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Batting order

Batting order(Dajun) What is a batting order?baseball,soft ball,Gateball,cricketIt is the order in which the players hit and attack.



In baseball and softball, both teams decide the batting order when attacking and the defensive position when defending, respectively, before starting the game.pitcherThe nominated player will hit instead ofNominated batterWhen using the (DH) rule, determine the designated hitter and its batting order instead of the pitcher's batting order.試合開始時における9人の選手及び指名打者はNine players and designated hitters at the start of the matchStarting memberIt is called (starting lineup).In addition, the players are called the first batter and the second batter in order from the earliest batting order in the team.

  1. Five minutes before the start of the match, the umpire enters the stadium and is greeted by the managers of both teams. First, the manager of the home team or a person nominated by the manager hands two batting order tables to the ball umpire.
  2. Next, the manager of the visiting team, or a person nominated by the manager, hands the ball umpire two batting order tables.
  3. The batting order table that can be handed to the umpire must also include the defensive position of each player.
  4. The umpire checks whether the original copy of the batting order table received is the same as the duplicate copy, and then hands the duplicate copy of the batting order table to the manager of the opponent team.
  5. At the same time that the batting order table of the home team is handed to the umpire, the entire responsibility of the stadium is entrusted to each umpire.

NPBFor a long time, it was customary for the batting order table to be exchanged after the batting practice of the visitor team was completed (about 40 minutes before the start of the game).[1]..現在(2012年以後)は野球規則通り試合開始5分前に「最終の打順表」の交換が行われるが、実際には以前までの慣習通りビジターの打撃練習終了後に審判控室内にて「予定の打順表」が両球団・審判間で行われ、この打順が正式な交換前に記録係、マスコミに伝わり場内に告知されるCurrently (after XNUMX), the "final batting order table" is exchanged XNUMX minutes before the start of the game according to the baseball rules, but in reality, as is customary before, after the visitor's batting practice is over, "planned" in the referee waiting room. The batting order table will be held between the two teams and the referees, and this batting order will be communicated to the record clerk and the media before the official exchange and announced in the hall.[2].

Regulations in case of wrong batting order

If the batting order is incorrect, it is stipulated as follows (Official Baseball Rules 6.07).

If the batter does not hit according to the batting order table, the batter who entered the turn at bat in the wrong batting order (illegal batter) completes the hit (Fair ballHit the ball that becomesFour dead balls,Run awayByrunnerIf it is before (or will be out without becoming a runner), it will be replaced with a batter in the regular batting order (normal batting order).strikeとballYou can continue to hit by inheriting the count of.

If a batter in the wrong batting order completes the hit, if the opponent discovers this mistake and appeals, the batter in the regular batting order will be out.At this time, all the play caused by the hitting of the batter in the wrong batting order is invalidated, and the runner is returned to the base occupied at the time of hitting.However, it happened during the turn at bat of the fraudulent batterSteal-Storming-Balk-CaptureThe runner's advancement and score by will not be invalid because it has nothing to do with the batting.Then, the batter in the batting order next to the batter in the regular batting order becomes the correct next batter.

The appeal that points out the mistake in batting order is a play that throws a pitch to the batter who stood in the next at bat or a pick-off ball to the runner (however, against the injustice of the runner)Appeal playIf there is, throwing for appeal play is not included in the play here). If even one play is made, the batter's hit in the wrong batting order is justified and the play continues, and even if it appeals, it is not accepted.If the hitting of a batter who has no appeal and is in the wrong batting order is justified, the batter in the batting order next to the batting order in which the justified batter is located becomes the correct next batter.

Thinking about batting order


In Japan, there is an ideal player image for each batting order, and there is a tendency to apply the players in the team to them.In general, players with the required abilities are appointed for the purpose of realizing the ideal attack pattern in Japan, which is to create a chance with XNUMXst and XNUMXnd and return with XNUMXrd, XNUMXth and XNUMXth. (However, there are exceptions to this, and especially in the case of foreign directors, there are many cases where such Japanese-specific usage is not used).It seems that other Asian countries also like this way of thinking.

