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🧁 | [Kokoiro] Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi Prefecture.The only coffee concierge in the prefecture with a coffee appraiser qualification | SIMONS…


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[Kokoiro] Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi Prefecture.Coffee concierge with the only coffee appraiser qualification in the prefecture | SIMONS…

 
If you write the contents roughly
"I went to a university in Fukuoka City and was shocked by the long-established coffee shop" Coffee House Noda "that I suddenly entered.
 

"We want to be a concierge that identifies the individuality of coffee beans, draws them out, and provides them according to the tastes of our customers." … → Continue reading

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Long-established coffee

Fukuoka City

Fukuoka City(Fukuokashi) isFukuokaLocated in the westCity.. Fukuoka PrefecturePrefectural office locationAndGovernment-designated city.

KinkiWest ofWest JapanSecond,Tokyo 23 WardEven in cities nationwide excluding横 浜 市,Osaka,Nagoya city,SapporoSecond onlyFourth population(About 162 million people[1])Kyushu region OfAdministration-Economy-TransportationIt has the largest population in the region as the center.

Overview

Hakata BayThis area facingHakataIt has been recognized as (hakata) and has been used as a gateway to the continent. By medieval merchantAutonomous cityWas formed and was often burned down by the war, but fostered a rich townsman culture.Hideyoshi ToyotomiAfter being reconstructed byKuroda Fukuoka CastleAnd itscastle townBy buildingNakagawaAs a castle town in the westFukuoka, "East is a merchant town / commercial city from the Middle Ages"HakataBecame[2]. afterwards,Edo PeriodからMeiji EraFrom the beginning, Fukuoka and Hakata coexisted,1876/Fukuoka and Hakata were integrated into one city, "Fukuhiro(Fukuhaku) ”and then renamed“ Fukuoka ”[3].

Kyushu region OfAdministration-Economy-TransportationIt is the center and has the largest population in the region.West JapanAlso inOsakaIt is the second most populous city.Centering on the cityFukuoka metropolitan areaIs formed.Kitakyushu(Kitakyushu metropolitan area) WithKitakyushu/Fukuoka metropolitan area TheEconomic scale in city unitsIn JapanFour metropolitan areasCan be counted[3]..The city's gross domestic productSpecial WardIsTokyo 23 WardExceptOsaka,横 浜 市,Nagoya cityNext to the 4th place in Japan, Fukuoka CityThree major metropolitan areasIt is a city with the second highest economic power[4]..A large company headquartered in Tokyo or Osaka has many branches and branch offices that control the Kyushu region, which is typical.Branch economy city.Sapporo,Sendai city,Hiroshima cityと と も にRegional center cityIt plays a role as.In addition, it is one of the leading “student cities” in Japan, where 14 universities and 9 junior colleges are located, and the ratio of students to the population is among the ordinance-designated cities.Kyoto City2rd place after[5].

Meiji RestorationIn the early modern era, it was not the largest city in the Kyushu region as it is today (Prefectural office location and population rank of ordinance-designated citiesSee).At that time, the largest city in the Kyushu region wasNagasaki-KagoshimaAnd the central local agency that controls the Kyushu region isKumamoto-shiThe importance of Fukuoka Prefecture and Fukuoka City in the Kyushu region was low.1899/Hakata PortOpen port,1911/Kyushu Imperial University(CurrentKyushu UniversityIts predecessor) began to develop and progressed, gradually becoming the center of the Kyushu region. In the 1910s, it surpassed the population of Kumamoto City and became the largest in the Kyushu region.1920/ OfDemographicsThen.KumamotoMore than twice the population of. Also, from this time, the central branch agency that oversees Kyushu has moved to Fukuoka City.1963/In addition, when Kitakyushu City was established by the merger of five cities, the population of Kitakyushu City became the largest in the Kyushu region, and Kitakyushu City was designated as an ordinance-designated city for the first time in Kyushu.afterwards,ShowaIn late JapanCoal mineA series of closed mountainsTertiary industryAnd the transformation of the industrial structure such as the rapid development of the government-designated citySanyo ShinkansenHakata StationAfter stretching etc.1979/The population of Fukuoka City became the largest in the Kyushu region, overtaking Kitakyushu City again.2010/Since then, Fukuoka City has the highest number of population growth and rate of increase among government-designated cities.[6]Even now, the number of people is increasing at a pace of over 1 per year.2015/ToKobe CityBecame the 5th most populous city in Japan[7].2020/In May, the population exceeded 5 million[8].

Of the Genkai SeaIki,TsushimaAcrossSouth KoreaThere is (Korea), which is a major city in the southern part of the country.BusanUp to 200 in a straight line from Fukuoka citykmdegree[9]Is. Also,Chugoku OfShanghaiUp to about 850km in the same wayTokyoCloser.As in these cases, the major cities of neighboring countries are located within approximately 1,000 km, soHakata Port,Fukuoka AirportFrom South Korea or China,TaiwanAnd so onSoutheast AsiaMany international routes to major cities are set up, and tourists from these areas are on the rise.From ancient timesKorean PeninsulaHaveContinentFukuoka City, which is the gateway to the city, has an influence in the world.cityIn the "World Cities Comprehensive Power Ranking" announced by the Japan Forest Memorial Foundation in 2019, it is ranked 42nd in the world among the cities targeted for evaluation, and 3rd in Japan after Tokyo and Osaka.[10]..In addition, in the "Urban Characteristic Evaluation", which the foundation evaluated the attractiveness and sustainability of domestic cities.Kyoto CitySecond in Japan after[11].. Together with Kitakyushu City as a special zone for global founding and job creationNational Strategic Special ZoneIt is specified in.In addition, the number of international conferences held in Fukuoka City is second only to Tokyo in Japan, and together with Kitakyushu City.International Conference Tourist CityIs also specified in[4].

Fukuoka cityCity centerIt is,TenjinHakataThere are two extremes (corresponding to Fukuoka and Hakata in the Edo period, respectively).Tenjin districtFukuoka City HallNishitetsu Fukuoka (Tenjin) Station-Fukuoka City SubwayTenjin StationAnd manyDepartment store,Fashion buildingIs the largest in KyushuDowntownIs.The largest in Kyushu in HakataTerminal stationIsHakata StationThere are manyShinkansenAnd limited express trains connect cities in Kyushu.AlsoFukuoka AirportBecause it is only a few minutes away by subway, branch offices of large companies are concentrated around Hakata Station.Business districtIt has become.Separates Tenjin and HakataNakagawa OfNakashuFormed inRed light districtIt is,NakasuIt is famous nationwide as (Nakasu)[12]..NakasuWest JapanRecognized as one of the entertainment districts[12],Tokyo OfShinjuku-Kabukicho,Sapporo-SusukinoAlong with, it is considered to be one of the three major entertainment districts in Japan[13]..Tenjin, Hakata, Nakasu,NagahamaPermanently installed at nightA stallIs the best in Japan[14] And there are many tourists who are looking for food stalls.1995/Is a large commercial complexCanal City HakataOpened on the east side of Nakasu,2011/ToKyushu ShinkansenAlong with the extension of Hakata, a commercial complex at Hakata StationJR Hakata City(Amu Plaza Hakata,Hakata Hankyu),2016/ToKITTE Hakata(Hakata Marui) Has opened.The concentration of commercial facilities around Hakata Station, which was originally a business district, is increasing, and competition for commercial areas with the Tenjin area is intensifying (""Tenjin distribution warSee also).Land prices in central Fukuoka are on the rise year by year, and the Tenjin Kimuraya Building costs 1 million yen per square meter.Hakata Station East(Hakata Station Chikushi Exit) is 1 million yen per square meterTokyoThe price is not inferior to that of a prime location,TokyoChuoHigashi GinzaIs above the average land price of[4]..However, Fukuoka AirportCity centerIn the city center due to the close proximity toAviation lawThe upper height limit is set, and around Tenjin and Hakata StationSkyscraperIs almost nonexistent.Tenjin-DamingThe district will relax height restrictions and rebuild private buildingsRedevelopmentplan"Tenjin Big BangIs in progress.

Main of Fukuoka CityFukutoshinas,NishishinKashiiIs mentioned. Around bothUniversity,University,Vocational schoolsIn addition to the large number of waterfront development areas, in the north of NishijinSeaside mochiBut in the west of KashiiIsland cityAre adjacent to each other. Especially for seaside mochi,Fukuoka PayPay Dome-Fukuoka City Library-Fukuoka City Museum-News reportCultural and entertainment facilities such as each company are concentrated.In central Fukuoka such as Tenjin and HakataFukuoka AirportA skyscraper cannot be built near the city, but the height is 100 in Fukuoka city.mMost of the above buildings are located near these two subcenters (relatively loosely regulated in height).Although not as large as these two sub-centers, other areas that can be mentioned as sub-centers of Fukuoka City are: big bridge,MeinohamaThere is.

Geography

位置

Northern part of Kyushu.Sea of ​​Japan(Hakata Bay-Imazu Bay-Genkai Sea) Of the half-moon typeFukuoka PlainMost of the area is the city area. The north is located on the northern side of Hakata BayreefIsUminonakamichi-Land connection islandIsShiga Island, WestItoshima PeninsulaThe city area extends to the eastern part. South and southwestMt. SefurisanThe city area extends to the mountains included inSagaTouches. Besides, as a manned island, on Hakata BayNokonoshimaFloating above the Genkai Sea near the mouth of Hakata Bay in the western part of the cityGenkai Island, Further northwest of itKoroshimaIs included in the city limits.

From Fukuoka CityIki-TsushimaAcross the otherKorean PeninsulaThere is.Major cities with a population of over 100 million in Japanas South Korea OfSeoul Special City,Chugoku OfShanghai,Taiwan OfTaipei CityIs the closest city toTokyo Special WardFrom about 880km,OsakaFrom about 480km,Hiroshima cityAbout 200km from South KoreaBusanIt is located about 200km from the city, about 540km from Seoul special city, about 890km from Shanghai in China, and about 1280km from Taipei in Taiwan.

terrain

Most of the city limitsFukuoka PlainIt is included in the area, and although there are some small mountains, it is generally flat.otherBig cityBecause it is flat compared to, in commuting, school, shoppingBicycleHighly convenient to use. The western and southern parts of the city area form a part of the Mt. Sefurisan area, and the terrain has a high elevation and large undulations. Most of the coast of the cityLandfillIs[15], Harbors and houses are being constructed. In the eastern part of Hakata BayArtificial islandIs also being constructed (Island city[16].. On the other hand, natural coasts remain in most of the West Ward and in the eastern coast of Kaigai and the islands. In addition, a reef with a width of about 300m called Kurose has developed about 200m north of Genkai Island. Kurose isCenozoicQuaternaryFukuoka Prefecture's onlyVolcanic islandClassified intobasaltIt is composed of.

