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Conspiracy theory(Conspiracy theory,British: conspiracy theory) Means about some famous event or situationDescription"By an evil and powerful group (organization)陰謀Is involved"WhenAssertedOrBelieveIs what to do..This word isprejudiceOr inadequateevidenceIt is often used with the negative implication that it is appealing for the existence of a plot based on.. The word "conspiracy theory" simply refers to a secret plan.陰謀"Unlike,scientist,HistorianIt refers to a "hypothetical conspiracy" with certain characteristics, such as opposition to mainstream views among those who are qualified to assess its accuracy..
Difference from conspiracy
"Conspiracy theoryThe term "" refers to a "hypothetical conspiracy" with specific characteristics and simply refers to any secret plan involving two or more persons."陰謀Is different from..For example, the conspiracy theorist's belief is:scientist,HistorianThere is a characteristic that it always opposes the mainstream opinion among those who are qualified to evaluate its accuracy...Conspiracy theorists draw themselves from the masses who believe in formal explanations because they have privileged access to or socially persecuted knowledge. Think far away.Michael BurkinDescribes conspiracy theory as "a template that is imposed on the world to give events an upper-level order.".
The actual conspiracy, even very simple, is difficult to conceal and causes unexpected problems on a daily basis...In contrast, conspiracy theory suggests that the conspiracy will succeed unrealistically, and a group of conspiracy masterminds (egOfficialsorganizations) are supposedly capable of acting with near-perfect competence and secrecy.The cause of an event or situation is simplified to eliminate complex or interacting factors and mere chance or unintended consequences.Nearly all discoveries are explained as deliberately planned by the mastermind.
The evil intentions envisioned in most conspiracy theories go far beyond the general conspiracy that arises from self-interest, corruption, cruelty, and criminality.The supposed masterminds are not just people with selfish intentions or different values.Rather, conspiracy theory envisions a black-and-white world in which good and evil are fighting.The general public is the victim of systematic persecution, and the motives of those who are alleged masterminds are often close to purely mad evil.At the very least, the masterminds are said to be almost inhumanly ignoring the basic freedoms and well-being of the general public.In a more epic conspiracy theory, the mastermind causes all the evils we suffer, the abominable cruelty that we cannot imagine in our daily lives, and ultimately corrupts everything we cherish. It is said to be an incarnation of evil that is trying to destroy it.
Oxford English DictionaryConspiracy theory states that "an event or phenomenon occurs as a result of a stakeholder conspiracy, especially by secret but influential institutions (typically political motives). The belief that it is involved in an unexplained event (with oppressive intent). "There, as the oldest usage example, "The American Historical ReviewThe 1909 article published in 』is quoted, Seems to have been used on paper as early as April 1870..The English word conspiracy is a Latin prefix meaning "together" and "together." con- And the Latin word meaning "breath" spirare Is derived from.
Robert Blaskiewicz notes that examples of the use of the word can be found as early as the 19th century, and that the usage was highly pejorative.. According to research by Andrew McKenzie-McHarg, the term conspiracy theory in the 19th century simply ``proposes a plausible hypothesis of a conspiracy,'' and such hypotheses can be criticized. but used "with no negative or positive connotations at this stage".According to Lance DeHaven-Smith,Warren CommitteeAnnounced the survey resultsNew York TimesThe term has become routinely used in the United States since 5, when the paper published five articles containing the term conspiracy theory..
The term "conspiracy theory" itself is also the subject of conspiracy theory, and is a supporter of conspiracy theory (especially).Warren CommitteeTo avoid being trusted by people by ridiculing)CIAThere is also a theory that it was spread by the operatives of.
Conspiracy theorists' reasoning, conspiracy theorists' spiritual tendencies
Conspiracy theoryDisproofTo resistCirculation theoryenhanced byIn other words, even if there is evidence that contradicts the conspiracy, or even if the evidence of the conspiracy itself does not exist, both will be reinterpreted as evidence that the conspiracy exists.As a result, conspiracy theories become things to believe in rather than to be proven or disproved..
For some, conspiracy theorists are in their argumentOccam's razorpoints out that it is not possible to apply.. The conspiracy-theoretic belief (in much the same sense) is "to unnecessarily assume conspiracy, even in situations where other explanations seem more correct."Some have pointed out.
Some researchers believe that believing in conspiracy theories is psychologically harmful (or pathological) and,LowIntelligence,Psychological projection,paranoia,andSuggests that there is a correlation with.
Psychologists usually have a hard time believing in conspiracy theories or trying to find conspiracies out of thin air.paranoia,,narcissism,andAttachment disorderNumerous psychopathological conditions such asOrApopheniaSuch asCognitive distortionI think it is due to..But nowScientific consensusSo the conspiracy theorist's belief is ultimately(I.e.Neurologically innate cognitive tendency (不安Or,Derived from (natural tendencies, etc.) and deepEvolutionary originMany conspiracy theorists tend not to be pathological because they are thought to have.
