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- Reality (David Bowie's Album) - David BowieAlbum.
- Reality (movie) --2012 Italian / French movie.
- Riariti- SpitzSongs. album"Little creature].
- reality (Dream song) - DreamSongs.
- Reality --Ami Suzuki's song.single"Reality / Dancin'in Hip-Hop].
- --Virtual live deliveryApps..In addition, the operating company(The old company name was Wright Flyer Live Entertainment).
- Reality show --The genre of TV programs.
- List of pages starting with "reality"
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Worldwide1997,Chugoku OfChina Central TelevisionIn the TV drama "Was broadcast and was successful.. afterwards,2000Is a music duoThe song "Hatsukoi" became a hit in Taiwan and began to attract attention in music.. Also,JapanThen.2003From aroundKorean drama"Winter sonata』Broadcast started as an opportunity..With the rise of Korean popular culture such as dramas, movies, and music, the Korean brand image has risen.KoreanExpansion of learning,Korean foodThere was a spillover effect such as increased interest in and contribution to diplomacy..
In South Korea, it is a term that refers to the fashion of Japanese popular culture that corresponds to the Korean wave.Nichiryu(Ilru,Japanese) Is (in the Chinese culture area)Hajime).Also in Japan, in Greater ChinaPopular cultureThe word that refers to the fashion ofHuayu(Farrew)Called.
The Japanese reading was originally "Kanryu", and at the beginning of its spread, it was adopted by many media such as NHK, but mainly fans, the Chinese "Hánliú" and the Korean "Hanliuzhen" The reading of "Hanryu" became widespread in line with the pronunciation of "Han)", and the media gradually began to be used...Even in Korea, there is a direction to pronounce "Hanryu" according to Chinese, but the standard language is pronounced "Haruru (할류)"..
Overview of Korean wave promotion
1997 yearsAsian currency crisisBy KoreaIMF crisisIn 1998, South Korea advocated the promotion of cultural industry as a strategy for economic reconstruction when it fell into a national economic crisis calledKim Dae JungBased on the president's "Cultural President" declaration, the "Basic Law for the Promotion of Cultural Industry" was enacted in 1999 as a legal foundation, and in 2001 it became the central government agency to professionally support the content industry. Was established, and subsidies were provided to foster the cultural industry and promote exports.A large number of practical music departments, film departments, and vocational schools have been established at universities throughout Korea, and the leaders of K-POP and the Korean drama boom have grown...In response to the tailwinds of rising prices of Japanese TV dramas and the decline of Hong Kong movies, South KoreaAn actorA boom was formed as the popularity of popular culture such as music and music increased...This phenomenonTaiwanIn 2001, the word "Korean wave" came to be used in Japan, and it was imported back into Korea..
Background of expansion into Japan
in Japan,the 1970sThe Korean enka boom in the second half,1988 OfSeoul OlympicsYear of the event2002SoccerWorld CupIn the year of the co-sponsorship, attention was focused on South Korea, but at that time the word Korean wave did not exist yet.in JapanCommercial television nationwide four-waveBy the 1990sRegionThe number of broadcasting stations has increased, andBS and CSBroadcasting stations are also increasingTV programThere was a shortage.
"Winter Sonata" boom (around 2004)
"Korean wave" in Japan was introduced in April-September 2003NHKBS2In the overseas drama frame ofWinter sonata』(Commonly known as" Winter Sonata ") was broadcast and gained popularity., The word "Korean wave", which was already widespread in Taiwan and Hong Kong, has come to be used in Japan as well.Leading actor in the dramaBae Yong JoonFrom the nickname of "Yong-sama boomAlso known as.Especially in the early days, there were many pure love dramas, and middle-aged and older women became the driving force behind the boom.It is also a feature that the drama broadcast in South Korea was broadcast as it is in Japan, and Korean actors have come to attract attention.
"Winter Sonata"2004It was rebroadcast many times, and the word "Korean wave" became popular.Also at that timePrime Minister-Junichiro KoizumiBut,President of the Republic of Korea-Roh Moo-hyunSometimes I mentioned "Winter Sonata" at the time of the meeting with.Nihon Keizai Shimbun OfNikkei MJ"Korean wave" was selected as the yokozuna in "2004 hit product numbering", and "" Winter Sonata "was the spark. The series works are also popular.Bae Yong JoonOtherHanryu Four Tenno,Choi Ji WooHot support.It also extends to travel and languages. ".Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation GroupIn the 2004 hit product numbering announced by, "Winter Sonata and Korean wave related products" was selected as the yokozuna, and "This year, the whole of Japan was caught in the whirlpool of fever and became a big social phenomenon. "Winter Sonata" and Korean wave related products. Not only the protagonists Bae Young-jun and Choi Ji-woo, but also other Korean actors are popular, and when they come to Japan, many fans gather at the airport. I showed it for the first time. ".
The Korean wave in Japan since 2004 was heated by various media influenced by the success of "Winter Sonata", and the Korean wave actively developed as a business.Looking at the Korean male actor boom following Bae Yong JoonHanryu Four TennoAnd so onBut of the four heavenly kingsJang Dong GunとWon BinIs a Korean movie starringBrotherhood』Spent 7 million yen in advertising expenses and was released on a scale of 300 halls, but the box office revenue was 15 billion yen, which was not good at all.In addition, the broadcast started in 2004, "Saturday wide, Korean wave hour""Dramatic korean waveWas completed one after another in 2005.
Around 2005-Around 2010
About "Opportunity to watch Korean movies and dramas" in 2006pollAccording to the previous year (2005), "more opportunities to see" decreased by 12 points to 20%, "decreased opportunities to see" increased by 6 points to 9%, and "I have hardly seen it before or in the past year." Was 61%, indicating the decline of the Korean wave boom...The University of TokyoYasuki HamanoThe professor predicted that the Korean wave could end up as a transient phenomenon, and pointed out that the Korean wave was concentrated on a specific class such as housewives of fans, and that the works were not diverse and the actors were uniform. As the direction of progress, we presented the removal from the star system, the development of various materials, the accumulation of works, etc... 2009,Korean Film Promotion CommitteeThe reason why movie exports fell sharply due to sluggish entertainment and the bubble of Korean movies burst was that the market was saturated due to rising production costs and the good cycle of investment and market expansion that was invited by the success of the initial entry did not continue. He mentioned the gap between quantitative expansion and qualitative improvement..
But since 2005NHK GeneralThe Korean historical drama "Oath of court lady Chungmu』Has gained popularityThe audience, which used to be mainly middle-aged women, has expanded to middle-aged men (especially those in their 50s). In June 2009, TBS rebroadcasted "Oath of Changum" at Korean restaurants andpachinkoManufacturer'sSammyThe event "Atsukan" was held until the end of September, which was a tie-up with "Pachinko CR Court Lady Chungum's Oath".
Korean entertainment companies are promoting overseas activities because investment money cannot be recovered in the Korean music market., Korean music industry companySM EntertainmentIs JapaneseAvex EntertainmentIn partnership with Korean singerJ-POPPromoted a business model to sell in the Japanese market by letting them singBoA, In the second halfDong Bang Shin KiSucceeded..Taking this success as an opportunity, Korean entertainers came to Japan one after another in search of success in Japan.In the Korean media, Korean entertainers "take control of the archipelago", "Occupy the archipelago", "Occupy the Japanese archipelago and scorched it"And so on.
2009XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Bae Yong JoonCame to Japan to commemorate the publication of his travel essayTokyo DomeA two-day Korean wave event was held in.This event attracted 2 spectators, and Mrs. Hatoyama also rushed to the country with a delay in the departure schedule, and the government ruling party (Democratic Party) And Japanese and Korean political and business people such as the Japan Tourism Agency also attended.The next day's JoongAng Ilbo reported that it was an opportunity to revive the slightly stagnant Korean wave..
Second Korean wave boom (around 2-around 2010)
On February 2009, 2, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism of South Korea held the "Music Industry Promotion Medium-Term Plan Presentation" and announced that it would invest 4 billion won in five years to promote the music industry.The following year, 2010, we succeeded in getting Korean music (K-POP) to win a prize in Japan's "hit product ranking"...But in 2010Red and White Singing ContestThere was no appearance of Korean idols, and criticism was made in South Korea as "the Japanese song world fearing the Korean wave"... In 2011, the South Korean government promoted strengthening of Korean wave-related support centered on K-POP for Asia, Latin America and the Middle East.And in the 2011 red and white song battleDong Bang Shin Ki,Girlhood,KARASucceeded in participating.Also,TBS,Pony canyonEstablish a Korean drama investment fund in Japan in collaboration withWe developed business such as.Korean-made products related to Korean waves have also been actively developed, and "New Korean Waves" have also been awarded the "Hit Product Ranking" in Japan...According to the Korean economic newspaper "Mainichi Keizai Shimbun", the export value of Korean content, which was 2003 million dollars at the time of the "Winter Sonata" boom in 8600, succeeded in growing to 2010 million dollars in 3. However, there were still issues such as the fact that 1300% of sales depend on Japan and 80% of the revenue goes to distributors on the Japanese side...In addition, the balance of intellectual property rights was a deficit of about 30 billion dollars, and the deficit of the Korean cultural industry continues..
In Korea's JoongAng Ilbo, the Korean drama "Korean Wave 1.0"K-POPThe Korean wave is called "Korean wave 2.0", and the Korean wave for Korean culture in general is called "Korean wave 3.0"...In addition, the Korea Tourism Organization defines the movement that the Korean wave boom leads to the expansion of results in related fields such as tourism, fashion, and shopping as "new Korean wave", and creates synergistic effects by promoting the spread of the Korean wave boom. I hope that it will contribute to the Korean economy..Nikkei TrendyPositioned around 2011 as the second Korean wave boom, made in KoreaVocaloidSee UAnd smartphone appsKakao TalkIntroduces that is a pandemic in Japan.Women sevenThen, regarding the second Korean wave boom, he mentioned the spread of terrestrial and BS broadcasting of Korean dramas and the expansion of the age of the viewers..Jay CastRegarding the second Korean boom, he mentioned that imports of Korean content and travel to South Korea increased against the backdrop of the weak won and the appreciation of the yen, and that there were more opportunities for Korean-related topics to be taken up in magazines and other media. ing.
Decline of the second Korean wave boom (around 2-around 2012)
In December 2011, the Korean government budgeted 12 billion won to 17 billion won for the Korean wave-related support to foster and support the tourism industry using Korean wave content in response to the K-POP boom overseas. I increased it to won (about 53 million yen in Japanese yen)At the same time, in Japan, K-POP's Tohoshinki and KARA, who drove the second Korean boom, were reported daily about the exclusive contract dispute with their agency, and the boom was chilled (NHK producer Ishihara said. , Korean singer contracts with the office for a long time because Korea is a "completed type" that debuts as a completed singer after several years of trainee period by analyzing the difference between Japanese and Korean idol group development and music industry structure. It is pointed out that the existing singers will soon get bored because the completed singers will continue to appear on the consumer side as well.), The tide is coming down.
In 2012, even in South Korea, the idol group became saturated due to oversupply and collapsed.Gangnam style』Shaked the worldDOGSHowever, in Korea, the power of idols has weakened, and it has been observed that the idol epidemic has ended...In May of the same year, a major entertainment agencySM EntertainmentBut the idol groupSuper JuniorIt was reported that he performed in Japan, mobilized 11 people at Tokyo Dome, and overtook Lady Gaga.In November of the same year, SM Entertainment's stock price fell 11%, and it was reported that entertainment-related stocks plummeted in the Seoul stock market, and the background was unclear information disclosure and the performance of analysts who lacked understanding of the industry. Forecasts were pointed out (SM Entertainment saw a 35% year-on-year increase in profits, but well below securities firms' forecasts. Companies provide performance guidance if they are expected to be significantly below the securities industry's forecasts. Is common, but it was not disclosed until the announcement of financial results)..In the first quarter of June 2013, operating profit fell 6% year-on-year (because SM Entertainment officials said the artist's concert was not in the first quarter, economic analysts said. The depreciation of the yen has pushed down business performance), and it was reported that the decline of the K-POP boom may finally put an end to the boom...On the other hand, in Japan, a live event that gathered Korean wave stars was canceled due to lack of customers, and the host company went bankrupt.The collapse of the second Korean wave boom has become apparent.2012 Red and White Song BattleThen, there was no K-POP group who played an active part in Japan in the same year, and he explained that "the number is lower than last year and the number of participation slots is limited", and the K-POP group did not participate..
