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Wikipedia related words
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KojienThen it is defined as follows.
And the third is the philosophical term "beauty", which is explained as follows.
- (Philosophy) What stimulates perception, sensation, and emotion to cause internal pleasure... Whereas "pleasure" is physiological, personal, accidental, and subjective, "beauty" is tentatively freed from personal interests and is more universal, inevitable, objective, and social.
Britannica EncyclopediaThen (entering from the philosophical explanation given in the third of Kojien), "one of the fundamental experiences of joy and pleasure obtained through sensation, especially viewing"...Then, he points out the following points.
- It is evoked by the balance, fulfillment, and brilliance seen in the subject (there is also a type of beauty).
- However, the so-called "spiritual beauty" that does not directly pass through is also conceivable, and it is called "transcendental beauty"..
In other words, on the one hand, beauty has beauty through direct sensations, but on the other hand, there is also beauty that does not depend on direct sensations and can be felt mentally.For example, "his hard life is beautiful" and "the life of this person who has kept justice to the end is really beautiful".Also, "BeautifulHeartThe owner of the.
In this regardImano TomonobuIn "Aesthetics and Art Theory" of "Iwanami Lecture Philosophy No. 14", beauty isNATURESensitive to things, etc.impressionFromartEmbrace the workMoving Of感情Or of human activityethicsOfvalueAgainstVotesVariousmeaningとInterpretationPointed out that it has the phase of[Note 1].
- Specific examples of beautiful things
For example, what people say is beautiful is that their homeland and hometown are beautiful, sometimes they are beautiful when they see the scenery, and sometimes they are beautiful when they see works of art. Men sometimes refer to well-shaped women as beautiful, and women sometimes refer to well-shaped men as beautiful.MathematicianMay describe certain solutions of equations as beautiful[Note 2][Note 3].
Hermann HesseTitled the work "Youth is beautiful".In that sense,youthCan be said to be one of the things that can be said to be beautiful (however, each person in youth has a wide variety of adjectives).
- The difference between beauty and art
"Beauty" and "art" are different. According to the person who wrote the "Foreword" of "Iwanami Philosophy Course (6) Art", beautiful things are not necessarily art.".Not all beautiful things are art.On the contrary, not all works of art are beautiful.
- Beauty and ontology
Specific types of beauty
It is difficult to uniquely define beauty, and its definition isaestheticsIt is so established as one academic discipline.There are the following types or categories of beauty.
- Natural beauty --Nature's untouched beauty, natural modeling (Grand Canyon, etc.)
- --Mona Lisa, Statue of David, Impressionist Painting
- --Beauty of architectural structures (palace, cathedral, pyramid)
- --Handcraft, Oribe ware, pipes, glassware
Image of beauty
For humans, beauty is not only something that can be thought conceptually, but at the same time it can be imagined as an image and can be imagined by superimposing it on it.
Beauty in philosophy
The general explanation of the concept of "beauty" in philosophy already has a good description.This is the idea and theory of beauty in philosophy, that is, "in a broad sense".aestheticsAs the history of the concept of beauty in ", it can be considered as a unit.
BeautyIsvalueIdea,valuerecognitionone of.(I.e.InuniversalExistsIdeaIsRepresentationBut on the other hand,culture,Individual OfSubjectivityBeyond the frame, transcendental conceptMeasuresWhen trying, it is clearly difficult to define and is therefore universal to beautyDefinitionIt is also described as not.But on the other hand, beauty is transcendental in grasping emotional objects.A human精神It has a side that can be interpreted as being engraved on, and the definition of beauty diverges, but of beauty.phenomenon-経 験 The世界The existence situation that it is ubiquitous is established.
Diversity of the word beauty
The concept of "beauty" in philosophy and the discussion of what it is is premised on what "beauty" means, as mentioned at the beginning of this article, "beauty".wordHas "meaningIt is premised on a certain degree of clear understanding of the "range".