As a river flowing through the city, it flows through the center of the cityNakagawa-Mikasa RiverAnd flows through the eastern part of the cityTatara RiverFlowing through the western part of the cityMuromi RiverSuch asSecond-class riverThere is,First-class riverThere is no. Therefore voluntaryWater sourceOften largeDrought(Example:Showa 53-54 Fukuoka city drought) Has been hit by.

While there are no long rivers, as mentioned above, the rivers that flow into the Hakata Bay with a short river length and a slightly steep gradient from the mountains around the plain are mostly through urban areas,Torrential rainIf there is a flood, it is likely to flood and it seems that it formed the Fukuoka plain,Water controlIt is an issue above.

climate

Facing the Sea of ​​Japan side, but warmPacific climateIt is a Kyushu type climatic area, and the average annual temperature is around 17℃.[Source required], Annual precipitation is about 1500-1800mm[Source required]It is changing at.In addition, it should be notedBack shaking mountainsAnd the area at the foot of it will be larger than that.Unlike cities on the Pacific side, the sunshine hours are reduced in winter, and the annual sunshine hours are about 1800 to 1900 hours, which is a little shorter than other areas in Kyushu.Although the sunshine hours in winter are short, from the viewpoint of precipitation distribution, there is a peak of precipitation in summer and the precipitation in winter is small. With more than 10mm of rainy days in winter compared to the area ofSnowfallIt is decisively different from the typical Sea of ​​Japan side climate in that the climate is extremely low.

It has a low latitude and faces the inner bay.Big cityBecause of the summerOsakaAlong with the above, it is one of the areas where the heat is extremely severe day and night. Midsummer days can be seen from June, and the severe heat of midsummer days continues from July to September. The average value for 6-7 is 9 days (the average value for 1991-2020 is 8.1 days), and in recent yearsExtremely hot dayThe number of observation days is also increasing.Especially, the temperature at night is one of the highest in mainland Japan.Heat island phenomenonIs also remarkable, from before the warTropical nightThe rate of increase in the number of days is the highest at major meteorological stations in Japan (1936-2007, increasing at a pace of 10 days in 5.0 years).Normal tropical nights are on the mainlandOsaka,Kobe City,KagoshimaIt takes 38.7 days, which is the second largest, and it takes more than a month.In some years, it was more than 1 days on hot days and more than 30 days on tropical nights.In the low latitude area of ​​Kyushu, it is more susceptible to moist air masses in the summer, and the city areaHakata BayIt is easy to get wet sea breezetemperatureIn addition to(I.e.Is high. for that reasonTokyo 23 Ward,Nagoya cityな どEast JapanCompared to major cities inDiscomfort indexHeat index (WBGT,Wet bulb black ball temperature) Is high, and the sensible heat becomes severe. In recent years, the temperature has become difficult to fall especially at night,2018/On August 8, the 22th lowest temperature in Japan was 8°C or higher, and the second highest temperature in the history of domestic observation was 30°C (so-calledSuper tropical night) Was recorded.

North in winterGenkai SeaFlowing throughWarm currentIsTsushima CurrentIs affected byWinter dayIs very few (2.5 days in normal years), and in some years there is none at all.Compared to the 23 wards of Tokyo, Nagoya, and Kyoto, the average winter temperature is about 2.0 ° C higher, which means it is warmer in terms of temperature.But northwest(I.e.Is blowing, and there are many cloudy daysDaylight hoursIs considerably less than the Pacific Ocean side, so the perceived temperature is low.In addition, because it is relatively close to the continent, strong cold waves easily flow in the westward direction, and the cold weather may become severe temporarily and the maximum temperature may reach 0 to 3 ° C.Precipitation is low, but the number of days of precipitation is slightly higher than in cities on the Pacific coast.The annual number of snowfall days in a normal year is 15.6 days,SnowfallIs once or twice a year, up to about 1 cm, and it is not uncommon to have a year with no snow. This is because the northwest monsoon windward is narrow due to the influence of the Korean Peninsula, so the northwest monsoon winds over the sea are short and snow clouds do not develop. In the northwesterly winter type, the snowfall in Fukuoka City is short, and the undeveloped clouds cover about 2 cm to 5 cm.KagoshimaIt often happens that the snowfall is 20 cm or more.Southern Sawara Ward (Wakiyama-infield-Board shop・The amount of snow on the Kabuchi) and along the mountains increases slightly, but on the Sea of ​​Japan sideHiroshima cityCompared to the mountains along the Sanyo region.

The number of lightning days per year is relatively high at 25.5 days, and unlike the Pacific Ocean side, lightning strikes are often observed in winter.So-called sunny summer daysYudachiIs lessCapital AreaA direct hit to the center likethunderstormThere is no hail. By that amountSprinkling waterI can not expect an effect, and the number of tropical nights is increasing (normal statistics period is1991/-2020/).

Fukuoka City(Fukuoka District Meteorological Observatory) Climate
Month123456789101112Years
Highest temperature record ° C (° F21.5
(70.7)
24.3
(75.7)
26.3
(79.3)
30.1
(86.2)
32.3
(90.1)
37.3
(99.1)
38.3
(100.9)
38.1
(100.6)
37.1
(98.8)
33.3
(91.9)
28.2
(82.8)
26.0
(78.8)
38.3
(100.9)
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F10.2
(50.4)
11.6
(52.9)
15.0
(59)
19.9
(67.8)
24.4
(75.9)
27.2
(81)
31.2
(88.2)
32.5
(90.5)
28.6
(83.5)
23.7
(74.7)
18.2
(64.8)
12.6
(54.7)
21.3
(70.3)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F6.9
(44.4)
7.8
(46)
10.8
(51.4)
15.4
(59.7)
19.9
(67.8)
23.3
(73.9)
27.4
(81.3)
28.4
(83.1)
24.7
(76.5)
19.6
(67.3)
14.2
(57.6)
9.1
(48.4)
17.3
(63.1)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F3.9
(39)
4.4
(39.9)
7.2
(45)
11.5
(52.7)
16.1
(61)
20.3
(68.5)
24.6
(76.3)
25.4
(77.7)
21.6
(70.9)
16.0
(60.8)
10.6
(51.1)
5.8
(42.4)
14.0
(57.2)
Minimum temperature record ° C (° F−6.0
(21.2)
−8.2
(17.2)
−4.7
(23.5)
−1.4
(29.5)
1.4
(34.5)
4.3
(39.7)
13.8
(56.8)
15.4
(59.7)
7.9
(46.2)
0.4
(32.7)
−2.1
(28.2)
−5.4
(22.3)
−8.2
(17.2)
Precipitation amount mm (inch)74.4
(2.929)
69.8
(2.748)
103.7
(4.083)
118.2
(4.654)
133.7
(5.264)
249.6
(9.827)
299.1
(11.776)
210.0
(8.268)
175.1
(6.894)
94.5
(3.72)
91.4
(3.598)
67.5
(2.657)
1,686.9
(66.413)
Snowfall cm (inch)1
(0.4)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
Average days of precipitation (≥0.5mm)11.010.711.410.89.812.712.411.211.07.99.910.2128.9
Average number of snowfall days (≥0 cm)6.341.400000000.13.915.6
(I.e.63626364677575727368666368
Average monthlyDaylight hours104.1123.5161.2188.1204.1145.2172.2200.9164.7175.9137.3112.21,889.4
Source:Japanese Meteorological Agency (Average value: 1991-2020, extreme value: 1890-present)[17][18]


Place name

Place name of Fukuoka citySee.

Administrative district

Wards of Fukuoka City Japan.png
Nishi-ward
Higashi Ward
Sawara Ward
Hakata Ward
Chuo
Jonan Ward
South ward

The following 7AreaConsisting of (Municipality Codeorder).All populations are estimated populations as of September 2022, 4.

CodesWard namepopulation
(Man)
area
(kilometer2)
The population density
(People/km2
40131-5Higashi Ward326,23769.364,704
40132-3Hakata Ward252,47231.637,982
40133-1Chuo208,44015.4013,535
40134-0South ward266,67830.988,608
40135-8Nishi-ward211,46384.172,512
40136-6Jonan Ward132,82015.998,306
40137-4Sawara Ward221,78395.872,313
Total1,619,893343.394,717

Initially, it was established with a system of 5 wards,1982/In 57, Seinan Ward and Sawara Ward were separated from Nishi Ward.

City structure

In the central part of the cityTenjinThe district (Chuo-ku) is the center of the city, where many department stores and buildings are lined up. From TenjinNakagawaOn the east side across the river is the main and tributary of the Naka River (Hakata River)NakashuThere are terrain parts, but these are the three largest in JapanRed light districtListed as one ofNakasuIs[13]..To the east of that is the city of Hakata.To the southeast of Hakata cityHakata StationIs located. The area between Nakasu and Hakata Station is a business district with office buildings and business hotels. Located in the west and southwest of the Tenjin areaDaming,Imaizumi,VigilanceSince the latter half of the 1990s, the number of stores mainly targeting young people has increased, and it is rapidly developing as a youth town.

If you go west from the daimyoFukuoka CastleThere are traces. To the west, about 4km from Tenjin, is the downtown area of ​​Fukuoka's subcenter.NishishinThere is a district (Sawara Ward).The same district (Chuo Ward)Jigyo, Nishijin,Hundred roadThe north side of the area) is a land developed by landfill in the 1980s.Seaside mochiIt is called, and a new city area is formed at that time[19].

On Hakata Bay in the eastern part of the cityIsland cityCalled (Higashi Ward)Artificial islandIs under construction,2000 eraFrom the second half2010 eraAround the beginning of the year, a part of the harbor district and residential area has been completed. In Fukuoka City,2000/Since around (12), urban development projects such as land readjustment projects and continuous grade crossing projects have been carried out along the JR Kagoshima Main Line and Nishitetsu Kaizuka Line in the eastern part of the city, and have long been regarded as a subcenter in the eastern part.Kashii Station-Nishitetsu Kashii StationAroundKashiiIt is an emerging urban area that uses the former Kashii yard of the district and JRChihayaTo and from the district, andHakozakiDistrict andYoshizukaA maintenance project is underway with the district.The continuous grade crossing project was completed around 2004 in the Chihaya area, in March 2004 in the Hakozaki area, and in March 3 in the Kashii area.Also,Land readjustment projectWas almost completed by around 2010 for the Hakozaki and Chihaya districts, and completed in 2021 for the Kashii district.

Covering the southern part of the city,Fukuoka Expressway Line 5,Fukuoka outer ring roadWith the progress of the development of city planning roads centered on theCity planning roadHas been completed and is almost completed. In July 2012, the highway line 7 was completedFukuoka Expressway Loop LineIt became.

