat pepper mixed with vulgar legumes" and is elegant to the rich. Described in contrast to the source.
In China, in the sense of spices that came from the west,pepperWas called (Hu TheSogdianIt is a character that refers to different ethnic groups in the west and north when viewed from China.pepper TheKahokzan ShowAroundZanthoxylumIt is a character that refers to spices.JapanToChugokuTherefore, it is also called pepper in Japan.Tenpyo Katsuho8 years (756 years),Emperor ShomuThe relics on the 77th anniversary ofTodaiji TempleDedicated to.List of the offerings "Todaiji offering book』, Pepper is listed, and the pepper at that timeShosoinHave been found in..Pepper was in Japan at that timeCrude drugHowever, even in the "Miscellaneous Soldier Story" written in the early Edo period, "(on the battlefield) if you chew one pepper each morning, it will not hit the heat of summer or the cold of winter." It shows that there was a demand for medicinal products at that time...Pepper has been imported intermittently since the Nara period.Heian periodHas come to be used as a seasoning, In the Edo periodUdon OfCondimentWas used as.
Red pepper Before the introduction of (chili pepper), pepper was in JapanJapanese pepperIt is used in more dishes as a spice along with, as mentioned above.UdonIt was also used as a condiment for..Throughout the Edo period (1641–1832) An average of 5.7 tonnes per year through the Karafune1638 tonnes in 78 records through Dutch shipsWas importing pepper.Even nowSenba soup,Shio soup,, etc.SoupPepper is used as a condiment, mainly for speciesJapanese cuisineRemains (there is also a record that there was a dish called "pepper chazuke")[Source required].
in Japan,Red pepperWas called "Nanban pepper" or "Koryo pepper" as a kind of pepper when it was first introduced...For this reason, even nowKyusyuChili peppers are sometimes called "pepper", mainly in rural areas...Manufactured in northern KyushuYuzu pepperAndOkinawa OfKoregusu The raw material for (Korai pepper) is not pepper but capsicum. In areas where "pepper" is used to mean capsicum, it is called pepper in other areas. P. nigrum Is sometimes called "Pepper" to distinguish it..
Pepper that appears in literature
- Ibara Nishitsuruof"Nihon Eiyozo』Has a description of the circumstances of Japanese pepper..In the past, pepper was imported from China, but the Tojin people handed over the pepper grains after boiling them so that they would not be cultivated in Japan, so even if they were sown in Japan, they would not sprout.At one pointKoyasanThree at a timestone It is said that if you sow (about 540 liters) of pepper, only two roots will grow, and then the pepper will spread throughout Japan (although pepper is actually tropical and is not cultivated in Japan).
- "Squeezing lecture], [Stick], [Pepper regret』――Pepper comes outRakugo.
the samePepper genus (Piper) In the same way as pepperSpicesIncludes some species used as.IndiaDistributed in etc.Long pepper(P. longum, Indian Nagakosho) was imported into Europe for a long time and was sometimes confused with pepper...It is also a similar speciesPiper retrofractum(P. retrofractum, Java Nagakosho) is cultivated mainly in Southeast Asia including Okinawa, and is also used as a spice..."Island pepper" (also called hibachi, piparts, etc.) made in Okinawa is made from piper retrofractum.Others of the same genusCava,BetelIs used for luxury items.
|[How to use footnotes]|
- ^ However, the English word "green pepper" isgreen pepper,Red pepperSuch as sweet varietiesRed pepperMay mean.
- ^ "Pink pepperIsPepper (Rhus family) AndRowan (Rosaceae) Often means fruit..Also, red pepper is sometimes translated literally as "red pepper," but this word is usually red.Red peppers (Solanaceae).
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Piper nigrum". Plants of the World online. Kew Botanical Garden. 2021/9/11Browse.
- ^ Linnaeus, Carolus (1753) (Latin). Species Plantarum. Holmia [Stockholm]: Laurentius Salvius. P. 28. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358049
- ^ a b c Selected version of the Japanese Dictionary. “pepper". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica). “pepper". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/13Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "Piper nigrum". Flora of china. Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. 2021/9/18Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Pepper producing area”. Japan Pepper Association. 2021/9/18Browse.
- ^ a b c d e "Pepper / Pepper”. S & B FOODS. 2021/9/18Browse.
- ^ a b c d e Tsuneo Namba (2000). “Principle of medicinal food and the effects of food and medicinal materials (2) Familiar food used for medicinal food”. Journal of the Japanese Society of Cooking Science 33 (1): 105. two:10.11402 / cookeryscience1995.33.1_100.