The role of each batting order
First batter
Going to base, creating opportunities and scoring is the biggest role[3][4][5]..高い打率・出塁率を維持する打撃技術や選球眼が求められる他In addition to the batting technique and batting eye that maintain a high batting average and on-base percentage[4][5], Creating a chance to score by stealing bases, etc., and being able to reach the next base quickly are also required.
top batter(Japanglish)[6]OrLead-off man,Lead-off hitter(leadoff man,leadoff hitter) Also called[3], The media uses metaphorical expressions such as "captain of the incision" and "nuclear warhead."
Second batter
It plays almost the same role as the first batter, but in many cases, a batter who excels in small tricks such as bunting and pouring is appointed assuming that the first batter appears as a runner.If there is a runner, the runner will be advanced by a sacrifice bunt or an end run, and if there is no runner, he will go to the base and connect to the next batter.When there are runnersdouble playA certain level of running ability is also required to prevent this.Because of its role, it is also called a "connector".
In recent years, even in JapanSecond strongest batter theoryThere is also a team that forms a batting line that puts a strong hitter in the second place based on.
Third batter
A strong hitter who excels in both running and attacking is required. Due to the influence of the "third strongest batter theory", depending on the team, a batter who has the ability to surpass the fourth batter is often appointed, and in addition to the batting average and the number of home runs, a batter who has the running ability to expand the chance is ideal. It is said to be a target.
Takashi ToritaniConsiders the third batter as the ideal batting order, and because there is an option to connect to the fourth batter with walks, there are a wide range of options for hitting, and most batters are on base when standing in the batting order. He points out that he is a batter or a second batter and the risk of double play is low.[7]. Also,Atsushi Furuta"When I was the third batter,OUR TEAMTo number 4PetagineWas set up, so when the opponent was about to walk, he tried to get the count easily, so I was able to aim for that. "[7].
Fourth batter
In Japan, there is a strong image of putting the strongest batter who boasts long hitting power,Ace pitcherIt is often regarded as a team flower shape alongside.Since the batter who enters the fourth position will stand at bat with a lot of expectations and name recognition, not only his ability as a batter but also his mental ability to withstand heavy pressure is required.
In professional baseball,Yomiuri GiantslikeSuccessive fourth battersIn some cases, all of the above are recorded, and the player who was newly appointed as No. XNUMX may be widely reported as "No. XNUMX".
Fifth batter
A batter with excellent long hitting power is appointed.The fourth batter survives the runner who could not return, the fourth batter retires,Shy awayIt plays a role as a preparation when it is done.
Since sometimes more certainty than the fourth batter is required, there are many teams that include so-called average hitters who do not have long hitting power but have a high batting average.
Sixth batter
Consists of XNUMXrd, XNUMXth, and XNUMXth for lower hittingCleanupIt is a batting order in which players with lower ranks enter.shortstop-second baseman-catcherIn many cases, players with high defensive importance such as are in the sixth place.On the other handCleanupSince it is the batting order that plays immediately after, a home run batter may enter, especially in a team with many players who excel in batting.
According to research data from University of Tsukuba[Detailed information for identifying documents], XNUMXth is the batting order with the highest probability that the batting order will turn next to the XNUMXth, and it is best to include a skillful batter with few hits.もっとも、この研究があくまで日本プロ野球における統計データを分析したものであることを踏まえ、「五番打者に強打者を置く」という日本独自の慣習があるからこそ六番打者にチャンスで回るだけであり、六番打者に強打者を配すれば六番打者にチャンスで回る確率は減るという指摘もあるHowever, based on the fact that this research is just an analysis of statistical data in Nippon Professional Baseball, it is only necessary to turn to the sixth batter with a chance because there is a unique Japanese practice of "putting a strong hitter in the fifth batter". It has been pointed out that if a strong hitter is assigned to the sixth batter, the chances of turning to the sixth batter will decrease.[8].
Seventh batter
Players with no batting average or home run often enter, and especially in professional baseball, defensive players enter this batting order.It is said that players with high skills in small skills such as running ability to advance the XNUMXth and XNUMXth bases on base and right-handed hits are desirable.On the other hand, there may be some unexpected batters, such as low certainty but high long hitting power, and even if the hitting result itself is mediocre, it is strong against chances. Is called.
In professional baseball, when a young player who has just entered the professional baseball team is appointed as a starting lineup, he is often appointed as No. XNUMX in order not to give excessive pressure.
Eighth batter
The priority of batting is particularly low, and in professional baseball, catchers who have a heavy defensive burden are often the eighth batters.When a catcher with a striking power is appointed in another batting order, another defensive player is included.Although striking power is not expected, minimum technology such as bunt is required. If the DH system is not adopted, the pitcher is often placed in the ninth position, so it is often avoided.
Atsuya Furuta cites it as one of the ideal batting orders based on the fact that he won the title of the top batter in the 8 season when he was appointed as the eighth batter.SE LeagueIf the pitcher whose XNUMXth position is in the fixed position is likely to be a pinch hitter, the game will be easy to understand, and if the pitcher is likely to continue throwing, he will be struck by a stinking place.catcherHe mentioned that the psychology was easy to understand and the ball was easy to read.[7].
In addition, in grass baseball where the level difference between individuals is large, players who are inferior in offense and defense are "Hachiban.Right hand"(So-called" Raipachi ") may be appointed.
Ninth batter
In most games that do not use the DH system, a pitcher is appointed (because you cannot expect batting ability or you can concentrate on pitching).
In games that adopt the DH system, it is basically not necessary for the pitcher to stand in the turn at bat, so the batter who is good at base and running ability is appointed mainly with an emphasis on the role of connecting to the batter.Also, when a catcher who is not strong in batting order but has high defensive ability such as lead, catching, and shoulders starts in the starting lineup, he may be in the 9th position, which is the slowest batting order in order to concentrate on defensiveness.
Batting order of pitchers