As a significant movement related to urban formation,Kyushu UniversityCampus relocation can be mentioned. The Hakozaki Campus in Higashi Ward, where many faculties including the Headquarters were located, and the Chuo Ward, which was mainly used by the Faculty of Education,Ropponmatsucampus(Old Fukuoka High School(School grounds) will be moved to the newly developed Ito campus in Nishi Ward. The gateway to the Ito campusImajukuからShusenjiA land readjustment project for Ito was carried out in the area of ​​Tohoku, and a new base area was established in the western area. The campus relocation started in 2005,Kyudaikenkentoshi StationIs also open. On the other hand, there is a complex facility on the site of the Ropponmatsu Campus.Ropponmatsu 421Opened,Fukuoka High Court-Fukuoka High Public Prosecutor's Office-Fukuoka Bar Association HallLegal profession-related facilities such as these have also moved to this area.At the site of the Hakozaki campus, advanced urban development will be carried out under the "Fukuoka Smart EAST" plan.

In addition, through the redevelopment project around the station, the Fukuoka City SubwayMeinohama StationAroundMeinohama areaNishitetsu is a new commercial district in (Nishi Ward)Ohashi StationAroundOhashi districtExisting commercial areas are also developed in (Minami Ward).

In addition, the main roads that have been newly constructed on the streets have been removed from utility poles, and the maintenance of street trees is being promoted.[20].

Another major feature of the cityscape is that there are no skyscrapers in the center of the city, although there are skyscrapers in the suburbs. This is because there is Fukuoka Airport in the immediate vicinity of the center,Restricted surfaceDue to the height restrictions on the building, the limit is 60m in the Hakata station area and 70m in the Tenjin area.[21]..Therefore, in the city, in line with the rebuilding of buildings within 500m around Tenjin and Hakata Station,Tenjin Big Bang"Hakata ConnectedWe have started a large-scale urban redevelopment project called "National Strategic Special ZoneThe height restrictions will be relaxed by utilizing the system.

Of the entire Fukuoka cityGenkai Islandas well as the Koroshimaexcept forCity planning area34,082 hectares, which is about half of the 17,7 hectaresUrbanization control areaIs designated as[22], Building new buildings is strictly regulated, but in existing villages, etc., there is a system that allows construction only for the use of some buildings such as houses by defining a certain area.Ordinance on permission of Fukuoka City development actStipulated in[23]..The population of Fukuoka City continues to increase as of 2021, and development pressure on the suburbs is still high.Line drawing systemAlthough the importance of regulation by the government has not diminished, revitalization of existing settlements with declining birthrate and aging population is also an issue in urbanization control areas.

"Fukuoka" and "Hakata"

cityThe name is "Fukuoka", but the name of the central station of the city that calls "Fukuoka" isNishitetsu OfNishitetsu Fukuoka (Tenjin) Station(Formerly “Nishitetsu Fukuoka”)JRIs "HakataIs used[24].

Fukuoka isFukuoka domainKuroda"Samurai Town,"HakataHas prospered as an "international trading port" since ancient timesHistoryFukuoka and Hakata were originally separate cities with the Nakagawa as the border.1889/At the time of the enforcement of the city system, there was a rush to change the city name to either "Fukuoka" or "Hakata", but it was agreed that the city name would be Fukuoka and the central station name would be Hakata (for details).HistorySee below). Hakata became the gateway when the Shinkansen was opened, and Hakata's name recognition greatly exceeded, but todaycastle townWith the rise of the Tenjin district located on the outskirts of the city, the former "Fukuoka" became a commercial district and "Hakata" became a business district.For this reason, it is often called "Fukuoka" rather than "Hakata", and Hakata is often used only as a district name in the city.

In recent years in Fukuoka and Hakata districts, the colors that distinguish samurai towns and merchant towns have fadedKyusyuOverall economycultureThe role of playing a central role such as is increasing.

Adjacent municipalities

It is adjacent to the following municipalities. The numbers in parentheses are the administrative districts of Fukuoka City where the municipalities are adjacent.

Fukuoka

Saga

Of the neighboring municipalities, the ones that belong to Fukuoka Prefecture areBed townIs developing as However, the neighboring municipalities that belong to Saga Prefecture are FukuokaMt. SefurisanIt is separated by, and has not yet developed as a bed town. Note thatFukuoka metropolitan areaBelongs toTosu City,Kiyama,Miyaki TownIs not adjacent to Fukuoka City.

2005/(17) On October 10, it was adjacent to Saga City in Saga Prefecture and Fukuoka CitySagaFuji Town-Kanzaki DistrictMise VillageAre merged, and Saga City is born under the new municipal system.[25] As a result, the prefectural government offices came into contact with each other across the prefectural border. However, the center of Fukuoka and Saga are 50km apart in a straight line.

Across the seaNagasakiIki City-Tsushima cityBoth may be treated adjacent to each other.telephone fee The Remote islandAs a special case, it is treated as adjacent.

population

Demography40130.svg
Fukuoka City and Population Distribution by Age in Japan (2005)Fukuoka City Population Distribution by Age and Gender (2005)
Purple-Fukuoka
Green-All over Japan
Blue-male
Red-female

Changes in the population of (the area equivalent to) Fukuoka
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

FormerImperial UniversityMetKyushu UniversityIncluding about 2 studentsFukuoka UniversityAnd over 1 peopleKyushu Sangyo University[26] As universities are concentrated in this area, it is characterized by a large population in their 20s in Fukuoka Prefecture. In addition, the average age of other citizens has remained relatively young due to the intermittent population inflow. Degree of 22CensusAccording to Fukuoka, the population ratio of youth aged 15 to 29 is 19.2%, which is the top city in all ordinance-designated cities. The population growth rate (Survey period: October 2010-December 10) is also the highest for all ordinance-designated cities.[27],1965/(Showa 40) ~2014/The population growth rate during the period (26) isCapital AreaIt is expensive compared to the whole area and metropolitan metropolitan areas. However,Birth rateAbout 2008-2012 statistics is as low as 1.24[28].

CensusChanges in population (unit: XNUMX)[29][30]
  Fukuoka city population
  Population of the area that is the current city of Fukuoka City
  Old 5 cities (Moji-Kokura-Tobata-Hachiman-Wakamatsu) Total population
  KitakyushuPopulation

Phone Number

The area code is 092.

History

original

Paleolithic tools have been excavated from the Morooka Site (Hakata Ward) and the Yoshitake Site (Nishi Ward).

Jomon PeriodThe ruins ofItoshima PeninsulaEarly Jomon period at Ohara D site (Nishi Ward) in the eastPit dwellingIn addition, the earthenware and stone-collecting furnaces from the earliest period to the latter stage were found in the Kashiwara site (Minami Ward). From the archeological site of Notame Kudou (Minami Ward) and the ruins of Arita (Sarah Ward) as medium-term ruinsIchigashiSuch asAcornKind ofStorage holeHave been found together. In the latter half of the site, there are Motooka Urio Kaizuka, Kuwabara Hikko Kaizuka (all in Nishi Ward), etc.Shell moundThere are many Jomon pottery and stone tools excavated from the Shika Site (Sawara Ward).Jomon periodFukuoka PlainWas the seabedThatManabe DaikakuAccording to the survey, it is the same as the above-mentioned ruins at the end of "Hizen Island", which is as few as the Paleolithic period.

In the city as ruins at that timeItatsuki Ruins(Hakata Ward). AlsoShiga IslandFound in (Higashi Ward)Gold seal"Han Commissioner KingIs a valuable historical material that shows exchanges with continental culture around the 1st century.After Chinese bookThe Indo in the article "Kenbu Zhongyuan 57nd year (XNUMXth year of the era), the tribute to the Japanese kingdom of gods, Aga, the ambassador of the self-repaired professor, Mr. Kuniyuki of the South, Kamiya Kamiya, Mitsutake," in Touden Is believed to be. Also3st centuryThe so-called description of the situationWei ZhajinFrom the description ofHis country"Hahaha (the latter Nanotsu) theory is influential.

By the way, this record that "I was tribute to Wei" caused a turmoil at the time of the discovery of Kim. When Kim Jinbei was discovered by Jinbei Peasant in 4, mainly scholars argued that "it was a tribute to Wei. It should be crushed." However, for a moment, the feudal domain of the Fukuoka clan also leaned toward it. It was a Confucian who was the president of the domain, Amazukan.Kamei MinamiSaid that he stretched his body and stopped him.

All over the cityOld tombRemains in the plainNaka Hachiman Tumulus,,, etc. large keyhole-shaped tomb moundAburayama tumulus group, Kin tumulus group, in the hills such as AburayamaImajuku KofungunSuch asTumulusThere is a distribution zone.

Legendary era, ancient

Shingo Empress OfSanhan conquestMany legends remain here. Higashi Ward KashiiKashiimiyaIt is,Shingo EmpressIs a husbandEmperor NakasoI enshrine the spirit of[31]. His countryAs the successor ofYamato periodIs called "Nano Prefecture" and "Sakai Prefecture",Japanese calligraphyThere is also a description in.

527/ OfChikushiYouIwai no RanAfter,Imperial courtIt is said in the Nihonshoki that he was able to make a doll. (It says "Build at Natsu no Mouth (Hakudaitsu)")

607/,Ono girlThe 2thEnvoyAsNanotsuCross more. In 630EnvoyIs crossing.

663/,BaekjeThe Japanese government reinforcements dispatched for the purpose of revival,Battle of Shiramura RiverAt,SillaSuffer great defeat in the army. In preparation for the retaliation of the Tang and Silla coalition forces, the Yamato Imperial Court was on the coast of Hakata Bay as a defense.GuardAnd placeWater city,Ono CastleBuild a fort such as. After this, young people from all over the country were deployed in northern Kyushu as defense workers, mourning the pain and sorrow that they left their hometown for military service.ManyoshuIs left in.

757/,Kushida ShrineIs opened.

From the 7th century to the 11th century, international exchange flourished, and in 665Chikushikan(Tsukushi's mutsumi, horsetails) were constructed,DazaifuWill be the guesthouse ofKonokanIt became (Korokan). In addition to the function as a guest house, such as entertaining foreign ambassadors and farewell to Chinese ambassadors, it seems that they also played a role as a trading office and a quarantine station. Korinkan Remains1988/At that timeHeiwadai baseball fieldIt was discovered under the bank of the outfield seats and surprised the public.Nara periodThe seashore is in front of me, and the voyage ship sailed offshore and landed on a small boat.

In addition, the white palace was abolished.Michio ShinoharaCame to Dazaifu in 901RelocationAt that time, he landed in Hakata and saw himself as a water mirror of the clear stream of the Yokkakawa River, and lamented his death. What was erected on that groundWater mirror TenmanguThis is the name of Tenjin, the city center of Fukuoka City.

806/,Tochoji TempleIs opened.

919/,Hakozaki HoseikaiBegins. 923,HakozakiguIs opened.

中 世

1161/ToKiyomori TairaByJapanThe first artificial port "" was constructed[32].. This is a pier that was built by land reclamation. Tenjin/Hakata part is still at the bottom of the sea, and Hakozakigu,Sumiyoshi Shrine,Kushida ShrineThere was a big temple and shrine. The medieval shrine was an important investor in trade and a sponsor of Hakata's adventure merchants.

