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Rakuten Group

Rakuten Group Co., Ltd.(Rakuten Group,British: Rakuten Group, Inc.) IsインターネットFocus on related servicesJapan OfCompany.Internet shopping mall"Rakuten, Comprehensive travel site "Rakuten Travel"Flea app"RakumaSuch asEC siteRun.Nikkei Stock AverageOne of the constituent stocks of[3].

communication,金融,Real estate,SportsIt has companies in various industries under its umbrella and is composed of theseCorporate groupThe core company of "Rakuten Group" and de factoHolding company.

This paper describes "Rakuten Group Co., Ltd." as a corporation and the entire "Rakuten Group" consisting of companies under the company.


The Industrial Bank of Japan(CurrentMizuho Bank) Originated from MDM Co., Ltd., an EC mall management company founded in 1997 by Hiroshi Mikitani. "Rakuten", which was used as the name of the EC mall and also as the trade name in 1999, isAzuchi-Momoyama Period OfRakuichi/RakuzaCrowded with people likeMarketI want to make it on the Internet and I want to go brightly and positively "Rakuten" (Optimism) Is included[4].

2000 OfJasdaqActive since listingThe business scope has been expanded by the synergistic effect of the integration of the brand and the brand (described later), and it has more than 1 million group members in Japan and about 14 billion worldwide.E-commerce, "Internet services" such as digital contents,Credit card,bank,Securities,Electronic money"Fintech service", etc.Mobile carrierProviding more than 70 services, including "mobile services" for businesses, etc.conglomerateIs.By organically linking these services around Rakuten members, we have a unique "Rakuten Ecosystem (economic zone)Is forming[5].

Jewelry business

In a groupIn-house company systemHas introduced the following threesegmentIs developing a business under[6].

Internet service segment

Fintech segment

Mobile segment



From June 2015, 6, to consolidate group companies and improve efficiency[7][8], Headquarters in Setagaya-ku, TokyoTamagawa(Futakotamagawa)ofFutako Tamagawa RiseThe new office building "Rakuten Crimson House" from the 2nd floor to the 27th floor (occupies the 3rd and 4th floors of the adjacent "Rakuten Crimson House Annex"), and some affiliated companies will be removed in late September. Relocation is almost complete.

Base before relocation

Headquartered in Minato-ku, Tokyo in October 2003Roppongi Hills Mori TowerMoved to[2]In order to eliminate the increase in personnel due to business expansion and decentralization of bases,Shinagawa Seaside ForestThe head office was relocated from September 2006 to August 9. Until Rakuten leaves the buildingRakuten TowerWas named." 23 floors above ground, total floor area 3m2.. In addition, it will be the nearest stationTokyo Rinkai High Speed ​​Rail Rinkai LineShinagawa Seaside StationFrom August 2007, 8 to July 1, 2015, the sub-name "Rakuten Tower Mae" and the display board with the Rakuten mark were posted next to the display board.


As of August 2020, there are 8 branch offices and 4 office in addition to 19 bases in Tokyo, Japan.In addition, we are expanding our business in Asia, Europe, the Americas, and Oceania.[9](following"#Foreign subsidiarySee).


business model

Brand unification

As the company expanded its business by acquiring services from other companies, the service names it provided remained inconsistent, and we are promoting integration with the Rakuten brand.

  • July 2004 --Changed the company name of DLJ Direct SFG Securities to "Rakuten Securities".Changed the company name of Aozora Card to "Rakuten Credit".
  • September 2004-Integrated travel window into "Rakuten Travel"
  • October 2005-Domestic credit sales changed to "Rakuten KC"
  • December 2005 --Cyber ​​Brains changed its name to "Rakuten Research"
  • May 2010-EBANK changed its name to Rakuten Bank
  • August 2011-Company name changed from Rakuten Credit to Rakuten Card
  • June 2012-Changed name of BitWallet to "Rakuten Edy" (service name changed from "Edy" to "Rakuten Edy")
  • April 2013-Company name changed from Airio Life Insurance to Rakuten Life Insurance
  • January 2015 --Changed the service name of O-net to "Rakuten O-net"
  • May 2015 --Transvalue Trust changed to "Rakuten Trust"[24]
  • July 2018-Asahi Fire & Marine Insurance renamed Rakuten Insurance[25]

Also, from 2006, we combined a red circle with a white "R" in the middle of the word "Rakuten"Kashiwa SatoIt was unified into a logo designed by. At the same time, internal documents such as fax sheets and envelopes designed by Kashiwa Sato were also introduced.