History of conspiracy theory
Historically, conspiracy theoryprejudice,propaganda,Witch Hunt,戦 争,andGenocideClosely connected with..Conspiracy theoryterroristOften strongly believes,Timothy McBay,Annesh Bering BreivikIs a prominent example..Similarly,Nazi Germany,Soviet Union,andTurkeySuch nations also used conspiracy theory for justification.Motivated by conspiracy theorySouth AfricaBy governmentAIDS denialIs an estimated 33 peopleAIDSProduced the dead by,300 million people in the countryfamineDespite suffering from,ZambiaCaused the government to refuse food aid.Q AnonConspiracy theory2020 United States Presidential ElectionDenialism for the result ofUS Capitol Raid CaseCaused..Conspiracy theoryvaccineInoculation andAddition of fluoride to tap waterBecause it promotes opposition topublic healthIt is a serious obstacle that hinders the improvement ofis connected to fostering the epidemic of..Another effect of conspiracy theory isScientific evidenceLoss of trust inAndMilitantsWith the further radicalization of the groupideologyStrengthening,andEconomyThere is an adverse effect on.
The conspiracy theory, which was once limited to niche people,20st centuryFrom the second half21st centuryTowards the beginningCultural phenomenonAs emerged asMass media,インターネット,andSNSGeneralized by..Conspiracy theories are widespread around the world, often believed by the general public, and some by the majority of the population...Measures to prevent the epidemic of conspiracy theoryOpen societyTo maintain and of the general publicTo improve.
Conspiracy theories can be claimed for just about anything, but certain subjects seem to be more intriguing than others.Favorite themes include celebrity deaths, assassinations, ethically questionable government activity, covert technology,False flag"Terrorism and the like.The longest-running and most widely recognized conspiracy theory is:Conspiracy Theory of President Kennedy Assassination,Apollo conspiracy theory,Conspiracy theory of the XNUMX/XNUMX conspiracy in the United States, And numerous conspiracy theories that various organizations are plotting to conquer the world..
Conspiracy theory exists all over the world..In rural Africa, conspiracy theories target social elites, hostile tribes, and Western societies, with masterminds.magicIt is said that the plan is being carried out using witchcraft and magic.One of the common beliefs is that modern technology is magic in itself and is designed to harm or control people... In ChinaHitlerRise of and 1997Asian currency crisis,andGlobal warmingMany events such asRothschild familyConspiracy theories have been disseminated that it was planned by China, and it is said that it may have influenced the debate on China's monetary policy..
A conspiracy theory that was once limited to niche people, but nowMass mediaIt became commonplace in the United States in the late 20th century and early 21st century.Cultural phenomenonHas become popular as..The general tendency to believe in conspiracy theory goes beyond partisan and ideological barriers.Conspiracy theoretic thinking correlates with anti-government orientation and low political self-efficacy, and conspiracy theorists recognize the government's threat to individual rights and "who to vote for" really Shows deep skepticism that it is important.
Conspiracy theory is often believed in general, and some are believed by the majority of people...Extensive samples of modern Americans consider at least some conspiracy theories to be credible..For example, in a 2016 survey, 10% of AmericansChemtrailWas found to be "completely true" and 20% to 30% considered "somewhat true"..This means that "1 million Americans (corresponding to Japan's total population) think'chemtrails are true'", so sociologists, psychologists and folklore are interested. Collecting.
Conspiracy theorySNSNot just aboveBlog,YouTubeIn the form of the above videowebWidely present on top.Whether the Web has increased the prevalence of conspiracy theory remains an unexplained research topic..Search engineThe existence and expression of conspiracy theory in search results has been monitored and studied, and it has been shown that there are generally no reliable and good quality links in search results, and that there are significant differences on various topics. Are.
Conspiracy theories can be local or international, some focusing on a single case, others covering a country, region, or entire period of history..
Five categories of walkers
- Outside enemies: The theory that a particular person is plotting against a community from the outside.
- Enemy inside: The theory that there is a conspiracy mastermind indistinguishable from the general public inside the nation.
- Enemy on: The theory that a person in power manipulates an event for the benefit.
- The enemy below: The theory that the working class is aiming for a revolution to overturn social order.
- Conspiracy of good: The theory that there are angelic forces working behind the scenes to improve the world and help people.
Berkun's three categories
Michael BarkunClassifies conspiracy theories into three types.
- Conspiracy theory about events: Conspiracy theory about limited and well-defined events.As an exampleKennedy assassination,Simultaneous terrorist attacks,And so on.
- Systematic conspiracy theory: Conspiracy theory that believes that there is a plot with a wide range of goals, such as control of a country, region, or the world as a whole.The goals are broad, but the scenarios envisioned by this type of conspiracy theory are generally simple.A single evil organization infiltrates the existing system and implements plans to corrupt it.this is,Jew,Freemason,Communism, ま た はCatholic churchA common conspiracy theory scenario that focuses on the work that is suspected to be done by.
- Super conspiracy theory: A conspiracy theory that hierarchically links multiple conspiracy theories.All-purpose evil power is placed at the top.Berkun, as an example of such a conspiracy theory,David Icke,Milton William CooperGives the idea of.