From around the end of the 11th century, Hakata was later formed with the Tojin area, which was later called "Daigatogai". It was a big city with many foreign traders lined up with exotic buildings. To the Chinese merchants in Hakata at this timeApologizeThere areMainland ChinaHakata and many fleets come and go,Japan Song TradingChinese merchants who built wealth in Hakata lived in Hakata and carried out active commercial activities.TempleIn connection with this, the power reached the center and was especially called "Hakata Tsunazu" ("Tsunazu" means "captain").

Hakata was also the window to accept culture. 1195 EisaiIs the first in Japan in HakataZen templeIsShofukuji TempleHowever, Hakata Tsunasuku and others are still providing physical and mental assistance at this time. Eisai isSouthern Song DynastyからteaIt is also known to have brought back home and spread the habit of cafes throughout Japan,Manju(Steamed bun)""noodles(Udon)""Japanese buckwheat noodlesIt was through Hakata during this period that foods familiar to Japanese people such as "(soba)" came into Japan.

Muromachi PeriodThrough HakataYear priestOf 12 people calledRich merchantWas run for the first time in Japanese historyFree cityMet.Sakai (Sakai City) (Sakai has 36CongregationIt was prosperous as a trading city, butSengoku periodToSengoku DaimyoSubject toHideyoshi ToyotomiYoshihisa ShimazuDuring the battle ofShimazu ArmyBurned down by On July 1587, 7 (June 24, Tensho 15) after the settlement of KyushuChikuzen HakozakiInHideyoshi Toyotomi TheVeteren exileWas announced.

Master

However, on the other hand, from other countriesInvasionThe Silla pirates invaded Hakata Bay in 869 and in 1019Sword's entranceHakata was always exposed to external threats. Its greatest threat is the greatest empire in human history that destroyed Song and ruled most of the Eurasian continent,Mongolian Empire.

GoryeoOf the Mongolian EmpireKubirai JapanSeeking the obedience ofKamakura ShogunateRefused, so in 1274, Mongolians, Chinese,Masato・4 former troops made up of Koreans, etc.The role of Fumonaga). On October 10TsushimaOn October 10stIkiAttacked HiradoTakashima OfMatsuura PartyThe former army, which has completely wiped out the headquarters of the company, landed on Hakata Bay from Hyakudohara on October 10, and a fierce ground battle was deployed. But,Battle of Akasaka,Battle of TorikaigataThe former army, which had been struggling with such as being torn by, decided to withdraw and forced to withdraw at night, resulting in severe damage due to storms during the withdrawal.

The Shogunate built a stone-built land for about 20 km on the coast of Hakata Bay in preparation for another attack by the former army. This historic site "Genso-hoho" still remains in modern times, and there is a place name "hoho". Then, in 1281, the former army attacked (The role of Koan). The former army that appeared in Hakata Bay avoids landing from the base, occupying Shikajima, a land-bound island, and intends to advance to Hakata, but suffered a total attack by the Japanese side and lost to Ikijima. did(Battle of Shiga Island).

The early modern period

1587/From Kyushu allHideyoshi ToyotomiHakata was reconstructed by. This is called Taikomachiwari[33].. Freedom of trade and autonomy of the townAutonomous cityWas established. In addition, Hakata at that time was an area that extends from east to west of the southern coast of Hakata Bay. Hideyoshi's intention at this time wasThe role of Bunroku and KeichoIt seems that there was a plan to utilize Hakata, a trading city, as a logistics supply base when sending troops in.

Battle of SekigaharaIn 1600 afterKuroda Josui,Kuroda NagamasaParent and childChikuzen countryImmigration to the city centerNakagawaThe east was called Hakata, and the west was called Fukuoka. Kuroda parent and childHideaki KobayakawaI entered Najima Castle (Higashi Ward), which was the residence of Nojima, but because it is on a small hill facing Hakata Bay.castle townCould not be made. From 1601 there was a new castle in Fukusaki in Kego Village (now Chuo Ward).Fukuoka CastleAnd made a castle town.

At that time,Bizen countryFukuoka (currentOkayamaSetouchi CityOsafune Fukuoka), the castle town was named Fukuoka. The Kuroda clan widely acknowledged the autonomy of Hakata's towns, so that the commercial city of Hakata and the administrative city of Samurai, Fukuoka, are adjacent to each other while sharing their functions.Twin citiesWas born. Nakasu, which is an entertainment district, has developed in Nakashu, which is the boundary between Hakata and Fukuoka.

Due to the isolation policy of the Shogunate throughout the Edo period, trade with foreign countries was limited to Nagasaki and Tsushima, so Fukuoka and Hakata did not develop as international trade cities.

As mentioned above, in Tenmei 4 (1784)Shiga IslandGold sealHas been discovered.

Modern

After that, Hakata and Fukuoka coexisted from the Edo period to the early Meiji era, but in 1876, the area was reorganized into one area called "Fukuhiro". In 1878,County, town and village organization lawWith the enforcement of, Fukuhiro was renamed to Fukuoka Ward, and the municipality calling itself "Hakata" disappeared once.

With the enforcement of the municipal system in 1889, FukuokaMunicipal systemAt the time of enforcement, there were voices saying that the city name would be changed to "Hakata City" or that Fukuoka and Hakata would be re-separated, but none of them was realized and the city name was changed to Fukuoka City.The "name battle" at the time of the enforcement of the city system was serious, and it was said that the Fukuoka faction and the Hakata faction were overheated to fight each other in the dark.[Source required].. The following year, in 1890, the 23nd city council in 2 broke up with a "name problem" and voted, but the number of pros and cons was completely the same. Finally, it was decided as "Fukuoka" by the decision of the chairperson from Fukuoka.[34].

At this point in the Meiji era, the concept of “Fukuoka” and “Hakata” being separate regions remained strong. Therefore, around the same time, at the timeKyushu RailwayCompany (later nationalized) from Fukuoka CityKurumeWhen laying the railway up to, the city's central station was in the Hakata area, so the station name was Hakata station instead of Fukuoka station.

The name of "Fukuoka Station" is Chuo-ku, Fukuoka City.Tenjinに 位置 す るNishitetsuIn 2001, the station took the name ofNishitetsu Fukuoka (Tenjin) StationAnd the station name was changed. Incidentally, with the promotion of the ordinance-designated city in 1972, "Hakata Ward" was established as an administrative district, and the place name "Hakata" was revived for the first time in almost XNUMX years.

Hakata, which once flourished as a commercial city for townspeople, became a business district where government offices gathered, and Fukuoka, which developed as an administrative city for samurai, became a downtown commercial district, and its functions were replaced.

Chronological Table

Primitive-Kofun period

  • BC 40000 XNUMX Paleolithic from Morooka and Yoshitake remains
  • BC 10000 Ohara D site to pit dwelling in the early Jomon period
  • BC 2000 Acorn storage hole, Motooka Urio Kaizuka, Kuwabara Hikushi Kaizuka from Notamedokuto and Arita remains
  • BC1000 Many pottery and stone tools from the Shika Site
  • BC 450 Itatsuki Ruins (First rice farming in Japan)
  • 57/ His countryThe kingBack HanEmperor GuangwuReceived the gold stamp of "Khan Commission King"
  • 527/ Iwai no Ran.Chikushi KokuzoIwai Yamato administrationRevolt against
  • 536 Established Miyake in Nanotsu (Hie, Hakata-ku, near Miyake, Minami-ku). (Natsumiya family) The predecessor of Dazaifu

Ancient times

中 世

The early modern period

Meiji Era

For changes in the administrative area after the enforcement of the municipal system, see "Changes in administrative areas"checking.

  • July 1870, 7, Fukuoka clan fake case.Prime ministerial billCounterfeiting is discovered and an investigation by an ordnance stand begins.
  • July 1871, 7 (August 2, 1871)Nagachi KurodaWas dismissed as the governor of the clan, and Prince Arisugawa Miya became the governor of the clan, and the Fukuoka clan became a de facto clan.
  • July 1871, 7,Abandoned DomainByFukuoka domainWill continue to be the prefectural governor of Fukuoka Prefecture and Arisugawa Shrine. The prefecture is divided into 32 wards, with Fukuoka as the first ward and Hakata as the second ward.
  • On September 1872, 9, the prefecture was reorganized into 15 wards, with Fukuoka as the first ward and Hakata as the second ward.
  • March 1873,Chikuzen bamboo spear Ikki.. Destroy the prefectural office in Fukuoka Castle.
  • In May 1876, the prefecture was reorganized into 5 wards, and Fukuoka and Hakata were integrated into one ward to become Daiichi Oku.
  • March 1877,Strange in Fukuoka.Southwest WarCausedSaigo TakamoriResponded toTakebe Koshiro,Ochihiko ShiroThe attack on Fukuoka Castle is planned and executed by the former Fukuoka clan chief, but fails.
  • On November 1878, 11, it became Fukuoka Ward due to the enactment of the District Control Law.
  • 1889/
    • Due to the enforcement of the municipal system on April 4, Fukuoka City willFukuoka CityBecomes One of the first cities in Japan to be enforced.
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Kyushu Railway(First generation) Hakata-Chitose Kawama opening,Hakata StationOpened.
  • 1898 Magnitude 6Itoshima earthquake..In the western part of Fukuoka CityItoshima PeninsulaThe area around it is considered to be the epicenter, causing damage to part of the house.
  • July 1899, 8,Hakata PortOpen port.
  • 1903/ Kyoto Imperial UniversityFukuoka Medical University (later Kyushu Imperial University Medical University, now in Higashi Ward) opened.
  • 1909 Professor, Medical UniversityHosaburo SakakiBy Japan's oldestAmateur orchestraThe Philharmonic Society (currentKyudai Philharmonic SocietyThe predecessor of) established.
    • October City emblem established[38].
  • March 1910, 3Fukuhiro Electric OrbitOpened (laterNishitetsu Fukuoka city line).
  • 1911/
    • January 1 Kyushu Imperial University (currentlyKyushu University)Founded. Established the Technical University as a branch university.
    • April 4 Fukuoka Medical University is transferred from Kyoto Imperial University and becomes Kyushu Imperial University Medical University.
    • October 10 of the local trainHakata Electric OrbitOpened (later Nishitetsu Fukuoka city line).