In the early days of professional baseball, pitchers who excel in pitching sometimes played the upper batting line, but usually lower batting lines, especially pitchers with no striking power, were in the eighth position.However, since pitchers use their physical strength most in defense, they are gradually appointed as No. XNUMX with the intention of reducing the number of at-bats and reducing the burden.In recent years, pitchers rarely hit anything other than No. XNUMX, because it is often said that it is disadvantageous to increase the number of pitchers who have no batting power.On the other hand, there is also a tactic that emphasizes the connection with the batter most by putting a pitcher in the eighth and a fielder in the ninth.Tetsuji KawakamiIt was often introduced by the director.現在でも2017年以降Even now after XNUMXAlex RamirezIt is a rare tactic that the director has introduced.

Amateur baseball, especiallyYouth baseball(Little league) ・ Junior high school baseball (Little senior)・high school baseballIn such cases, it is often seen that the best player in the team doubles as an ace pitcher and a fourth batter (or a high-ranking batter equivalent to it), as described as "Ace No. XNUMX".


Major league baseballIn the US baseball world such as (MLB), the specific impression of each batting order is thin.Saber metricsIn many cases, the batting order that is considered to be optimal is set according to the player composition of the team based on the analysis by.Therefore, compared to Japan, the role in each batting order is not so important, and there is not much idea that it is better to fix the batting order.for example,2020 World Champion OfDodgersHas 60 patterns of batting order in 57 games of the regular season[9].

Definition by Campanis

However, this was not the case from the beginning, and in MLB when Sabermetrics was not well developed, at that time.Brooklyn Dodgers OfSpring trainingWas in charge of training atAl CampanisHowever, the baseball technical book "Written by incorporating the opinions of" many excellent baseball players "at that time.Dodger Tactics』(1954), "Dodgers strategy (small ball)" is advocated and the role of each batting order is defined as follows.[10].