Murray RothbirdSupports and argues for a model that contrasts "deep conspiracy theory" with "shallow conspiracy theory."According to Rothbard, shallow conspiracy theorists observed an event and said, "Cui bono?(Who will benefit?) And conclude that any potential beneficiaries are secretly involved.Meanwhile, deep conspiracy theorists start with intuition and start looking for evidence.Rothbard describes the latter activity as an act of confirming the correctness of his paranoia with certain facts..
Relationship between conspiracy theory and evidence
Ideas in conspiracy theory are generally based on the beliefs of followers rather than evidence.Noam ChomskyFocuses primarily on long-term public action by public institutions, as recorded in academic book descriptions and reports by mainstream media.Conspiracy theory..Conspiracy theory, contrary to institutional analysis, assumes existence like a secret coalition between individuals and speculates on their suspected activity...Also, believing in conspiracy theoryConjunction fallacySuch asBias in reasoningRelated to.
King's College LondonClare Birchall of[Annotation 1].."Knowledge" here means that conspiracy theory is considered to be related to the legitimate form of "knowing."[Annotation 2]..Birchall argues that the relationship between legitimate and unjustified knowledge is generally closer than the claims that conspiracy theories dismiss..
Watergate caseThe theory that multiple conspirators are involved and whose correctness has been proved is generally "" rather than conspiracy theory.Investigation reportOr "historical analysis"..In contrast, the term "Watergate Conspiracy Theory" is used to refer to various hypotheses that a person convicted of a conspiracy was actually a victim of a deeper conspiracy..
Conspiracy theory rhetoric
The majority of conspiracy theories,Attribution bias,andConfirmation biasSuch asCognitive bias, is exploiting unconscious bias to play with the valve..Conspiracy theory is most successful when advocates can gather followers from the general public, such as politics, religion, and journalism.Proponents do not always believe in conspiracy theory, and may use conspiracy theory in an attempt to obtain public approval.Conspiracy theoretic claimsAppeal to emotionsIt may also serve as an effective rhetorical strategy to convince some of the people through.
Conspiracy theory generally self-justifies by focusing on gaps and ambiguities in knowledge and arguing that its true explanation must be a conspiracy (Argument from ignorance）..On the other hand, the evidence that directly supports their claim is generally of poor quality.For example, relying solely on witness testimony and ignoring objective analysis of evidence, despite being unreliable..The epistemological strategy of conspiracy theories is ``cascade logic'' (British: Cascade logic)It is called.Whenever new evidence emerges, dismiss them, claiming that more people must be involved in the cover-up...All information that contradicts the conspiracy theory is disinformation by conspiracy..Similarly, the continued lack of evidence that directly supports the conspiracy theorists' claims is portrayed as the existence of a silent conspiracy.The fact that no one else has discovered or exposed the plot is taken as evidence that the plot does not exist, but that they are part of the plot...This strategy isolates conspiracy theorists from a neutral analysis of evidence and makes them resistant to doubts and corrections.This is "epistemological self-isolation" (British: Epistemic self-insulation)It is called.
Conspiracy theorists in the mediaFalse balanceOften develops strategies that utilize.They may argue that they offer a legitimate alternative perspective that deserves the same amount of time to discuss mainstream opinions.For exampleIntelligent designClaims that a conspiracy by scientists is suppressing their opinion"(British: Teach the Controversy) Is used in the campaign.Friendly DebatesIf they find a place to express their opinions in a format, theyPersonal attackObsessed with using to attack flaws in mainstream descriptions and avoid discussions about flaws in their position.
A typical approach to conspiracy theory is to challenge any action or statement from the authorities with the least grounded justification.The reply isdouble standardIf there is no immediate response to satisfy the conspiracy theorist, the conspiracy is to be proved.Errors in the response are emphasized, no matter how trivial, but conversely, flaws in the claims of other conspiracy theorists are generally acceptable..
Conspiracy theory as a world view
HistorianRichard HoffstatterIs a 1964 essay, "In the whole American historyparanoiaAnd the role of conspiracy theory.Bernard BailynThe book "』(1967)American Revolutionary WarIt has been pointed out that a similar phenomenon occurred in North America earlier than that.Conspiracy theory, like people's attitudes, categorizes a relatively more global and historical type of conspiracy theory..
One of the most widely confirmed facts about conspiracy theory is that believing in one conspiracy theory tends to lead to believing in another unrelated conspiracy theory...This is also true if the conspiracy theories are in direct contradiction to each other.For example, one person saidUsama bin LadenBelieving in the conspiracy theory that "he was already dead before the hideout was attacked", he is more likely to believe in the conspiracy theory that "he is still alive".One of the conclusions drawn from this finding is that the content of the conspiracy theorists' beliefs is less important than the idea that they are concealed by the authorities..
Conspiracy Theory (Inboushikan,British: Conspiracism) was popularized in English in the 1980s by scholar Frank P. Mintz. According to Mintz, conspiracy historiography means "believing in the primacy of conspiracy in the development of history.":4.