Taisho era

Showa period (prewar)

  • 1927 March 3-May 25, held the Toa Sangyo Expo.
  • 1929 Fukuoka-Osaka-Tokyo passenger airlines open regular flights. Former Irifune Town (Current Port of Chuo-ku-AratoNear) Japan AirlinesSeaplane landing siteuse.
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Sawara-gunHaramura-Hiigawa VillageBy the merger ofNagasakiWill be the largest city in Kyushu, exceeding the population of Kyushu (in 1963, the newly established Kitakyushu city once surrendered its predominant position in Kyushu).
  • 1930/
  • 1931/
  • 1936 Kannosu Airfield (Fukuoka No. XNUMX Airfield, now the Kannosu Recreation Center in Higashi-ku, at that time Wajiro-mura, Kasuya-gun) was the first in JapanInternational airportOpen as. Nashima Floating Airfield (Fukuoka Airfield) was renamed Fukuoka Second Airfield.
  • August 1936, 3,Hiroki HirotaBecame the first Prime Minister from Fukuoka City (Fukuoka Prefecture). (-February 1937, 2)
  • July 1937, 5,Helen KellerVisit.Seinan Gakuin,Fukuoka JogakuinAlso visited Fukuoka Deaf School.
  • 1945/
    • May, Army Seata Airfield (currentlyFukuoka Airport) Opening.
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Fukuoka air raid.. Massive night bombing by US military planes killed 902 people.

Showa period (postwar)

Heisei period

Reiwa era

Changes in administrative areas

After the enforcement of the municipal system.

Origin

Many of the events that make Fukuoka the birthplace were brought about by cultural exchanges and trade with the East Asian region.

  • in JapanRice cultivationBirthplace of agriculture[69] -Traces of paddy rice cultivation have been discovered from the Itatsuki Ruins (Hakata Ward). It depends on the researcher, but it is from the latter half of the Jomon period to the early Yayoi period. In addition,SagaKaratsu CityNabata SiteThe remains of the paddy field at the same time have been found in the area.
  • in JapanZen BuddhismBirthplace of
  • in JapanteaBirthplace of-1191 (2 years old)EisaiReturned to Japan and proclaimed Zen Buddhism. It is said that when he returned to Japan, he brought in tea seeds and started cultivation in Japan.[70]..In 1975, a "chatoku monument" was erected in Wakiyama, Sawara Ward to commemorate the origin of tea.In addition, the place where tea was cultivated for the first time in JapanSagaKanzaki DistrictYoshinogari Town OfResenji Temple(Mt. SefurisanIt is said that the hillside).
  • in JapanUdon-SobaBirthplace-BothKamakura PeriodZen priests who were studying abroad in China in the beginningYenIt is said that (Seikikokushi) brought it after returning to Japan.Jotenji TempleThere is a stone monument of "the place where the soba noodles originated".
  • in JapanManjuBirthplace-1241 (2nd year of Niji), is the first to teach to Kiemon Kurinami, the owner of the tea shop in Hakata where Enji stopped by.
  • As a uniformSailor suitBirthplace-1921 (Taisho 10),Fukuoka Jogakuin Junior and Senior High SchoolAdopted.

Successive mayors

NameInauguration dateRetirement dateRemarks
Mayor of Fukuoka (government election)
First generationKoriMarch 18781879/5/14
2 fee1879/5/231880/4/12
3 fee1880/4/121884/4/1
4 fee1884/4/11889/4/1
Mayor of Fukuoka (government election)
First generation1889/5/271892/11/26
2 fee1893/1/111894/12/7
3 fee1895/5/211899/7/3
4 feeNaomi Matsushita1899/8/211905/8/20
5-6 generations1905/9/231914/7/6
7 feeSaburo Ide1914/11/281918/11/27
8-9 generationsYuseo Kuze1919/3/241924/5/29
10 feeKoichiro Tachibana1924/8/231925/8/17
11 feeAkiho Tokimi1926/3/101930/3/9
12-13 generationsYuseo Kuze1930/6/171938/1/21
14 fee1938/4/61938/8/9
15-16 generationsHatayama, Yoshio1939/1/71946/5/18
17 fee1946/8/141947/3/28
Mayor of Fukuoka (public election)
18 feeYaroku Miyoshi1947/4/51951/4/4
19-20 generations1951/4/231956/7/31Died during his term
21 fee1956/9/171960/9/16
22-24 generationsGenzo Abe1960/9/171972/9/16
25-28 generationsKazuma Shindo1972/9/161986/11/8Resigned due to health reasons
29-31 generationsKeiichi Kuwahara1986/12/71998/12/6
32-33 generationsHirotaro Yamazaki1998/12/72006/12/6
34 feeHiroshi Yoshida2006/12/72010/12/6
35-37 generationsSoichiro Takashima2010/12/7Incumbent

Administration

Mayor

  • Soichiro Takashima (3rd term)
  • Term: April 2022, 12

City council

  • Constant number: 62 people
  • Term: April 2023, 5

Local public enterprise

Main country administrative agencies

Fukuoka prefectural assembly

  • Constant: 23 people
  • Term: January 2019th, 31 (Heisei 4)-January 30th, 2023 (5th year of Reiwa)
ConstituencyNameFactionParliamentary nameNumber of wins
Higashi WardOtsuka victoryKomeitoKomeito4
Tohru SasakiNational Democratic PartyDemocratic prefectural assembly5
Nagahiro SeaLDPLDP prefectural assembly6
Hisashi ImabashiLDPLDP prefectural assembly7
Tachikawa YumiJapan Communist PartyCommunist party1
Hakata WardHiroyuki InoueLDPLDP prefectural assembly2
Masanari TakahashiKomeitoKomeito5
vacancy      
ChuoYasuhiro TakeIndependentTakeshikai2
Masashi HaranakaNational Democratic PartyDemocratic prefectural assembly3
Kazuhiko KasaLDPLDP prefectural assembly1
South wardKyoko OtaNational Democratic PartyDemocratic prefectural assembly2
Akira HiguchiLDPLDP prefectural assembly5
Tatsuya HamasakiKomeitoKomeito6
Kunio KajiLDPLDP prefectural assembly6
Jonan WardMorito MasatoNational Democratic PartyDemocratic prefectural assembly4
Eiji MutoIndependentLDP Shinjikai10
Sawara WardKaori GotoConstitutional Democratic PartyDemocratic prefectural assembly1
Masahiko ShinkaiKomeitoKomeito6
Furukawa TadashiIndependentShinseikai7
Nishi-wardMotoki NittaNational Democratic PartyDemocratic prefectural assembly3
Takashi NoharaLDPLDP prefectural assembly3
Daishi TanakaIndependentMidoriyukai1
Vacancy 1                

National politics

  • House of Representatives
    • Constituencies-See the table below as constituencies vary by region.Some constituencies extend outside Fukuoka City, but areas outside Fukuoka City are not listed in the table below.
    • Term of office: October 2021, 3 (Reiwa 10 years) --October 31, 2025 (Reiwa 7 years)
ConstituencyRepresentative nameParty nameNumber of winsRemarks
Fukuoka Prefecture 1th Ward(Higashi Ward / Hakata Ward)Takahiro InoueLDP4Constituency
Gosei YamamotoJapan Restoration Party2Proportional revival
Fukuoka Prefecture 2th Ward(Whole Chuo Ward and most of Minami Ward and Jonan Ward)Makoto OnikiLDP4Constituency
Shuji InatomiConstitutional Democratic Party3Proportional revival
Fukuoka Prefecture 3th Ward(Whole Sawara Ward / Nishi Ward and part of Jonan Ward)Atsushi KogaLDP4Constituency
Fukuoka Prefecture 5th Ward(Part of Minami Ward)Kaname TsutsumiConstitutional Democratic Party1Constituency

judicial

Economic and industrial

Fukuoka City has a distinctive industrial structure, and redevelopment projects are underway and companies are being actively attracted.

Of the food service industryRoyal, Of the supermarketUnido(DaieiMerged intoBest electric appliancesIt is a land pattern that creates new industries in the fields of product sales and services. However, on the other hand, it depends on the major company's Kyushu branch, Kyushu sales office, Kyushu branch.Branch economy cityThe aspect as "is also strong.

Primary industry

Agriculture is not a little done.

Agriculture:

The number of farm households in the city is about 3,000, which is extremely small like other big cities, but the farmland area is 3,000 ha, which occupies less than 1% of the city area. Rice fields account for about 7% of the total farmland area. The agricultural form shows the characteristics of typical suburban agriculture centered on vegetables and flowers, with vegetables accounting for about half of the total agricultural production and flowers accounting for about a quarter.

forestry

In a forest in the southwestern part of the city,Cedar,CypressForestry is centered on logging.

Fishery:

Hakata PortHas 13 ports nationwideSpecific Type 3 fishing portone ofHakata Fishing PortAnd alsoHakata BayInCoastal fisheryThere are fishing areas of Shikajima, Nata, Hakozaki, Izaki, Meinohama and Noko in the bay, and Hiroshi, Karamari, Nishiura, Genkaijima and Oronoshima in the bay mouth and outside the bay.Fishing port,Ship poolNearFukuoka City Fisheries CooperativeBranch office is set up.

Secondary industry

Of Fukuoka's industries,Secondary industryAccounts for about 10% of the total production and number of establishments in the city, and about 12% of the number of employees. Both are at a low level as large cities, and the percentage of secondary industries in the total product of the city is small in the amount of manufactured goods shipped (second from the bottom in the ordinance-designated cities). The center of the industry is dominated by information-related industries such as food processing (food and beverages), publishing and printing, which are urban-type industries.[71].

Since heavy industry is not well developed in Fukuoka City, 5th grade students are targeted at elementary schools in Fukuoka City.Kitakyushu Industrial AreaFactory in (Nissan MotorAn event called "Kitakyushu Tour" is held to visit the Kanda Factory.

Traditional crafts

Tertiary industry

The tertiary industry in Fukuoka City accounts for about 95% of the city's total production, about 90% of the number of businesses, and about 87% of the number of employees. Both ratios are at the highest level among ordinance-designated cities, indicating that they have an extremely high share of the tertiary industry among the major cities. In particular, the wholesale / retail industry and the service industry each account for about a quarter of the city's gross domestic product. For this reason, it has a strong color as a large city centered on the commercial and service industries. Compared to other cities, we are also focusing on the ICT industry.

Main department stores in Fukuoka city

The department store that once existed

Utility company

Financial institution

Major companies with headquarters and head office in Fukuoka

Telecommunications

Mass media

FM radio station

Community broadcasting station

Daily newspaper

Block paper

National newspaper

Local newspaper

Sports paper

外交

Number of registered foreigners by country

As of September 2010, 9, the total number of registered foreigners in Fukuoka City is 30.

Breakdown
Nationality (top)of people
Chugoku12,178 (51.5%)
South Korea-north korea6,226 (26.3%)
フィリピン899 (3.8%)
The United States of America631 (2.7%)
ネ パ ー ル473 (2.0%)
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu307 (1.3%)
Indonesia304 (1.3%)
Other2,635 (11.1%)

Like other cities in Japan, Chinese and Koreans make up about 8% of the total number of registered foreigners. But,Kinki area,Hiroshima city-KitakyushuFor example, the number of Korean/Korean registrants accounts for half or more of the total number of foreign registrants in large cities in western Japan, while the number of Chinese/Korean registrants in Fukuoka city is the number of Korean/Korean registrants. Surpass.