From July 2018, 7, the kanji ``One''motifThe corporate logo has been redesigned, and the corporate logos of group companies such as Rakuten Card and Rakuten Life Insurance, as well as service logos such as Rakuten Ichiba, have been gradually changed to new logos.[26].

Management features

In recent years, it has been actively engaged in M ​​& A and business alliances with the EC business since its establishment.The financial business, which accounts for about 4% of sales, has become the core, and the main business is becoming more and more like a financial company.Also, you will not have a large amount of interest-bearing debt.[27].

According to Rakuten's consolidated financial results for the first quarter of 2006 announced in May 5, sales of e-commerce companies such as the Internet market increased by 18% year-on-year to 1 million yen. It mentions changes in usage fees and card payment services. On the other hand, as of January to March 84.4, it has announced that it has 127 new stores and 2,000 new stores (2006% of the total of 1 stores). The number of new stores opened in the previous fiscal year was 3, and the number of stores closed was 1460, but the number of stores has decreased but profit has increased.

As a cause of this, June 2006, 6ZAKZAKIn 2002, the introduction of a "pay-as-you-go system" that collects an excess charge according to the sales amount of 100 million yen or more and the number of mails delivered in addition to the basic charge in 5 caused the store's payment to quintuple In addition to the above, the system was revised in 2006 to charge about 100% of "system usage fee" for sales up to 4 million yen, further increasing the burden on the store side (it was free before) ).


Rakuten GroupNew graduateIn the new employee training for employed employees, the task of "inviting family members, relatives, acquaintances, and friends to join the credit card" is set.[28].. An "introducer ID" is added to the personal information of the person who has joined by this solicitation, so that the company can know through which of the new graduates they joined[29][30].

In-house official language has been changed to English since July 2012[12] Is being implemented, but the results[31][32] And high evaluation[33] With the evil[28][34] Has also been reported.

From July 2016, the definition of spouse in the internal regulations was revised to include same-sex partners. Rakuten employees, even if they are of the same sex, will be targeted to employees who have a spouse if they submit and accept company-specified documents with signatures from both partners and a third party witness. Benefits available[35][36].

Completely cashless in sports industry

A professional sports team operated by a wholly owned subsidiary of Rakuten (NPB OfTohoku Rakuten Golden EaglesandJ League OfVISSEL KOBE), from the 2019 season, the home stadium (operated by the operating companies of both teams as an administrator)Rakuten Life Park Miyagi[37] andNoevir Stadium Kobe[38]) On the day of the hosting match held in ), we are working on "total cashless" for all stores inside and outside the stadium.

"Complete cashless" means, as a rule, "Rakuten Point Card" "((Rakuten cardCredit card" "(Rakuten BankDebit etc)debit card"Rakuten Pay" "Rakuten Edy"Limited to. Since we will not collect cash at all, we will newly establish it in the stadium from 2019 for spectators who do not have a credit card for various reasons (such as minors) and spectators who are not familiar with the relevant cashless payment method. "Rakuten cashless desk" is available. It offers services such as cash exchange, rental and sales of "Rakuten Edy" cards, and operation of cash charging machines. However, cash can also be used to purchase goods and spectator tickets on days when Tohoku Rakuten and Vissel are not involved.

Regarding this initiative, a person in charge of Rakuten said, "By making it completely cashless at the stadium, it may spread throughout the city and support the cashless society in Japan."Cashless societyIndicates that it is an initiative to promote[39] But,Huffington postThe Japanese version isSocial experiment"How will cashless change the visitors' buying behavior," "What kind of goods can be sold in what time zone," etc.Collecting a huge amount of valuable dataCan be done"[40].

In addition, Tohoku Rakuten will be a payment method from the start of the 2020 season.Transportation electronic moneyWas added[Note 3][43].

Rakuten Group Main Business


1997 May 5Was opened inOnline shopping mall.. As of March 2021, 3, the number of stores opened was 1, and the number of products was about 53,641 million, which is one of the largest in Japan. In the fiscal year ending December 3, the total distribution amount of Rakuten Ichiba alone exceeded 2020 trillion yen. did[44].