Even in Korean dramas, he was not blessed with hits after "Winter Sonata" and "Dae Jang Geum's Oath"...On TV, K-POP had the momentum to dominate until the previous year, but it fell in 2012, and it was said that the audience rating could not be obtained with K-POP idols, and it was reported that the boom had passed...You can buy an external program and play it. Fuji TV's audience rating is sluggish because it has become more dependent on the Korean wave and its own program production has been cut short., The ranking dropped from 2012nd to 4rd in the audience rating of each station in the first half of 9 (April-September).
April 2012President of the Republic of Korea-Lee Myung-bobyTakeshimaForced landing toEmperor apology requestThe Cabinet Office's "Public Opinion Survey on Diplomacy" has lowered the sense of familiarity with South Korea in Japan...Due to the political diplomatic conflict between Japan and South Korea and the depreciation of the yen and the appreciation of the won, the number of Japanese tourists who had been crowded in Korea has decreased sharply. The number of immigrants is also the second highest after China. The number of Japanese tourists is decreasing and related industries are being hit directly. ", The second Korean wave boom, which did not stop the decline in popularity, will decline. In February 2, the weekly tabloid newspaper specializing in Korean performing arts informationSanspo Han FunIs suspended. Korean drama frame of TBSKorean Wave SelectThe broadcast has ended.
New Korean Wave (around 2015-around 2017)
HakuhodoBrand Design Youth Research Institute LeaderHarada YoheiOn August 2015, 02東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン"Some young people are beginning to incorporate Korean culture into their daily lives," he said.Plastic surgery""2NE1 style gal fashion""Olchan Make"" "" ""Selka stickIt is explained that there is a “new Korean wave boom” in which Korean culture such as “” has become established in the lifestyle of young Japanese people...Run music medialuteIn an interview article published on March 2018, 3, the president of Co., Ltd. said that the third flow "Korean wave third wave" following the early BoA generation and the second Korean idol is happening. Commentary.As a highly sensitive musician who is particular about hobbies and tastes as well as musicIUAndDEANName them.
The 3rd Korean Wave Boom (2017-)
Due to the deterioration of Japan-South Korea relations and the improvement of China-South Korea relations, the Korean wave had moved from Japan to China, but the Chinese government issued it in 2017.限 韓 令The Korean wave was locked out of the Chinese market by the Korean wave, and South Korea moved to Japan again...The heat of the Korean wave is getting colder internationally, Japan's liking for South Korea continued to declineAs the Japanese music world continued to stagnate, Korean idols regained attention and caused the third Korean wave boom..
Against the backdrop of the popularity of K-POP female idols, the number of Japanese visiting South Korea for cosmetic surgery has increased rapidly, reaching about 2017 in 9, nearly 20 times that of nine years ago.There are some troubles related to surgery, so JapanNational Life CenterIs calling for "think carefully if you really need it".
4th Korean wave boom (2020-)
The movie "Academy Award winning work released in 2020"Parasite Semi-underground familyBreaks the record of Korean movies released in Japan with box office revenue of 45 billion yen.. In the same yearNetflixThe drama "Crash landing on love"When"Itaewon classIs a hit, and in 2020Buzzword AwardWas nominated for the "Fourth Korean Wave Boom".
Popular by field in Japan
It was the beginning of the Korean wave, and the biggest change due to the Korean wave wasTV drama.
Jang Dong GunStarring "All about EveIs the first serial drama of a terrestrial key stationTV AsahiIt was broadcast on the system.Probably because it lacked topicality, this ended broadcasting in a sluggish manner.
Until then, Korean dramas were dubbed in subtitles rather than dubbed in Japanese, which is different from the subsequent "Winter Sonata".BS Nippon Television,Independent U station,AlsoインターネットWhen Korean dramas began to be aired, some popular dramas gradually began to appear.
In 2003Bae Yong Joon,Choi Ji WooStarringKBSProduction drama "Winter sonata』, But from AprilNHK-BS2It will start broadcasting at.Satellite broadcastingHowever, it gained popularity20044From "Winter Sonata"NHK GeneralIt was rebroadcast on.This ranked in the top 10 in the drama category of weekly ratings, and became a social phenomenon such as "Winter Sonata" and "Yong-sama" becoming popular words.In addition, books related to Winter Sonata entered the bestseller in 2004 (13th place), and the soundtrack of the drama and the CDs of the actors were ranked high, so the ripple effect was great, and with the hit of Winter Sonata, Even at the terrestrial key station of the Civil CodeNippon TVThen "Dramatic Hanryu" (Kanto Local),Fuji Television Network, IncNow, there will be broadcast slots for Korean dramas such as "Saturday Wide / Korean Hour".Park Young Ha,Lee Jong HyunThe number of Korean actors and singers visiting Japan has increased, and they have been featured in wide shows and variety shows.
The number of Korean dramas, which was 2005 on terrestrial broadcasting in early 64, decreased to 2006 in 36...Since then, Korean dramas have been broadcast mainly on local local channels and BS / CS broadcasts.Although the above-mentioned dedicated frame was discontinued, it was broadcast at midnight and rebroadcast frames on commercial terrestrial broadcasting.In addition, NHK-BS2 Thursday 23:2003 has continued as a Korean drama frame "" since "Winter Sonata" in 2007, but in XNUMX it was changed to a policy of broadcasting all Asian dramas.
The feature-length historical drama "Dae Jang Geum's Oath" broadcast on NHK-BS2005 in 2 is from South Korea.Taiga dramaAlso known as popular, it was rebroadcast several times over 2008 (also broadcast on terrestrial).Japan Communist Party OfShizu KazuoThe chairman is also addicted to "Dae Jang Geum" and is the leading actressLee Young AeProclaimed to be a big fan of.. After "Dae Jang Geum", Korean dramas continued to be sluggish in Japan,So Ji SubとIm Soo JungThe leading drama "I'm sorry, I love you"Is"CrockIt was reported in South Korea that it became so popular in Japan that it produced.
Around 2010, Japanese TV stations, which were forced to reduce production costs due to a decrease in advertising costs due to the economic downturn, are cheaper due to the strong yen and weak won (as of 2009, $ 1 per piece (about 2,600 yen). )), Imported a large amount of Korean dramasNon-prime timeBecame aired on..Fuji TVJang Keun SukStarring Korean drama "You're BeautifulWas rebroadcast three times in non-prime timeKorean actressKim Tae HeeWe expected the popularity of Korean wave stars, such as broadcasting "Boku to Star no 99 Days", which was appointed as the leading role, in terrestrial prime time, but it ended in a slump... July 2011, with TBSPony canyonEstablished an investment fund "Ilshin New Korean Wave Investment Association" specializing in Korean drama production support by investing about 23 billion yen jointly with the Korean Venture Investment Corporation..
Internet distribution service that does not pass terrestrial broadcasting emerges, and "Crash Landing on You" and "Itaewon Class" become hits.
- The reason why "Winter Sonata" became a hit in Japan is that it does not have many cuts like recent Japanese dramas, it has many stories and the story development is delayed.As a result, it became a hit work mainly for middle-aged and elderly women who remembered the nostalgia reminiscent of the drama of the 70's.In this respect, there is a difference between the Korean wave in Asian countries and the development in Japan.
- Japan is the reason why Korean dramas were accepted in JapanHong Kong moviesIt is cited as the cause of the strong influence of Japanese culture on the groundwork that accepted Asian movies such as, and the Korean drama was strongly influenced by Korean Japanese culture opening policy in 1998..
- On the Internet, many Korean dramas are streamed配 信Has been done.Korean copyright law plays a role in this.HollywoodAnd Japanese video software have strict restrictions on reuse due to rights issues, and the number of titles and content that can be distributed are poor.On the other hand, in Korea, the copyright law is different from Japan and the United States, and in dramas and movies, the performers and producers do not have any rights, and the broadcasting company manages the broadcasting rights collectively. There is.Because of this, it is relatively easy to get permission to broadcast, and many dramas are distributed on commercial websites.
- In satellite broadcasting, the number of channels has increased with the start of digital broadcasting, and while content shortages have been criticized, Korean dramas have good cost performance of tens of millions of yen (equivalent to the production cost of one Japanese drama). Therefore, it was actively organized.It was not uncommon to broadcast several Korean dramas on one station.Currently, due to the heating of the Korean wave boom, the number of broadcasts has increased for both online distribution and satellite broadcasting, and the purchase price of broadcasting rights has soared, so the number of broadcasts has decreased from the time of the boom, but on each BS / CS channel Many Korean dramas are still being broadcast.On the other hand, there are strong criticisms that they neglect their own content produced by themselves.
Trends in rental DVDs
Rental demand for Korean dramas has been increasing every year since 2004, and in December 2011,TSUTAYAThe Culture Convenience Club, which operates the company, announced that the number of rentals in the Korean TV drama category in 2011 reached a record high due to the expansion of viewers. "You're BeautifulAnd 'Tokimeki ☆ Sungkyunkwan Scandal"" ""Meri is staying outThe popularity of works for young people such as "You're Beautiful" has increased, and the number of rentals of "You're Beautiful" has increased due to a large increase in the number of viewers in their teens and 10s, which is an unusual 20 for TSUTAYA's annual ranking. Reported to be number one for the year in a row.
Korean movieBranding has failed..The reason for this is that many Korean movies are for domestic use, such as pure loved ones and those about the war on the Korean Peninsula, and science fiction is not well developed, so it is universal in other countries including Japan. Since there are few works that can be hit by, it cannot be said that the Korean wave has expanded to the entire Japanese movie industry, except for some notable works.
On the other hand, the purchase cost of Korean movies soared after peaking in 2005 and 2006.For example, "Hanryu Shitenno" starring Lee Byung HunSweet lifeIs over 3 million yen, "Everyone has a secret』It is more than 5 million yen (5 million yen in one theory), and both box office revenues are 7000 million yen.At present, the maximum purchase price is said to be 6 million yen for "April Snow" starring Bae Yong Joon.The majority of Korean films in Japan have a maximum box office revenue of about 5000 billion yen, and the fact that they are mainly screened in mini-theaters rather than expanded release has not changed significantly since around 8.In addition, the soaring right to entertain Korean films has made it difficult to buy small-scale films that have existed for some time.
Due to the influence of "Winter Sonata" this year, more Korean movies were released than usual, and the total box office revenue was about 40 billion yen.
In June, it was released in 6 and became a hit.Shuri"ofKang Jae KyuA work by the director on the theme of the Korean War "Brotherhood』(Won Bin,Jang Dong GunStarring) has been released.This work was performed in a large number of movie theaters, which is 300 Western movies, but the box office revenue was sluggish at 15 billion yen, and the popularity of Korean stars and the success of Korean dramas in the field were the success of Korean movies. Did not lead to.. Regarding the slump in the Korean wave in 2005, Kang Je-gyu said that the government, which had a sense of crisis about the Korean wave that is occurring mainly among young people and women, tried to eliminate the Korean wave by making the Takeshima issue a point of contention. Analyzing that
Released in December, "Introducing my girlfriendWas also released in 302 halls, the first Korean movie in Japanperformance incomeIt exceeded 20 billion yen, surpassing the highest ever "Shuri".This work is rare for a Korean movie, "Bizarre girlfriendThis is a series from 』, which is also a factor that sets it apart from other Korean movies.Although it is not as good as Japanese movies and Hollywood movies, which are significantly higher in box office revenue, it has shown progress in producing Korean movies for the outside world.
In September, the Korean movie "Korean movie" was prepared targeting Japan from the planning stage.April snow(Starring Bae Yong Joon and Son Ye Jin) was released at more than 400 movie theaters nationwide, and ranked second in the box office revenue ranking on the first weekend of the release... October, Japanese drama "Pure Soul ~ Even if you forget me ~Is a remake of "Eraser in my head』(Jung Woo Sung,Song Ye Jin(Starring) also performed well with the box office revenue ranking No. 2 for two consecutive weeks from the first week, and finally exceeded 1 billion yen.
