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🧑‍🎨 | Design decision for special license plate for Osaka / Kansai Expo Issued from autumn 2022, official logo mark…


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Design decision for special license plate for Osaka / Kansai Expo Issued from autumn 2022, official logo mark ...

 
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It will be issued for a limited time from this fall to 2025, and can be exchanged not only when purchasing a new or used car, but also with the license plate currently in use.
 

The Expo 2025 Japan Association (Osaka City) is preparing for the Osaka / Kansai Expo to be held in 2025 ... → Continue reading

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Information site for business people. We will deliver original information such as business information, regional promotion, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, sports. Operated by Kyodo News.


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At the time of purchase

    Secondhand car

    Automobile > Secondhand car

    Secondhand car(used car,English: used car, a pre-owned vehicle) IsMiddle Ages OfAutomobile,オ ー ト バ イ,BicycleThat[1]..Once owned by a car, motorcycle, bicycle, etc.car dealer, Used car dealers,Car rentalCompany,leaseCompany,auction, Or bought and sold between individuals.

    Overview

    Used cars are referred to as "cars and bicycles," and to be exact, they also include used bicycles, but this article mainly describes cars and the like.

    Used cars are basicallyconsumer(user) Or a car that is already owned by a company or organization and will be put up for sale again.Vehicles that have only been registered for ownership and are not used at all, so-called "new old vehicles" (such as those registered by dealers under the name of "test drive" to achieve sales) are also classified as "used". It is classified as a "car".

    Younger cars are called "older" because the number of "years" is large, and older cars that have been manufactured for a long time are called "younger".[2].

    Certified used car

    Brands that sell new cars set their own evaluation criteria, perform maintenance and parts replacement, and have a system called "certified used cars" that guarantees the quality of the brand. For sale.

    Stores that have a certified used car brand name and sell only vehicles of that brand

    Manufacturers that do not have a brand name but develop certified used cars

    Manufacturers that develop under general names such as XX certified used cars, XX Approved, and XX Certified Cars.

    • Ferrari -"Ferrari Approved"
    • Mercedes-Benz -"Mercedes-Benz Certified" (Although it is a registered trademark, the manufacturer is often simply a "Mercedes-Benz certified used car".)
    • Toyota -"Toyota certified used car"
    • SUBARU -"SUBARU certified used car"

    History

    1898,The United States of AmericaNew York StateCatskill's Empire State Motor Wagon Company is said to have been the world's first used car dealership[3].

    Used cars from each country

    The United States of America

    In the United States, the used car market is about $ 3,700 billion annually, about half the size of US car sales, and is the largest retail sector. In 2005, 4,400 million used cars were sold, more than double the number of new cars sold at 1,700 million.

    United StatesFederal Trade Commission(FTC) recommends that consumers carefully check the reputation (evaluation from a third party) of a used car dealer before purchasing a used car.

    America OfColloquialismAnd poor quality used cars are "(English edition)"It is called[4]..American economistGeorge AkarovAnalyzes the mechanism of the phenomenon that used cars purchased in the used car market are said to be prone to breakdown, and finds a market where defective products are likely to be distributed.Lemon marketWas called.

    Car history report

    In the United States, as of 2006, 34% of consumers have a "car history report" that shows the history of a used car before purchasing it.vehicle history report) ”Is obtained.This is a report issued by the Transport Bureau of each state, and what kind of vehicle was in the past?insuranceWas paid, in the pastTraffic accidentThe history is also described.In addition, past owner changes and itineraries, along with itOdometerIt also describes how the numbers on the (cumulative rangefinder) have changed.In addition to here, "en: lemon law Regulations called "Lemon Law" (a group of regulations to improve the lemon market), (common) odometer tampering, automobilesrecallEtc. are also explained.

    Japan

    When the owner who bought a new car buys a new car, the car he was riding in until thendealerTrade in to (new car dealer) or sell to used car dealer.Used cars purchased by dealers can be maintained and sold by themselves, orUsed car industry auctionPut on the market.Based on the antique business law for sellers and purchaserscurio dealerPermission is required.

