"I don't want to fail with ramen" Emi Ito's recommendation
If you write the contents roughly
――I see, in terms of recent activities, the digital photo book “VIVID GIRL Emi Ito” has been released.
In the photo book "e mi ru ma" released in 2020, as the title suggests, challenging cuts became a hot topic ... → Continue reading
WANI BOOKS News Crunch
A WEB magazine operated by the publisher Wanibooks. We will deliver the news of "Now is the season!" By crunching (= chewing).You can only read it here!can not see!Full of original entertainment content.
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Sensor and memory
- CCD image sensor --Charge is converted by the charge-voltage converter.
- CMOS image sensor --Charge is converted by the charge-voltage converter.
Today almost all digital camerasFlash memoryHas been adopted.
Sensor size and angle of view
For digital cameras with a sensor area smaller than the 35mm format (24mm x 36mm), the lensFocal lengthIf they are the same, compared to digital cameras in the 35mm format (24mm x 36mm) sensor area,Draw cornerBecomes smaller.The angle of view is determined by the focal length and the size of the sensor and film. Sensors smaller than 35mm format (24mm x 36mm) (egAPS-C sizeDigital camera with a 35mm format sensorSingle-lens reflex cameraIf you use the same lens as, the angle of view will be narrower than in the 35mm format, and it will look as if you are using a more telephoto lens.
CCD image sensor(OrCMOS image sensor) Of the photosensitive partPixel densityAssuming that is about the same as the 35mm format, a magnified image of the central part of the photo taken in the 35mm format and a digital photograph taken by a camera with a small sensor are roughly equivalent. For APS-C size sensors, this ratio is about 50% in area.Inexpensive digital cameras use smaller sensors, and this ratio is smaller.For this reason, in order to show how much focal length lens can be obtained when using a 35mm format camera, in catalogs etc.35mm equivalent focal lengthIs used.
If the pixel density changes, the amount of information that can be obtained also changes accordingly.The resolution is related to the number of pixels per unit area, but in reality, one pixel only records one color, and the actual resolution on the film side differs depending on the type, so the comparison is not simple.Further, a large sensor having a high pixel density is expensive, a large sensor requires a large lens, and a sensor having a small screen and a high pixel density has a problem that the noise level is high.
Even a small digital camera can produce high-resolution images using sensors with high pixel density (and high-performance lenses).Such cameras are usually equipped with a focal length lens, which is considered a wide-angle lens for 35mm cameras.For example, the angle of view of a 1 / 1.8 "sensor is one-fifth that of a 35mm camera, and an image taken with a zoom lens with a focal length of 5–1mm is taken with a 5–50mm lens with a 35mm camera. The angle of view is almost the same, and if the sensor is small,Image circleBecause it can be small, the lens is also small.Therefore, when telephoto shooting is required, a digital camera has an advantage that the lens can be smaller than that of a film camera at the same angle of view.For wide-angle photography, digital cameras will use lenses with shorter focal lengths.Also,Fisheye lensIt is also possible to use a method such as correction by post-processing using.
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Multi-functionality and connectivity
Digital cameras can not only take pictures, but can also record sounds and videos.WebcamSome can be used asPictBridgeSome standards allow you to connect directly to a printer,tv setSome can be connected to to project a photo.SimilarlyCamcorderCan also take still images,video tapeOrFlash memoryStore in.
Some cameras can record movies, but their capacity is limited.640x480 with modern camerasresolutionAt 30Frame per secondSome of them can be recorded like movies.Some can be connected directly to a computer to record movies to the computer's hard disk or DVD.
The image quality (quality) of a digital image is determined by various factors like a film camera.PixelNumber is only one of the main factors, but it is often emphasized in marketing.However, there are other factors that determine the image quality of digital cameras.The internal processing mechanism of the camera that balances the raw data is of utmost importance, and in some cases a relatively low pixel camera may have better image quality than a high pixel camera.Below are some factors that are similar to film cameras:
- lens: Resolution, distortion, variance (lensreference)
- Imaging mechanism: CMOS, CCD, negative film, reversal film, etc.
- Recording format: Number of pixels, file format (RAW image,TIFF,JPEG), Film format (135 film, 120 film, 5x4, 10x8).