The number of Korean movies released was halved compared to the previous year, and no movie earned more than 10 billion yen, which is the standard for hits.In Korea, it was ranked high in the record of mobilizing spectators.Guemuru-Monster of the Han River-And 'King and the clown] Was also sluggish in Japan.In addition, a large-scale promotion was carried out.Daisy』Ended poorly, Has distributed many Korean movies so farToshiba Entertainment"Korean movies are soaring too much," said the president, noting that he is not buying as it is, and said that "the Korean wave boom has come to an end."..Has distributed many Korean moviesAmuseHad no choice but to revise its 2006 results downwards..The biggest reasons for this are the box office performance of Korean movies and sluggish sales of DVD videos.However, unlike Toshiba Entertainment, Amuse has been distributing Korean movies, although the number has decreased since then.
The number of Korean movies released in 2007 decreased further, and no movie achieved box office revenue of 10 billion yen, 9% of the screenings were in the red, and no movie was in the top 10 in the weekend box office results...In January of the following year, many Korean movies were distributed.Cine canonWent bankrupt.The highest weekly box office record is based on Japanese manga.Kanna is a huge success!Was 12th place..Also, in South Korea, it was a big hit, such as being ranked high in the box office record.D-WARS D-WARSInitially, the creators wanted to release it in Japan on a 2007-screen scale as a 500 New Year movie., The release time has been postponed, and it is scheduled to be released on a 2008-screen scale in November 11.Also,"First Snow Love Virgin Snow』(Lee Jun Ki/Miyazaki Aoi) Or “I will never forget you] And other Japanese-Korean joint films were also made.
2011 years,Kang Jae Kyudirected by,Jang Dong GunStarring "The Truth About My Way 12,000 KilometersWas released on 300 screens in Japan with a large-scale promotional activity, but the box office revenue ended at about 3 million yen..
Even in Japan before the word Korean wave was born, "Kasmapuge"Or"Return to Pusan PortSuch asKorean Enka (Trot)And in the mid-1988s following the 1990 Seoul OlympicsDr. LiSuch asPonchuckBoom, or "Feeling like a mess of downtown] InOjae PamThere were sporadic trends in Korean songs such as the parody of the sequel "Maeum Yakeso", but it was a hit of individual works, not the trend of Korean music in general.1998ToSESHas entered Japan, but has not been as successful in sales as in South Korea.Howeverthe 2000sWhen you enter2001ToBoASucceeded in earnest in JapanDong Bang Shin Ki,BIG BANGFollowing the men's group, in 2010KARA,GirlhoodWomen's groups such as K-POP have expanded into Japan and Southeast Asia and have become popular, and have come to be called K-POP to refer to these contemporary Korean popular music.. (K-POPSee also)
2004Following the "Winter Sonata" Yong-sama boom, the number of Korean singers expanding into Japan has continued to increase, and in the case of SES, BoA, Tohoshinki, etc., Japanese songwriters and composers made them in Japan. Sing a songJ-POPIt was a way of selling as a singer,2010From around this time, there are increasing cases of singing Japanese lyrics versions of songs that have already hit in Korea, such as Girls' Generation and KARA.This is because Korean is not familiar in Japan. As of 2011, there have been no major hits in Japan for Korean vinyl records and Japanese CDs. BoA's Korean song selection board "K-POP Selection" is a rare example of all Korean songs ranked in the chart in the Japanese version.In the week of its first appearance, it sold 13th place on the Oricon weekly chart / 3 copies.aside from thatRainThe Japanese version of the album "IT'S RAINING" was ranked 15th on a weekly basis, and Ryu's Winter Sonata theme song was ranked 23rd on a weekly single.In some cases, Korean songs mixed with Japanese are included in the Japanese CDs released by Korean singers.
As mentioned above, despite the high hurdles for Korean singers, the background to their expansion into Japan lies in the fact that the size of the music market in South Korea continues to shrink.Although the content distribution business using the Internet continues to expand, the market size of music CDs was 2004 billion won in 1,000 (about 100 billion yen in Japanese yen at that time), which is less than 1/4 of the peak in recent years. It is in a sharp slump.Looking at the entire music market, which combines both online distribution and music CDs, the scale has shrunk by more than 20% compared to its peak.The cause isP2PIllegal music exchanges such as these are more prevalent on the Internet than in Japan, and as a result, the number of young people who listen to music not by album but by song is increasing (originally, the concept of single in Korea itself). I had to buy an album to listen to my favorite songs), and so on.The shift in market needs from high-priced CDs to low-priced songs for online distribution led to the shrinking of the Korean music market as a whole.In addition, in the case of sound sources for online distribution, the royalties paid to copyright holders are kept low under the pretext of promoting market growth, and the return rate to artists is low.For this reason, some Korean music agencies are working to develop new markets by activating singers who are already popular in Japan in Japan, Taiwan and other Asian countries.In particular, the Japanese music market is more than 20 times larger than South Korea.Therefore, we are actively expanding into the market.
Released in April 2006Capcom OfXbox 360Game software forLost Planet Extreme Condition』, Korean actorLee Byung HunIs playing the main character, Lee Byung Hun participated in the recital and talk event, and many Korean fans gathered..
In 2006Kyogaku industry.Digipachi type released bypachinko(CR machine) "CR Pachinko Winter SonataWas released, 2008 sequelCR Pachinko Winter Sonata 2It was so popular that it appeared.Also,Spring waltz, Dae Jang Geum's Oath,Heaven stairs,Four kings,You're a beautiful manKorean dramas such as these have also been pachinko.Although it was only pachinko for a long time, "Pachislot Winter Sonata" (Kyoraku Sangyo.) Was released in 2019, making it the first Korean drama content.PachislotIt has become.
2013, pachinko chain storeMaruhan OfHan Chang WooAn urban amusement park where the chairman went bankrupt in the land trust business of Osaka CityFestival gateIt was announced that a Korean wave theme park would be built to create an opportunity for the Korean wave to take root in the former site, but it failed and became a commercial facility centered on Don Quijote..
In response to the growing interest in Korean food around the world triggered by the "Oath of the Court Lady, Dae Jang Geum," the Korean government announced in 2008 that "Korean food (Korean food) will be added to the world's five major dishes by 2017." To do (Globalization of Korean food) ”, And public relations activities for overseas have started in order to realize“ Korean wave ”in Korean food...Served as Honorary Chairman of the Korean Food Globalization Promotion GroupMrs. Kim Yoon-ok and Mrs. Lee Myung-bakIs a Korean food at a diplomatic eventBibimbap,Bulgogi, Kimchi, soup) to actively promote the "excellence", Korean Food FoundationKimchiとSalted,Gochujang,Korean miso,Korean soy sauceIs developing public relations activities as the 5 major fermented foods in Korea..Japan is deeply involved in the globalization of Korean food,Hattori Nutrition College OfYukio HattoriChairmanMoranbonMr. Zenpei, the president of the company, has been awarded a merit tile by the Korean government for contributing to the globalization of Korean food.
In the United States, Korean restaurants are recognized as "medium- and high-priced cafeterias used by Koreans and a small number of Asians," lack of localization of taste and menu, distrust of cafeteria hygiene, unique atmosphere, and high prices. It is not popular due to such reasons.Many Korean restaurants have been caught in hygiene inspections, but there are no signs of improvement due to lack of funds to provide the sanitary facilities required by the United States..
In China, it is the most popular foreign dish as "a dining room that offers the same menu at a low price"..However, in China, the import of Korean foodstuffs has been banned due to the incident in 2005 when parasites were mixed in kimchi, gochujang, Korean soy sauce, etc., Still from KoreaKimchi-MakgeolliIs the hygiene standard required by China (per 100 grams)ColiformsDistribution is prohibited because it does not meet (30 or less).
According to a survey by the Korean Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (2010), the popularity of Korean food in Japan is almost the same as that of Chinese food..Mainichi NewspapersKatsumi Sawada, a reporter, said, "Korean food has passed the boom stage and is in the stage of establishment.From a popular point of view, I think it's about the same level as a Chinese restaurant. ".. According to a 2015 survey by the Korea Tourism Organization, Korean food that is popular with Japanese people is "Gimbap"" ""Hot""Gyeran-ppangWas reported to be in order.
The Korean government has positioned musicals as one of the "five major killer contents" and is actively supporting them. In April 5, the "Amuse Musical Theater", which performs Korean musicals, opened in Roppongi, Tokyo.But withdrew 11 months later..It has been pointed out that the causes of the slump are the appearance of Korean actors who are almost unknown in Japan and the fact that recorded music is played to Japanese audiences who are accustomed to live performances such as orchestras... In 2015, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea, we are planning a performance in Japan of "Hero" who won the Korean Musical Awards Grand Prize.This musical isAn Zhonggen Meiji Restoration Ofelder statesmanIto HirobumiTheassassinationSouth Korea hopes that it will be an opportunity for friendship between Japan and South Korea..
Influence in Japan
National sentiment towards South Korea
It is said that the spillover effect of the Korean wave also affected Japan's national sentiment toward South Korea, removed the emotional lumps and prejudices that had laid in both countries for many years, and contributed to friendship and goodwill. Comparing the 2001 and 2004 Japanese polls, the number of "feeling familiar" with South Korea increased and the number of "not feeling familiar" decreased, and the 2002 Japan-Korea World Cup co-sponsored and Korean wave (winter) The influence of Sonata, Yong-sama boom) came out..But in 2006Yomiuri Shimbun-Korean Daily ReportIn a poll conducted jointly by the Japanese government, 51% of Japanese people have a "bad impression" of South Korea, and 59% of Japanese people think that Japan-South Korea relations have deteriorated, the highest ever since the survey started in 1995. It was reported that the cause was that the Korean wave boom that occurred mainly in Korean dramas along with the political problems of Japan and South Korea was gradually cooling down...However, in the 2 Cabinet Office poll, where the second Korean wave boom occurred, 2010% of the respondents said they felt familiar with South Korea, and 61.8% said they did not feel familiar with South Korea...However, it is also true that national sentiment could not escape the influence of political issues.Taking the opportunity of Lee Myung-bak's landing on TakeshimaDislikeDue to the spread of emotions, the 2012 and 2013 Cabinet Office polls on foreign affairs found that "feeling familiar" was 39.2% and 40.7%, respectively.1997Since then, the lowest number, "I don't feel familiar", was 59.0% and 58.0%, the highest numbers since 1996..
Purchasing awareness of Korean products
January 2012Ogaki Kyoritsu Bank Ofthink tankAccording to the "Korean Wave Consciousness Questionnaire (Target: 791 married women)" conducted by Kyoritsu Research Institute, only 11.0% of the respondents said they like Korean waves, and only 15.2% said they liked Korean waves. The impact affected the awareness of purchasing Korean-made products. ".
語In learningNHK OfKorean courseThe number of text sales is1984It was 9 copies when it started broadcasting in 2004, but it increased to 20 copies in 2, and became the second largest language textbook after English... Since 2006, the Korean language learning boom has continued to decline, The quarterly magazine "Korean Journal" (first published in 2014) for learning Korean was suspended in March 3...The number of children and students studying Korean in elementary, junior high and high schools in Japan has dropped significantly from 2010 in 2 to 6153 in 2014, and there is a demand for Korean education in Japan. Has become noticeable.
On the other hand, the number of Korean language proficiency tests conducted by the Korean government is increasing, and in 2019 it reached a record high of 2010 times that of 2.6..
Korea ’s tourism industry is competitiveWorld Economic Forum2013th in the "Travel and Tourism Industry Competitiveness Index (TTCI)" (25). While "ICT infrastructure" (1st) and "cultural resources" (10th) are highly evaluated, "price competitiveness" (96th), "affinity with tourism" (81st), and "natural resources" (89th) remained at a low level..The tourism industry's share of GDP is projected to decline from 2000% in 6.6 to 2013% in 5.8 and to 2024% in 5.4..
The number of Japanese visitors to Korea has continued to increase since 1996, reaching a record high (at that time) of 2000 in 247. It started to decrease in 2 and in 2001SARSIt decreased sharply due to the turmoil. In 2004, it recovered to 35.6, an increase of 244% from the previous year, but it is believed that the Korean wave contributed.. (#Related dataSee also).