As for the sales of EC sites in Japan,Yahoo! JAPANUnfoldsYahoo! Shopping,America OfAmazon.comDeployed by a Japanese corporationAmazon.co.jpIs the largest in Japan[45].

Affiliate business

affiliateAlthough products are also sold through theRateIs about 1% reduction rate.
Also, Rakuten affiliate rewards are not paid in cash, but at Rakuten Super Points. Also, to receive more than 3,000 points, it was necessary to open an account at Rakuten Bank or enroll in Rakuten Card.

Affiliated Company

About us[46] The main consolidated subsidiaries and major equity method affiliates are listed in. In addition,People's Republic of ChinaAnd in TaiwanLotteIs "Rakuten" (Simplified characters/Lotte-繁体字/Lotte-pinyin/Lètiān), But it has nothing to do with Rakuten Group Co., Ltd. in this section.[Note 4].

Consolidated subsidiary

Equity method affiliate

Foreign subsidiary

  • Rakuten
    • RAKUTEN COMMERCE LLC(Rakuten.com, formerly Buy.com Inc.)-United States. Acquired in 2010[50].
      • Buy.com Canada-Canada. Same as above. Later integrated into Rakuten.com.
    • RAKUTEN BRASIL INTERNET SERVICE LTDA. (Rakuten Brasil, formerly Ikeda.com.br)-Brazil. Acquired in 2011[51].
    • Rakuten Ichiba UK Ltd.(Rakuten.co.uk, formerly Play.com Inc.)-United Kingdom. Acquired in 2011[52].
    • Rakuten France SAS(Rakuten France, formerly PRICEMINISTER SAS)-France. Acquired in 2010[53].
      • Rakuten Spain SL (formerly PriceMinister.es)-Spain. Same as above. Later integrated into Rakuten France.
    • Rakuten Deutschland GmbH (Rakuten.de, formerly Tradoria GmbH)-Germany. Acquired in 2011[54].
      • Rakuten Austria GmbH (formerly Tradoria.at)-Austria. Same as above. Later integrated into Rakuten.de.
    • Taiwan Rakuten Ichiba Co., Ltd. (Taiwan Rakuten Ichiba)-TaiwanUnified super businessEstablished a joint venture with[55].
    • Withdrawn
      • Rakuten-ChineseBaiduEstablished a joint venture with[56] But withdrew in 2012[57].
      • TARAD Dot Com Co., Ltd.-- Thailand. Capital and business alliance in 2009[58] But withdrew in 2016.
      • Rakuten Belanja Online-IndonesianPT Global MediacomEstablished a joint venture with[59] But withdrew in 2016.
      • Rakuten Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.-Malaysia. Independent expansion in 2012[60] But withdrew in 2016.
  • Financial system
    • Rakuten Card USA, Inc. (Rakuten Card)-United States. Established in 2014.
    • Taiwan Credit Co., Ltd. (Taiwan Rakuten Card)-Taiwan. Established in 2014.
    • Ebates Inc.-United States. Acquired in 2014.
    • Rakuten Europe Bank SA-Luxembourg. Established in 2017[61].
    • Rakuten Securities Hong Kong Co., Ltd.-Hong Kong. Acquired in 2015[62].
  • Other
    • Rakuten Travel --Expanded in East Asia and North America.The local subsidiary in Singapore, which was established in 2012 for expansion in Southeast Asia, withdrew in 2016.
    • Rakuten Golf (Rakuten.com Golf) --Expanded in North America and Europe.
    • RAKUTEN MARKETING LLC (Rakuten Link Share, Former LinkShare Corporation)-Deployed in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia and Japan. Acquired a US company in 2005[63].
  • Digital content system

Rakuten-related issues/cases

Leakage and sale of personal information

2005 7 on July 23personal informationIn the event of a leak, Rakuten announced that the information was leaked from the store. On October 10 of the same year, a former employee of the store that opened the store made unauthorized access using the ID and password assigned to the store, and the personal information stolen at that time was stolen.RosterArrested for selling to[67].

In response to this incident, Rakuten announced the measures that Chairman Mikitani himself became the general manager of the security division and that the store could not read the credit card number / email address.[68].
After that, as a provisional measure until February 2006, we will allow certain stores to acquire credit card information.[69]Later, he explained that the deadline will be extended and all store credit card information will be hidden by the end of September 2006.[70].