- processing: Digital processing and chemical processing of film
In addition, if the light receiving area per pixel of the light receiving sensor is the same format, it will become smaller as the number of pixels is increased, and the amount of information will decrease. There are also problems such as shrinkage, and it is difficult to achieve both high pixel count and overall image quality.
Since the photosensitive part of a digital camera is an aggregate of pixels, when shooting a very fine patternMoireA phenomenon called occurs.For example, it occurs in textiles, geometric patterns, computer and television displays, etc.
There is also "highlight burning".Of the subjectコ ン ト ラ ス トDepending on the phenomenon, the brightest part becomes pure white, or the darkest part becomes pure black.Occurs when the contrast is beyond the range that the camera sensor can handle.Some cameras inform the photographer that this has happened, in which case they can change the exposure and shoot again.As another method, there is also a camera that selectively exposes only dark areas for a long time to adjust the overall contrast.
Applications and points to consider
As image quality improves, combined with the benefits of other digital photography, professional news photographers are increasingly using digital cameras.Especially in the press, the speed of development is not required and delivery (transmission) is quick.
Digital photography is a lot of amateurssnap shotIt has also been accepted by photographers.電子 メ ー ルWhen sending images withWorld Wide WebOne of the reasons is the convenience in.Digital cameraMobile phoneIn general, the image quality is often lower than that of a dedicated machine (“image quality” and “pixel” are different elements).
Some commercial photographers and photographers who enjoy artistic photography prefer film to digital cameras.They believe that the quality of digital photography is not as good as that of film photography.In fact, of film photographyresolutionIs better than digital photography.Some are worried that current digital photography may become unusable in the future due to technological advances.Due to its ease of editing, the ability to prove digital photographs in court can be questioned.
The vast majority of photographers and laymen believe that the flexibility and low cost of digital photography outweigh the drawbacks.Most of the cost of digital photography is the initial investment for equipment such as cameras and personal computers, and there is almost no running cost.Although film photography has a running cost, it has the advantage that the equipment becomes obsolete slowly and can be used for a long time.Some commercial photographers decide to move because of the ease of computer-edited digital photography.Image editing such as color balance adjustment, which was not possible in a dark room, has become easier.
The disadvantage of digital cameras is that they require relatively frequent battery replacement or charging.Therefore, photographers must always pay attention to securing power.If condensation or temperature is low, the capacity of the battery will decrease and the drive time will decrease significantly, so it is necessary to pay attention to the cold.Photographers who often work outdoors are overwhelmingly film-based.Single-lens reflex cameraI like.Since high resolution is required for magazines centered on photographs, cameras using large films are preferred.
astronomyThen, digital photography was used earlier than the general public, and film photography was almost obsolete in the early 1980s.The reason is not only the good sensitivity of the image sensor, but also the constant characteristics and the ease of analysis by importing it into a computer.The image sensor used in astronomy is similar to the one commonly used, but black and white is common.Liquid nitrogenCool with heatnoiseIs being reduced.In astronomical equipment, a large number of image sensors are lined up to achieve a pixel count of XNUMX million units or more in some cases.It is common for people who enjoy astronomical observation to use digital cameras as well.WebcamThere is also a so-called "video astronomy" that uses.
Impact on the market
2002/Latter half,AmericaThe two-megapixel camera sold for under $ 200 and the one-megapixel camera for under $ 100.At the same timeECDThe service of printing on photographic paper similar to film is widespread in stores, and the price of printing is about the same as that of film.Since the aspect ratio (aspect ratio) differs between digital cameras and film, some of them will stick out when printed on the same photographic paper. Some DPE stores offer photographic paper that matches the aspect ratio of digital cameras.
In June 2003, Ritz Dakota Digital released a single-use digital camera. It's a digital camera with a 6 megapixel (120 x 1280) CMOS sensor and costs $ 960.Film with lensFollowing the business model of, the company sold this camera on the assumption that it will be used up. After shooting 25 photos, take them to the store and receive the prints and CD-ROM.The camera is played and sold.Several companies have entered this market that mimic this approach.The specifications of the cameras of each company are almost similar, but some are differentiated by high resolution and LCD display.The price at the time of sale does not include the DPE fee.This type of digital camera needs to keep costs down to the utmost limit in order to cope with price competition, resulting in short product life and many complaints of failure.Some have a limited operation guarantee period of 90 days.