- ^ a b c d "Cultivation of pepper”. S & B FOODS. 2021/9/20Browse.
- ^ a b "World pepper production rankings and trends by country". GLOBAL NOTE. 2021/9/18Browse.
- ^ a b c Food Medicine Center. “pepper". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ Ghosh, S., Kumar, A., Sachan, N. & Chandra, P. (2020). “Re-exploring an epicentre spice with immense therapeutic potentials: black pepper (Piper nigrum). " Current Nutrition & Food Science 16 (9): 1326-1337. two:10.2174/1573401316666200316120944.
- ^ Shizuyuki Ota, Akiko Furugen, Hiji Kusaka et al. (1983), “Effect of pepper on salty taste” (PDF) Cooking science (General Incorporated Association Japan Cooking Science Association) 16: 122-126, two:10.11402 / cookeryscience1968.16.2_122, ISSN 09105360, NOT 110001171688, NCID AN00382866, https://doi.org/10.11402/cookeryscience1968.16.2_122
- ^ a b c d e f g "Pepper story". Kosho Honpo. 2021/9/18Browse.
- ^ a b "Black pepper”. S & B FOODS. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ >Selected version of the Japanese Dictionary. “Black pepper". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ a b "White pepper”. S & B FOODS. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ a b >Selected version of the Japanese Dictionary. “White pepper". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ a b Steinhaus, M. & Schieberle, P. (2005). “Role of the fermentation process in off-odorant formation in white pepper: on-site trial in Thailand”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (15): 6056–6060. two:10.1021 / jf050604s. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf050604s.
- ^ a b c d "Green pepper”. S & B FOODS. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ Digital Daijisen. “Green pepper". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ a b Digital Daijisen. “Pink pepper". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ a b Yoshiko Yoshida (1988). Chuko Shinsho Folklore of spicesChuokoron-sha. P. 115. ISBN 978-4121008824
- ^ Selected version of the Japanese Dictionary. “Red pepper". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ "Kampot Red Pepper". Kosho Honpo. 2021/9/18Browse.
- ^ "27 recommended pepper mills.Introducing fashionable popular models by type". SAKIDORI (September 2021, 7). 2021/9/20Browse.
- ^ "Table pepper 20g”. S & B FOODS. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ "Seasoned salt and pepper”. S & B FOODS. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ "Q & A about spices". Spice of Life. House Foods. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ a b Hasegawa et al. 2010.
- ^ Bezerra, DP, Castro, FO, Alves, APNN, Pessoa, C., Moraes, MO, Silveira, ER, ... & Costa-Lotufo, LV (2006). “In vivo growth-inhibition of Sarcoma 180 by piplartine and piperine, two alkaloid amides from Piper". Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 39: 801-807. two:10.1590 / S0100-879X2006000600014.
- ^ "Piperine”. Moritasorakudo. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ Kazunori Nakazono, Ramirez JA, Masahiro Hamada, Akira Matsuda (1992). “Plant-parasitic nematodes in pepper cultivation in the Dominican Republic (plant nematodes)". Abstract of the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Applied Animal and Insects (36): 222. NOT 110001086347.
- ^ a b "Amazon Agroforestry". 100 years of Brazilian immigrants.National Diet Library. 2021/9/23Browse.
- ^ "Pepper cultivation and neglected pepper garden" Osaka Prefectural Social Studies Study Group HP
- ^ "Pepper soaring Producers do not rush to increase global demand". Kanagawa newspaper (September 2015, 6). 2021/9/23Browse.
- ^ Philippe & Mary Hyman (June 1980). “Connaissez-vous le poivre long?". The story. 2022/2/4Browse.
- ^ a b Dalby, A. (2002). “Long pepper”. Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. Univ of California Press. Pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-0520236745
- ^ Dolby 2004, pp. 139–148.
- ^ Kobe Tamotsu "pepper"Life Hygiene," Vol. 28, No. 4, Osaka Life Hygiene Association, 1984, pp. 242-242, two:10.11468 / seikatsueisei1957.28.242, ISSN 0582-4176, NOT 130003723517.
- ^ Takahashi 1990, pp. 249–250
- ^ Norwich, J. (1989). Byzantium: The Early Centuries. Knopf. Pp. 134. ISBN 978-0394537788
- ^ Takahashi 1990, p. 252
- ^ Takahashi 1990, p. 247, 269
- ^ Kazuyoshi Takahashi (2014). “History and Cultural Role of Spices”. Smell / Kaori Environmental Society Journal 45 (2): 100-107. two:10.2171 / jao.45.100.