However, as of June 2009,KamishindenkiWe provide credit card information to 9 companies such as[71][72][73][74].. In addition, paid download of email address information is allowed for certain stores.[71].. Rakuten considers this download to be based on examination and justification, and to comply with the privacy policy.[75].. Also, the news site “GIGAZINEAccording to ", the Rakuten store will receive an order confirmation email from Rakuten.CC transmissionAnd it is said that it is possible to obtain and browse from the store customer information search screen.[76].

In connection with the above, a large amount of junk e-mail with the real name written in the address was delivered to the address used only at Rakuten Ichiba.[71].. On the other hand, the Rakuten Public Relations Office said, "We have not confirmed the fact that the address provided to the store has been diverted. We are investigating why unsolicited emails have arrived."[71].

Regarding this issue, President Mikitani wrote, "For the nine companies that pass credit card information, the terms and conditions state that" this store is special, so we will pass card information. "Email address of 9 yen is a system fee and is exclusive. Prohibition law (Act on Prohibition of Private Monopoly and Ensuring Fair Trade), We have not realized that we do not pass the email address. "[77].

Rakuten Kobo related issues

Kobo Touch initial defect and hide review

E-book reader released by Rakuten on July 2012, 7kobo TouchFor four days from the release date, due to the lack of client application and network bandwidth, the state that activation could not be continued. At that time, reviews with one star flooded, such as "I was disappointed," and Rakuten made the review hidden for the first time in history. From the Rakuten side, the officer in charge said, "In order to avoid confusion, we would like to normalize the situation and then resume the review. Hiding the review is an urgent temporary measure. However, I do not think about deleting the posted reviews.kobo Touch is a product with a great impact.As a special exception in the exception due to the size of the impact, I made it unavoidable to hide it.Hide reviews It was the first time in the history of Rakuten."[78].. However, on the other hand, Mr. Mikitani himself left a comment that he will perform an evaluation operation such as "Delete negative reviews because they are false information, reexamine after reviewing the contents".[79].

Exaggerated display of the number of published books

E-book koboIn response to the point that "the number of books is small", Mr. Mikitani and the officer in charge said on July 2012, 7 that "(Must have 27 points in July 2012)", "By the end of August Achieve 7 books"[80] However, it actually exceeded 3 points on August 2012, 8, and exceeded 27 points on September 6, 2012.[81].. April 2012,Consumer Affairs AgencyFor the exaggerated display of the number of published booksFreebie display method"There is a possibility that it may correspond to "good misconception" in "[82], Rakuten announced that it "takes it seriously"[83].

Digitalization of Wikipedia

In the ebook kobo, on September 2012, 9, "Wikipedia"Japanese versionAfter copying and processing 342 personal articles of the author published in, both the author and the publisher are under the name of "Wikipedia".Digital rights managementIt was delivered free of charge in a certain state.Distribution with digital rights managementCreative commons OfLicense violationIt was pointed out that it hits[84]After that, the one without digital rights management was delivered.[85].

Incorrect display of reference price/discount rate

Inappropriate display of price by the dealer at the winning sale

In the "Rakuten Ichiba" winning sale commemorating Japan's No. 2013 in professional baseball and Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles, some stores displayed an unwarranted display of a higher "regular price" that is the basis of the discount. As of November 11, 7, Rakuten has revealed that there are about 20 stores and 1,000 items in question. In addition, there are reports that there is a demand for strict punishment for companies who have made improper labeling, and that it was impossible to uniformly implement a large discount campaign of "77% OFF" in the first place.[86].. In addition, it was reported that "double price display" was rampant even at "Rakuten Super Sale" held before the winning sale.[87]..Rakuten initially announced that these 20 stores had displayed a "winning sale" without permission, but three of them corrected that it was a formal winning sale whose price had been checked by Rakuten.[88].. Seventeen stores that had been selling on their own were suspended for one month, but they were selling the ``wholesale vendor 17 yen but the original price 1 yen cream puff'' which had been a problem from the beginning. The three stores, including the ones that were[89].. There are voices from the shop side that Rakuten itself was instructing such a display method, but Rakuten said that it was not initially involved in the suspicion, but later Rakuten 18 employees told the store He announced that he had proposed an unfair price display that would raise the original price and make it look cheap, and held an apology conference.