    Market transition

    In the 1960s, the used car distribution system was not in place, and trade-in cars that dealers could not sell in-house were sold directly to independent used car dealers, either directly or through brokers.Many of the independent companies were micro enterprises, and the dealers took the initiative in the market, but the dealers did not put much effort into the used car sector.

    From the 1960s to the 1970sKorakuen Stadium(CurrentTokyo Dome) Held a used car fair.Shojiro IshibashiBeloved by, at that timeUsed car salesHad run a store[5] It was realized by the introduction of.

    Around this timeKantoKoshinetsuAt the liaison council, the exhibition halls of the members of each Chuhanren are marked with the Chuhanren mark.Banner,NoboriIf this store is a member store of the Chuhanren, it clearly color-codes the difference from non-member specialists (outsiders) (collecting hundreds of cars at the same venue and mobilizing the masses). It is not an event to actively sell used cars).

    In the 1970s, auction-style transactions between traders began to take place in various places, and in the 1980s.USSLarge-scale current car auctions by auction companies such asAucnetbyCommunication satelliteOnline auctions will be held via the Internet.This made it always possible to sell in large quantities, so in the 1990sGulliver InternationalA new format "used car purchase specialty store" represented by is appearing in various places.In addition, stable purchasing has become possible, so the number of independent dealers with features such as collecting only specific vehicle models has increased.

    The shift in demand from new cars to used cars was a tailwind, and the entire market expanded significantly until the latter half of the 1990s.While the chain of specialty stores for purchases has grown, the position of dealers in the market has declined relatively.

    Since the latter half of the 1990s, the market as a whole has peaked, and demand has shifted to younger models with lower unit prices.

    In addition, 2000ToToyotaIs a purchase specialty store chainT-UPManufacturers and dealers are also focusing on used cars, such as building one of the largest networks in Japan.

    Export of used cars

    Used cars and used parts (passenger cars, trucks, buses) used in Japan since the 1980sOutputHas increased.In the case of commercial vehicles, there are many cases where they are exported with the names of Japanese companies and schools included.Initially the same as JapanLeft-hand traffic / right-hand driveMany cars were exported to the area of ​​Japan, but since the 1990s, they have been on the right side.Russian Federation,MongoliaIn some cases, the right-hand drive is used for export.InsideBolivia,チリな どSouth AmericaThere are also cases where the vehicle is remodeled into a left-hand drive vehicle in accordance with the laws and regulations that do not allow the registration of right-hand drive vehicles as export destinations.

    From around 2005, due to the sharp depreciation of the yen, new cars are also imported locally without going through an authorized dealer, so-called "Parallel importThe number of cars is increasing, and in English, "(English edition)"Or" parallel import car "etc.

    Since 2006, about 120 million units have been exported every year, and the main destinations areBangladesh,Pakistan,New Zealand,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Tanzania,Zambia,Congo,Kenya,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,パラグアイ,Peru,Bolivia,Malaysia,Myanmar,Thailand,Australia,Dominican Republic,Ireland,United Kingdometc.The UK is mainly for enthusiasts who prefer vehicles that are not sold locally.

    Depending on the export destination, export of used cars in a complete state is not permitted (or the procedure is complicated), or simply wanting to increase the space efficiency per container, so I dare to do it.MonocoqueMay be cut and exported as a "used parts set".[6]

    Japanese used car exporters since the 2010s carview(Tradecarview),Be ForeEtc. on the internetEC siteThe style of opening a website and allowing overseas users to directly access the site and purchase it is becoming mainstream.

    Far East Russia OfKhabarovsk,VladivostokIt has been exported to, etc., but the governmentTariffSince the move to raise the price, second-hand exports from Japan have decreased.