After 2005, it started to decrease again.The weakening of the Korean wave boom has been pointed out as one of the causes.The sightseeing tour around the "Winter Sonata" location attracted about 2004 tourists a month in mid-1500, but was canceled in early 2006 due to less than 50 tourists.Also, a sightseeing tour of "Dae Jang Geum's Oath" is less than 100 people a month.NamiseomThe number of Japanese tourists visiting Japan dropped sharply from about 2005 in January 1 to about 1 in December of the same year.In this way, the decrease in "special demand for Korean tourism" has led to a number of travel agencies giving up their business, and Korean travel agencies have said that "the competitiveness of Korean tourism tours has already been lost." The decline of the Korean wave boom has affected travel agencies.
Partly due to the strong yen and weak won since November 2008, the number of Japanese monthly visitors to Korea exceeded 11 for the first time in March 2009.The annual number of visitors to Korea also exceeded 3 million for the first time, reaching 30 (up 300% from the previous year)... Since 2008, the gender ratio of tourists has reversed, and in 2011, women accounted for nearly 6%.In particular, the number of women in their 20s increased by 2008% from 2009 to 62.1, and in 2011 it accounted for 20% of the total number of women in their 28.7s traveling abroad. The number of people in their twenties has doubled from 20 to 2008. In addition to the elements of "cheap, near, short", the "new Korean wave boom" centered on young women is cited as a factor...In Seoul, where hotel rooms are scarce, the number of repeat visitors is increasing due to the Korean wave boom.guest houseConstruction rush happened..On the other hand, there was concern that a sexual assault incident against Japanese female tourists would occur at the guest house and lead to diplomatic problems...From Japanese visitorsNamdaemun OfKorean seaweed,Insa-dongTraditional crafts are popular..In addition, the number of women visiting Korea for cosmetic surgery has been increasing since around 2009..
In 2012, the number of Japanese visitors to South Korea reached a record high for the second consecutive year, reaching 2, surpassing 351 million for the first time, but in August 9, South KoreaLee Myung-boBy the presidentTakeshimaLandingEmperor apology requestAs a result, the tendency to avoid South Korea in Japan increased, and it has been on a rapid decline since October. (Especially the number of female tourists is decreasing remarkably.. ) In 2013, the number of Chinese visitors fell below 5 million for the first time in five years, and it came to be overtaken by the number of Chinese visitors... On April 2014, 4, the Korea Tourism Organization planned a Korean tourism cheering party and became the leader.Haruna loveWas appointed. In 2014, only 224 million people visited South Korea from Japan.This corresponds to the 1999 level.
Shin-Okubo, a sacred place for Korean waves
From the beginning of 2010, in Tokyo where Korean wave shops are lined upShin-Okubo OfKorea TownHas come to be visited by many fans as a "sacred place of the Korean wave", especiallySyokuan-dori OfDon QuixoteIt was also reported that the narrow path connecting Okubo-dori from the side of the Shinjuku store is becoming the epidemic of new trends, but the locals said, "Shin-Okubo only handles directly imported products from South Korea, and is unique to Shin-Okubo. It has not yet reached the point of transmitting culture. ".. In 2011, Korean celebrity-related goods stores, Korean restaurants, cafes, etc. opened one after another, more than 300 stores lined up in an alley of about 60 meters, and the land price of Korean Town in Shin-Okubo more than doubled. On holidays, more than 2 passers-by were counted, showing unprecedented excitement.In addition to problems such as complaints from neighboring residents to the police due to noise and annoying acts on the road, there is no store that has an official license to sell.And operating company tax evasionThere are problems such as.In addition, an officer of a live house who sent Korean youth to Japan with a short-term stay qualification and was active as a Korean idolImmigration Refugee LawThere are also cases where documents are sent for violations...Also in KoreaWorld Christian Unity Spirituality AssociationIt was reported that the male ballet dancers founded by the company are gaining popularity... In 2012Lee Myung-bak's request for apology from the EmperorThe popularity dropped rapidlyBut,Military comfort women issue,Korean origin theoryFrom the "Korea Museum" that publicizes the information, Nishiwaseda's "Women's War and Peace MuseumHas begun to be declared as "a field for thinking about Japan's war harm and symbiosis".. In 2014, the number of customers decreased to one-fourth of the heyday, and the number of elderly Koreans decreased.Street prostituteSecurity has deteriorated, such as the resurrection of.
After the Great East Japan Earthquake, the number of Korean residents has decreased, and in 2015, Islamic side streets for Muslims were opened and other Nepalese shops increased, and multinationalization is progressing... In 2016, people who visited with hits such as Cheese Dak-galbi and Cheese Hatgu returned and the generation became younger.
Town revitalization by Korean wave
- 2005 year 12 month,KochiAttracted as a location for the movie "".Approximately 3000 million yen for staff stay was unpaid and was regarded as a problem, but due to friendship between Japan and South Korea, it was agreed to pay 5% of the unpaid amount..
- 2010 year 12 month,HiroshimaShobara,OnomichiIs the TV drama "Sign』Attracted as a location and paid for the stay of actors and staff.
- 2011 year 12 month,AkitaSemboku CityThe TV drama "Akita Prefecture" appears at Tazawako Station in Japan.IRISThe memorial hall "Akita Iris Museum" opens.
- 2012 year 7 month,AomoriHirosakiIs the TV drama "Gentle man』Invited as a location.
- 2012 year 7 month,TochigiNikkoWas invited as a location for the TV drama "(tentative title) City Conquest"..The production of this drama has been discontinued due to "insufficient competitiveness of content and excessive violence"..
Criticism and anti-Korean in Japan
Questions and criticisms of the Korean wave boom in Japan
- "The Korean wave boom is established as a business because the actual number of fans is known, but there are a certain number of enthusiastic fans who buy concert tickets and goods. PR to expect solid software sales. It seems that the Korean wave is being taken up with the meaning of ".", The example of the Korean wave boom itself is that the affiliated company of the TV station has the copyright of K-POP (of the same group as Fuji TV).Fuji Pacific Music Publishing), And some claim that it is more exaggerated than it really is by the television media..
- March 2011, 23An actor OfTakaoka SohoBut,TwitterAbove, "Honestly, I've been indebted to you a lot, but I don't really watch 8 right now. I often think it's a Korean TV station. We Japanese are looking for traditional Japanese programs. If Korean material comes out, I'll erase it.Fuji Television Network, IncHe criticized TV stations such as (hereinafter referred to as "Fuji").This caused a huge uproar on the Internet, such as being featured in the Internet media of both Japan and South Korea, and a few days later, Takaoka belonged to himself.Stardust promotionIt led to the uproar that the management contract with.
- In connection with thisFluffyIs his own program "ROCKETMAN SHOW !!"(J-WAVE), "If a Japanese TV station gives and receives money from South Korea and frequently picks up the Korean wave, or if it keeps the Korean wave in order to hold the copyright of K-POP and make a profit, it will have an influence. It's not good to use strong public radio waves to fill a company's personal stomach, "he criticized the attitude of the TV station.About TV, he said, "Television is no longer a reflection of the times. Television is completely over.".
- Reiichiro FukamizuIs this uproarAnti-Korean styleThe starting point was that there was a problem with Fuji TV itself, not from the beginning, and he insisted that "the logic that if you don't like the Korean wave, you should watch it" does not work.It also appears that television stations licensed by the state are using public radio waves to promote the content of Fuji and its subsidiaries.If this is the case, he claims that "even children can tell that it is illegal."There have been "biased broadcasts" on other TV stations so far, but they are discriminating against the Korean style by analyzing that "many viewers are making noise because they feel that it has reached the brainwashing level." In response to the opinion, it was the Japanese who were rather discriminated against, and he insisted that he would like to appeal in a demonstration that "Fuji should stop racial discrimination.".
- In the wake of Takaoka's remarks in July 2011,Tokyo-OdaibaFuji Headquarters (FCG building) Around, arguing against Fuji's Korean wave push and biased coverageFuji TV protest demonstration"There has occurred.same year8/72,500 people announced by the organizerWeekly ShinchoAccording to 600 peopleMarched (this day was called a meeting for the 21st) and8/21About 13 to 6,000 people announced by the organizer after 8,000:XNUMX, 3,500 people announced by policeMarched on a demonstration.Then, after 15:XNUMX on the same day, the civic groupGood luck Japan! National Action CommitteeHosted a demonstration of the same claim and a town mission, and about 5,000 people marched at the announcement of the organizer...The total number of people in these two demonstrations is 2 in total according to the police...At least for these demosNHK,Korean KBS,Korea SBS,Korean MBC,Kodansha, J-cast,NicoNico News,Gadget communication, Knuckles the Taboo has been confirmed to have visited for coverage.
- January 2011Satsuki Katayama House of Councilors General Affairs CommitteeSo, Fuji TV said in the pastDokdo"Campaign"Kim Tae HeeThe drama "99 days of me and a starCriticized that it was appointed to the lead role of.
- 2012In February, some Japanese Internet users appointed Kim Tae Hee, who conducted the "Dokdo Campaign", as a commercial for their products.Rohto PharmaceuticalKim's scheduled CM announcement press conference was canceled when he foretold a large-scale protest against.
- In other countries, the negative aspects of the Korean wave due to the prostitution of Korean women will spread,Anti-Korean・ It is also supposed to invite anti-Korean style.
- Published in paper on October 2011, 23,Asahi ShimbunAccording to the results of a questionnaire to the be monitor (1 of Asahi Shimbun Aspara Club members registered), 7% answered "I haven't seen it" and "Not much" in response to the question "Are you watching Korean dramas?" "I haven't seen it" was 66%, "sometimes" was 10%, and "I often see it" was 13%.When asked "Do you like K-pop?", 11% said "I have never heard of it", 32% said "I don't like it", 13% said "I don't like it very much", and "I like it so much". 32% and 22% said they like it very much.Furthermore, when asked "Do you like Korean movies these days?", 1% answered "I have never seen it", 59% answered "I don't like it", 9% answered "I don't like it very much", and "I like it so much". The result is 17% and 14% "like".
- Pony canyon(Fuji Media HoldingsOn the official twitter of (a wholly owned subsidiary), he muttered that the audience rating on July 2012, 24 (Heisei 7) was not clear and it was broadcast irregularly... In 2010 (Heisei 22), the average audience rating was 3.9%, which was originally low, but it was reported to be even lower.
20128/10ToLee Myung-boPresidentIs incumbentPresident of the Republic of KoreaFor the first time asTakeshimaLanding on (Lee Myung-bo Takeshima landing) And it was a Japan-Korea confrontation on the same dayLondon Olympics soccer competitionPark Jong-woo was handed over at the match venue after the 3rd place deciding match, and an incident occurred in which "(Dokdo is our territory)" was written on the placard.Ta.Then, on the 14th of the same month, Lee Myung-bakRequest an apology from the emperorAnd about the Takeshima issueInternational Court of JusticeFrom Japan to South Korea seeking referral toLetterWhen the refusal to receive the item was revealed, anti-Korean sentiment rapidly increased among the Japanese people..
In response to this series of turmoil,8/23 OfHouse of Representatives Budget CommitteeでKeiichiro AsaoConducted "Dokdo Swimming Crossing Campaign"Song Il Kook OfvisaIf you propose to rejectSou YamaguchiDeputy Foreign MinisterExpressed an opinion agreeing with this,BS Nippon TelevisionとBS JapanStarring SonTV dramaDecided to postpone the broadcast indefinitely.9/7Koichi Akaza of BS Nippon TelevisionThe presidentHas been criticized as "too many Korean dramas" and announced that it will reduce the number of Korean dramas broadcast...In response to a series of turmoilNippon TV,TV Asahi,TBSHas a policy to reduce Korean wave related programs from the year-end and New Year program organization in 2012, Fuji TV has begun to reduce the exposure of Korean wave contents, and the contact rate of Korean wave related contents with BS and CS has also decreased sharply. That there is.
In addition, sports newspapers and televisionWide showOpportunities to pick up Korean wave content have also decreased dramatically, Korean drama photo exhibition and goods sales exhibition, advertising campaign using Korean entertainers, TV broadcast of K-POP singer concerts, TV appearances of Korean actors, K-POP songs scheduled to be held in Japan All festivals were canceled..Individual pack trips to South Korea will also be affected, and September-October reservations to / from Kansai will decrease by 9% from the same month of the previous year.And,Hankyu Kotsu companyCanceled newspaper advertisement for tour trip to South Korea.