Rakuten employees disguise discounts to dealers

In March 2014, it was reported that the Rakuten side had instructed shopkeepers to disguise the reference price.[90].. Rakuten conducted a survey of all stores, but doubts have been reported regarding the survey method[91].. If you open a store at Rakuten, you may receive a request to sell a product with a high discount rate from Rakuten's EC consultant at a super sale. At this time, the shopkeeper was instructed by Rakuten's EC consultant to "double the list price" and give the customer a half price with a price that does not actually exist.[92], It was instructed that the examination of Rakuten necessary for participating in the super sale passed by creating a dummy page for high price sale etc.[93] Was reported.As a result of a survey on the issue of unjustified double pricing, Rakuten acknowledged employee involvement from pre-2010 to 2013, but decided that it was not a systematic proposal.[94][95].. In April 2014, the Consumer Affairs Agency requested in writing to prevent recurrence of unjustified double price labeling, saying that it may fall under the unfair labeling under the prize labeling law.[96],Rakuten announced that it "takes it seriously" and "takes measures to prevent recurrence"[94].. After that, in a survey conducted by the mail order newspaper in mid-May, it was reported that the employee made a proposal for mislabeling on a scale that exceeded the survey result by Rakuten.[97].

Sale of illegal products at Rakuten Ichiba

Products that infringe the rights of third parties have been sold and reported in Rakuten Ichiba.

2012 year 2 month,Chupa Chups商標Infringement lawsuit[98] At the time, a judgment was found recognizing Rakuten's responsibility as the provider of the trading place.[99].

June 2014, 6 In the rice category dated June 6, 17, ranked 8th, 9th, and 15th in the Rakuten ranking.[100] Rise of rice that won the first place in the Rakuten Ichiba blended rice ranking in a row (currently closed)[101] It was revealed that the Kyoto Prefectural Police commissioned a private company to appraise that the rice with "10% domestic production" labeling sold in Japan was actually mixed with Chinese rice. The Kyoto Prefectural Police and Fukui Prefectural Police have searched the head office and president's house of "Rise" Co., Ltd. for violation of the Unfair Competition Prevention Act, and are investigating the acquisition route and distribution volume of rice.[102].

Rakuten damaged due to fictitious word of mouth posted by a store

Osaka-shi, OsakaKita内 のComputer systemAn affiliated company was requested by a store that opened in Rakuten Ichiba,ReviewsI repeated fictitious posts for the purpose of hoisting the evaluation. As a result of this, Rakuten demanded that the system company pay the advertising revenue that it should have originally obtained, saying that it could not provide fair service.Osaka District CourtTo2015 OctoberFiled a lawsuit against[103].. Then 2015May 10In addition, while the trader acknowledges the unauthorized posting and pays the settlement fee of 1,000 million yen to Rakuten, Rakuten sideCriminal liabilityIn the same district court with content that does not asksettlementWas established[104].

Sales of new coronavirus PCR test kit

On April 2020, 4, we started selling the new coronavirus PCR test kit to corporations in the 20st and 1th prefectures of the Kanto region. The introduced corporation will distribute the kit to employees, and each user will collect a test sample from the mucous membrane of the nose etc. and place it in the collection box designated by the corporation. After that, a gene analysis service funded by RakutenGenesis HealthcareThe company collects and notifies the result within about 3 days (excluding weekends and holidays)[105][106].

On the other hand, by performing a PCR test, which has a problem with the accuracy of the test, by self-sample collection, it is possible to "create only an "active infected person" who is positive but is judged to be negative". Even if it is judged, after all it will be examined again at the hospital etc. What does it mean?” Rather criticism is gathered as it will lead to confusion.[107].Japan Medical Association OfKama TatsushiThe executive director questioned safety and accuracy, and criticized that if the company decides whether to go to work based on the inspection results, the infection may rather spread and cause serious confusion.[108][109][110][111]. Also,Yoshitake YokokuraThe chairman also pointed out, "I strongly recognize that there is a big problem with this sale. We must discuss with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and take measures so that similar cases do not occur."[108].