    From January 2017, the Russian version will be available for all vehicles sold in Russia.Satellite positioning system"GLONASSSince it is obligatory to install a terminal, the competitiveness of used cars that require retrofitting of the system has decreased relatively.[7]..Nevertheless, Russia remains Japan's largest export destination for used cars.TV AsahiAccording to media reports2022 Russia's invasion of UkraineA sharp decrease in exports due to economic sanctions triggered byUSS OfAuto auctionThe average transaction price in Japan is close to 1 yen per month, which is a significant drop of about 10%.[8]

    Used car on the bus

    Japanese bus operatorThen, like the railway, the local bus companyAutomotive NOx/PM methodThere are many cases of introducing used cars that have been scrapped from the applicable area of ​​the automobile NOx / PM law, but in some cases, if the company is in the applicable area of ​​the automobile NOx / PM law, it will be transferred to a subsidiary outside the applicable area of ​​the automobile NOx / PM law. many[9]..Even on a local busEnshu Railway[10],Awaji Traffic,Ichibata Bus[11],Iyotetsu Bus[12],West Japan Railway[13] There are also companies that do not introduce used cars due to company circumstances.

    Canada

    Canada OfOntarioThe sale of new and used cars is regulated by the Ontario Motor Vehicle Industry Council.The purpose of establishing the council is to provide information, prevent unfair trade, improve and maintain the quality of automobiles and sales activities, and protect consumers by handling complaints.

    European Union

    European UnionUnder the regulations of the European Union, a "quality guarantee" valid for 12 months is obligatory.

    Australia

    Australia OfQueenslandSo, if the mileage meter is 16 kilometers or less and manufactured within 10 years, a guarantee of mileage within 3 months or 5,000 kilometers is obligatory.If the mileage meter is manufactured more than 16 kilometers or more than 10 years ago, a guarantee of mileage within one month or 1 kilometers is obligatory.

    assessment

    When a user sells a car to a used car dealer, a qualified assessor first assesses the car and calculates the assessed amount.

    Assessment points

    Vehicle type (popularity in the used market)

    This is a general trend for private cars today, but it is traditional (classical) and somewhat poor in practicality and everyday usability.coupe(Specialty CarIncluding)Notch backsedan,3-door hatchbackIn addition, some SUVs described laterLarge pickupexcept forOverseas production models by domestic manufacturers[14] Is cheap to assess, and on the contrary, it is slightly advantageous for practicality and daily usability.MinivanAnd off-road system4WD,Station Wagon(As a major classification ""SUV"Sport utility vehicle",5-door hatchbackTypes such as etc. tend to have high assessments.But in recent yearsMinivan,Station Wagon,4WDEtc.SUV,Light carCompact hatchbacks other than the above are also becoming saturated in the market, and both purchase and selling prices are becoming saturated.From stable period to sluggish periodI'm about to become.on the other hand,Light car ThetaxDue to the low maintenance costs such as insurance premiums and insurance, there is a certain second-hand market mainly in rural areas and it is difficult for prices to collapse, so it is just above.1000cc classIt often gets a higher rating than.

    Vehicle specifications (grade / equipment, color)

    There are many grades depending on the model, and the difference in each grade may have a difference in displacement as well as the main equipment, which greatly affects the assessed amount.

    Old carAs an exampleLevin/Trueno(AE80 series),andMR2 (AW10 series)There is a case of, depending on the degree1600cc DOHC engine equipped vehicleIn some cases, there is even a premium price, but on the contraryVehicle with 1500cc SOHC engineIs unpopular and tends to be beaten up.

