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🤖 | Anime "Bibliophile Princess" main character setting picture & character profile released


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Anime "Bibliophile Princess" main character setting picture & character profile released

 
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The released setting picture is Eliana, also known as "Bibliophile Princess", and her fiancé, Christopher.
 

From the anime "Bibliophile Princess" from Iris NEO, the main character setting picture and character profile are released ... → Continue reading

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engagement

engagement(Hello, French: fiançailles, English: engagement, betrothal)marriage Ofthe TEAMTo do[1]..The engaged partner is "fiancé (e)" in French. FianceIn Japanese, it is called "fiancée".

Overview

There are various forms and methods of engagement announcements, and their cultural and legal positions also vary.Engagements are also often religious, as weddings are often religious.Christian sphereIslamic worldBuddhist sphereThen, the way of marriage and engagement is often very different.However, in recent years, with the westernization of life in each country, the influence of the Christian sphere is large.In the traditional understanding of the West, engagement isAgreementTherefore, refusing to perform after engagement is considered a breach of contract.but,divorceAs the number of marriages increases and the way of thinking and customs regarding marriage change, there are some doctrines and judicial precedents that do not regard the cancellation of engagement as a breach of contract.AmericaMany states have abolished the proceedings for engagement violations.[2].

The period from engagement to marriage is called the engagement period, and it was once thought to be the preparation period for starting a life after marriage, such as building a living environment and acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills. In today's world of simplified preparation for marriage, it is often seen as a grace period to reconsider whether you really want the marriage.[2].

Engagement in the world

Roman Catholic

Rome·CatholicHistorically, a betathal engagement was considered to be a formal contract that was as binding as a marriage, and it would have to be formally divorced to cancel it. there were[3]..Engaged men and women were legally recognized as husbands and wives, even if they had not yet had a wedding and had no physical relationship.The concept of "engagement period" in the form of making it public to the people was in 1215.4th Lateran Council(Innocentius XIWas introduced by). "Those who will be married should be publicly named in front of the people by priests in the church. By doing so, legitimate obstacles[4]If there is, it will be revealed soon. Medieval Sourcebook: Twelfth Ecumenical Council: Lateran IV 1215".like this,(I.e.Public notice bybanns of marriageKnown as.In some districts (parishes), reading out these banns aloud may be part of the wedding.

Orthodox church

Orthodox churchSo, engagement is traditionally in the churchNarthexShows that men and women have entered the first stage of marriage.Priesthood (priesthood)Kissed his fiancéecandleLight a fire and let them have it.After a series of prayers and prayers by all the participants, the "bride's ring" is put on the finger of the bridegroom's right hand, and the "groom's ring" is put on the bride's finger.A priest or groomed man repeats it three times, and after finishing it, offers the final prayer.Originally, the engagement ceremony was held at the same time as the announcement of the engagement, but in recent years it has tended to be held just before the wedding ceremony.In the Orthodox Church, ring exchange is not done at weddings, but rather only during engagement ceremonies.Traditionally, the "groom's ring" is gold and the "bride's ring" is silver.

Europe and America

manyWesternCategory (Australia,South AmericaIncluding), we often hold engagement parties.Engagement parties are often held in her casual atmosphere, and no guest gifts are required (although some may bring their own).Also often exchange engagement rings.

However, these customs cannot be stated uniformly because they differ from country to country and ethnic group.

Africa

AfricaIn the sphere, there is no particular traditional practice of exchanging engagement rings.

Asia

In modern times, as life becomes westernized, customs seem to gradually become westernized, but they often follow old-fashioned traditional customs.

ChugokuHas various customs depending on the region, 1978Reform and opening upSince then, Western culture has been introduced in the southern part of China, where economic development is fast, and there is a tendency for engagements and weddings to become westernized.On the other hand, traditional customs are strong in the mainland, and traditional ceremonies are often held.

AsiaIn the sphere, there is no particular traditional practice of exchanging engagement rings.However, this point is the same in Japan.

Engagement in Japan

Engagement in Japanese culture

Legal effect of engagement

Significance of engagement

In Japan, engagement is about future marriage between men and women.AgreementIt is positioned as.However, JapanCivil lawHas no provisions regarding engagement (regarding the legal effect of engagement)Precedentby)[5].

EngagementInner edgeDifferent from[6]..Engagement is generally understood as a "marriage reservation", but some judicial precedents position the inner edge as a marriage reservation and protect it, so caution is required.[7].

Engagement requirements

Unnecessary act

Engagement does not require any methodUnnecessary act(Minshu, Vol. 38, No. 9, p. 5)[8]..There are two types of theories, one that states that a certain agreement is sufficient and the other that requires openness, which is a conflicting point.[9].

However,Conclusion,Engagement ringExchange is an engagementProofNext[10], It is important as a proof of the existence of the engagement even if the default of the engagement later becomes a problem between the parties.[11]..It is said that special caution is required to find the engagement in the absence of external facts.[8].

Relationship with Marriage Disability Reasons

If there is no reason for marriage disability at the time of marriage, the effect cannot be denied even if there is a reason for marriage disability at the time of engagement.[12](Even if you are under the age of majority or if you are a minor and do not have the consent of your parents, the engagement will be valid).Engagements that violate the prohibition of consanguineous marriage become invalid[12].