Conspiracy theories meet the demands of diverse political and social groups in the United States and elsewhere.It identifies the elite, blames them for economic and social catastrophes, and assumes that things will be better if the actions of the people dismiss them from power.As such, conspiracy theory does not represent a particular era or ideology.: 199.
Time Magazine OfJustin FoxIt is,Wall streetTraders claim to be one of the most conspiracy-theoretic groups, a conspiracy that provides the reality of some conspiracy theories about financial markets and the direction needed for day-to-day market developments. It is attributed to the ability of the theory.
Conspiracy theoryArab worldOften found in Japanese culture and politics..For that, colonialismZionism・ Superpower ・oil-War on terrorismIncludes various conspiracy theories about..For example, "Zion Magi ProtocolIsJewNotorious under the guise of a world domination planCounterfeitButIslamic worldIs commonly read and disseminated.Roger Cohen suggests the popularity of conspiracy theories in the Arab world is the 'ultimate haven of the powerless'.Al-Mummin Said points out the dangers of such conspiracy theories.They say they "not only keep us away from the truth, but they keep us away from facing our own shortcomings and problems.".
Osama Bin LadenとAyman al-ZawahillyIn the arab worldAl QaedaThey have used conspiracy theories about the United States as a rhetoric to gain their support and to differentiate themselves from other groups, but they may not have believed in conspiracy theories themselves..
Harry G. West and others point out that although conspiracy theorists are often dismissed as a minority, there is some evidence that conspiracy theories are widely believed in the United States.West also cites these conspiracy theories asTransnationalism,Religious fundamentalismCompare with.
Theologian Robert Jewett and PhilosopherJohn S. LawrenceThe perpetual popularity of conspiracy theory in the United StatesCold War,McCarthyism, And deny authorityCounter cultureIt is said that it is caused by.There are still Soviet plots and contradictions between the right and left.American terrorist attacksThey say there is still a willingness to take advantage of real-life events such as, to support the existence of large-scale unverified and ongoing conspiracies..
またWatergate caseIs also used to justify other conspiracy theories,Richard NixonFor myself, this case is "Rorschach testIt's like "ink bleeding" and is being used to fill in the underlying patterns of other people..
Historian Kathryn S. Olmsted gives three reasons why Americans tend to believe in conspiracy theories..
- Watergate case,Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment,MK Ultra plan,Fidel Castro assassination attemptBecause there was actually excessive behavior and secrecy by the government during the Cold War era.
- GermanyIs infiltrating the United StatesSecond World WarClaims insideSaddam Hussein American terrorist attacksThe government has conspiracy theories such as unfounded allegations that it was involved inpropagandaBecause there is a certified past for.
- 1918 Peace Preservation Law,Cointel Pro,andRed pickingBecause there is a sense of distrust created by espionage and harassment of dissidents as part of.
Conspiracy theory consequences
As mentioned earlier, historically, conspiracy theories haveprejudice,Witch Hunt,戦 争,Genocideclosely related to..Conspiracy theoryterrorismoften strongly believed by perpetrators ofTimothy McBay,Annesh Bering Breivik,andBrenton Tarrant,Akiaki AsaharaIncludingAum ShinrikyoBelievers are a prominent example.Similarly,Nazi Germany,Soviet UnionStates also used conspiracy theory for justification..Motivated by conspiracy theorySouth AfricaBy governmentAIDS denialIs an estimated 33 peopleAIDSCreated the dead.300 million peoplefamineDespite suffering from,ZambiaThe government has decided to refuse food aid.
Conspiracy theorypublic healthIs a serious obstacle to the improvement of..People who believe in health-related conspiracy theoriesMedical scienceLess likely to follow specific advice, insteadAlternative medicineIs more likely to use..Conspiracy theories about pharmaceutical companies, etc.Anti-vaccineBelief isvaccineMay lead to lower vaccination rates, leading to vaccine-preventable disease epidemics..Health-related conspiracy theoryAddition of tap water fluorideOften promotes opposition toLancetWas published inMMR vaccineとautismSuppose it is related toIllegal paperAlso influenced the dissemination of.
Conspiracy theory is a fundamental component of a wide range of radical and extremist groups, and of its members.ideologyMay play an important role in strengthening and further intensifying beliefs..These conspiracy theories are found among both far-right and far-left political militants.Anti-SemitismOften, even fundamentally opposed groups share a common theme, such as conspiracy theory...More generally, believing in conspiracy theory is associated with having an extreme and uncompromising perspective, which may help maintain that perspective...Conspiracy theories do not always exist in extremist groups and do not always lead to violence, but they can make groups more radical, hate their enemies, and isolate members from society.Conspiracy theories demand urgent action, appeal to prejudice, and demonize the enemy.Scape goatMost likely to cause violence.
Conspiracy theories in the workplace can also have economic implications.For example, it leads to reduced job satisfaction and contribution, which increases the likelihood that workers will quit their jobs...It also has characteristics similar to conspiracy theory, resulting in decreased productivity and increased stress.Harmful rumorComparison with is also done.Impacts on management include a decrease in sales, a decrease in trust from employees, and a loss of corporate image..