    First,sports carFor example, S13 / 14 typeシ ル ビ アIn the case of, first of all, the turbo model K'sMTCars are overpriced,ATCar valuations are on the decline.And, as with any car model, not just sports cars, in the case of the S13 / 14 type Silvia, the mass-market grades "Q's" and "K's" are usually assessed, but the low-priced grade J's is unpopular. Since there are almost no buyers even if it is put up for sale, even an old-fashioned good car tends to be almost unpriced.again,Full B segmentE140/160 is an example of a small sedan in its class.Corolla AxioIn the case of, when comparing with the same displacement, the high-end grades ("1.5 G" and "HYBRID G"), which were not sold very much at the time of new car sales, are more likely to be purchased at a higher price, while on the other hand The lower grade (“1.3 / 1.5X” including the business package), which was overwhelmingly sold at the time of new car sales, is more likely to be bought at a lower price.In other words, there are cases where small sedans of this class do not always become popular grades in the used car market, with the grades that were overwhelmingly sold at the time of new car sales turning around.However, in the case of a small sedan that prioritizes practicality and economy of this kind, contrary to the case of a sports car, both AT cars and CVT cars tend to get high prices.Hot sellingThe assessment of non-MT vehicles is likely to drop significantly.However, a small number of sports grade MT specification small sedans (eg)Corolla"1.6GT" /Sprinter"1.6GT" 5-speed MT vehicles and 6-speed MT vehicles,Civic ferioDeveloped as a "SiR" 5-speed MT vehicle and a 5-speed MT-only vehicleSunnyWith the exception of "1.6VZ-R" etc.), depending on the model of the vehicle, the price may be very high depending on the condition of the vehicle itself.

    In addition to this, on the contrary, there is also an example of saying, "Just because it is an advanced grade, it does not give a positive assessment, but rather it is bought and beaten."
    C segmentTo give an example of a practical family sedan in its class, the T240 / 260 typePremio/ArionIn the case of, the lower grade "1.5F" / "A15" is more advantageous in terms of taxes and maintenance costs.Southeast AsiaIn emerging countries such as1500cc modelBecause of its popularity, the highest grade "2.0G" / "A20" is often more disadvantageous in terms of assessment.
    Also, JZX81 / 90/100 typeMark II,Chaser,CrestaThe highest grade is a 3 liter car, but since the market sales and demand are 2.5 liter cars and 2 liter cars, it may be disadvantageous in terms of demand etc. although it is not an unpopular grade, so it is a high grade That does not necessarily mean that the assessment will be advantageous.

    The assessment also varies depending on the body color.Even with the same model, the same model year, and the same grade, the assessment of popular body colors for each model will be positive, but on the contrary, the assessment of minor colors that deviate from the mainstream, unpopular body colors, faded red, etc. will tend to decrease. It is in.

    Evaluation of retrofits, custom cars, and options

    External equipment is also evaluated, but the assessed amount does not necessarily increase because it is judged whether it is neatly attached and whether it is suitable for the model.Rather, if it is determined that the parts must be returned to genuine parts, the assessed amount may decrease.[15]..The same is true for genuine manufacturer options.If there is a sunroof or genuine leather seats, the assessment will often be improved.Long time agoToyota CelsiorThere was a time when it was assessed that it was attached to a luxury car, but now it is modern2DINCar navigationSince it is not possible to install it, it is difficult to customize it, so it is rather negative now.Also, be aware that just because there are many options for everything does not mean that the assessed amount will increase.

    When selling a custom car, the assessed amount varies greatly depending on the seller, so it should be carefully considered.VIP specifications,Street racingIf modified to specificationsdealerIf you trade in the car, the assessed amount will be greatly reduced, but if you sell it to a store that specializes in such modified cars, the more modified points you have, the higher the evaluation will be. It tends to go up.again,Popular model of younger modelIs similar (AE86 Levin / Trueno,BNR32 type Skyline GT-RSuch).

    Evaluation for electric vehicles

    Nissan leaf,Mitsubishi i-MiEV,TeslaPure like a car (not a hybrid car)Electric carHowever, at the moment, the charging infrastructure is not well developed and the battery life is poor (the cruising distance per charge decreases as the mileage increases), which is extremely disadvantageous in terms of assessment. There are not a few patterns that become.

    Model year

    It goes without saying that the newer the model year, the higher the assessed amount, but even with the same model and model.Minor changesBack and forthModel changeThere is a big difference in the assessed amount between the early type and the terminal type.On the other hand, younger cars may become more popular, especially if the older the car is, the more disadvantageous it is to the user.

    Example 1: In recent years, the newer the model year, the more stringent the regulations on the volume of the muffler, etc., so in the case of the same model of the same model, the initial model with less stringent regulations may become popular.