For example, translated as "beauty" in JapaneseClassical GreekThe word "Karon" has a different meaning range from the Japanese word "beauty", and likewise.Latin"Beauty and beauty (pulchrum)" also has a different meaning from the classical Greek word "Karon".There are no words that have exactly the same meaning in different languages, for example, if Plato is discussing something about "beauty", it is talking about the classical Greek word "Karon". The facts are important.
As a concept related to "beauty", "VirtueThe concept of value, which is discussed by Plato, is the ancient Greek word for "virtue."Arete"" Has a special meaning not found in the Japanese "virtue", which is also not found in the English virtue.However, the Latin virtus has a conditional conditional that almost overlaps with the implications of the Greek word "arete".
Thus, different without realizing that there are no words with the same meaning in the language.言语It is dangerous to refer to the thoughts and discussions that have been discussed about the word equivalent to "beauty" in.
Beauty concept measures
Thus the concept of "beauty" depends on the language in which it is used.meaningInclusionHowever, even in the same language, different times and different regions of use have different meanings.In addition to the fact that there is no universal standard that can be shared among all people, what is "beautiful things"culture,wordBeyond, there is no universality in the meaning inclusion of the word itself, which corresponds to beauty.
However, in philosophy, it is stipulated that the "(universal) concept of beauty" exists, and based on the concept of "beauty" stipulated in this way, the beauty discussed in classical Greece and the beauty of the Roman era The idea of beauty, the concept of beauty in the early and heyday of the Middle Ages, and the concept of "beauty" in modern and modern philosophies are considered in a sense, in a universal "phase", assuming consensus. Will be done.
In the statement that "the maiden is beautiful (he parthenos kale)", "kale" is just (predicate) AsadjectiveAnd there is clearly a big distance between "beautiful" and "beautiful things / beauty".Overcoming such a distance is the adjective in classical Greece.Neutral formIs regarded as an attribute,existThis is because of the custom of thinking as a kind of (on).The typical examplePlatoThe theory of ideas.
In this way, in classical Greece, it can be said that beauty (kalon) is conceptually defined as the "existence" that is the basis of why what is said to be "beautiful" is so beautiful. The debate about "beautiful things / people" has historically existed in cultures around the world, but the thoughts about "beauty" and the provisions of "the concept of beauty", which are the basis of "beautiful things", are classic. Beginning with Greece.
Metaphysics of beauty
The concept of beauty is inevitably related to the things that exist concretely in this world and the "beautiful things / things" (German: Das Schoene) as an event.However, there is a different interpretation in the history of philosophy about what this "concept of beauty (existence)" is, and the essence of "beauty" that people experience and sometimes impress.
There are two typical ideas: (1) "ontological grasp" that the existence of beauty is an inherent property of things and events, and (2) the existence of beauty belongs to things. There is an "epistemological grasp" that the human subjectivity that perceives and recognizes it is a property that is given to things and events.Roughly speaking, the former (1) is the predominant view since classical Greek philosophy, and the latter (2) is the philosophical view that has appeared since the early modern period.
A typical ontological grasper isPlato,ア リ ス ト テ レ ス,Plotinus,ア ウ グ ス テ ィ ヌ ス,Thomas Aquinas,Friedrich ScheringIs.Furthermore, there are completely contradictory attitudes: (1) the direction in which the nature of beauty is determined by the proportion of parts, and (2) the direction in which partiality is denied and the basic rule of beauty is to be uniform.
However, beauty is not at allrecognitionIt does not exist apart from.Already in Plato, beauty is perceived as an oriented object of the desire ability of love, or cognition ("feast』).In addition, the theory of seeking the character of beauty in a balanced or uniform manner also has a lot of grounds for its suitability for cognition.Thomas makes beauty the ultimate神Although it is an attribute that can be attributed toVisualWhat is perceived as pleasant is called beautiful. "Summa Theologia』), And does not deny its relationship with human cognitive ability.
Artistaestheticsと 呼 ば れ る画家,LiteratiThe aesthetic theory of is often in this direction.Leonardo da VinciFor him, the artist is a geographer with the ability to re-present the geometric structure of nature in the most ideal state of beauty, which has led him to a more accurate grasp of the subject.HogarthThe theory of beauty studied the aesthetic effects of drawings by pursuing lines and their impressions, and tried to explain the nature of beauty itself from the shape of the lines.