On April 2020, 4, Genesis' founder and CEO Baran Sato was suspected of being misrepresented as a career biography.[112][113]In response to Sato's resignation at the board meeting on the same day, April 4 announced that sales will be suspended in order to scrutinize Genesis' new management system and compliance system.[114][115][116][117].


Category: Rakuten group peopleSee also


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The facility name is "Futakotamagawa Rise Tower Office" and was developed by Tokyu and Tokyu Fudosan.Futako Tamagawa RiseOffice/hotel building inside.
  2. ^ Headquarters relocation has begun moving sequentially from the beginning of November.
  3. ^ Initially March 2020, 3 (vs.OryxIt was planned to be introduced from the beginning of the game, but since the opening of the official baseball game of the professional baseball was postponed due to the influence of the new coronavirus, the introduction time was once undecided.[41][42].
  4. ^ Rakuten Eagles is written in Chinese as "Tohoku Rakuten Kintaka (Rakuten)",Chiba Lotte MarinesWrote "Chiba Ratoku Marine (Ratoku)".


  1. ^ Corporate governance --Rakuten Group, Inc.
  2. ^ a b 16th Annual Securities Report (submitted on March 25, 3) Rakuten Inc.
  3. ^ List of constituent stocks: Nikkei Stock Average Nikkei Inc. Retrieved October 2021, 10.
  4. ^ "Thoughts put into the brand". Rakuten Group. 2021/4/8Browse.
  5. ^ "Advantages of Rakuten Advertising”. Rakuten Advertising. 2020/8/20Browse.
  6. ^ "Organization chart”. Rakuten, Inc. (August 2021, 1). 2021/1/24Browse.
  7. ^ Notice of head office relocation Rakuten, Inc. June 2014, 8
  8. ^ In the summer of 2015, the head office function of Rakuten Co., Ltd. moved to the office building of the Futakotamagawa Rise Second Phase Business Tokyu Corporation, Tokyu Fudosan Co., Ltd.August 2014, 8
  9. ^ Company and main services | Rakuten Group, Inc. Rakuten Inc.
  10. ^ Rakuten is newly open to the over-the-counter market, a move to make a big return even if it falls below the public offering price INTERNET Watch June 2000, 4
  11. ^ "Stop Japanese companies and become global companies" Rakuten's international strategy to make English the official language of the company INTERNET Watch June 2010, 7
  12. ^ a b Rakuten Chairman and President Hirofumi Mikitani Aiming for English in-house official language Hideo Nomo of the Internet industry” Weekly Diamond July 2012, 7
  13. ^ Keidanren Chairman “Mikitani misunderstood” Acceptance of Rakuten withdrawal notification Nihon Keizai Shimbun January 2011, 6
  14. ^ Rakuten invests in AirAsia Japan Co., Ltd. Rakuten, Inc. June 2014, 7
  15. ^ Rakuten acquires all shares of Vissel Kobe and enters the J League Rakuten, Inc. June 2014, 12
  16. ^ Rakuten acquires Fablic, which provides the flea market app "FRIL" Rakuten, Inc. June 2016, 9
  17. ^ Rakuten sponsors Barcelona's "chest" for 4 years totaling 257 billion yen Asahi Shimbun November 2016, 11
  18. ^ Notice regarding the completion of absorption-type merger of our wholly owned subsidiary (Fablic Co., Ltd.) Rakuten, Inc. June 2018, 7
  19. ^ Notice of establishment of "Rakuten Insurance Holdings Co., Ltd." Rakuten, Inc. June 2018, 6
  20. ^ "Announcement regarding conclusion of all-stock transfer agreement”. Rakuten Co., Ltd. Retrieved November 2018, 11.
  21. ^ "Notice regarding conclusion of reorganization contract within group”. Rakuten, Inc. 2019/2/12Browse.
  22. ^ "Rakuten and La New sign a basic agreement for the transfer of all shares of Taiwanese professional baseball team "Lamigo Monkeys"”. Rakuten, Inc. ・ La New International Corporation (created on September 2019, 9). 2019/9/19Browse.
  23. ^ "Notice regarding change of trade name and partial change of articles of incorporation”. Rakuten, Inc. 2021/1/28Browse.