    Example 2:Light carIn the case of 2015, the light vehicle tax has been increased (tax increase) from the new vehicle registered in April 4 (light passenger car: 7,200 yen → 10,800 yen, light truck: 4,000 yen → 5,000 yen), so if the same model is the same model, 2015 Cars registered before March are more popular.

    Is the mileage short and is it suitable for the model year?

    There is a certain standard such as the annual standard mileage of light vehicles is 8,000km and that of ordinary vehicles is 10,000km. If it exceeds that, it will be reduced and if it is less than that, it will be increased.However, since automobiles are also machines, they tend to malfunction if they are not moved to some extent, and if the mileage is extremely short in terms of years, it may not always be possible to say that the amount will be increased.In the case of vehicles that have passed the age, there are many cases where there is no increase assessment due to a small amount of driving.

    Color

    In many cases, the popular colors of that era are highly evaluated. In the 2000s, white, black, silver, etc.In addition, if there is a popular color unique to the vehicle model, there are cases where that color is highly assessed.

    Car condition

    Operation of each device, presence of dirt and scratches,Repair historyTo confirm.Restoration history is often confused with, but it is different.Parts that correspond to the repair history even if no accident has occurred (mainly the inner plate)フ レ ー ム) Is damaged or repaired, it becomes a repair history.On the contrary, even if an accident has occurred, it is judged that it is a replacement mark or a repair mark, not a repair history just by replacing the bumper or returning the dent on the door and painting it.

    Repair historyRegarding the definition of car, the incorporated associationAutomobile Fair Trade CouncilThere is an agreement in the "Fair Competition Code for Labeling in the Automotive Industry" established by the Japan Fair Trade Commission.In addition, the rules are (Foundation) (Nisshokyo) and (Company)Japan Used Car Sales AssociationIt is the same as the definition of a repaired vehicle specified in "" of (Chuhanren).Since 14, the handling of repaired vehicles was different for each auto auction site.Japan Auto Auction CouncilWe are moving toward unifying the criteria for judging repair history.

    Used car information

    It is not easy for a used car dealer to have a lot of inventory in terms of space and finance.On the other hand, it is difficult for prospective buyers to find the desired used car without knowing which type of car is available from which vendor.

    As an index for used car dealers, an information magazine that covers market information at auctions and wholesale and selling prices of used cars "Auto Guide Car Price Monthly Report(Published by Auto Guide Co., Ltd., commonly known asRed Book).On the other hand, it is useful for consumers to search used car information magazines and used car information.Website.インターネットWith the spread of, a large amount of used car information has come to be provided to these media.

    The following are typical information magazines.

    Websites linked to the databases of these information magazines are also available.

    Car selection.com (Fabrica Communications Co., Ltd.) Andcarview(Carview Corporation), There is also an internet-specialized site for used car information that does not have an information magazine like Shauru.

    List of Internet specialized sites

    ・ "Choose a car.com"https://www.kurumaerabi.com/

    ・ "Carview"https://carview.yahoo.co.jp/

    ・ "MOTA used car"https://autoc-one.jp/used/

    ・ "Car News"https://kuruma-news.jp/usedcar

    In addition, some used car information sites are set up by used car dealers.