International exchange city

Foreign posts and facilities

International organization

Consulate

Honorary Consulate

  • Spanish flag In FukuokaSpainHonorary Consulate
  • Danish flag In FukuokaDenmarkKingdom Honorary Consulate
  • German flag In FukuokaGermanyHonorary Consulate
  • French flag In FukuokaFranceHonorary Consulate
  • Bulgarian flag In FukuokaBulgariaHonorary Consulate of the Republic
  • Belgian flag In FukuokaBelgiumKingdom Honorary Consulate
  • New Zealand flag In FukuokaNew ZealandHonorary Consulate
  • Federated States of Micronesia In Fukuokaミクロネシア 連邦Honorary Consulate-General
  • Turkish flag In FukuokaTurkeyHonorary Consulate General of the Republic
  • Ghana flag In Fukuoka ガーナHonorary Consulate General of the Republic


Trading facility

  • Kingdom of Thailand flagThai Government Trade Center Fukuoka
  • Italian flagItalian Trade Promotion Association Fukuoka Office
  • French flagFrench EmbassyEconomic and Business Department Fukuoka Branch
  • Republic of China flagTaiwan Trade Center Fukuoka Office
  • Flag of the People's Republic of ChinaJapan Representative Office for Small and Medium Enterprises in Jiangsu Province, China

In addition to the above, there was a British Trade Promotion Office, but it closed in June 2005.

Tourism promotion facility

Other foreign institutions

Community facility

See "Education" below for educational facilities and "Culture" below for cultural facilities.

Policemen

Fukuoka Prefectural Police HeadquartersUnder the jurisdiction of, there are the following police stations. Jurisdiction is in parentheses. Please refer to the articles of each ward for police boxes and representative offices.

Fire

Fukuoka City Fire DepartmentUnder the jurisdiction of, there is one fire station in each ward. For the branch office, refer to the article of each ward.

Post

2007/(19) October,Japan PostWith the consolidation of business bases due to the privatization ofPostal businessTransferred to the Shin-Fukuoka branch of the company. Currently under Japan PostShin-Fukuoka Post Office) Was opened. At that time, Imajuku, Kitazaki, Shusenji, and Sarayaminami's four stations moved to "delivery centers" where collection work was abolished and only delivery was performed, and other post offices moved to "oversight centers". A branch of the postal service company was set up at the post office with the general center, and a collection and delivery center was set up at the post with the delivery center. After that, the postal business Hakata branchFukuoka AirportMoved to a neighborhood and laterHakata Kita Post OfficeBecame the currentHakata Post OfficeDoes not collect and deliverYu Yu windowPO BoxThe Hakata Kita Post Office Hakata Ekimae Branch Office, which lives together, is in charge of the work.

Collection and delivery station
The collection and delivery stations in the city are as follows. The number is the postal code corresponding to each collection and delivery station, and the general jurisdiction is in parentheses.

library

As annexes, Fukuoka City East Library, Fukuoka City Washiro Library, Fukuoka City Hakata Library, Fukuoka City Hakata South Library, Fukuoka City Central Library, Fukuoka City South Library, Fukuoka City Jonan Library, Fukuoka City Hayara Library, Fukuoka City Hayara South Library, There are Fukuoka City West Library and Fukuoka City West Library.

Museums, art galleries, zoos, etc.

Main school

University

National

Prefectural

private

Junior college

private

High school, junior high school, elementary school

  • For municipal elementary and junior high schools, see the articles of each ward.
  • All public high schools are co-ed except for Fukuoka Women's High School.

Prefectural high school

Municipal high school

Private primary and secondary education institutions

Co-education

Boys' school

Girls' school

National elementary and junior high school

Special school

Educational facilities other than school education

Driving school

Fukuoka Labor Bureau Director registered training institution

  • Fukuoka Prefecture Construction Technology Training Center
  • Ocean Sanso
  • Nakamura Occupational Safety and Health Consultant Office
  • Japan Management Education Center

Registered Small Ship Training Institute

  • Boat license center
  • Horikawa registered small boat training school
  • Ocean registered small boat training school

International school

Cultural property

Transportation

Overview

Public transport in the city
As a railroad, JR line,West Japan Railway(Nishitetsu)Fukuoka City SubwayThree routes are in place.Route buses are the largest bus operator in JapanNishitetsu busPlays a central role, and any Nishitetsu bus within the "Fukuoka city center 100 yen bus area" including Tenjin and Hakata could be used for 100 yen.[73] Due to the deterioration of business performance due to the influence of the new coronavirus, the price was raised to 2021 yen from July 7, 1.In Fukuoka City, subways and buses are in a competitive relationship due to differences in business entities, and there are many bus routes that go directly from the suburbs to the city center and bus routes via city highs, but there are multiple routes within 150 years. There is a plan to reduce the inflow of buses to the city center by developing a bus terminal at the subway station.[74]..Bus & RideOhashi Station,Fujisaki StationIn many other railway stations, the function is frequent, but at other railway stations, the bus line connectivity is poor and the number of trains is low. Although there is no subway in Minami Ward,Nishitetsu Tenjin Omuta LineThe city section of is operated as often as the subway.
CommonBoarding cardas,Prepaid CardIsSUGOCA(JR Kyushu)・nimoca(Nishitetsu)Hayakaken(Subway), andSuica(JR East) And other cards compatible with "nationwide mutual use service" are available on all trains and buses in the city. As a magnetic card,Yoka net card-Pretty card-Efu cardThere were, but all were abolished by the spread of IC card tickets.
Transportation in urban areas
The major wide area road networks to the Fukuoka metropolitan area are the Kyushu Expressway, the Nishi Kyushu Expressway, National Route 3, and Chikushi Bypass.
TrainFukuoka City Subway,West Japan Railway(Nishitetsu), JR (JR Kyushu-JR West Japan), Nishitetsu/JR also functions as an intercity train/suburban train for suburban transportation.
All Nishitetsu lines are located in Fukuoka Prefecture. Extending south from TenjinTenjin Omuta LineIs a major line that operates limited express and express trains with no special chargesChikushi area,Kurume-YanagawaThe convenience from the southern part of the prefecture is high. On the other hand, it extends eastKaizuka LineIs connected to the subway Hakozaki line at Kaizuka, but they are not in mutual access.
JR Kyushu's conventional lines have traditionally emphasized long-distance transportation centered on limited express trains heading to cities in Kyushu such as Oita City and Nagasaki City, and rapid and ordinary trains have low express delivery.KitakyushuCompared to the above, the convenience of suburban transportation and metropolitan area transportation was not so high compared to the size of the city, but in March 2011Kyushu ShinkansenWith the timetable revision in line with the opening of all lines, the number of regular and high-speed trains was increased along with the reduction in the number of limited express trains on parallel conventional lines, which was slightly improved.
Subway Airport Line is JR KyushuChikuhi LineIn direct operation withSagaYou can get to Karatsu City in the north, and you can go to Tenjin and Fukuoka Airport from Karatsu City without changing trains.
Traffic measures in the southern part of the city
Due to the rapid urbanization in the Showa era, the road network, which was the only means of transportation in the southwestern and central southwestern parts of the city, was inadequate and delayed. The traffic problem was getting worse.
Traffic measures to the southwestern part of the city, which has been a challenge from before, are in addition to the above-mentioned subway Nanakuma line,Fukuoka outer ring roadIn November 2011,Fukuoka Expressway Line 5Were completed in service in July 2012, and highway line 7Fukuoka Expressway Loop LineThen, the ring road network in the city was completed. Also, as a new major highway connecting theseWakaku Street,Jonan Gakuen Street,HaradaRoad conditions to the southern part of the city (south south and central south), which had been bad since the 1970s due to the improvement of north-south trunk lines, etc. The signs are beginning to be seen.
As for the south-central part, in the middle of the 2000s,Yamazaki TakuA concept called "Yamazaki Road" in the local area[75] There was a rumor, but it disappeared. Currently, including the development of orbital transportation systems in the central and southern regions, the current situation is still at the conceptual stage, and there are no effective transportation measures that have been materialized.
Contact remote locations
Air routes, railways (including Shinkansen), highway bus routes, and shipping routes are maintained. Air routes and shipping routes also operate outside Japan. The long-distance route is only open sea route due to location conditions. Ferries to the Shikoku, Kansai, and Kanto regions, which serve as inland sea routes,Kitakyushu PortTo and from.Hakata PortHas the largest number of international passengers in Japan.
In JR KyushuHakata StationIs a hub terminal, and many limited express trains and bullet trains operate all over Kyushu centering on Hakata Station.
Sanyo ShinkansenIt is,KitakyushuBesides being used for commuting to and from Honshu, it is also used as an important transportation route to Honshu. All lines opened on March 2011, 3Kyushu ShinkansenIt is,Kumamoto-shi,KagoshimaThe time distance between and has been greatly reduced.
Nishitetsu Tenjin Expressway Bus Terminal,Hakata Bus TerminalThere are many highway buses running from. From the Tenjin bus center to Kitakyushu, Saga, Kumamoto, Nagasaki, the Oita line is 1-2 hours an hour and many users.

Airport/Port

The total number of foreigners entering Fukuoka Airport and Hakata Port isNarita International Airport-KIXSecond only to Japan as the gateway to foreigners[76]. Hakata Port is also the port with the largest number of foreign passengers in Japan.

  • Number of foreign visitors: Fukuoka Airport 432,750 (4th place in total in 2007) Hakata Port 287,220 (1st place in seaport, 2007)
  • Number of Japanese Departures: Fukuoka Airport 679,279 (4th overall in airport, 2007) Hakata Port 134,382 (1st total in seaport, 2007)

We devised facilities expansion and operation to increase the number of passengers and arrivals and departures (rebuilding Terminal 2, relocating the international area to the west side of the runway, dedicating Terminal 3 to arrival only, to runway 34)THE SInstalled, such as setting a short flight route for flights arriving from the east), but having one runway has not been improved. With the slogan of "Gateway to Asia" and "Airport in Kyushu's No. 1 city", the number of passengers and arrivals and departures continued to increase until around 2000, but since then it has been almost flat until 2005. The number of routes and the number of flights are outstanding at airports in the Kyushu region. On the other hand, close to the cityHigashi WardHakozaki OfKyushu UniversityFrom the point of flying directly abovenoiseI am worried about problems and safety.

Fukuoka City Subway Airport LineFukuoka Airport StationからHakata StationUntil about 5 minutes,Tenjin StationIt takes about 10 minutes. There are also many direct buses from other areas of northern Kyushu.

Since 2005, we have been carrying out public involvement on future demand trends and measures to address them, and are studying future images. As of 2008, based on a trial calculation that future demand will exceed the capacity of the present airport, it is expected to be unified during the fiscal year 20 by focusing on two proposals, a new airport construction proposal and an expansion proposal at the present location. Is.

Train

Central station of JR lineHakata Station, Nishitetsu Central StationNishitetsu Fukuoka (Tenjin) StationBecomes

Main Station/Transfer Station/Terminal Station

Other stations (extract)

Excluding freight routes.