  1. The best batter isStrike ZoneThe person who can judge well is the best, and it is better if the foot is fast, the base is excellent, and the bunt is good.
  2. The second batterHit end runYou have to be a person who can do it, and you also need to be good at bunting and fast.
  3. The third batter must be the most reliable batter on the team, with a fast foot and a good extra-base hit.
  4. The fourth batter does not have to be fast, and is the batter with the longest hitting power who can intimidate the opponent pitcher when there is a runner on the base.
  5. The fifth batter is the second most powerful batter and is a reliable batter in times of adversity.
  6. The sixth batter has the third longest batter as the first candidate, and if there is no suitable batter, he is the most batter type batter.
  7. The seventh batter doesn't need much certainty, but sometimes he has to.
  8. The eighth batter is usually the lowest-strength batter of the regulars, but in some cases he must hit behind the runner to prevent double play.
  9. The ninth batter is usually a pitcher, but pitchers generally have low hitting power and must practice bunting.
Usage based on Sabermetrics

The definition of campanis has a great influence on MLB as a whole, and in addition, there is a record that the top five home runs in total are the most played as the third batter, and the batting order is surely turned by the attack starting from the beginning. Until the mid-5s, the strongest batter was often placed in the third place because it was in front of the fourth place and the number of at-bats increased accordingly.[11]..This is "in JapanThird strongest batter theoryIt has an influence such as being adopted by some teams.

However, in the 2010s,Saber metricsWhile there are many scholars who are studying the statistically optimal batting order due to advanced analysis by, the effective tactic is to "give a better batting order to a better batter" by computer simulation. Shown as, and based on it "Second strongest batter theoryNow affects each MLB team[12][13]. Also,Tom tangoEt al. "The Book: Playing the Percentages in Baseball" (2007), Using a mathematical model, shows the analysis results such as "general properties recognized in each batting order" and "value to put a strong hitter" in each batting order, supporting the "second strongest hitter theory".[12]..According to Tango et al.

  • The most important batting orders are No. 3, No. XNUMX, and No. XNUMX, and the best three players in the team should be appointed.Among them, the batter with a high on-base percentage is appointed as the first and second batters, and the batter with a high extra-base hitting power is appointed as the fourth.
  • The next most important are No. 2 and No. XNUMX, and two people will be appointed next to No. XNUMX, No. XNUMX, and No. XNUMX.No. XNUMX and No. XNUMX are often reversed in real-life games, but this is incorrect given that No. XNUMX is more likely to be at bat in the scene of two deaths than No. XNUMX.
  • What is not important is the lower hitting lines from No. 4 to No. XNUMX.Since the importance is lower than the upper hitting lines up to the fifth, it is sufficient to arrange the four people with lower hitting power in descending order of hitting power.

Can be classified as[12]..このように「最も重要」とされることに加え、併殺を避けるための走力や打点をあげる/得点機を演出する打力などが必要となる一番打者が出塁している場合の打撃、自ら出塁して得点機を創出する能力など求められるものが多いことから、二番に最も優れた打者を起用することが理想的とされるのであるIn addition to being considered "most important" in this way, hitting when the first batter is on base, who needs running power to avoid double play and hitting power to raise the hitting point / direct a scoring machine, etc. Since there are many things that are required such as the ability to go on base and create a scoring machine, it is ideal to appoint the second best batter.[12][14].

The reason why the "second strongest batter theory" became dominant is that in MLB, each batter of the team has a certain amount of extra-base hitting power, which is a tactic that utilizes mobility and running power. The tendency has changed from tactics to aiming for a large number of points by emphasizing long hitting ability and base-base ability, and the original concept of "batter type" has become meaningless.[13], The mainstream fighting method is to take the initiative in the game by making the first big inning.[15]..その上で、データを用いるなどして「より効率的に得点できる打順」を模索した結果、上記のように「二番に最も優れた打者を置く」という結論にたどり着くのであるAfter that, as a result of searching for "a batting order that can score more efficiently" by using data etc., we come to the conclusion that "the best batter is placed in the second place" as described above.[13].