Broadcasted at the end of 2012, "The 63th NHK Red and White Singing Battle"Korean singers did not participate in various music programs such as", and NHK said, "We are conducting various surveys, but the numbers for each (Korean singer) are lower than last year." He pointed out and mentioned the decline in popularity of the Korean wave.But,Lee Myung-bak's landing on TakeshimaRegarding the relationship between Korean singers and Korean singers, "the territorial dispute did not affect them."..On the other hand, the Korean media reported that the reason for the non-participation of Korean singers was the boycott due to the political background of the Japanese side, such as "The three major song festivals at the end of Japan, the annihilation of K-POP singers" Korean boycott "will begin." Ta.
BritishPublic broadcasting-British Broadcasting CorporationDescribes the contract with the Korean entertainment agency as a "slave contract" and reports that TVXQ and KARA's division turmoil is due to false practices in the Korean entertainment world...Also, a Korean female idol groupT-ARAMembers confess a working environment where they can't get a day off all year long..Even the best-selling back dancer in Korea has a monthly salary of 7 yen or less, and the distribution company earns most of the profits..
Designated on November 2012, 11 by the Korean drama event company "Samfa Entertainment" on suspicion of violating the Act on Punishment of Organized Crimes (collection of criminal proceeds) and aiding fraud.GangsterSumiyoshikaiThe head of the system was arrested. Since April 2006, it has deceived about 4 billion yen from about 460 people, of which about 10 million yen is estimated to have been the source of funds for the gangsters..
In 2014, an inspection result by the Financial Supervisory Service revealed that 44 Korean entertainers and conglomerates owned 1300 billion won of foreign property such as real estate without declaring it..
Evaluation and influence in Asia
the 1990sSince the end of the period, Korean TV dramas and movies have been exported to Asian countries, but sales of Korean wave products in 2012 were 99% in Asia (of which 80% was in Japan), and were concentrated in Asia (especially Japan). Later, exports to China increased and sales in Japan decreased...In addition, Korean entertainers are expanding into Asia with the aim of raising the national prestige of South Korea and interacting with overseas fans for the purpose of high profits... In November 2011, the Korean Culture and Information Service announced that there are 11 Korean wave fan clubs in eight regions in Asia, including Japan, China, and Vietnam, with 8 million members...K-POP, the protagonist of the new Korean wave, has announced that its fans have increased in Asian countries, North America and Europe, and 25 Asian fans participated in the vote at the 70th meeting..
In the 2010 column, the newspaper also included negative opinions from Asian experts, such as "I'm just thinking about making money with pure East Asian fans" and "Korean wave stars are too cheeky and arrogant.".
In China, the movement to regulate Korean dramas has surfaced in 2006 from the viewpoint of protecting their own dramas. According to the Chosun Ilbo dated October 2006, 10, KBS broadcast video exports fell 27% year-on-year. ..However, Korean dramas are popular among Chinese with low educational background and income level, and the reason is that Professor Kang Myung-gu of the Department of Media and Information Studies, Seoul National University said, "Korean dramas lack logic and do not need to move your brain when watching. Is accepted by low-income and low-educated people. "..In addition, the Korean cosmetics brand “” is actively promoting advertisements with Korean actresses in the foreground, and is rapidly expanding its share of low-priced cosmetics..
Also, some historical dramas (""Zhu Meng(2006 MBC) "Four kings(2007 MBC) "Wind Country(2008 KBS2) "Fubun Sobun(2006 SBS) "Dae Jo-yeong(KBS 2006), etc.) by the Chinese governmentGoguryeo-BohaiHistorical recognition toTohoku process), So in ChinaBroadcasting prohibitedIt was.
2016 Year of 7 MonthTHAAD missileAs a measure to oppose the placement of Korean stars in China, limit the exposure of Korean stars in China.限 韓 令Was out.Since August of the same year, Korean stars have been mosaicked on TV, and Korean directors who were planning to shoot movies in China have not had visas.In November of the same year, Korean groups were banned from directing in China, investment in new Korean entertainment planning companies was banned, performances of Korean idols mobilizing more than 8 people were banned, Korean drama / entertainment cooperation projects were banned, and Korean entertainers appeared. Additional measures such as a ban on broadcasting the drama in Korea have been activated.There was also a clause prohibiting broadcasting of all elements that represent Korea, such as Korean companies, brands, and advertising models...However, it was difficult to support because it was often instructed verbally..
north koreaIt is said that Korean dramas and popular songs are being watched secretly among the residents.Originally, in North Korea, watching and singing Korean cultural objects such as Korean images and music without permission, and even buying and selling Korean products are subject to punishment if the authorities discover it.CampAlthough it may be sent to the residents, it is said that it is exchanged on media such as DVDs and memory cards so that it will not be found by the authorities.North Korean defectorAccording to the testimony, there are many people who are envious of knowing the actual situation of South Korea through these underground Korean cultures and knowing the appearance of a wealthier Korean society than North Korean society.
Evaluation and influence in Europe and America
When the Korean wave became popular in Japan, the added value of the Korean wave was generated as a popular culture that became a boom in Japan, and the attention to the Korean wave increased, and it became popular in Europe and the United States..
2000Mid-generation,AmericaMany Korean TV dramas have also entered the market, but American entertainment magazines "" and "Billboard"There is no such thing as a Korean wave, and it is a virtual image that cannot even be described as dead, and has never been alive from the beginning," said the reporter.Zombie WaveI named it.However, the director of the Institute for Popular Culture and Arts, UCLA Institute of Social Education is Korea.JoongAng Daily News"Korean wave is becoming the center of world culture" in an interview with.. Korea's leading entertainment agency in Korea in 2009JYP EntertainmentEstablished a local corporation in the United States, but withdrew in 2012 due to continued deficit
2009 year 7 month,wonder girlsVideo isYouTubeNo. 1 in access in the musician channel category of The record of the number of access to Youtube was updated one after another by the Korean wave video.
In 2018BTSRecorded No. 200 on the Billboard album chart "Billboard 2" for 1 consecutive yearsAlso, BTS's activities in the United States were selected by the American music magazine Rolling Stone as one of the "most memorable moments" that took place in the 2010 years from 2019 to 10..
In a 2009 JoongAng Ilbo article, a survey of French people by the French Survey Agency (IPSOS) found that 41% of French people said they "don't know what South Korea is."In the 2011 JoongAng Ilbo editorial, "It is said that there is a high level of interest in the Korean wave in France."Ahn Cheol-sooIntroducing with Kim Hong Sung, CEO of the Institute..According to the Chosun Ilbo, French public broadcasting in 2011France 2Broadcasted a documentary program called "Korea, the hidden power" and introduced the Korean wave boom such as the activities of K-POP idols...The Dong-A Ilbo estimates that there are more than 2012 Korean wave fans in France, based on a 3775 survey conducted by the Korea Tourism Organization on 10 Korean wave fans living in France... On November 2011, 6SM EntertainmentCommemorates June 6th as a historic day proclaiming the dawn of "K-POP aggression" to the whole world since the first performance in Paris..
The 2011 JoongAng Ilbo said that there is a lot of interest in the Korean wave in France recently, and Professor Hong Seok-kyung of the Department of Speech and Information Studies in Bordeaux, France said, "I enjoyed Korean dramas made from Japanese manga and evolved into K-POP." I told him that he was diagnosing..At Japan Expo, which introduces Japanese culture to Europe, Korean wave content has appeared since around 2004, according to Japan's J-CAST, and an official of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan said, "Is Korea finally here? Said(The position of the Japanese government is that it is an event held by the French private sector, so no intervention will be done.).An official of the Korea Creative Content Agency said, "At the exhibition hall prepared at Japan Expo, only information on Korean manga-related content was exhibited." "The title is Japan Expo, but this event is an exhibition that mainly introduces manga and animation content. It is said that introducing K-POP etc. as a "meeting" is in fact unrooted..In addition, according to the 2011 JoongAng Ilbo, "The popularity (for Korean culture) was gradually increasing along with Japanese culture, but now that Japanese enthusiasts have fallen, it is finally a very good time to become interested in Korean culture." Reporting the story of a broadcaster from Japan.
In France, there is a French popular culture club "KOREA CONNECTION" based in Paris...Based in Paris, this group holds events to introduce kendo and ninjutsu as Korean culture., At the SM Entertainment Paris performance held in June 2011, it accounted for most of the 6 people who gathered in the immigration lobby of Charles Dogor Airport., Demonstration activities in Paris in search of additional performances of K-POP concerts.. (In 2012, we are working on the theme of spreading "Korean comics" to France.. )
2012 people at the K-POP festival "Music Bank in Paris" held on February 2, 8 in FranceIt was reported that Korean fans gathered, but local reports said, "Despite the sparse audience, boys and girls enthusiastically performed songs and dances.".
The Chosun Ilbo explained that K-POP is acclaimed in France for its singing ability, melody, dance, singer's appearance, etc., because it is at a different level from popular French music... In 2011, it was reported that the coined word "chore de coree", which means K-POP choreography, was born...FrenchGuy SormanThe professor said that the Korean wave has no Korean-specific elements and is accepted by many countries because Korean idol groups sing popular music that is very similar to the world.Therefore, it may suddenly be replaced by waves such as China. "..Lee Charm, president of the Korea Tourism Organization, analyzes that "K-POP rhythms and images are in line with global trends, so Westerners like them, not because they are Korean.".
According to the Chosun Ilbo, a performance called "London K-POP Night" was held in London on February 2011, 2, and about 25 people gathered.It is said that there was a 700-meter line at the entrance of the venue.According to the newspaper, on April 200, the British BBC said, "Korean waves have begun to appear in Europe and the United States beyond Asia. The national brand of Korea has moved from a" conglomerate company "to a Korean wave centered on" K-POP. " I'm trying to do it. ".. April 2011,Abbey Road StudiosMade inSHINeeFor live performancesSouth Korean flag800 local fans with.. December 2011, 12 in London 4Minute,BEASTHeld a concert, 400 fans packed into Heathrow Airport, and 3,500 fans were enthusiastic at the concert.
Japanese culture festival "" held on October 2011, 10 in Barcelona, SpainBarcelona Manga FairWas made inJustin BieberOn the undercard at the concertJYJParticipated, "JYJ held the first solo concert in Spain by a Korean artist at Pueblo Espanyol Square and attracted 3000 people. The audience called JYJ calls before the performance started. Most of the local Koreans were at the venue. He reaffirmed the K-POP boom in Europe. ".
2014 year 9 month,DusseldorfWe were planning a large-scale K-pop concert in Japan, but the organizer suddenly canceled the performance because the number of tickets sold was only 6000, which is far below the minimum number of profitable 4000..
Evaluation and influence in others
In the Arab region of the Middle East, the number of Korean dramas broadcast has increased since around 2007. "Sad Love Story" has been broadcast in several countries, and in Iraq, what was broadcast in January was rebroadcast in May, the audience rating exceeded 1%, and its popularity also affected the naming of babies. It is said that it caused a great response.In 5, "Dae Jang Geum's Oath" was broadcast in Iran, recording a high audience rating of 70%.In Latin America, the entry of Korean dramas began in 2007, and in Mexico, "My name is Kim Sam Soon" ranked second in the audience rating ranking..."K-POP Reality," which was broadcast in Colombia in 2012, recorded an audience rating of 3-5% and was reported in South Korea as an explosive popularity.However, due to lack of budget for dubbing Spanish and Portuguese, it has been sluggish because it cannot meet the needs of South American viewers who prefer dubbing in their native language rather than subtitling..
Relationship with the Korean government
Late 1990'sAsian currency crisisSince then, South Korea, which has a small domestic market, has sought a way out of the export industry and has made a nationwide effort.2009IsPresident of the Republic of KoreaDirect reportRepublic of Korea National Brand CommitteeHas been established, and the Korean public and private sectors (including government-affiliated private organizations) are involved in publicizing external culture to improve national brand value.Mainly traditional cultureHigh cultureThe Korean Cultural Center is in charge of the field,Popular cultureAnd about the content industry of private companiesKorea Creative Content Agency (KOCCA)Is in charge.Also, a private organization sponsored by the Korean governmentVANKEtc. are also actively promoting.