Lines that have already been abolished

Bus route

The Fukuoka City Transportation Bureau has been a subway specialist since its inception, and there is no municipal bus in Fukuoka city originally. Most of the cityNishitetsu busThere are more than 100 types of systems operated by. Any operator can get onPay back before getting onIn principle, the fare is a section system with numbered tickets (however, there is a uniform section of 100 yen in the center of the city). For general route buses, except for some, contactless IC cardnimoca-Hayakaken-SUGOCA-SuicaYou can use cards compatible with nationwide mutual use services such as.

Main bus terminal in the city

General route

Nishitetsu bus(West Japan Railway-Nishitetsu Bus Chikuho-Nishitetsu Bus Munakata-Nishitetsu Bus Futsukaichi
It has routes in most districts of the city. Most of the routes in Fukuoka City are operated by Nishinihon Railway, but some lines are operated by the separate subsidiaries Nishitetsu Bus Chikuho, Nishitetsu Bus Munakata, and Nishitetsu Bus Futsukaichi. Besides Itoshima City, there are also many routes that connect Fukuoka City with other municipalities around Fukuoka City. To the west of Imajuku in Nishi Ward, there is only a route connecting Kyushu University Ito Campus and the center of Fukuoka City.
Showa Motor(Showa Bus)
Mainly has a line in Nishi Ward. There are also routes connecting Fukuoka and Itoshima. Maehara Imajuku Line and Kawahara Line run into the city of Fukuoka, and it is also possible to get on and off between the mutual stops at Fukuoka city.
JR Kyushu Bus
Hakata Bus Terminal in Fukuoka CityKasuya-gunHisayama Town-Miyawaka-NogataTieStraight lineTo operate.
Meinohama taxi(Route bus business)
As an alternative to the route which Showa Motor Co., Ltd. abolished, with the assistance of Fukuoka City, Meinohama Station-Imajuku-Imajuku Meinohama Line connecting the outdoor activity center.
Kyowa taxi
Shingu Town Community BusIt operates the "Marinkus" and goes through Fukukodaimae Station in Fukuoka City.
Royal bus
Fukuoka Airport via the city expressway-Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk line, in addition, via the general road Fukuoka Airport-Canal City Fukuoka-Tenjin Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk line connecting.

Community bus

As of March 2018, the community bus routes operated by Fukuoka City have not been operated even in the past.

There are the following routes that operate (or have operated in the past) in Fukuoka city with the establishment of a council of Fukuoka city/region/transportation companies.

  • Imajuku Meinohama Line riding minibus, Nagisa-alternative measures accompanying the abolition of Showa Bus. Meinohama taxi operates. We have established the Fukuoka City West Shared Taxi/Microbus Social Experiment Council, which operates from November 2006, 11 to October 1, 2007, and from the next day, the Imajuku Meinohama Line Shared Microbus Liaison Council, which will continue to operate.
  • Itaya Wakiyama Line-alternative measures with the abolition of Nishitetsu bus. Itaya Wakiyama Line Boarding Taxi Liaison Council established and Iikura TaxiShared taxiOperated as.
  • Shikajima Island Line-alternative measures with the abolition of Nishitetsu bus. Established Shigajima area bus liaison council and continued to operate as Nishitetsu bus (temporaryNishitetsu Bus MunakataTransfer to).
  • Wakiyama branch line-alternative measures with the abolition of Nishitetsu bus. The Sarah Ward Southern Area Bus Liaison Council was established and Nishitetsu continues to operate.
  • Kinbashi Main Line-alternative measures with the abolition of Nishitetsu bus. The Kin-Hashimoto Area Bus Liaison Council was established and Nishitetsu continues to operate.
  • Fukudai Hospital (outer ring) Ohashi Line-operated by Nishitetsu.
  • Hashimoto regional circulation bus-operated by Nishitetsu. Trial service will start from 2011[78][79] It has not reached full-scale implementation. After that, we will change some routes and plan from December 2015, 12 to June 7, 2016Fukuoka Nishitetsu taxiOperates. Currently by Fukuoka Nishitetsu taxiShared taxiForm of "Hashimoto Station circulation minibusOperates as
  • Miwadai community bus-operated by Nishitetsu. Trial service will start from 2012[80][81] It has not reached full-scale implementation.
  • Nagaoka-Takamiya circulating bus-operated by Nishitetsu.

There is also a community bus that connects Fukuoka to other cities and towns.

Express Bus/Express Bus

The highway and limited express bus routes departing and arriving in the city are as follows. Excluding arrivals and departures at Fukuoka Airport. For routes to and from the airport,Fukuoka Airport#High Speed/Limited Express/Express BusSee.

Routes with both night and daytime routes

Night-only route Only available in the Hakata area

You can ride in both Hakata and Tenjin areas

Daytime routes only

Only available in the Hakata area

Only available in the Tenjin area

You can ride in both Hakata and Tenjin areas

Taxi

Under the Fukuoka City Taxi Association, about 80 companies are operating in the city. Most of the sales are by sales. AlsoFukuoka metropolitan areaEach municipality (Munakata City-Fukutsu CityTaxi companies (excluding the above) are allowed to operate in Fukuoka city, and when these are combined, about 90 companies and 5,500 taxis are actually operating in Fukuoka city.[82]. On the contrary, taxis in Fukuoka city can also operate in the above-mentioned municipalities of the Fukuoka metropolitan area.Private taxiAccounts for about 3% of registered taxis in the Fukuoka metropolitan area, which is at a high level as a percentage of registered taxis nationwide.

道路

Main roads passing through the city

Highway national road

toll road

General national road

Prefectural road
For the prefectural road, see the section of each ward.

Main street name

Route

The following routes are only for passenger routes.

International route

Domestic (outside Fukuoka City) routes

City route

Tourism / Culture

Main city

(I.e.

library

  • Fukuoka Prefectural Library (Higashi Ward)
  • Fukuoka City Library・Fukuoka City Braille Library (Fukuoka City General Library) (Sarah Ward)

* In addition, each ward also has a small library and library with a civic center.

Museums, etc.

Shrine

Temple

Festivals and events

*Sports competitions are shown separately.

Local cuisine/souvenir confectionery

Public cultural property

Other

  • HKT48
    Based in Fukuoka/HakataAkimoto YasushiIs an idol group produced by. In addition to performing theaters at Nishitetsu Hall, the number of jobs in Tokyo has increased recently, and the name recognition is expanding all over the country.
  • Kyushu Symphony Orchestra
    A professional orchestra (only in Kyushu) that is a regular member of the Japan Orchestra Federation. Chuo-ku TenjinACROS FukuokaHeld regular concerts eight times a year at the Symphony Hall
  • Fukuoka Asian Culture Award
    Asia Pacific ExpoAn award that was started in 1990 to commemorate (Yokatopia) and was given to people who contributed to the creation and preservation of Asian culture.Muhammad YunusAnd of the writerMo YanHas been awarded.

Sports

Professional Sports Team/Adult Sports Team

baseball
サ ッ カ ー
rugby
Other
  • Rising Zephyr Fukuoka- Professional basketball-B.LEAGUE
    Is basedAccion Fukuoka.. BeforeJBL Super LeagueThere was a team called "Fukuoka Red Falcons" that belonged to, but due to financial difficulties, he withdrew from the league. There were rumors that it would be replaced by the bj league, but it was eventually disbanded due to various reasons.After that, some players participated and a new team was launched and participated in the bj league from 2007, JPBL's third division league launched in 2016.B3.LEAGUEEntered the market and was promoted to B2017 in 2.
  • Equal One Fukuoka SUNS - American Football-X League
  • VC Fukuoka - BicycleRoad race-Jcl
  • Fukuoka Teiken Gym
    The former Fukuoka Chuo Gym was renamed after forming a partnership with Teken.
  • Hakata Kyoei Boxing Gym
    Former West Japan Boxing GymKyoei Boxing GymRenamed after forming a partnership with. The chairman is former featherweight Japanese ranker Takao Mihashi.
  • Seki Jim
    The chairman is former super featherweight Japanese ranker Hiroyuki Seki.
  • YuKO Fitness Boxing Gym
    The chairman was Kyushu's first female professional boxerTomoko Koga. Formal predecessor is a former world champion from KitakyushuKatsuya OnizukaIt was SPANKY.K Boxing Gym.
  • Fujita Boxing Gym

An annual sports event held in Fukuoka

International sports events held in the past

Honorary citizen

Celebrities from Fukuoka

Works set in Fukuoka city

It does not include those that are not actually shot in Fukuoka City, and those that are not set in Fukuoka City due to their settings even if they are shot in Fukuoka City.

Comic-Anime

TV drama

Novel

movies

Game software

  • Refrain Love(Actually, the place name and person's name are not actually set in Fukuoka city, but the actual place name in Fukuoka city is used. The background images are based on the scenery of Fukuoka city.)

