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調理Not donePreparationIt’s already done and the consumer’s hassleUnzip・Only heating. Because it helps save labor in cooking, restaurantTo general家庭Is widely used.From the manufacturing plantFrozen carIt will be shipped at the store, displayed on the frozen product shelves at the store, and after purchase, it will be kept frozen until just before eating by taking it home with dry ice and storing it in the freezer.In addition, consideration is given to maintaining the freshness of food by quick freezing at the time of freezing, and it is possible to enjoy the fresh state at any time for a long period of time.The expiration date is often long, and it can be eaten just by heating it, so it can be used as an emergency food in case of emergency.ice creamFoods that are eaten frozen, such as, are not treated as frozen foods, but include those that are naturally thawed (mainly for lunch boxes) and eaten at room temperature.
Frozen foods are classified as follows.
- Unheated food
- Food consumed after heating
- Semi-cooked food (croquette, fries, etc.)
- Cooked food (such as Shumai and eel cabay)
Some frozen foods are thawed at room temperature or in a refrigerator, and if thawed correctly, they may be indistinguishable from non-frozen foods and dishes. As a productVegetables-fruitBesides,fly-Udon-pilaf-pizzaThere are many variations, such as dishes that have already been cooked and are simply served. In addition, with the spread of microwave ovens in recent years, there are many frozen foods that are already served and have a dedicated container, and these are useful in a busy modern world.
The most consumers of theseThe United States of AmericaIs. In the countryLight mealThere are many products that meet various needs such as for lunch and dinner, and if you put a plastic tray with various frozen ingredients in the microwave and heat it for the specified time, it will become one tray.steak,potato salad,BreadToDessertThere is even a product where the menu for one meal up to is completed as a set.
Pre-packaged meal (Prepackaged meal)” in the packagePlasticMade offorkとknifeSince it comes with a microwave oven, you can eat without having to prepare not only food ingredients but also tableware as long as you have a freezer for storage and a microwave oven for heating ( The mainstream was the one in which frozen food was placed in a tray shaped aluminum foil and heated in an oven).
These frozen foods are commonly referred to as "TV dinnerIs called, and this colloquial name is1954/For the first time in the United States, we succeeded in selling this type of food and making it a big hit product,SwansonCompany's frozen food brand, “swanson TV DinnerIt is derived from
refrigeratorBefore the invention ofFood preservationThere were attempts to freeze the food by placing it outside for freezing.HokkaidoInRuibeIn addition to known foods that freeze seafood in the open air, Russian aristocratic women of the 19th century,Ekaterina DashkovaIn his memoir, when he was banished from public office and headed to the territory for a few days from the capital, his subordinates were frozen.Shchi(Cabbage soup) is said to have been made, and it was written that the frozen chichi was cracked in the road and thawed over the fire to eat..
Dissemination and evolution
Frozen food1900 eraToThe United States of AmericaI don't have much shelf lifejamFor processingStrawberryIt is said to be frozen because it is suitable for transportation. Of course at that time, there was no home refrigerator and refrigerator,Freezer refrigeratorBegan to spread1920 era(in Japan1930 eraAfter that, it was originally for storing fruits and the like.1950 eraFrozen foods are touted as "future foods" in the United States and specialize in frozen foodsRestaurantsIt was said that it was.
Frozen foods became widespread in earnest1960 era(in Japan1965/) After that, at hometv setThis is largely due to the increase in entertainment such as, and the enrichment of eating habits and the wide acceptance of various dishes. At this time in JapanFrozen tangerines stationNowadays, it is accepted as a new taste to eat with a slightly frozen texture in the summer, which is the opposite of the season.
In the beginning, due to problems with freezing technology and lack of proper thawing method, people sometimes shunned it because it had a crunchy texture or a poor taste.. However,(en) By (en) Technology was developed, and there were technical improvements such as freezing marine products on board, which improved the taste.
At present, the technology for storing and transporting fresh products while maintaining their freshness is improving, so the need for freezing is declining. If it is stored frozen at the time it is obtained, it will not be affected by the price, so in some cases it will be cheaper than fresh products and the supply will be stable, and there are still advantages.
History in Japan
The beginning of the frozen food business in Japan was1920/(Taisho9 years)HokkaidoMori TownAtInuhei KuzuharaIs full-scaleRefrigerated warehouseIs Japan's first forest refrigeration plant (laterKuzuhara cold storageAnd nowNichirei) Due to the construction.
Frozen foods marketed in Japan for the first time1930/(Showa 5)Tobata cold storage"Strawberry Shark" (frozen strawberries) released by..Unlike the American one, which was intended to be processed into jam, it was marketed as a product that tastes the strawberry itself.
After the war1964/ OfTokyo OlympicsThe thawing and cooking methods suitable for frozen foods were studied withRestaurant industryUtilization has begun in the field.1970 eraFor small to large refrigerationRefrigerator ,microwaveThe spread ofCentral kitchenSchemefamily restaurantchainDue to the expansion of the business, it has come to show a large growth in both commercial and commercial use.
また1980 eraAfter thatmicrowaveIt has become popular with households due to lower prices, and at the same time, frozen foods for household use have become widely accepted. Especially1990 eraFrom that, since the defrosting technology that can even burn like a microwave oven has been developed, conventionallyMicrowave ovenPizza that was said to be delicious unless defrosted atgratinPottery dishes such as diversified.