The Korea Creative Content Agency, established in 2009, is a national strategy.movies・ Broadcast video (Korean wave)TV drama)・K-POP-Game-Anime-Manpha-characterIn order to promote the content industry such as, we have invested a large amount of national funds in content production, export and promotion, and strongly support it. On October 2010, 10,Tokyo International ForumA K-POP showcase introducing new Korean artists will be held in Hall A with a free invitation for all seats., 2011, K-POP Academy (tentative name) for future infrastructure expansion of K-POP and training of Korean wave stars, which is said to be "causing a'new Korean wave boom'overseas such as Europe" It was announced that it plans to promote Korean wave content production through a support project and a global fund that invests 2015 trillion won in the four years up to 4...The institution that develops human resources who produce Korean wave content is named "K-Arts Academy" and will start operation in April 2012.
またFranceHeld atJapan Expo,SpainHeld atBarcelona Manga FairAt international events such as, the Korea Creative Content Agency is exhibiting a booth to actively introduce Korean culture such as K-POP and Korean comics (Manhwa) (Detail is"Japan Expo #KoreaSee).
If the content production company has an export record of 10% of the production cost, the Korean government will issue a loan guarantee to the financial institution so that the Korean content production company can actively receive a loan from the financial institution. It has become.A subsidy was sometimes paid by a content production company to an export destination company, and a Taiwanese company that purchased the right to broadcast a Korean drama sometimes received a subsidy that exceeded the purchase price...Due to South Korea's aggressive content export policy and low purchase costs (although it has been on the rise in recent years),East Asia,Southeast AsiaKorean wave contents such as dramas, movies, and music are becoming widely accepted.
By developing a national global sales expansion policy in this way, the export value of Korean wave content grew from $ 2007 million to $ 2010 million in 1-8900.On the other hand, it has been pointed out that there are problems with a specific market, especially Japan, and the profit structure of K-POP, which also performs live in Europe and the United States. Sales in Asia account for 3% of the total, and Japan is 1300. It stands out as%.As for the profit distribution, if we calculate the profit distribution of "KARA" in Japan as an example, 99% goes to the Japanese distributor, 80.8% goes to the Japanese promoter, and only 84% remains in the hands of the entertainment agency belonging to KARA. ..In this way, Japan is getting most of the profits from the license agreement, and the dilemma of "biased toward Japan" and "profit imbalance" in the Japanese market is recognized as a problem in the content business by the Korean side, and the Korean wave business There are also voices of doubt about.
Impact on Japanese content business
As a counter to the Korean wave, the Japanese business community is also trying to expand the content business overseas, but the results are not good...Taking the music industry as an example, overseas expansion itself is sluggish, and the content itself is not devised...The results of the Agency for Cultural Affairs survey show that the industry as a whole is calm in the world's second largest domestic cell market and has no intention of entering the harsh international market...In addition, it has been reported that it has been sluggish in appeals such as international exhibitions..
Yomiuri ShimbunIn the column of the evening edition of December 2012, 12, Korean waveSoutheast AsiaEven if you buy it cheaply, we support it as a national policy to expand its cultural appeal.contentHowever, the Japanese government argued that it should be "hungry", saying that the Japanese content, which is also bought and beaten, is too weak to compete with the government.Also,Japan Private Broadcasting FederationHowever, at the regular meeting on November 2012, 11, "It is the final decision to send Japanese broadcast content overseas so that people from overseas can have a longing for Japanese products, culture, and lifestyle. From the perspective of cultural appeal, we are seeking the support of the Japanese government..
Movement of Korean local government
Korean wave theme park
Sohn Hak-kyu focused on the increase in tourists under the influence of the Korean wave in 2004Gyeonggi-doThe governor2008Korean wave theme park bySeoulSuburbsGoyangAnnounced that it will be built in.AmericanHollywood"Haruru (Korean wave) WoodIt was said that a total of 2 trillion won (about 2,000 billion yen) would be invested to build a movie theater, movie theater, performance hall, museum, shopping facility, and hotel. The name was changed to "Halyuworld" in 2009, and it is scheduled to be completed in 2012. 2019 arena construction has been decided and is scheduled to be completed in 2024.. Also in 2012Incheon International AirportA Korean wave museum is planned to be built near.
- ^ a b Daijisen "Korean"
The epidemic of Korean popular culture that took place in East Asia.In Japan, the broadcast of the Korean TV drama "Winter Sonata" produced in 14 was the trigger.Not limited to dramas, trends can be seen in various fields such as movies, music, idols, and cooking.
- ^ Daijirin "Korean"
"The epidemic of Korean popular culture in Japan, which began around 2003. The epidemic of movies, television-dramas, music, etc. has had an impact on cooking, language, literature, etc. "
- ^ a b XNUMX years of K-pop ... From "Korea" hidden BoA to BTS singing in Korean,Han Gyore, August 2019, 5.
- ^ 2013-04-16 Asahi Shimbun Morning Edition 1 Foreign News "Korean wave boom"
Broadcasting of the drama "Winter Sonata" began in April 2003, and Bae Yong Joon, the protagonist, has created enthusiastic fans, especially middle-aged and older women.As for K-pop music, the women's groups "KARA" and "Girls' Generation" were supported by young people, and they also participated in the Kouhaku Uta Gassen.
- ^ 70 years after the war Portrait of Japan Slang Dictionary June 2015, 6 23 (2004: 16 years after the war)
- ^ JETRO Korea's content promotion measures and analysis of direct and indirect effects in overseas markets 
Internationally, the spillover effect of the Korean wave extends not only to the increase in exports of TV programs and sales of products, but also to the growing interest in Korea itself as well as Korean styles and trends such as cooking, tourism and fashion. I'm
- ^ a b Shinichi Saito, Tsutomu Lee, Akie Arima et al.Korean wave boom and awareness toward Korea: Image of Koreans and Koreans in relation to Korean waves and recognition of Japan-Korea relations"Bulletin of the Institute for Comparative Culture, Tokyo Woman's Christian University," 2010, Vol. 71, p.1-32, Tokyo Woman's Christian University. (3 Spillover effect of Korean wave boom)
In this survey, we asked multiple items if they had started something after watching Korean TV dramas and movies.As a result, only a small number of people, less than 2-3%, had a direct impact on their behavior, such as traveling to Korea, starting to study Korean, or buying Korean products more often. It was.
- ^ What is the trend of popular culture in Taiwan?Taiwan StreamAlthough it is defined as something different from Hanaryu in Greater China, this term is not used in Japan and is unified into the name "Hanaryu".
- ^ Japanese slang dictionary
- ^  National Institute of Korean Language Frequently Asked Questions "Korean Wave" Correct Pronunciation
- ^ Why did Nikkei Entertainment "Korean Wave" spread to the world? 2012/11/19 
In 1997, the currency crisis in Asia caused South Korea to fall into the so-called "IMF crisis."Faced with a national economic crisis in which stocks plunged and many companies went bankrupt, the Korean government chose to promote the IT industry and cultural businesses as an economic policy to win the world at the same time as fiscal consolidation. "As a result, from around 2000, a number of universities and vocational schools were established in Korea to train professionals in music and video. In the following 10 years, human resources with specialized education in music and video have grown, and now Supporting the Korean wave boom in the field ”(Korean music TV station, CJ E & M Japan branch, Bae Sung-min).
- ^ KDDI Research, Inc. February 2005 Korean Content Promotion Policy in "Korean Wave" Page2  South Korea's content industry promotion policy began with President Kim Dae-Jung's "Cultural President" declaration announced in 1998.With this declaration, in order to revive the sluggish Korean economy, we will promote the development of the content industry as one of the national core industries in the 21st century, and the creation of legal systems and support systems to develop this industry as a national strategy. It was decided to go.In this way, in 1999, the "Cultural Industry Promotion Basic Law" was enacted as a legal foundation, and by this law, 2003 billion won (about 5,000 billion yen) will be concentratedly invested in the content industry by 498, "Cultural Industry Promotion Fund". Was established.Considering that the government has not provided any assistance to promote the industry, the amount of 5,000 billion won is exceptional.
- ^ JETRO Korea's content promotion measures and analysis of direct and indirect effects in overseas markets 
Substantial policy support for the cultural industry was accelerated by the administration of Kim Dae-Jung, which was launched in 1998.Immediately after its inauguration, the administration changed the name of the "Culture and Sports Department" to the "Culture, Sports and Tourism Department" and positioned the 21st century as the "Culture Century" and took steps to promote content.
- ^ Nikkei Business "Indonesian children dancing KARA and half-hearted Japanese strategy (Fumio Ogami)
In 1997, when the financial crisis broke out and the IMF bailed out, South Korea's TV program exports were less than $ 1000 million, while imports were $ 6000 million, a significant excess.That was the result of the third "Broadcasting and Video Industry Promotion Five-Year Plan", which originated from President Kim Dae Jung's historic cultural opening policy (for example, released all Japanese content that was previously prohibited in principle). In 5, exports reached $ 2008 million.Imports, on the other hand, fell to $ 1 million and grew into a fine export industry.Under the strong guidance of Cheong Wa Dae, all central ministries and local governments back up the private sector, not only promoting exports of TV programs, but also increasing tourists and earning foreign currency through overseas box office revenue. Is bringing.As an indirect effect, in addition to improving the image of South Korea, it has made a great contribution to promoting the export of Korean products and facilitating the overseas expansion of Korean companies.The average annual budget for this initiative is about 8000 billion won (about $ 2000 million at the current exchange rate) (Note 1200). Exporting TV shows doesn't seem to pay off enough, but it's a strategically successful investment with enormous effects that has immeasurable effects given other effects. Let's go. "
- ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun April 2012, 4 Cool Japan Why did you fall behind the Korean wave? Editorial committee member Akira Kobayashi
- ^ a b Fuji Sankei Business Eye 2012.5.12 05:00 Questioning the “Korean wave boom” in the home country, highlighting the “one-sided dependence” in the Japanese market (1/3)
- ^ Korean wave threatening Cool Japan, public-private integrated model is the key-Chinese media Record China April 4 (Friday) 27:7 delivery
- ^  Mainichi Shimbun November 2011, 11 "In Japan, the Korean drama" Winter Sonata "was aired in 2, igniting the Korean wave boom. "
- ^ Korea Cultural Exchange Foundation "The starting point of the Korean wave, which symbolizes the power and popularity of Korean popular culture in Japan, is the Winter Sonata broadcast on NHK in 2003 and 2004."
- ^ a b c d Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Analysis of Korean content promotion measures and direct and indirect effects in overseas markets March 2011
- ^ Japan-Korea Summit Meeting (Summary)
- ^ Playback Hit Product Numbering Nihon Keizai Shimbun Guide Edition Web 2004 hit product numbering
- ^ Hit product numbering: Business Watch Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation Group SMBC Consulting 2004 Hit Product Numbering
- ^ "The Korean wave boom in Japan is still going on", Chosun Ilbo, Korean newspaper "Herald Economy" June 2005, 6, September 2, 2008
- ^ International Comparative Pollster on Japan-Korea Relations (PDF) Japan Research Center 2007
- ^ Overseas expert "Korean wave may end with a boom" JoongAng Ilbo Japanese version March 2006, 03 28:18
- ^ The movie Korean wave that burst the bubble, why? 2009/01/21
- ^ a b Hiroshi Ogawa (June 2010). “Development of the music industry in East Asia --Music culture in the Internet age--”. Kansai University Institute of Economics and Political Science. P. 27. 2022/2/12Browse.
- ^ a b JoongAng Daily News June 2011, 06 16:14 BBC points out "slave contract behind K-POP success"
- ^ Asahi Shimbun August 2007, 08, popular group "Dong Bang Shin Ki" Korean wave tour
- ^ Financial Daily JKSTARS.com 김범수 Sun 열도 장악 ~'보고 싶다' 무반주 버전 화제! 