documentary

XNUMX selections

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

Source

  1. ^ Fukuoka City Estimated/Registered Population (Latest)
  2. ^ The name of Fukuoka Castle comes from Mr. Kuroda's hometown, Bizen Fukuoka.
  3. ^ a b About Hakata Ward, Fukuoka City Thomas Living Co., Ltd.
  4. ^ a b c "Fukuoka's strongest secret, the most energetic city in Japan right now" YosenshaYosensha MOOK>, April 2019, 4,ISBN 978-4-8003-1653-0 .
  5. ^ "Fukuoka City "University Town Fukuoka" Initiatives”(Japanese). Fukuoka City. 2022/2/2Browse.
  6. ^ "Fukuoka Facts | Goodco Fukuoka with Data". facts.city.fukuoka.lg.jp. 2020/2/18Browse.
  7. ^ Kobe City falls from "XNUMX major cities" in terms of population ... Overtaken by Fukuoka City and the number of young people decreases to XNUMXth place February 2016, 2, Sankei WEST
  8. ^ Fukuoka City's population exceeds 160 million, the fifth city designated by government ordinance May 2020, 5, Nishinippon Shimbun
  9. ^ 2 hours 55 minutes by high speed boat.KagoshimaEquivalent to the distance toOsakaCloser.Currently, Fukuoka City has a plan to form an ultra-wide economic zone with Busan City.
  10. ^ "Global city strength ranking (GPCI-2019)". The Mori Memorial Foundation. 2020/4/29Browse.
  11. ^ "Japanese urban characterization". The Mori Memorial Foundation. 2020/4/29Browse.
  12. ^ a b Nakasu West Japan's No. XNUMX downtown area Hakata's charm, viewed December 2020, 12
  13. ^ a b The "Nakasu Kawabata" area, which has the largest entertainment district in Kyushu and the largest entertainment district in western Japan.What is the point of opening a restaurant? Food and Beverage.com, viewed December 2020, 12
  14. ^ Urban life research project Hakata Rule published on February 2010, 2
  15. ^ 福岡市史編集委員会 『新修福岡市史特別編自然と遺跡からみた福岡の歴史』福岡市、2015年、17頁。ISBN +978-4-907395-06-3. 
  16. ^ 福岡人文社企画制作室 『グランドまちず』福岡人文社、2003年、32頁。ISBN 978-4892231216. 
  17. ^ "Normal value (value for each year/month)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2021/5/19Browse.
  18. ^ "Value of 1st to 10th in observation history (value throughout the year)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2018/12/5Browse.
  19. ^ 武野要子 『カラー版福岡アジアに開かれた交易のまちガイド』岩波書店、2007年、p.138頁。ISBN 9784005005529. 
  20. ^ Of the ordinance-designated cities (including Tokyo wards) in 17, it was the 47.9th place (23.1%) after Tokyo wards (22.6%), Hiroshima (4%) and Osaka (20.4%). Source:18 Achievement Report/19 Business Plan (2007.6.29) [Measures-13] Improvement of cityscape by eliminating utility poles
  21. ^ "Notice from Fukuoka Airport Office (PDF)". Restrictions on installation of buildings around the airport.Osaka Aviation Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 2012/10/27Browse.
  22. ^ Fukuoka City City Planning Decision Details List(Until the notification of decision on March 3, 3rd year of Reiwa)
  23. ^ Designated area and designated building of Fukuoka city area designation type system
  24. ^ Besides this, as a station that calls Fukuoka, outside the cityToyamaTakaoka(OldNishibaba-gunFukuoka Town)Ainokaze Toyama Railway Line OfFukuoka StationThere is
  25. ^ 小学館 『平成大合併日本新地図』小学館、2005年、346頁。ISBN 4095260653. 
  26. ^ University with many students Private college (PDF) Obunsha Retrieved April 2013, 4 February 12, 2015.
  27. ^ "That" Yo-Kai Watch "was also born in Hakata What is the reason why Fukuoka content companies are" strong "? (2/2)". dot. (Asahi Shimbun Publishing). (September 2014, 9). http://dot.asahi.com/dot/2014092500020.html?page=2 2015/2/17Browse. 
  28. ^ “Hokkaido has a lower birth rate than Minato-ku, Tokyo? The lie of birth rate and per capita GDP rise due to the correction of concentration in Tokyo”.Business Journal. (February 2015, 2). http://biz-journal.jp/2015/02/post_8953.html 2015/2/17Browse. 
  29. ^ Timeline of comparative statistics of large cities > Population(Osaka city)
  30. ^ Results of the 27 National Census Survey(Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau
  31. ^ 柳 猛直 『福岡歴史探訪東区編』海鳥社、1995年、14-16頁。ISBN 4874150969. 
  32. ^ 柳猛直 『福岡歴史探訪』海鳥社、1993.10-1996.4、194ページ頁。ISBN 4874150551. 
  33. ^ 宮崎克典・福岡アーカイブ研究会編 『古地図の中の福岡・博多』、2005年、150頁。ISBN 9784874145548. 
  34. ^ "Part of the history of Fukuoka City Council”. Fukuoka City Council. 2014/7/9Browse.
  35. ^ Francisco XavierHiradoThanYamaguchiDuring the journey toastronomical19/9Late (Gregorian calendar1550/11(Mid))ZenZongTempleVisited. "Frois Japanese History 6 BungoHen 50 ”pages 59-XNUMX (Showa53 years(1978/)May 8Publisher:Keiichi Matsuda,Kawasaki Momota Publisher:Chuokoronsha)
  36. ^ "Frois Japanese History 209 Bungo Hen 219" pp. 53, 1978 (Published August 8, 20 Translator: Kiichi Matsuda, Momota Kawasaki Publisher: Chuokoron-sha)
  37. ^ "Frois Japanese History XNUMX West KyushuHen 178 ”pages 182 and 54 (XNUMX (Showa XNUMX)1979/)May 9Publisher: Kiichi Matsuda, Momota Kawasaki Publisher: Chuokoron-sha)
  38. ^ Illustrations Chapters of municipalities in Japan p205
  39. ^ For details, Prefectural office location and population rank of ordinance-designated cities #1920 (Taisho 9)See.
  40. ^ WEB version of Fukuoka municipal administration (February 2016, 2 issue)
  41. ^ Road 30m collapsed in front of Hakata station, large amount of water inflow Under construction of subway Asahi Shimbun (November 2016, 11) Read November 8, 2016
  42. ^ Hakata station square collapse, recovery compensation in one week of occurrence, provisional payment within the year West Japan Newspaper (November 2016, 11) Read November 15, 2016[Broken link]
  43. ^ Asia's first event! Louis Vuitton America's Cup World Series November 11-18 Fukuoka Tournament (Jiyohama, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka) Fukuoka City Official Homepage (November 2016, 11) Read November 11, 2016
  44. ^ UNESCO decides 5 cases in Kyushu such as Hakata Yamakasa and Tobata Gion as "mountains, hooks, stalls" intangible heritage West Japan Newspaper (November 2016, 12) Read November 1, 2016[Broken link]
  45. ^ a b Fukuoka High Court “Notice of Relocation of Government Buildings and Business Start Date” (June 2018, 6)
  46. ^ Kasumi Hakata Ward 26.4 degrees West Japan Newspaper (November 2018, 12) Read November 4, 2018
  47. ^ G20 Finance Ministers' Meeting Opens in Fukuoka City on the 8th Multilateral Cooperation Exploration | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  48. ^ [Video available] Goodbye Tenjin Bibure The curtain on 44 years of history is regrettable | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  49. ^ "Sacred place of gals" 44 years of history, Tenjin core of youth culture | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  50. ^ [Breaking news] E ・ ZO FUKUOKA will open on July 7st! | Fan Fan Fukuoka
  51. ^ Fukuoka Smart City Community launched Aiming to accelerate the shift to smart cities in Fukuoka City by building a strong cooperation system with nine companies from different industries (PDF) --Fukuoka Smart City Community (October 2020, 10) Retrieved October 14, 2020.
  52. ^ HKT48 revives the theater for the first time in four and a half years. ORICON NEWS (November 2020, 11) Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  53. ^ Cherry blossoms bloom in Fukuoka, the earliest since the start of observation ... Following Hiroshima Yomiuri Shimbun (March 2021, 3) Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  54. ^ Fukuoka city high island city line opened 7 minutes shorter from Tenjin, expectation of congestion relief | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  55. ^ Shift to Fukuoka "prevention of spread" Conditional liquor can be served | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  56. ^ Fukuoka, prevention of spread until the 11th The restaurant time reduction will be canceled for the first time in 3 months | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  57. ^ Applying "prevention of spread" to Fukuoka Prefecture August 8-2 Government policy | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  58. ^ To declare a state of emergency in Fukuoka Prefecture Until September 9, Government Policy | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  59. ^ Governor of Fukuoka "Criteria for cancellation at the end of September" Emergency situation, extension decision until 9th | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  60. ^ “Esports complex appears in Tenjin on the 22nd, one of the largest in western Japan”. West Japan Newspaper(July 2021, 8). https://www.nishinippon.co.jp/item/n/787741/ 2021/8/23Browse. 
  61. ^ IMS, the curtain on 32 years of history Fukuoka City, Tenjin, people are constantly appearing in the surrounding area even after closing | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  62. ^ Supoga Kashii Closed on Thursday, September 2021, 9 | Fan Fan Fukuoka
  63. ^ Emergency, completely canceled in 30 days | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  64. ^ Big Bang "No. 1" Building Completed Tenjin Business Center Fukuoka Jisho Redevelopment | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  65. ^ Kashii Kaen, curtain on 65 years of history | [Nishi-Nippon Shimbun me]
  66. ^ LaLaport Fukuoka opening "Ichiban Ride" procession ahead of schedule | [Yomiuri Shimbun Online]
  67. ^ Hakata Dontaku Closing 80 visitors "A chance for the city to regain its vitality" | [Mainichi Shimbun]
  68. ^ It corresponds to the area of ​​Fukuoka Castle and Hakata during the Fukuoka domain.
  69. ^ 石滝豊美 『福岡県の歴史シリーズ 図説福岡・宗像・糸島の歴史』郷土出版社、2008年3月、26頁。ISBN 9784876639465. 
  70. ^ 調 福男・渕 浩子 『博学博多200 増補改訂版』西日本新聞社、2014年、376頁。ISBN +978-4-8167-0881-7. 
  71. ^ Thinking about what is needed in the Hiroshima metropolitan area-A comparison of four central metropolitan areas in Sapporo, Sendai, Hiroshima, and Fukuoka- (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Regional Development Bureau of China, 4)From (pdf file)
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h "sister city". Fukuoka City. 2019/2/17Browse.
  73. ^ "Fukuoka city center XNUMX yen bus | Route map / route guide | Bus information | Nishitetsu Group”(Japanese). Nishitetsu Group. 2021/2/23Browse.
  74. ^ Fukuoka Municipal Subway / Nishitetsu Bus Established a base station with a bus terminal (Sankei Shimbun March 2013, 3)
  75. ^ (From Tenjin, go south along Yakuin Shinkawa, go through Hirao's Oyama and Konosu Mountains in two tunnels, and go to Terazuka/Nagazumi)
  76. ^ JNTO (International Organization for Tourism Promotion) Number of foreign visitors to Japan, number of Japanese leaving Japan (determined in 2007)(pdf file) 20p port of entry / number of foreign nationals entering Japan by month, 21p port of departure / number of Japanese departures by month
  77. ^ Efforts to increase the railway level in fiscal 20 Nishitetsu Tenjin Omuta Line Zaibuma-Shimo Otoli 19 Remove railroad crossings and ease road congestion Fukuoka Prefecture -Read Nishi-Nippon Shimbun, December 2018, 12.
  78. ^ "Hashimoto Station Circulation Bus" will run for a limited time! (PDF) -West Japan Railway, October 2011, 10
  79. ^ New circulation bus "Hashimoto Station circulation minibus" which connects area and public transport From Sunday, December 25, 12 to Saturday, May 1, 26 Limited time service (PDF) -West Japan Railway, October 2013, 11
  80. ^ "Miwadai Community Bus" will run for a limited time! (PDF) -West Japan Railway/Miwadai Prefectural Government Council, February 2012, 2
  81. ^ "Miwadai community bus" service restart (PDF) -West Japan Railway/Miwadai Prefectural Government Council, February 2013, 3
  82. ^ 福岡市総務企画局企画調整部統計調査課 『福岡市統計書 第55回(平成28年版)』福岡市総務企画局企画調整部統計調査課、2017年、147頁。 

Related literature

  • Ryoichi Akimoto "Emergency Medical Situation in Fukuoka City -Through the Activities of the Fukuoka City Emergency Hospital Association-" "Juntendo Medicine" Vol. 57, No. 4, Juntendo Medical Society, 2011, pp. 360-364, two:10.14789 / pjmj.57.360.

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