With the improvement of technology, types tend to diversify, and today,A coffee shopSuch as the morning setcake(There are usually hotcakes, cheesecakes, and even shortcakes. Of these, frozen shortcakes are called frozen cakes and are thawed naturally.ice creamSo-called cake-shapedIce cakeDifferent from),Whipped creamThere are alsoFrozen food for businessIs distributed as.
Also, bones removed in advance or high pressure cooked frozenGrilled fish Hospital food,School lunchThere is also a movement to be incorporated in the menu of, and products that are not used in the past as food ingredients are beginning to appear. InsideBox lunchThere was also a product that can be put in a frozen state, put into a thawed state just before lunch, and can serve as a cold insulator without much effort.
Recently, famousHotelHigh-quality frozen foods that have been frozen with the taste as they are, with the names of famous restaurants and cooks including.
But on the other hand, in a saturated market,2002/ToChugokuMore of ChinesespinachRemains fromPesticideHas been detected, distrust of the same type of food has occurred, and the state is slightly decreasing. Also,2007/ToAkafuku MochiThere are also cases of misuse of preservation technology, such as the discovery of manufacturing date disguise by frozen storage.
Frozen foods that have been cooked to a certain stage may cause distrust in relation to the safety issues of raw materials and the country of production. According to the Japan Frozen Foods Association, Japan's cooked imported frozen foods in 2006 are in a rapidly growing market that exceeds 100% of the previous year.However, this means that imported cooked frozen foods have gained a considerable position in Japan's domestic food demand,Safety of Chinese foodIn connection with such problems, there is a turmoil that problematic products are collected after distribution, and frozen products made in China that were sold in various parts of Japan at the end of January 2008.GyozaThere is also a turmoil in which poisonous substances are detected and addicts are detected. As a result of the frozen dumpling case, the sales of frozen dumplings dropped sharply.
With regard to this matter, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government is able to make reliable and appropriate choices when purchasing frozen frozen foods from Tokyo, and also as a means for businesses to properly grasp the raw materials of foods that they manufacture and process. It is obligatory to label the origin of raw materials for cooked frozen foods sold to consumers in Tokyo..
WedMinutesgreaseBy making it so low that it freezes and solidifiesmicroorganismFor a long time (Japan Frozen Food AssociationAccording to minus 18℃The feature is that it can be stored for about 1 year after production).
In addition, the storage temperature of "minus 18℃Is 0℉ (Fahrenheit0 degree: Fahrenheit degree 0 is derived from Celsius degree-18). If the temperature is further lowered, it will parasitize the fishAnisakislikeParasiteYou can also kill.
Frozen foods such as peeled shrimp, squid and shellfish are treated to form a thin ice film (glaze, glaze) to prevent surface drying and oxidation..
Frozen food precautions
- Store at low temperature (minus -18℃).
- Expiration SoonProtect.grease OfOxidationEtc.品質 OfdeteriorationProgress does not stop completely, even if it slows down. If you store it for too long,Sublimationdo it(I.e.It's done (frozen), and it's dry even when thawed. Also, the moisture in the packageRecrystallizationConversion (FrostThen, it becomes partially messy.
- Try to avoid melting as much as possible during transportation. If you buy it at home, buy it at the end of shopping and put it in the freezer at home early.dry iceIf you buy it at a store that offers such services, it is advisable to ask for dry ice.
- Once melted, do not refreeze and use up early. If the water melts or the drip refreezesFlavorAnd the freshness is significantly reduced.
- During handlingfrostbiteBe careful.
- CondensationWhen frozen frozen foods are fried, the water content increases rapidly.Vaporization(Steam explosion), hot oil spatters,scaldBe careful as it may cause fire or fire.
It is an oligopoly market with the top five companies accounting for about 75% of the market share.
Major frozen food manufacturing companies
- Nichirei Group
- Maruha Nichiro
- Table mark
- Ajinomoto Frozen Food
- Nitto Best
- Japanese Fisheries
- Nissin Foods
- Ole Aida
- Toyo Suisan
- Polar ocean
- ^ "Modern Product Dictionary New Product Edition" Toyo Keizai Inc., 1986, 688 pages
- ^ Yoshiaki Sato, "Russian Jokes, The World of Anekdot" (Toyo Shoten, 2007) p.61
- ^ Especially for vegetables, fruits, and seafood, since the cells are destroyed by the expansion of water contained in foods, their types and uses were limited.
- ^ Japan Frozen Food Association_History of Frozen Foods
- ^ Frozen food history and evolution -Frozen food.biz
- ^ Did it taste good?冷凍ラーメン超絶進化の裏側 キンレイ｢お水がいらない｣シリーズ人気のワケBehind the evolution of frozen ramen transcendence Kinrei's "no water needed" series is popular --Toyo Keizai ONLINE
- ^ Japan Frozen Food Association survey 2008
- ^ Labeling the origin of raw materials for cooked frozen foods
- ^ Japan Frozen Food Association Should the quality of frozen foods be judged by looking at the expiration date displayed?
- ^ a b "Chapter 3 Hygiene Management & Cooking Technology Manual in the Cooking Room". Ministry of education. 2020/6/5Browse.
- Frozen food day(Every yearMay 10) *From the "frozen" toe (10) and 18°C which is the reference temperature for frozen foods
- Japan Frozen Food Association
- Cell alive system refrigeration