Regarding the validity of an engagement with a person who has a legal spouse,TaishoThere is a judicial precedent that denied this in the period (Large format 9/5/28 Minroku 26th page 773), but there is a theory that this is valid if it is in a de facto divorced state.[12].

Engagement effect

Engagement is about marriageagreement(AgreementHowever, in essence, marriage should be established only by the agreement of both sexes ().Article 24 of the Constitution of Japan1), EngagementCompulsory performanceIs not recognized (common law / case law. As a case law, Dalian Judgment University 4 Minroku 1 輯 26 pages)[13][12][8][11].

However, if the engagement is abandoned for no good reason, the other partyDefaultOrTortAsLiability for damages(Myths and judicial precedents. As judicial precedents, Sho 38/9/5 Minshu Vol. 17, No. 8, p. 942)[13][12][8][11].

Even if the engagement is unavoidably abandoned due to reasons attributable to the other party, compensation for damages can be claimed against the other party (Minshu Vol. 27, No. 10, p. 21).[12]..In addition, a person who unreasonably interferes with the engagement of another person is regarded as a joint tort.Tort liability(Common theory and judicial precedents. As judicial precedents, Sho 38 Minshu Vol. 2, No. 1, p. 17)[13][14][8][11].

If a payment has been made, there will be a separate issue regarding its return.

etc.

The ring exchanged at the time of engagementEngagement ringCalled, both men and women have left handsring fingerAttach to.It has a meaning like a start money paid by men[Source required][15].

on the other hand,wedding ringIs relatively inexpensive.

Instead of exchanging an engagement ring after getting engaged, a man gives an engagement ringproposeSometimes (marriage proposal).

Engagement abandonment rate in Japan

There is no official statistical data on engagement cancellation in Japan, as no documents are required to break the engagement.

However, data on the abandonment of engagement in Japan[16]According to (Questionnaire survey time: May 200 for 2020 men and women who have promised marriage via the Internet), the engagement cancellation rate is 5%.

The results of this survey include not only the breakup, but also "the bereavement before marriage, not parting, but the story of marriage has disappeared."

footnote

  1. ^ Kojien XNUMXth Edition "Engagement"
  2. ^ a b Tsuyoshi Kokufu, "Current Status of Abolition of Engagement Violation Proceedings in the United States," Kansai University Law Studies, 39 (4-5) Kansai University Law Association NOT 120007097747 1990-02-20 pp.713 --744.
  3. ^ ASK
  4. ^ In reality, one of the men and women has a partner who is already officially married, but they are hiding it from the other party.
  5. ^ Aoyama and Yu Aoyama, 1989, pp. 279-280
  6. ^ Gazuma et al., 1999, p. 55
  7. ^ Gazuma et al., 1999, pp. 55-56
  8. ^ a b c d e Aoyama and Yu Aoyama, 1989, p. 280
  9. ^ Kawai, 2007, p. 8
  10. ^ Ninomiya, 1999, pp. 98-99
  11. ^ a b c d Gazuma et al., 1999, p. 56
  12. ^ a b c d e f Ninomiya, 1999, p. 99
  13. ^ a b c Kawai, 2007, p. 9
  14. ^ Ninomiya, 1999, pp. 99-100
  15. ^ Due to the influence of the economy, engagements that do not exchange engagement rings themselves are becoming more common in Japan.Often used as an expensive jewel ring like a diamond[Source required]..At this time, it is sometimes said that "a man's monthly salary for 3 months", but the figure itself for this monthly salary for 3 months is completely unfounded, and was originally in the United States in the 1950s.De BeersThe company (jewelry company) has launched a campaign to sell jewelry (diamonds) with the catchphrase "Diamond is forever" and "engagement ring is for two months of salary". It succeeded, and it went to Japan as it was, and from around the 2s, it became established in Japan as "the engagement ring is for three months of salary" with the catch phrase of the same "diamond".Therefore, there is no concrete basis that this amount should be used. (Broken link)Engagement ring story Therefore, it is rare to give such an expensive engagement ring on a daily basis in countries other than Japan and the United States (where the above advertising campaign was not conducted).
  16. ^ "[Sad news] If you take statistical data on the engagement abandonment rate, about half of the couples will be catastrophic after the proposal!”(Japanese). Here is the fortune-telling for the reunion! (September 2020, 5). April 2020, 5Browse.

References

  • Aoyama Michio-Toru ArichiEdited by "New Edition Annotation Civil Code <21> Relatives 1" Yuhikaku <Yuhikaku Commental>, December 1989
  • Sakae Wagatsuma・ Toru Ariizumi ・Hiroshi Endo-Ken Kawai"Civil Code 3 Relatives Law / Inheritance Law 2nd Edition" Keiso Shobo, July 1999
  • Ken Kawai "Introduction to Civil Law 5 Relatives and Inheritance" Yuhikaku Publishing Co., Ltd., April 2007
  • Shuhei Ninomiya"Family Law 2nd Edition" Shinseisha <New Law Library 9>, April 1999

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