    Problems related to used car sales

    Display that is different from the fact

    There are cases where some malicious vendors hide negative points such as heavy driving and repair history and display them on price boards, etc., which are not true.
    Vehicles with repair history, vehicles with important defects (Nikoichi vehicles, stolen vehicles, submerged vehicles, etc.)
    For used cars, automobiles damaged in a traffic accident (accident car) may be repaired and sold, but if this accident is hidden and sold, the transaction is regarded as a problem.In the case of an accident car, in addition to the noticeable damage caused by the accident, there may be defects that are not noticeable, and consumers are using them without knowing it, and there is a risk of causing an accident due to mechanical problems. Because.AlsoNikoichiCars, stolen cars and submerged cars may also be hidden in the auction market.
    Travel meter tampering
    Regarding the sale of used cars, in addition to hiding the accident history and selling it, the mileage meter (odometer) Is rewound or replaced with a meter of the same model with a shorter distance to make the mileage look shorter and sell (so-called)Meter return) In many cases, when a failure occurs and repairs are made, it is discovered that parts are consumed more than the mileage on the display, and troubles are constant (note that the mileage is long for the model year). Be careful of extremely short cars (about 2000-3000 km per year). Even if they are not rewound, they may not be well maintained because they do not ride frequently (oils and fats such as lubricating oil). However, it deteriorates over time even if it is not operated)).In addition, there are many problems such as the maintenance notebook that records the past maintenance history is disposed of and the maintenance status is unknown.Currently, the Japan Auto Auction Council is playing a central role in preventing fraudulent mileage via car auctions.However, from around 2010, meter rewinding with a new technique in the form of taking this fraud prevention measure in the wrong direction (tampering with a special machine, returning the vehicle verification once after passing the vehicle inspection, re-registering, etc.) It has become possible to see, and the police etc. who are involved in the investigationMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs in a situation of asking for measures[16].
    Extinction of rights to software installed by the previous owner
    TeslaIf you buy a used car from a used car, it is said that it is not a function you paid for, and all software purchased and installed by the previous owner is deleted.[17].

    Lemon market problems

    The used car marketLemon marketThe question is, in 1970, an American theoretical economist.George AkarovIt is a problem that has begun to be pointed out by and has been studied by many economists since then.In the used car market, sellers are (relatively) familiar with the quality of the goods they trade, but buyers are not familiar with the quality until they buy it, and as a result, the used cars they buy are in English. The problem is that the market mechanism works, which means that the number of inferior cars that are easily broken, that is, what is commonly referred to as "lemon lemon (sour thing)", works.

    Problems related to environmental regulations

    Export to developing countries

    Used cars are cheap, soEuropean UnionFrom (EU) member states and developed countries such as the United States and JapanAfricaIt is exported in large quantities to developing countries with low income levels such as countries.United Nations Environmental Program(UNEP) reported in October 2020 on the international trade in used cars that two-thirds of the 10 countries targeted had "weak" and "very weak" restrictions on used car imports. It pointed out.The number of automobiles in developing countries will continue to increase, but used cars have more exhaust gas than new cars with advanced technology.carbon dioxideTo put out a lotAir pollution,Global warmingIt has been pointed out that it is easy to cause environmental problems such as (KenyaUntil the fall of 8 yearsMauritiusSome developing countries have introduced strict regulations, such as up to three years old.)[18].

    Japan

    In Japan, as for measures to reduce the environmental load, the policy is to replace with new cars rather than long-term use such as repairs (13 years for gasoline engines and 11 years for diesel engines since new car registration). After the lapseAutomobile tax(Additional measures, etc.).

    Is part of thisNOx regulationByKanto region,Kansai regionIn such cases, it is becoming impossible to register changes to old cars.However, there is a problem that similar regulations are not enforced in other regions, or there is a used car sales market for large vehicles only in regions that are not subject to regulation.

    In rural areas of Japan (other than big cities)Bus companyIn many cases, new cars cannot be purchased due to difficult management, and many bus companies have been using them for more than 20 years. Therefore, they often take over and replace used buses that have been used for about 10 years in large cities and do not comply with regulations.What is regulatedTrucks and vans, bus,diesel engineIt is an on-board passenger car, and in 2005Shintaro IshiharaThe Governor of Tokyo said, "The reason why regulated diesel vehicles are being reused in rural areas isPollutionThe problem is like moving to a rural area. "Toei BusIn some cases, the sale of used cars to local bus companies was not permitted.For this reason, vehicle prices have skyrocketed in the used bus market, and the general public in rural areas has continued to suffer from difficult management by purchasing used cars of Toei buses in good condition and continuing to replace old cars that have deteriorated until then.Transit BusIt became difficult for businesses to purchase used vehicles (then, Toei Bus resumed the conditional transfer of KC-substitute vehicles from FY2008).After the resignation of Governor IshiharaTokyo Metropolitan Assembly OfHeiseiThe 25 Budget Special Committee says that all vehicles that will be scrapped in the future will comply with emission regulations, so basically they will be sold as used vehicles for effective use.[19].