It should be noted that this direction of grasping beauty as the character of existence itself comes down to the theory that beauty is common or the same as many other value concepts.Schelling makes beauty an objective but absolute, but at its core it is essentially the same as good and beauty.This will be discussed in the later section "#Relationship between beauty and other value areasSee.
In the early modern period, some theorists try to explain beauty not from the tribute of existence but from the structure of human cognition.This includes psychological grasp and epistemological grasp in a narrow sense.This is a theory developed under the influence of British empiricism and continental rationalist philosophy, but later under the influence of empirical psychology, it has become a trend in understanding beauty in modern times.For a representative theorist,Edmund Burke,Immanuel KantThere is.
Psychological understanding of beauty can be seen in 18th century British aesthetics.BurkeJohn RockUnder the influence of, I tried to explain beauty from the instinctive desire for sociability (more on Burke's aesthetics later).#Aesthetic categoryWill be described in detail in the section).On the other hand in GermanyRationalist philosophyUnder the influence ofLeibniz OfRepresentationAn epistemological aesthetic that inherits the theory is developed.Alexander Gottlieb BaumgartenFrom "Aesthetics", a formula that makes beauty "completeness of emotional recognition" is derived.The pinnacle of epistemological understanding in the early modern period isImmanuel KantIs.Beauty is given four signs in Kant.The basis for that recognition is, however, sensibilitySavvy OfAprioriIt's not a constraint.Beauty is extremely subjective in this sense.Beauty is based on a common sense (Senses Kominus)universalIt demands validity, but it is not the nature of the object in itself, but is reduced to "das freie Spiel der Einbildungskraft und des Verstands".It is said that what causes this free play of cognitive ability is beautiful.And beauty is the realization of the harmony of the ability of reason, that is, the ideal harmony of the advanced cognitive ability.moralSexualSymbol("Criticism of judgment"Part 1).
Range of the concept of beauty
Relationship between beauty and other value areas
As long as beauty is good, the relationship with other good things is questioned.Since ancient times, this is beautytrueOrgoodIt has been questioned as a relationship between beauty and pleasure, that is, the sensation brought about by something good.
In ancient times, the autonomy of value areas was not self-evident, but rather the commonality of each value area was usually pursued.Etymologically, the word "beautiful" is often shared with "good", and even in many modern languages, the word "beautiful" is often used to imply "good" and "pleasant" in everyday language.Overall, in this kind of value association, beauty is often associated with good and is considered one of the goodness of morality.[Source required].
This situation is similar in Greece, where Western philosophy began. "Beautiful person" (ho kalos) is a term that refers to the social status, ability, and goodness of birth rather than the beauty of appearance, and "beautiful person" is a "superb" that embodies the ethical norms of the citizens of Police. Was a person[Note 4].
The concept that well expresses the extremely ethical color of "beauty" is "kalokagathia".Coined from the words for good and the words for beauty, this word is presented as an ideal image for Greek human beings to realize.[Source required].
HesiodbyPandoraIn mythology, this woman's appearance is as beautiful as a goddess, her heart is as inferior as a dog, and the world is full of evil (kakia).Work and days』).In other words, if beauty is sensuously pleasant and to some extent, it may lead to guilt and evil rather than good (agathon), so at first it is generally accepted that beauty is far from virtue. Was ..However, in some cases, the beauty of virtue and the beauty of spirit are recognized instead of appearance ("It is beautiful to die without stains or blame" ("Aeschylus"Seven Against Thebes』1011)).If this beauty as virtue (arete) could be grounded like Plato, it was thought that beauty (kalon) and goodness (agathon) would become one, and the idea of kalokagathia would be established...However, this word isXenophonDerived from, In Plato, the idiom kalos kagathos is often used.
Relationship with the truth
Beauty is also often associated with truth.Plato,PlotinusIn, beauty is sometimes the best object a philosopher (Aichi) should do.In this context, beauty is equated with true, and knowing beauty is considered to be the cornerstone of true knowledge.In such cases, good and wisdom are often considered to be essentially the same.