Conspiracy theory can distract you from important social, political and scientific issues..It has also been used to undermine the credibility of scientific evidence from the general public and to lose it in the legal context.Conspiracy theoretic strategies also share the strategies and characteristics used by attorneys aimed at undermining the credibility of expert testimony.The strategy includes arguing that expert testimony is ill-advised, or looking for someone to provide a statement to imply that there is (more than actual) disagreement among experts..
Conspiracy theory can also bring some compensatory benefits to society in certain circumstances.For example, especially in oppressive societies, it can help people spot government deception and promote government transparency...But the actual conspiracy is usuallyWhistle-blowingPerson orjournalistMost of the effort that conspiracy theorists spend is essentially misdirected, as revealed by those who work in the system...The most dangerous conspiracy theory is to incite violence or to socially disadvantaged groups.Scape goatIt is likely to be a false alarm or to disseminate false alarms about important social issues..
The first measure to prevent the conspiracy theory epidemic is that there are many reliable sources, and government sourcespropagandaIt is known to be reliable rather thanOpen societyIs to form and maintain.Independent non-governmental organizations can also correct misinformation without requiring people to trust the government...Other approaches to reducing the masses fascinated by conspiracy theories may be based on the emotional and social nature of conspiracy theoretic beliefs.For example, of the general publicIt is highly possible that measures that promote the above are effective.Another approach is to take steps in a way that reduces negative emotions, specifically personally.希望,EmpowermentIs to improve the feeling.
It has been suggested that directly countering false information is counterproductive.For example, conspiracy theories can reinterpret inaccurate information as part of a "conspiracy story," which could reinforce their claims by refuting innocently...Publicizing criticisms of conspiracy theory can also result in justification of conspiracy theory...In this context, cognitive diversity is reduced by carefully selecting conspiracy theories to refute, by asking independent observers for additional analysis, and by weakening the fragile epistemology of the conspiracy theories community. Measures such as introducing to..The effects of justification may also be mitigated by responding to many conspiracy theories rather than a few..
However, presenting factual corrections to people and conspiracy theoriesLogical contradictionIt has been proven to be effective in many situations.. For example,American terrorist attacksCases are being studied to inform conspiracy theorists about the remarks of real experts and witnesses...One possibility is someone's view of the worldidentityIf you make a criticism that challenges you, the criticism is likely to backfire.This suggests that criticism while avoiding such challenges is an effective approach..
At least that conspiracy theory is believed by manyKennedy assassinationSince the 1960s, when many conspiracy theories aboutSociologyPerson orPsychologyPerson,folkloreattracting people's attention.Sociologist Tharkay Salim clearly illustrates the political nature of conspiracy theories.He suggests that one of the most important features of conspiracy theories is their attempt to reveal "real but hidden" power relations in social groups..
Studies suggest that, at the psychological level, believing in conspiracy theory is psychologically harmful or morbid.,Psychological projectionAndMachiavellianismPredicted by the tendency ofparanoiaHas a strong correlation with..The tendency to believe in conspiracy theory isStrongly associated with mental illness..A conspiracy theory that was once limited to niche people, but nowMass mediaIt has become commonplace in the United States and has become popular as a cultural phenomenon in the United States from the latter half of the 20th century to the beginning of the 21st century...Touching conspiracy theories in the news and mass entertainment has increased the acceptance of conspiracy theories and the social acceptance of non-mainstream beliefs..
Conspiracy theories often make use of complex and detailed discussions, including those that look analytical or scientific.But believing in conspiracy theory is driven primarily by emotions..Analytical thinking emphasizes rational and critical cognition and may help reduce conspiracy theoretic beliefs...Some psychologists say that the explanations associated with conspiracy theory may be strong beliefs held before they came to have conspiracy theory, and are often "internally consistent." Claims.
The charm of conspiracy theory
The psychological motive for believing in conspiracy theory isEpistemological-Existential-SocialIt can be classified into three types.These motives are particularly pronounced in vulnerable and disadvantaged people, but the belief in conspiracy theory does not appear to help address these motives.In reality, the situation may worsen or you may fall into desperation...For example, conspiracy-theoretic beliefs arise from a sense of helplessness, but exposure to conspiracy theories immediately suppresses the personal feelings of autonomy and control.In addition, they are less likely to take actions that improve their situation..
This is further supported by the fact that conspiracy theory has many detrimental attributes...For example, it promotes denial and distrust of others and groups who are allegedly acting on antisocial and twisted motives.this is,Alienation,AnomyIncreaseSocial capitalIs expected to lead to the loss of.Similarly, they portray the general public as helpless and ignorant to the mastermind, with a perspective that is likely to lead to a sense of helplessness that important aspects of society are determined by evil forces..
Each person may support one conspiracy theory for a variety of different reasons..The most consistent and proven characteristics of those who are fascinated by conspiracy theory are alienation, dissatisfaction and unhappiness with the situation in which they are placed, an unusual worldview, and helplessness (EmpowermentTo have the opposite feeling).In addition, various aspects of personality are said to affect susceptibility to conspiracy theories, but the so-called "Big fivepersonality traits are not associated with conspiracy theory beliefs.