  24. ^ “Company name changed to “Rakuten Trust” Specialized company for acquisition”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nikkei Inc.). (May 2015, 5). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 12.. http://archive.is/s0gLy 
  25. ^ "Notice Regarding Change in Trade Name of Our Consolidated Subsidiary" (Press Release), Rakuten, Inc., (May 2018, 5), https://corp.rakuten.co.jp/news/press/2018/0501_02.html 2018/8/11Browse. 
  26. ^ "Rakuten, redesigned global unified logo" (Press Release), Rakuten, Inc., (May 2018, 6), https://corp.rakuten.co.jp/news/press/2018/0626_01.html 2018/8/11Browse. 
  27. ^ Rakuten/Mikitani President “There is no hurry” Good performance in the third quarter ITmedia 2005/11/9
  28. ^ a b Rakuten employee “In-house buzzwords are'important, so I speak them in Japanese.'” Business Journal August 2013, 1
  29. ^ "A Study of Rakuten-Why They Continue to Win" by Atsushi Yamaguchi ISBN 9784620317182
  30. ^ IT "Kachigumi" training for new employees Training card sales and expected services J-CAST News September 2009, 4
  31. ^ Rakuten's "English official language" is dangerous Toyo Keizai Online August 2014, 03
  32. ^ What happened to the official language? Rakuten employees' English ability Toyo Keizai Online August 2015, 1
  33. ^ Professor Harvard admits, "Rakuten has made English public a great success!" Nikkei Business Online March 2014, 4
  34. ^ The disappearance of Rakuten's sigh dot. July 2013, 7 (AERA July 1, 2013 issue)
  35. ^ "Rakuten revised company definition of spouse", Rakuten Press Release, July 2016, 7. (Retrieved July 22, 2016)
  36. ^ "Rakuten, same-sex partner family card Considering sexual minority", Asahi Shimbun, July 2016, 7. (Retrieved July 22, 2016)
  37. ^ [Important Notice] 2019 Season Rakuten Life Park Miyagi will begin cashless (non-cash)(Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles official website Team news dated January 2019, 1)
  38. ^ "Notice of "complete cashless" at Noevir Stadium Kobe Vissel Kobe sponsored match" (Japanese). VISSEL KOBE. https://www.vissel-kobe.co.jp/news/article/15630.html 2019/2/3Browse. 
  39. ^ "Aim of Rakuten "complete cashless stadium" No cash". FNN PRIME (September 2019, 4). 2019/4/27Browse.
  40. ^ ""Big data" that Rakuten aims at "cashless" experiment on the entire stadium". Huffington postJapanese version (September 2019, 3). 2019/4/27Browse.
  41. ^ "Rakuten also introduces transportation electronic money at its home base Since the opening, becoming cashless from last season”. Daily Sports (created on January 2020, 1). 2020/1/30Browse.
  42. ^ "About postponement period and refund of 2020 season professional baseball”. Rakuten Baseball Team Co., Ltd. (created on March 2020, 3). 2020/3/16Browse.
  43. ^ "Introducing Suica at Rakuten headquarters Cashless last season”. Nikkan Sports (created on January 2020, 1). 2020/1/30Browse.
  44. ^ "With the transaction volume of "Rakuten Ichiba" exceeding 3 trillion yen and the consumption of nesting”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2021/3/20Browse.
  45. ^ "[Latest in 2021] EC site sales ranking!From domestic / overseas companies to EC malls”(Japanese). Makeshop by GMO. 2021/3/20Browse.
  46. ^ Major Consolidated Subsidiaries and Equity Method Affiliates | Rakuten, Inc.
  47. ^ Announcement regarding making Airio Life Insurance Co., Ltd. a wholly owned subsidiary Rakuten, Inc. Press Release March 2013, 3
  48. ^ "Entering Rakuten and Pet Insurance Business: Rakuten, Inc. | Rakuten, Inc."New Corporate Site".2018/5/20Browse.
  49. ^ "Notice Regarding Making Asahi Fire and Marine Insurance Co., Ltd. a Wholly Owned Subsidiary | Rakuten, Inc."New Corporate Site".2018/5/20Browse.
  50. ^ "Notice Regarding Acquisition of BUY.COM, INC.”(May 2010, 5). 2013/3/29Browse.
  51. ^ "Rakuten enters EC business in Brazil ─ Major EC operator Ikeda Inc. becomes a subsidiary ─”(May 2011, 6). 2013/3/29Browse.
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