- ^ a b c Shunichi Ikegami (1996). “Food image in the Middle Ages of Europe”. Urakami Foundation Research Report 5: 150–157. https://www.urakamizaidan.or.jp/research/jisseki/1994/vol05urakamif-16ikegami.pdf.
- ^ Masaharu Arakawa"Sogdian trade activities and fragrance distribution"Senshu University Social Intelligence Development Research Center Ancient East Eurasia Research Center Annual Report" No. 5, Senshu University Social Intelligence Development Research Center, March 2019, pp. 3-29, two:10.34360/00008303, NOT 120006785685.
- ^ a b c d Shinya Suzuki & Mutsuhiko Minami "Pepper excavated from the tomb of Edo"Vegetation History Research," Vol. 14, No. 1, Japanese Association of Historical Bottan, 2006, pp. 29-33, two:10.34596 / hisbot.14.1_29, ISSN 0915-003X, NOT 130008053002.
- ^ From the section "Tanegashima Ashigaru Small Head Asahi Deemon"
- ^ Shinichi Suzuki (1986). Food storyHeibonsha. Pp. 68-69. ISBN 9784582828139
- ^ Kazuhiro Yukitake (2007). “Quantitative Transactions of Early Modern Japan-Ran Trade: Decoding and Analyzing“ Accounting Books ”Created by the Dutch Trading House in the Early 17th Century”. Socio-economic history 72 (6): 673-693. two:10.20624 / sefs.72.6_673. The purchase price is 33,150 guilders (about 3 million yen today).The amount of Japanese imports today is about 6500 tons per year, and the international market price is about 8000 to 1 million yen per ton.
- ^ Selected version of the Japanese Dictionary. “Nanban pepper". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ Selected version of the Japanese Dictionary. “Koryo pepper". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/19Browse.
- ^ a b Yoshie Kamiya (2021). “Yuzu Gosho”. Journal of the Japanese Society of Cooking Science 54 (4): 201-205. two:10.11402 / cookery science.54.201.
- ^ Park Shinju (2020). “Exchange between Japan and Southeast Asian Culture: A Perspective from 17th Century Japanese Literature”. Humanities 69 (3/4): 169-193. NOT 120006867561.
- ^ Masatsugu Kawai. “Walk the stage of rakugo". 2021/9/23Browse.
- ^ Masatsugu Kawai. “Rakugo story". 2021/9/23Browse.
- ^ Kenichi Yamamon "Scented town development-subsequent development-"Okinawa University Economic Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Okinawa University, March 1998, pp. 3-37," ISSN 03871657, NOT 110004642240.
- ^ NEWS ONLINE Editorial Department (January 2021, 1). “"Long pepper" "Piper retrofractum" "Island pepper" -All almost the same pepper". Nippon Broadcasting NEWS ONLINE. 2021/9/11Browse.
- ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica). “Piper kadsura". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/19Browse.
- “Pepper trade and planting”. Osaka Shinpo(July 1921, 2). http://www.lib.kobe-u.ac.jp/das/ContentViewServlet?METAID=00493048&TYPE=HTML_FILE&POS=1&LANG=JA
- Takao Goto, edited by the International Agricultural and Forestry Cooperation Association, "Pepper: From Its Cultivation to its Use," International Agricultural and Forestry Cooperation Association, 1983, p. 124.ASIN B000J7BRPG.
- Yasushi Takahashi "Pepper production and trade in South and Southeast Asia until the early 16th century"1990, pp. 247-272. NOT 120002815816. NCID AA1080427X.https://hdl.handle.net/10623/25363.
- Tsuneo Namba"Principle of medicinal food and utility of food and medicine (2): Familiar food used for medicinal food"Journal of the Japanese Society of Cooking Science", Vol. 33, Journal of the Japanese Society of Cooking Science, pp. 100-106, 2000. NOT 110001170018. NCID AN10471022.https://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/10814125.
- Takashi Hasegawa, Mayor Takahashi, Masaaki Saijo, Tomohide Fuki, Makoto Ogura, Yuji Motoki (2010). "About the piperine content in so-called health foods containing black pepper". Chiba Prefectural Eiken Annual Report 59: 70–73. NDLJP:11480517. https://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/11480517.
- Andrew Dolby, Translated by Sachiko Higuchi, "Human History of Spices," Hara Shobo, 2004.ISBN 4562038004.
- Pepper genus ... Long pepper (Indian Nagakosho),Piper retrofractum (Java Nagakosho, Island pepper),Betel,Cava,Piper kadsura
- Ingredients ... Piperine,Chavicine,Piperidine,Pinene,Phellandrene,Limonene,Cariophyllene,Piperonal