Political scientistMichael BarkunDiscusses the use of "conspiracy theory" in modern American culture, the term "an exceptionally powerful and cunning plotter secretly plots an event to achieve an evil purpose. It is said that it refers to the "belief to explain as a result".. According to Barkun, conspiracy theory has three appeals..
- Primarily,Conspiracy theory argues that it can explain what cannot be explained by.The conspiracy theory seems to understand the true meaning of a confused world.
- Second, the conspiracy theoryDivide the world into two with the forces of light and darknessAdopt a simple and attractive method.They trace all evil back to one source.That is, the mastermind of the plot and its operatives.
- Third, the conspiracy theorySpecial secret knowledgeBecause it is often presented as, it may not be known or recognized by others.Therefore, "the publicbrainwashingAlthough it is a flock of people, a "wisdom person" like myself sees through the deception of a plotter. "
This third attraction isJohannes Gutenberg University Mainz Of社会 心理学Corroborated by research by Professor Roland Imhoff.The study suggests that conspiracy theories that are believed by fewer people are more attractive to conspiracy theorists..
Human psychologyHe argues that even if the mastermind behind the conspiracy is almost always perceived as hostile, there remains a reassuring factor for the conspiracy theorists.This is because the difficulties in relationships are created by humans and it is comforting to stay within human control.If a conspiracy group is allegedly involved, it can lead to hopes of destroying its power or joining the group.Believing in the power of the conspiracy is an implicit assertion of human dignity, which can also be seen as an unconscious affirmation that humans are responsible for their destiny..
People advocate conspiracy theories, for example, to explain the existence of power relations and evil forces in social groups.[Annotation 3]..What has been proposed as the psychological origin of conspiracy theory isprojectionAnd the personal desire to unravel the "significant factors of a significant event", andPersecutory delusion,paranoiaSuch as thought disorders ranging from diagnosable to severeMental disorderIs.Some people prefer socio-political explanations to escape anxiety when encountering random, unpredictable, or unexplained events..
According to Barrett and Lyons, "Conspiracy theories fabricate demonized enemies as part of a vast and insidious conspiracy against the common good.Scape goatIt is a narrative form of the scapegoating that evaluates those who have sinned as heroes who have sounded the alarm. ".
Some psychologists believe that the quest for meaning is a common motive in conspiracy theory.Once an idea is recognizedConfirmation biasとCognitive dissonanceAvoidance can reinforce that belief.In the context of conspiracy theory embedded within social groups, it may also help strengthen the community..
In a study that explored the possible motives behind accepting irrational conspiracy theory,American terrorist attacksIt was said that it was associated with the pain caused by such events. further,Manchester Metropolitan UniversityStudies suggest that having a "delusional idea" is the most likely condition for the development of conspiracy theoretic beliefs...Studies have also shown that increasing attachment to these irrational beliefs reduces the willingness to participate in civic activities...Believing in conspiracy theoryAnxiety disorder,paranoia,AuthoritarianismCorrelates with beliefs.
Professor of Philosophy Quasim Kassamargues that conspiracy theorists believe in conspiracy theories because of a flaw in their thinking (more precisely, a lack of intellectual character).Quoting the philosopher Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski's book Virtues of the Mind, he argues that intellectual virtues (humility, caution, prudence, etc.) and intellectual vices (gullibility, carelessness, etc.) , closed minds, etc.).Intellectual virtues lend themselves to sound verification, whereas intellectual vices hinder effective and responsible verification.In other words, people prone to conspiracy theories lack the necessary virtues and possess vices..
Some historians say that conspiracy theoryPsychological projectionClaims to contain the element of.According to the argument, this projection manifests itself in the form of attributed one's unwanted traits to the plotter.HistorianRichard HoffstatterStates that.
In many respects, this enemy appears to be a self-projection, with both the ideal and unacceptable aspects of the self attributed to others.The basic paradox of the paradox style is imitation of the enemy.For example, if a cosmopolitan intellectual was the enemy, the paranoid style would surpass even pedants in terms of knowledge. (Omitted)Ku Klux ClansWears priestly clothes and is as elaborate as the elaborate ritualhierarchyIn terms of buildingCatholicImitated.John Birch SocietyMimics covert operations through communist sub-organizations and avant-garde organizations, and makes ruthless accusations of ideological warfare along a line that closely resembles that found in enemy communists.A spokesman for the "Crusade" by various fundamentalist anti-communists has openly praised the dedication, discipline, and strategic ingenuity brought about by the communist cause.
Hofstadter also pointed out that "sexual liberation" is a vice that conspiracy theorists frequently attribute to target groups. "True conspiracy theorists' delusions often reveal strong sadomasochist feelings. For example,FreemasonThat's what it's like to be happy and clear about the cruelty of abuse by. ".
Conspiracy theory in popular culture
There are various popular entertainments that were created based on the conspiracy theory. Famous things are often used as motifs when they are handled in popular entertainment. There are the following types of conspiracy theory.