The price of a 35mm compact camera isChugokuIt has dropped to the limit due to outsourcing to.KodakCompany2004/January, film cameraDeveloped countryAnnounced a policy not to sell in the future.. April 2006,NikonHas announced a similar policy, but only two models, F6 and FM10, are still on sale...Around the same timeKonica MinoltaAlsoFilm with lensAnnounced withdrawal from camera business other than..The shift to digital photography is progressing in the market, but film is predominant in developing countries...The decline of film cameras leads to the decline of the film itself. November 2004,Agfa-GevaertThe film division was separated as Agfa-Gevaert, but went bankrupt six months later.Konica Minolta discontinued production of film and photographic paper at the end of March 6.In addition, Kodak's number of employees (as of 2007) is one-third that of 3 years ago.It's unclear if job losses in the film industry are offset by increased jobs in the digital imaging industry.
The impact of digital photography is not all bad.digital photo frameThe emergence of products and services such as, is also evidence that digital photography has taken root.
Advances in optics / camera manufacturing technology / photographic technology have changed the way images are viewed. Until the 1970s, images were often viewed on slide projectors in the United States.After that, with the advent of color photography, color printing began to take place.With the spread of the Internet and e-mail, relatively inexpensive computers and digital cameras have produced large numbers of images in digital format.
In the 21st century, the mainstream means of viewing still images is shifting to computers and mobile phones, although printed matter is still alive.As a result, the market for film and film cameras declined, and Kodak,Fuji Photo Film,Agfa-GevaertCompanies such as these were forced to make dramatic changes.
Similarly, we have made a profit from film development and printing services.DPE storeIs also greatly affected.The demand for highly profitable services such as film development services has dropped sharply, and the capital investment for introducing a system to support digital photo printing services is extremely high (about 1,000 million yen for a digital minilab system). ,Net printDue to the emergence of new forms of competing services such as, the number of DPE stores in the town is declining, and the consolidation of major chain stores is progressing.
Photographs had the problem of fading due to improper storage of prints and negatives and prolonged exposure to sunlight.Since the digital image is stored in the computer as data, the image quality is not deteriorated.Erase / overwrite image file, storedStorage deviceThere is a possibility that the image file will be damaged or part of the image file will be damaged for some reason.backupIs emphasized.
From a historical and record-keeping standpoint, there is growing concern about the non-persistence of digital images.Unlike films and prints that are tangible and touchable, digital images can become inaccessible if the medium they are stored in or their format becomes obsolete.Some historians are worried that in the distant future, images of the last few decades will be lost, creating a historic void.
Recent research and invention
- 3D modelCan be constructed by accumulating images.For example, Microsoft's Photosynth..A large amount of calculation is required to build a model, and at present, it is not possible to build a 3D model from an arbitrary image.
- HDRIThe technology has already been commercialized. 120DecibelThe above sensors are under development.From a group of normal images exposed in various waysSynthesize HDRIYou can also do it.
- Motion blurIs under development to dramatically reduce.
- Specular reflectionTechnology to remove..It is important for shooting paintings, and although it has not been commercialized, it has already been used in some museums.
OtherColor reproducibilityResearch is progressing with methods such as strengthening.
- ^ http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/01/20/kodak_to_drop_35mm_cameras/
- ^ http://www.nikon-image.com/jpn/news/info/info060111.htm
- ^ http://konicaminolta.jp/about/release/kmhd/2006/0119_04_01.html
- ^ http://cio.co.nz/cio.nsf/0/7FAAE94969D13C78CC256F18007D9C8F?OpenDocument
- ^ Microsoft Photosynth Archived August 2007, 2, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2007, 4original[Broken link]More archives.2007/4/3Browse.
- ^ 
- Camera file system standard
- Digital camera
- Digital image editing
- Digital Print Order format (DPOF)
- Digital watermark
- Virtual photography
- RAW image
- Mini-USB terminal
- Digital photography tutorials (English)
- Digital Photography FAQ (English)
- National Geographic Adventure Mag .: Q & A with Photographer Jim Brandenburg (English)[Broken link]
- Digital vs. film: One photographer's experience (English)[Broken link]
- Close-up insect photography with the Nikon Coolpix (English)
- Digital vs film (English)
- History of Digital Photography (English)
- Japan Society for Photography
- Optical Society of Japan Optical Design Research Group