- ^ [Han River Times] 윤상현, 솔직한 미소 국내 이어 일본 열도 장악
- ^ Financial Daily JKSTARS.com'한류스타' 소지섭, Sun 열도 점령 초읽기 (Korean wave star'So Ji Sub, Japanese archipelago occupation countdown)
- ^ Asian Economy 2010.08.26 13:07 Han 아이돌'Sun 열도 점령', 일본 초토 화시 키다 (Korean idol'Occupation of the Japanese archipelago', scorched earth)
- ^ Sports Seoul 한류스타 들, 새해 에도'열도 공습' 뜨겁다 (Korean wave stars,'Archipelago air raid' hot in the new year)
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo "Two Meanings of Bae Yong Joon's Visit to Japan ... Korean Wave Revival-Korean Tourism Messenger" October 2, 2009 10:01
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo "Bae Yong Joon meets Mrs. Hatoyama" October 2009, 10 01:08
- ^ Bae Yong Joon mobilizes 2 "family members" in Tokyo Dome in two days News -ORICON STYLE- October 2009, 10 01:06
- ^ February 2009, 2 Secretary Yoo Incheon, "Fostering the Korean Music Industry in the 4th Place in the World"
The Ministry of Culture plans to achieve this medium-term plan to promote the music industry and increase the size of the music industry market from 2008 billion won in 8 to 440 trillion won in 2013.
- ^ Nikkei MJ"K-POP" is "K-POP" in "2010 hit product numbering"FrontalIt is rated as.Nihon Keizai Shimbun 2010/12/8 4:00 
- ^ Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation's "2011 hit product numbering" ranks "K-POP" as "the fifth front"
- ^  Girls' Generation, KARA, 2PM ... Japanese Kayo world fearing the Korean wave
No Korean singer was seen in NHK's red and white song battle broadcast on December 12st. Until just before the announcement of the singers who appeared in the Kouhaku Uta Gassen in mid-November, Japanese sports newspapers reported that "BIGBANG, Girls' Generation, and KARA will definitely appear," but the results were different. When criticism continued that "the Korean group, which was the biggest topic in the cultural world in 31, will not leave," NHK side delayed one step and said, "K-pop singers are still invited to the red and white song battle." I decided that I didn't reach it, "he gave an unconvincing explanation.
- ^ Yonhap News 2011/06/22 16:42 [Entertainment] To support strengthening the competitiveness of K-POP, the Korean government
"For K-POP's overseas expansion, we will support local performances in new markets such as Latin America and the Middle East, and hold" Asia Music Awards "in Asia.In addition, a place where Korean fans can experience Korean popular culture, the "Korean Cultural Exchange Hall" (tentative name) will be established, and by 2015, 1 trillion won (about 740 billion yen) will be invested to create it. Promote Korean wave content production through the "Global Fund". "
- ^ Yonhap News 2011/12/29 20:03 Aiming to double tourists to strengthen support related to Korean waves = Korean government
- ^ Kyodo News July 2011, 7 The Korean drama fund that is responsible for the "New Korean Wave" has started!
- ^ On December 2011, 2011, "New Korean Wave" was rated as "Front" in Nikkei MJ's "12 Hit Product Numbering".Nihon Keizai Shimbun,Nihon Keizai Shimbun Guide Edition Web
- ^ Fuji Sankei Business Eye 2012.5.12 05:00
- ^ Dong-A Ilbo'Korean hot air'cultural industry Imports from abroad increased significantly 2012-02-06 08:52:51
- ^ 
- ^ JETOR Report 6p
- ^ Nikkei Trendy November 2011 Issue "Why'Everything is Koreanized'"
- ^ Audience rating exceeds "Miyaneya"! The secret of the second Korean wave boom NEWS Post Seven 2010.09.29 02:07
- ^ Is the "second Korean wave boom" coming? The number of Japanese visiting Korea is increasing rapidly, and magazines continue to be featured.
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo Japanese version December 2011, 12 30:14 "Next year, the Korean wave budget will increase significantly ... Sungnyemun Gate will be restored."
- ^ Yonhap News 2011/12/29 20:03 KST "Aiming to double tourists to strengthen support related to Korean waves = Korean government"
- ^ Yonhap News Agency dispute on K-POP boom cold water, NHK Ishihara 2011/02/24 20:34
- ^ Korean idol group crisis theory?… “If the domestic market is saturated, go abroad” (1) November 2012, 11 16:14
- ^ Korea Full-time May 2012, 05 15:07 K-POP Super Junior's performance in Japan attracts 00 people, surpassing Lady Gaga's mobilization
- ^ Chosun.biz 2012.11.18 07:13 분노한 그들, SM 에'딴따라' 비아 냥 마저… They got angry and even “tantara” sarcastic about SM ...
- ^ Chosun Ilbo "Background of the industry's largest SM Entertainment stock market crash" 2012/11/20 10:56
- ^ Is the K-POP boom completely over? ... SM Entertainment's operating income is down 70% "Too much dependence on Japan" Daily Cyzo June 2013, 06 25:13
- ^ Tickets did not sell, Korean wave live was canceled, and there was no refund to the purchaser due to the bankruptcy of the host company. June 2012, 06 22:04
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo Japanese Edition November 2012, 11 27:10
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2010.09.26 Export of drama content that has peaked out, attempt to break through
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2010.1.10 [Column] "Korean wave stars are too cheeky"
- ^ KRnews 2012/03/22
- ^ When Kyary Pamyu Pamyu gets the audience rating from NEWS Post Seven K-POP, TV officials 2013.06.20 07:00
- ^ SAPIO December 2012 issue
- ^ J-CAST News 2012/12/13 19:27
- ^ Weekly post August 2012, 11 issue
- ^ Cabinet Office Pollster on Foreign Affairs See Feelings of Familiarity with South Korea
- ^ Dong-A Ilbo December 2012, 12 "Myeong-dong Street is a quiet old bird, Japanese tourists are drastically reduced, and there is a sense of crisis in travel and shopping districts."
- ^ Notice of the end of the Korean Wave Select broadcast
- ^ Toyo Keizai Online February 2015, 02 The truth about the "new Korean wave boom" that adults do not know The Korean wave is on a stage that blends into everyday life
- ^ "Fashion x K-POP's “Korean Third Wave” in the music world this year"WWD JAPAN".2018/4/26Browse.
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo March 2017, 03 The world is not limited to China ... Korean wave advances in search of new world (16)
- ^ ] JoongAng Ilbo April 2017, 04 "Korean wave heat is getting colder" = Global Korean wave fact-finding survey
- ^ Specified non-profit corporation Genron NPO ・ East Asian Research Institute 5th Japan-Korea Joint Public Opinion Survey Results of Japan-Korea Public Opinion Comparison
- ^ [AERA] 2018/01/22 High school girls praise Korean culture ... Is the Korean wave "re-boom" real?
- ^ “The number of Japanese people who have plastic surgery in Korea is increasing rapidly, 6 people a year ... troubles”. Yomiuri Shimbun(September 2018, 09 28:10). Lay summary
- ^ ""Crash Landing on You" A big hit The mechanism of the Korean wave boom that gets stronger every time it comes back”. Nikkei BP. 2020/8/18Browse.
- ^ Korean wave tourism where the bubble burst Chuo Nippo June 2006, 3
- ^ Parliament talk front line
- ^ South Korea Information Dissemination Base! Innolife.net So Ji Sub Lee Soo Jung Sojisub Related News
- ^ Korea Information Dissemination Base! Innolife.net "I'm Sorry, I Love You" in Japan! 2006/05/31 (Wed) 23:07
- ^ JETOR Report 7p
- ^ Asahi Shimbun Korean wave program, why increased? TV station "cheaper than own", South Korea "export" power
- ^ "You're Beautiful" is broadcast again! 3 times broadcast for the first time MSN Sankei News 2011.4.25 13:21 (broken link)
- ^ K-style Korean wave star's "Japanese drama report card" March 2012, 03 08:17
- ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun 2011/7/28 20:10 Japan-Korea media-related companies to establish investment fund to support drama production
- ^ "The blockbuster Netflix "Crash Landing on You" was inevitable”. Toyo Keizai. 2020/8/18Browse.
- ^ Choi Treasure (2011). Korean drama as a "post-trendy drama". Utsunomiya University Foreign Literature Study Group. Pp. 12
- ^ 2011 Korean TV drama rentals reached record highs ~ Annual ranking announcement, "You're Beautiful" ranked first for two consecutive years, which is unusual ~ Culture Convenience Club Co., Ltd. December 2011, 12
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo February 2012, 02 23:16 [Column] The astringent look of Korean movies watching the K-POP boom (21)
- ^ Thorough analysis of Korean movie box office results released in Japan Chosun Ilbo [2004/08/26 12:37:34]
- ^ Director Kang Je-gyu "Distortion of Chinese and Japanese history, to eliminate the Korean wave boom" Chosun Ilbo [2005/05/02 12:37:34]
- ^ "April Snow" Japan Hit Korean Movie Production Paradigm Change? Chosun Ilbo 2005/09/18 20:37:53
- ^ Chosun Ilbo June 2006, 06 "Even though I did a big promotion ..." Daisy "starring Jung Woo Sung, unexpected slump in Japan"
- ^ Toshiba Entertainment Announces 07-08 Lineup February 2007, 2 Bunka Tsushin.com[Broken link]
- ^ Amuse revise its business performance downwards Is it behind the Korean wave boom?-(Save asahi.com as Web Fish Taku)
- ^ a b 2007/12/20 Chosun Ilbo
- ^ Korean wave “end” !? 9% of screenings in the Korean film industry are in the red Exports are also dependent on Yong-sama ... Evening Fuji2008/7/29
- ^ 2007/07/24 Chosun Ilbo
- ^ Box Office MOJO
- ^ Japan Record AssociationTHE RECORD June 2011 issue (PDF)
- ^ Capcom announces new Xbox 360 title "Lost Planet"! Lee Byung Hun is appointed as the main character! Famitsu.com 2005/12/10
- ^ Capcom's new work "Lost Planet" featuring Lee Byung Hun will be released for Xbox 360! Capcom Press Release December 2005, 12
- ^ That Korean wave star is flooded with female fans! "Lost Planet" talk event Dengeki Online August 2006, 9
- ^ Next-generation games are also "Korean"? Get "Byung-sama Smile" at Capcom's new "Lost Planet" presentation for Xbox 360! Nikkei Trendy Net August 2005, 12
- ^ 
- ^ ""MEGA Don Quijote" at the site of the Shinsekai Festival Gate". 2019/3/31Browse.
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2013/07/10 09:16 Korean wave theme park concept in Osaka, thoughts of Chairman Maruhan
- ^ International News "Korean food is not just kimchi", Korean food globalization project launched October 2008, 10 20:15
- ^ "Government promotes globalization business to make Korean food" 5 major dishes in the world "", Toa Nippo, OCTOBER 10, 2008.
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo (2009.10.15 07:44:36) Kim Yoon-ok introduces "Globalization of Korean food" on US CNN TV
- ^ Yonhap News Agency 2010/10/22 13:13 KST "Telling the taste of tradition" Mrs. Kim Yoon-ok, provided by Jeonju Bibimbap to fascinate people around the world at the G20 summit
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo 2009.02.25 08:27:49 "Korean food is well-being" Mrs. Lee appeals Korea's excellence ... Korean food becomes a global brand according to the tastes of foreigners
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo 2010/02/11 Mrs. President "Foreigners who like Korean food will come to Korea again"
- ^ Mindan Shimbun 2010-03-31 "Kimchi and salted fish, gochujang, miso, and soy sauce are the five major fermented foods of Korea." The Korean Food Foundation was established.
- ^ Mainichi Shimbun October 2010, 10 Tokyo morning edition Following the Korean drama, we ask Mr. Chung Unten, the president of the Korean Food Foundation (Mainichi Shimbun)
- ^ Mindan Newspaper 2012.3.28
- ^ Korea Times (Korean) Korean cafeteria hygiene inspections often caught 2012-01-05
- ^ 
- ^ Toitsu Nippou 2010/04/14 Globalization of Korean food (Korean food) "This menu if you want to expand into Japan" announced by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Korea
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2010/05/23 Korean food: Simple menu in the US, affordable food in Japan? ... International consulting company survey
- ^ "China" bans import of "Korean kimchi" Chosun Ilbo 2005/11/1
- ^ Epoch Times 05/11/03 China and South Korea kimchi friction rises, China also bans imports to South Korea
- ^ Dong-A Ilbo, Secretary of Agriculture and Food Department, Requests China to Open Kimchi Market
- ^ Toitsu Nippou 2010/04/14 Globalization of Korean food (Korean food) "If you want to expand into Japan, this menu"
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2010/02/28 11:11:09 Japan fascinated by Korean food (middle) [Special feature] Japan in Korea, Korea in Japan
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2015/03/09 12:48 Japanese favorite Korean taste "Kimpa" ranked first
- ^ "Cheese Dak-galbi New boom of "Korean wave" from Shin-Okubo". 2019/3/31Browse.