Even in Japan, influenced by this, from around 2015Tokyo Yakult Swallows,Tohoku Rakuten Golden EaglesAlthough there are movements in some teams to appoint a strong hitter second, there are still no examples of stable results over a long period of time or showing overwhelming superiority, and it is necessary to establish it. Not reached[14][16]..これについては、MLBのように多くの打者が長打力を有している訳ではない上に、歴史的に機動力やバントなどの小技を駆使する戦術が定着している日本においてはRegarding this, in Japan, where many batters do not have long hitting power like MLB, and tactics that make full use of small skills such as mobility and bunt have been established historically.[17]It has been pointed out that it is difficult to establish this in the state of simply "imitation of MLB".[16]..ただしその反面、「二番最強打者論」を採用することによって従来の日本式の戦術でしばしば見られる「自ら相手にアウトを与える」行為による得点機会の浪費を抑えることができるとの見方もあるHowever, on the other hand, there is also a view that by adopting the "second strongest batter theory", it is possible to reduce the waste of scoring opportunities due to the act of "giving out to the opponent" that is often seen in conventional Japanese tactics.[12][18].



Table tennis


  1. ^ Basic rules of the game / Baseball rules.com
  2. ^ About "pre-match member table exchange" from this season Nippon Professional Baseball, March 2012, 3
  3. ^ a b "lead-off batter" (English). Baseball Dictionary and Research Guide. April 2009, 1Browse.
  4. ^ a b Teruyoko Taniguchi "First Impact-The Work of Lead-off Man" "Monthly Slugger No.22, February 2000", Nippon Sports Kikaku Publishing Co., Ltd., pp. 2-6. 
  5. ^ a b Slugger Editorial Department "Top of the World-Thorough Analysis by Batter Type" "Monthly Slugger No.1, June 62" Nippon Sports Kikaku Publishing Co., Ltd., pp. 2003-6. 
  6. ^ Top batters are sometimes used by those who, in turn, start things first.Japan Broadcasting Corporationof"Red and White Singing Contest』, Perform the song at the beginning of the red group and the white groupsingerIs sometimes referred to as the "top batter".
  7. ^ a b c Furuta vs right-handed left-handed ball distribution theory!The reason why all the ideal batting orders are "No. 3" [Batter's Bible | Right-handed left-handed edition] Furuta's Equation [Atsuya Furuta Official Channel] 2022/03/01 (YouTube, viewed December 2022, 3)
  8. ^ Hiromitsu Ochiai Weekly Baseball December 2013, 12 Issue
  9. ^ "2020 Los Angeles Dodgers Batting Orders | Baseball-Reference.com”. Baseball-Reference.com. April 2021, 8Browse.
  10. ^ Campanis (1957) pp.275-276
  11. ^ Ichiro and batting order-is the US "third strongest theory" true? Nihon Keizai Shimbun January 2012, 1
  12. ^ a b c d e The second batter is a batter ... What is the basis for the theory you often hear? Full-count August 2015, 8
  13. ^ a b c The strongest hitter of the major is in No. 2-Japan-US No. 4 image compared by former Hanshin helper Full-count August 2015, 9
  14. ^ a b [Baseball beauty] What is the more important batting order than cleanup? "The strongest theory of the second batter" Magazine Summit March 2018, 3
  15. ^ No. 4 is the main gun, and the second batter's strongest theory overturns.Looking at the RBI, the difference between Japan and the United States is clear. (2/2) Number Web April 2019, 3
  16. ^ a b Major new trend "2nd batter's strongest theory" Does it apply to Japan? NEWS Post Seven August 2018, 5
  17. ^ Think from history of resistance and uplifting feeling to put the strongest batter in the second place. (2/2) Number Web April 2018, 12
  18. ^ The second is "batting order that can move the game".The theory of "rethinking the second batter" that changes baseball. Number Web April 2014, 6

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