From there, the idea that beauty is not an independent value domain but good or truly subordinate, and conversely, beauty is used to express good or true is born.Religious art and decorations to show the power of the royal prince can be said to be the use of such beauty.
Unique beauty Since the perception of beauty is directly related to the sensibilities, it has been recognized since ancient times that beauty is an area different from good and true.Plato has a debate about the distinction between the apparent pleasure and the true goodness of poetry ("Country』).The classification of human rational ability is alreadyア リ ス ト テ レ スAlthough it is done by ("Nikomachos ethics』, There is a distinction between knowledge as the ability to know the truth, thought as the ability to practice ethics, and technical knowledge as the ability to create things (however, here technical knowledge is not the ability to relate only to particularly beautiful things. , General production ability).However, in ancient times, the claim that beauty was a unique territory was not positively made.
Establishing a position that beauty is an inherent ability isSensibilityIn parallel with an attempt to give it its own dignity.Calls the 17th century the "era of sensibility," and the sensualism of this eraHobbiesIn theory, I see the opportunity to grasp the aesthetic autonomy later.
CantThe autonomy of beauty (de Autonomie) is established by.Kant argued for the relationship between beauty and morality, but it is undeniable that the establishment of autonomy in each area disrupted the loose exchanges that traditional values had.Friedrich SchillerResponded to Kant's rigor and insisted on a positive relationship between beauty and ethics (such as "Aesthetic Education").AestheticianKuno FischerCalls Schiller's attempt "anthropological aesthetics."However, as a whole, the movement to insist and defend the autonomy of beauty became mainstream from the early modern period to the modern period.While this tendency opened up the possibility of expressing diverse beauty to artists, it was accompanied by a by-product that the expression became unacceptable to the times.As a reaction to this, in contemporary art, the question is how it is possible to bring society closer to art.However, it can be said that the autonomy of beauty as a thesis communicates with almost no doubt.
In Western Europe, especially since the early modern period, there is a movement to subdivide beauty, give each one its own definition, and formulate mutual relationships.The area of such subdivided aesthetics is called the aesthetic category.
The substance of the aesthetic category differs depending on the times and the theorists, but the typical aesthetic category includes beauty as well.Grace-Sublime-醜-Fumor(Humorous) ・Ironyand so on.JapaneseArtistic theory(Tea ceremony, kagaku) orSinologyI sayWabi-rust・ ・Mono no awareIs also a kind of aesthetic category.Ugly was traditionally considered a contradictory concept of beauty (lack of beauty).For this reason, the expression of ugliness in art was not taken up by most commentators.However, in modern times, it was argued that ugliness was also one of the aesthetic categories of positive value, and attempts to express ugliness in art appeared.
Implications of "beauty" in Chinese characters
JapaneseThe word "beauty" used in漢字It was invented in China more than 3000 years ago.The Chinese character "beauty" is "Righteousness"Or"goodLike, it is made by a kind of elemental composition, and the upper half of each is "sheepIs the character.
The composition of "sheep" and "large" is "beauty", and the composition of "sheep" and "self" is "righteousness".Confuciusof"Argument"Sheep" is an animal used as a sacrifice in religious ceremonies, meaning "sacrificial animal", and from there it becomes a synthetic Chinese character with "sheep" as an element. teeth,"Sacrifice”Is included..Alternatively, it can be said that these Chinese characters were synthesized and created to express the concept of "sacrifice".
"Righteousness" means "sacrifice as much as my responsibility", "good" means "sacrifice as much as possible in ceremonial equipment", but "beauty" means "great sacrifice". be.The sacrifice in this case is "Self-sacrificeIscommunityThere is an implication that the maximum sacrifice that human beings can make for the fate of human beings, that is, that they give their lives and raise the target, in other words, of human beings.ethicsMost on the roadSublimeWhat he did was "beauty.".
- Shirakawa theory
About "beauty"Discourse], "Follow the sheep, obey the great."ConsensusButShirakawa ShizukaIs the whole "beauty"HieroglyphIt is interpreted as "the whole form of sheep".The following is Shirakawa's theory.