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]
    1. ^ Source: Digital Daijisen
    2. ^ Used cars that are quite old are sometimes called "old cars" (Taikosha, Daikosha) by some people.
    3. ^ Flammang James (1999), 100 Years of the American Auto.
    4. ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL."Dropping Out" Show in Rice California”(Japanese). Sankei photo. April 2022, 1Browse.
    5. ^ He used to join the company and was a sales employee, but he was loved by Shojiro Ishibashi even after he retired.
    6. ^ There are two types, a half cut that cuts around the A pillar and a nose cut that cuts the front overhang.
      How to get parts from Japan --YouTube channel "mightycarmods"
      Mark IIAn example in a series.X80 series with Australians in their own countryCressidaCustom (Japanese name / Mark II) (1JZ-GTEToEngine swap) To be similar (JZX81)ChaserEven though the 2.5GT twin turbo can be run as it is, there are situations where it is intentionally cut in half and packed in a container.The narration for this video says "second hand cars and parts are available for much cheaper than Australia." I can see the background of the car.
    7. ^ "Russia spreads confusion with Japanese-made "sniper" or used car imports due to new safety regulations". SANKEI Biz (September 2017, 8). April 2018, 11Browse.
    8. ^ The price of used cars dropped sharply due to the sharp drop in exports to Russia (April 2022, 4) - ANN News Channel YouTube channel, viewed April 2022, 4
    9. ^ Example:Tokyu bus→Jotetsu,Keisei Bus→Kanto Railway,Seibu Bus→Izu Hakone Bus,Omi Railway,Meitetsu bus→Gifu shared car,Hokuriku Railway,Miyagi TransportationSuch,Kintetsu Bus→Nara Kotsu,Meiko Bus,Defense traffic,Nankai Bus→Wakayama Bus,Nankai Rinkan Bus,Kumano Gobo Nankai Bus,Keihan Bus→Keihan Kyoto Transportationな ど
    10. ^ Conversely, the Entetsu Bus vehicle may be transferred to another company.
    11. ^ Ichibata Electric RailwayThis is because until the early 1990s, when it was directly managed, it had a dealer called "San'in Isuzu Motors" as a joint investment with Isuzu Motors.After that, the holding company was sold to Isuzu Motors, and after a number of mergers,Isuzu Motor China ShikokuIt became.
    12. ^ Iyotetsu GroupAsEhime Hino MotorsTo be under the umbrella.
    13. ^ Under the umbrellaWest Japan Body IndustryBecause I had (Nishi-nippon).
    14. ^ the 2000sSubsequent examples of overseas-produced models by domestic manufacturers ・Toyota Pronard,Toyota Voltz,Toyota Avensis,Nissan Qashqai(2007Previous model), [[Nissan March]] (4th generation),Nissan Latio(2th generation),Honda fit aria,Mitsubishi Triton,Mitsubishi Mirage(6th generation),Suzuki Splash,Suzuki SX4 S-Cross(2th generation),Suzuki Escudo(4th generation),Suzuki Valenoな ど
    15. ^ For example, aftermarket productsア ル ミ ホ イ ー ルExchange forInch upIf there is a sports car that has been used, it is the demand for sports cars (egStreet racing) Popular designs make it easier to sell = the assessed amount goes up, and converselyVIP carIf it is a wheel that you wear, it will be difficult to sell = there may be changes such as a decrease in the assessed amount.
    16. ^ Fraud deterrence measures are new to rewinding used car meters Asahi Shimbun April 2014, 12
    17. ^ Removed with OTA update, an automatic driving option installed in used Tesla.
    18. ^ [World Hea Data] Used cars, environmental pollution at export destinations / 4% from Japan, the US and Europe to Africa "Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun] July 2020, 12 (Global aspect)
    19. ^ XNUMX Budget Special Committee Speed ​​Record No. XNUMX Bulletin Edition [Harada Univ.]

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