- What I picked up as one of the accents
- Generally treated as fiction
- Made by mixing historical facts with conspiracy theory
- Re-examination of actual events and existing plots as fiction, using them as the basis
- Dealing with the present and future that arise from the realization of conspiracy theory
On the other hand, some people point out that the conspiracies in these fictions reinforce and encourage conspiracy theories.American terrorist attacksSome of the information that existed before that "a passenger plane rushes into a building" is sometimes used to point out that it was planned in advance.
- "Capricon-1』(1977, USA)-In order to pretend that the failed Mars exploration manned spacecraft project was actually successful, a movie that the government will make and announce a fake image.Apollo conspiracy theoryAlso has a big impact on.
- "Zelib』(1988, USA)-Humans struggle to expose the fact that many aliens in modern society live by imitating humans and the world is controlled by them.
- "Conspiracy Theory(1997, USA)- MK Ultra planIs the theme.
- novel"Fullmetal panic!"(1998-2010)-The organization that controls the war from the shadow and controls the worldamalgamThe model ofThree hundred person committee.
- game"Metal gear solid』Appear inBilderberg meeting.. The US Parliament and the Prime Minister of Japan have no real power and fall under the patriots who are said to control from behind.
- game"CHAOS; HEAD''STEINTOR''ROBOTICS; NOTES''CHAOS;CHILD]Three hundred person committeeVarious organizations and terms including. In all the works, he is involved with the enemy who eventually confronts the protagonists.
- GameAssassin's Creed series』-- Try to control history by controlling history from the backKnights TemplarThe main axis of the story is the battle with the Assassin cult, which is trying to protect the freedom of the people.
- "SCP Foundation-Anomalous Existence A fictitious foundation called the Foundation that keeps an entity called SCP away from humankind, secretly secures, expropriates, and protects it, and acts to prevent the "XK class scenario" called the end of the world scenario from becoming a reality. A mysterious creative community dealing with organizations.In addition, the "World Occult Union", which is a coalition of organizations related to conspiracy theory, also exists as part of the creation.
- ^ Birchall 2006: "[W] e can appreciate conspiracy theory as a unique form of popular knowledge or interpretation, and address what this might mean for any knowledge we produce about it or how we interpret it. ": 66
- ^ Birchall 2006: "What we quickly discover ... is that it becomes impossible to map conspiracy theory and academic discourse onto a clear illegitimate / legitimate divide.": 72
- ^ Barkun 2003: "The essence of conspiracy beliefs lies in attempts to delineate and explain evil. At their broadest, conspiracy theories'view history as controlled by massive, demonic forces.'... For our purposes, a conspiracy belief is the belief that an organization made up of individuals or groups was or is acting covertly to achieve a malevolent end. "
- ^ Goertzel, T (December 1994). political psychology 15 (4): 731–742. two:10.2307/3791630. JSTOR 3791630. "explanations for important events that involve secret plots by powerful and malevolent groups"
- ^ "conspiracy theory". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.September 2005. (Subscription required orJoining the British Public Library. ) "the theory that an event or phenomenon occurs as a result of a conspiracy between interested parties; spec. a belief that some covert but influential agency (typically political in motivation and oppressive in intent) is responsible for an unexplained event "
- Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C. (2014). “Belief in Conspiracy Theories and Susceptibility to the Conjunction Fallacy”. Applied Cognitive Psychology 28 (2): 238–248. two:10.1002 / acp.2995. ISSN 0888 – 4080"A conspiracy theory can be defined as an unverified and relatively implausible allegation of conspiracy, claiming that significant events are the result of a secret plot carried out by a preternaturally sinister and powerful group of people."
- Jonason, Peter Karl; March, Evita; Springer, Jordan (2019). “Belief in conspiracy theories: The predictive role of schizotypy, Machiavellianism, and primary psychopathy”. PLoS ONE 14 (12): e0225964. bibcode: 2019PLoSO ..1425964M. two:10.1371 / journal.pone.0225964. ISSN 1932 – 6203. PMC 6890261. PMID 31794581"Conspiracy theories are a subset of false beliefs, and generally implicate a malevolent force (eg, a government body or secret society) involved in orchestrating major events or providing misinformation regarding the details of events to an unwitting public, in part of a plot towards achieving a sinister goal. "
- ^ a b Byford, Jovan (2011). Conspiracy theories: a critical introductionHoundmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave macmillan. ISBN 9780230349216. OCLC 802867724
- Thresher-Andrews, Christopher (2013). “An introduction into the world of conspiracy”. PsyPAG Quarterly 88: 5–8 "Conspiracy theories are unsubstantiated, less plausible alternatives to the mainstream explanation of the event; they assume everything is intended, with malignity. Crucially, they are also epistemically self-insulating in their construction and arguments."
- ^ a b c d Andrade, Gabriel (April 2020). “Medical conspiracy theories: Cognitive science and implications for ethics”. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (Springer On behalf of the European Society for Philosophy of Medicine and Healthcare) 23 (3): 505–518. two:10.1007 / s11019-020-09951-6. ISSN 1572 – 8633. PMC 7161434. PMID 32301040. originalArchived as of 8 May 2020. April 2021, 10Browse..