- A sheep is the shape of the upper body of the sheep seen from the front, and the shape seen from above including the hind legs of the sheep is "beauty".The appearance of a lamb being born from behind a mother sheep is "a swordHowever, the size of the upper part and the size of the lower part of "Beauty" are the same, and it is the shape of the mother sheep seen from behind.Sheep were offered to God as a sacrifice, and because the sheep were required to be beautiful and perfect, the beauty of mature sheep was called beauty, and was later used to mean all "beautiful."
- "Righteousness" is a ideograph that follows the sheep and me, but IsawIt is an elephant shape, meaning that a sheep is sawed and sacrificed.The fact that there is no defect in offering to God as a sacrifice is called "just".In this way, I used to mean a saw,First person Of代名詞It came to be used as "we", and instead of me, as a character meaning a sawShaped voiceSaw (Kyo) was made.There is no proper way to show it in pronouns, and all borrowed the sound from the true meaning of the letter.Temporary borrowingIt becomes the usage of. In the "Sentence", although "righteousness" is the ideograph, it is interpreted as "my dignity", but it is wrong to understand me as myself because the ideograph does not constitute the character of the ideograph..
- ^ Tomonobu Imamichi, in a more rigorous expression, discusses the "phase difference of beauty" in the presence of nature, technique, art, and personality.
- ^ These can be exemplified by another "beautiful thing".
- ^ The explanation about the beauty that mathematicians feel is "Mathematical beautyA detailed article is written.
- ^ Ancient greekKaros is a word that has a different meaning from "beautiful" in modern Japanese.Just as beautiful in English has the meaning of "superb", it is an example where the concept of words does not correspond.
- ^ a b c Kojien XNUMXth Edition [Beauty]
- ^ a b c d Britannica Encyclopedia [Beauty]
- ^ Takeo Kuwabara, Shuichi Kato ed. 1969, p. 13.
- ^ "Foreword" "Iwanami Lecture Philosophy (6) Art", i.In the "Foreword" at the beginning, the editor states that "Yamato no Kuni is beautiful, Ono no Komachi is beautiful, and this solution of the equation is beautiful." (Quote)
- ^ a b "Foreword" "Iwanami Lecture Philosophy / Art", i.
- ^ Tomonobu Imamichi, "Historical Development of Art Thought in the West (Ancient / Medieval)", "Iwanami Lecture Philosophy / Art", p.39.Pandora,Kirke,Helen of Troy"Beautiful people" such as were also evil (Kakia) at the same time.
- ^ Tomonobu Imamichi, "Historical Development of Art Thought in the West (Ancient and Medieval)", p.54. The Greek word "caroca kakia" does not exist. Imamichi coined the word in the paper published in "Ideal".
- ^ a b Tomonobu Imamichi, "Historical Development of Art Thought in the West (Ancient / Medieval)", "Iwanami Lecture Philosophy / Art", p.39.
- ^ a b Takeo Kuwabara, Shuichi Kato ed. 1969, p. 8.
- ^ About Tatsu Kohitsuji, "Lamb" and "Lamb" in "Theory"Ball], Which means "the birth of a lamb" (Shirakawa (literature) p.597).
- ^ Shirakawa (character style) p.85, p.168, p.597, p.745
- ^ Shirakawa (common character solution) p.50, p.103, p.537
- Takeo Kuwabara, Shuichi Kato, "Iwanami Lecture Philosophy No. 14", Iwanami Shoten, 1969.two:10.11501/2968119.
- Shirakawa Shizuka "New revision Literary Popular version ”(平凡 社, New Edition 2008 (First Edition 2007))ISBN 978-4-582-12813-0
- Shizuka Shirakawa "Common Characters" (Heibonsha, New Edition 2006 (First Edition 2003))ISBN-4 582 12805-X-
- Aesthetic sense
- Fisherian runaway theoryor" Average beauty theory "
- Japanese Society for Aesthetics
- Mathematical beauty
- Beautiful woman
- Often used for names, etc.