- ^ a b c d e Barkun, Michael (2016). “Conspiracy Theories as Stigmatized Knowledge”. Diogenes: 039219211666928. two:10.1177/0392192116669288.
- ^ a b Brotherton, Robert (2013). “Towards a definition of'conspiracy theory'”. PsyPAG Quarterly 88: 9–14 "A conspiracy theory is not merely one candidate explanation among other equally plausible alternatives. Rather, the label refers to a claim which runs counter to a more plausible and widely accepted account ... [Conspiratorial beliefs are] invariably at odds with the mainstream. consensus among scientists, historians, or other legitimate judge of the claim's veracity. "
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Brotherton, Robert (2013). “Towards a definition of'conspiracy theory'”. PsyPAG Quarterly 88: 9–14 .
- ^ Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0), Oxford University Press, 2009, sv 4
- ^ Johnson, Allen (July 1909). The Repeal of the Missouri Compromise: Its Origin and Authorship by P. Orman Ray ”. The American Historical Review 14 (4): 835–836. two:10.2307/1837085. hdl:2027 / loc.ark: /13960/t27948c87. JSTOR 1837085"The claim that [David R.] Atchison was the originator of the [Missouri Compromise] repeal may be termed a recrudescence of the conspiracy theory first asserted by Colonel John A. Parker of Virginia in 1880."
- ^ Robertson, Lockhart; Association of Medical Officers of Asylums and Hospitals for the Insane (London, England); Medico-psychological Association of Great Britain and Ireland; Royal Medico-psychological Association (April 1870). Maudsley, Henry; Sibbald, John. Eds .. “The Report of a Quarterly Meeting of the Medico-Psychological Association, held in London at the Royal Medico-Chirurgical Society, by permission of the President and Council, on the 27th January, 1870. [In Part IV. Psychological News.”]. The Journal of Mental Science (London: Longman, Green, Longman, & Roberts) XVI ISSN 0368-315X. OCLC 4642826321"The theory of Dr. Sankey as to the manner in which these injuries to the chest occurred in asylums deserved our careful attention. It was at least more plausible that the conspiracy theory of Mr. Charles Reade, and the precautionary measure suggested by Dr. . Sankey of using a padded waistcoat in recent cases of mania with general paralysis—in which mental condition nearly all these cases under discussion were—seemed to him of practical value. ”
- ^ "Nope, It Was Always Already Wrong". The Skeptical Inquirer. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (August 2013, 8). As of December 8, 2015originalMore archives.April 2015, 12Browse.
- ^ McKenzie-McHarg, Andrew (2019) "Conspiracy Theory: The Nineteenth-Century Prehistory of a Twentieth-Century Concept," pp. 78, 76. In Joseph E. Uscinski (ed) Conspiracy Theories & the People Who Believe ThemNew York: Oxford University Press.
- ^ deHaven-Smith, Lance (15 April 2013). Conspiracy Theory in America. pp. 3. ISBN 9780292743793. originalArchived as of 6 September 2016. April 2016, 1Browse"The term" conspiracy theory "d not exist as a phrase in everyday American conversation before 1964. ... In 1964, the year the Warren Commission issued its report, the New York Times published five stories in which" conspiracy theory "appeared. . "
- ^ Robert Brotherton (19 November 2015). "Chapter 4". Suspicious Minds: Why We Believe Conspiracy Theories... Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4729-1564-1
- ^ Keeley, Brian L. (March 1999). “Of Conspiracy Theories”. The Journal of Philosophy 96 (3): 109–126. two:10.2307/2564659. JSTOR 2564659.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Barkun, Michael (2003). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 3–4
- ^ Barkun, Michael (2011). Chasing Phantoms: Reality, Imagination, and Homeland Security Since 9/11. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. P. 10
- ^ Aaronovitch, David (2009). Voodoo Histories: The Role of the Conspiracy Theory in Shaping Modern History. Jonathan Cape. P. 253. ISBN 9780224074704 April 2019, 8Browse"It is a contention of this book that conspiracy theorists fail to apply the principle of Occam's razor to their arguments."
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- Ikuhiko Hata"Conspiracy History" Shincho Shinsho, 2012
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- "Case D-Invisible Flood" Hideo ItokawaAnd “Future Investigation Bureau”CBS Sony Publishing, First edition 1978 2000Kadokawa BunkoVersion is ISBN 4-04-149101-0
- "Paranoia Conspiracy in Postmodernism-Eco's "Foucault Pendulum" and Pinchon's Works" Kyoko Murakami (Takaoka Junior College Bulletin Toyama University)
- "Acceptance and Transformation of Western Conspiracy Theories in Japan" Ryutaro Tsuji (Religious Studies Japan Religious Society)
- “Christian Fundamentalism and Conspiracy Theory” Ryutaro Tsuji (Abstracts of the Society of Religion and Society 2006.6.3) PDF-P.9
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