- ^ "Cheese is a big boom with Beyond Does "Hatgu" exceed "Cheese Dak-galbi"? (1/6)". 2019/3/31Browse.
- ^ Integrated News 2013/08/13 17:32 <Entertainment> Korean creative musical struggling in Japan = blockbuster hit
- ^ ORICON STYLE February 2014, 2 24:09 (ORICON STYLE) AMT Korean musical continuation performance ends 00 months
- ^ <Interview> Integrated News 2014/03/12 18:35 Korean musical hit Toho Entertainment Ichimura, Mr. Kurima
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo August 2012, 08 29:11
- ^ Continued visits to Yasukuni will not improve friendship between Korea and Japan --Chosun Ilbo, October 2005, 10 (login required)
- ^ <Outside the "Reform Theater"> Squeaky Japan-China-Korea Friendship --Asahi Shimbun Nagoya Headquarters Edition, September 2005, 9
- ^ Japan's Korean wave boom is sluggish due to Korea-Japan conflict Chuo Nippo February 2006, 8
- ^ Cabinet Office Pollster Pollster on Diplomacy
- ^ Public Opinion Survey on Diplomacy Public Opinion Survey Report October 25 Survey Figure 10
- ^ Only 11% of housewives who like Korean waves in Japan do not contribute to the purchase of Korean products 2012/06/22 16:29
- ^ Korean heart-throb helps detente - Guardian
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2006/06/13 11:58 Behind the Korean language learning boom in Japan
- ^ 
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2015/03/23 08:51 Decrease in children / students learning Korean only in Japan (Chosun Ilbo)
- ^ "Uncool Korean fever”. Nikkei Newspaper. 2021/9/1Browse.
- ^ The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013
- ^ World Travel and Tourism Council Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2014 South Korea
- ^ 17 White Paper on Tourism (Annual Report on Tourism Situation)
- ^ a b c Tourism Marketing Research Institute You can download statistical data on the number of Japanese departures
- ^ The end of the Korean wave boom? ... The number of Korean-Japanese visitors reversed Chuo Nippo February 2007, 1
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2006/03/23 11:59:30 Bubble burst Korean wave tourism
- ^ Yonhap News 2010/11/08 10:03 With the number of foreigners visiting Korea surpassing 800 million, the number of Japanese and Chinese tourists is increasing rapidly
- ^ Travel News January 2012, 1 issue
- ^ JTB Research Institute Women's Travel to Korea 2012/06/21
- ^ "Seoul, Hotel Construction Rush = Increase in Tourists Due to Korean Wave Boom" Jiji Press May 2011, 5
- ^ Sexual assault on Japanese women at accommodations Water the "Korean travel boom". 2012/5/21 19:11
- ^ Yonhap News Agency Popular tourist destination in Seoul Myeongdong for Japanese and Dongdaemun for Chinese 2012/04/26 15:17
- ^ AFPBB News The wave of "Korean wave" in cosmetic surgery, the number of foreigners shaping in Korea is increasing rapidly April 2012, 04 23:12 Origin: Seoul / Korea
- ^ Gow! Magazine April 2012, 04 28:12 Golden Week Plastic Surgery! "Calf Plastic Surgery" is popular in the Korean boom 
- ^ "Daily Travel News" Asia-Pacific results in October, China and South Korea decreased by 10% level South Korea has a large decrease in women, Taiwan is doing well in both directions
- ^ Dong-A Ilbo December 2012, 12 Myeong-dong Street is a quiet old bird, a sense of crisis in the travel and shopping district due to a sharp decrease in Japanese tourists
- ^ Tired of Korean wave ... Travel cancellations one after another Takeshima problem, change of consciousness due to boom down (1/3) Sankei Biz September 2012, 9
- ^ Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (2014-01-21) Foreign tourists visiting Korea, most of them are Chinese
- ^ A sudden increase in women in their teens and 10s on "Ikemen-dori" in Shin-Okubo, Tokyo, which has become a "Takeshita-dori" Nihon Keizai Shimbun2011/9/14
- ^ "Korean Wave Sanctuary, Shin-Okubo WAKUWAKU! Guide" (Best Mook Series, 10) Bestsellers Publishing
- ^ a b Sankei Shimbun Korean wave sacred place, light and shadow Tax evasion, etc. Unauthorized tourist etiquette worsens 2012.1.22 21:42
- ^ Tax evasion with K-POP, 1 million yen hidden shop management company accusation-Tokyo Regional Taxation Bureau Jiji Press January 5000 (Wednesday) 1:11 delivery
- ^ Sankei Shimbun "Inspection of company officer documents to make unqualified Korean idols perform live activities" I thought that rewards would be paid like TVXQ "" 2012.2.15 14:20
- ^ JANJAN Shinjuku / Okubo's popular Korean live house "Sacred Place" was caught February 2012, 2
- ^ December 2011, 12 Yomiuri Shimbun, December 20, 2011 Nikkan Sports "Unqualified and suspected activity Korea" GREAT ""
- ^ Chosun Ilbo Japanese version 2012/02/28 Ballet is also Korean wave, Korean dancers are popular in Japan
- ^ ZAKZAK Shin-Okubo shocks Takeshima! Surprising reality in "Korean wave sacred place" 2012.08.29 
- ^ ZAKZAK 2013.08.16 [Chasing the Dark Leap Islands] "Korean Anti-Japanese World" (Miki Otaka) developed in Shin-Okubo-Nishi Waseda
- ^ Tokyo Sports “Rise and Fall” of Shin-Okubo at the mercy of the Korean wave boom May 2014, 05
- ^ "I went to "Islamic Yokocho" in Shin-Okubo". 2019/3/31Browse.
- ^ "I tried to infiltrate the depths of Shin-Okubo, which is becoming a "Nepal Town"". 2019/3/31Browse.
- ^ "The reason why Shin-Okubo, which is "away from Koreans", is more active than before”. President. 2019/11/27Browse.
- ^ "Shin-Okubo, which is crowded with cheese dak-galbi In the Korean wave town, "de-political Japan-Korea relations" are progressing”. HuffPost. 2019/11/19Browse.
- ^ Kochi Shimbun News April 2006, 4 Resuming location agreement with creditors for Korean movie stay
- ^ October 2010, 10 Yomiuri Shimbun) Expecting local revitalization due to Korean wave boom To start location of Korean drama starring Han Ji-min and others in Shobara and Onomichi
- ^ Hirosaki Location Guide Map "The Innocent Man" nowhere else in the world Hirosaki Tourism and Convention Bureau 2014.4.6 00:44 (UTC) Browse
- ^ Shimotsuke Shinbun (July 7th morning edition) Start shooting Korean dramas in Nikko Expectations for attracting Korean guests
- ^ Actor Kim Hyun Joong leaves the drama "Urban Conquest" JoongAng Daily NewsJapanese version 2013.2.7 Attached article
- ^ Love Sonata 2007 Revival Japan from Korea to Japan will start next month!
- ^ Is the "Korean wave boom" a fake? It should be very popular, but the audience rating is terrible Cyzo 2011/7/18
- ^ Mycomi Journal (November 2011, 7). “Sousuke Takaoka dismisses his agency or "I haven't cut it out from myself"". 2011/7/28Browse.
- ^ Ryo Fukawa Sousuke Takaoka sympathizes? Korean wave-oriented "TV is over" - Jay CastRead August 2011, 7, September 31, 2011
- ^ "Don't look if you don't like the Korean wave" is wrong Writer Reiichiro Fukami analyzes the Fuji turmoil Jay Cast2011/8/17
- ^ Shinchosha "Weekly Shincho" September 2011, 9 issue
- ^ Anti-Korean Demonstration Japanese People's Street Protest Free time 2011/8/21
- ^ a b 8/21 Fuji TV Korean wave push / biased news protest 8000 people demonstration summary,Gadget communication2011/8/21
- ^ August 2011, 23 (Monday) NicoNico News
- ^ [Odaiba Demonstration] 8.21 Fuji TV siege, campaign for normalization of TV broadcasting Sakura H23 / 8/22
- ^ Asahi Shimbun 2011.9.1 Morning edition 37 pages
- ^ 도쿄'반한 류 시위' 1 천명 운집 ‥ "심상 찮다", MBC.2011.8.21
- ^ Minutes of the House of Councilors Information 179th Diet General Affairs Committee No. 3 November 23, 11
- ^ Kim Tae Hee's "Takeshima Remarks" Cancels CM Interview! Storm of Criticism, ZAKZAK February 2012, 2
- ^ Uzbek sex clubs: dark side of'Korean wave' Korean-style brothels mushroom in Tashkent Han Gyore 2006-09-23
- ^ 8000 Korean women'expeditionary prostitution'in the United States JoongAng Daily News 2006-06-21
- ^ [To everyone in the Kanto area Korean drama FAN]
- ^ fifa.com  "it appears not to have been premeditated or intentional"
- ^ Is the impact of the Takeshima issue on the Japanese economy really small? Calmly think about the pros and cons of the rising "Korean sanctions theory", DIAMOND online September 2012, 9
- ^ (36) Will Korean stars disappear due to the Takeshima issue?, Yomiuri Shimbun September 2012, 9
- ^ The truth of the Korean wave star "immigration ban plan" ... Further expansion due to democratic sudden change, ZAKZAK February 2012, 8
- ^ (36) Will Korean stars disappear due to the Takeshima issue?, Yomiuri Shimbun September 2012, 9
- ^ Tired of Korean wave ... Travel cancellations one after another Takeshima problem, change of consciousness due to boom down (3/3), Sankei Biz September 2012, 9
- ^ Korean drama and K-POP disappear due to Takeshima issue !? Hyundai Net September 2012, 9
- ^ There was a tendency to avoid Japanese speech and Korean wave coverage JPNEWS September 2012, 9
- ^ Canceling the Japanese-Korean wave, Hankook Ilbo September 2012, 9
- ^ Tired of Korean wave ... Travel cancellations one after another Takeshima problem, change of consciousness due to boom down (1/3) Sankei Biz September 2012, 9
- ^ Tired of Korean wave ... Travel cancellations one after another Takeshima problem, change of consciousness due to boom down (2/3) Sankei Biz September 2012, 9
- ^ NHK "The territorial dispute did not affect" Red and white "Korea zero" reason revealed J-CAST News September 2012, 11
- ^ Unexpected participation of 4 groups in the red and white song battle, "Korean wave annihilation" = Korea Searchina July 2012, 11
- ^ https://www.menscyzo.com/2012/02/post_3521.html
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo January 2012, 01 31:10 "T-ARA explodes with dissatisfaction" I never take a rest in a year ""
- ^ K-style "Back dancers of the" 88 won generation "hidden behind the K-POP boom" July 2012, 07 06:17
- ^ "Korean wave" fraud assistance suspect arrested gang leader, Metropolitan Police Department 2012/11/06 23:57 [Kyodo News]
- ^ "Sumiyoshi-kai group leader arrested for private equity fraud case of" Winter Sonata "event planning company" Sankei Shimbun November 11 (Wednesday)
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo January 2015, 01 14:09 Korean entertainers and other 12 people reveal undeclared overseas property in the 44 billion won range
- ^ Questioning the “Korean wave boom” in the home country. The Japanese market “one-sided dependence” is highlighted. Sankei Shimbun 2012.5.12 10:27
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2011/05/30 "2PM in Girls' Generation, why idols are expanding overseas ..."
- ^ Yonhap News (2011/11/01 14:39 KST) 182 million people in 330 overseas Korean fan clubs
- ^ JETOR Report 8p  Article of JoongAng Ilbo quoted  "The moderator, Tak Jae-hoon, said," 70 Asian fans participated in the Golden Disc popularity poll. " 』\
- ^ Chosun Ilbo January 2010, 1 [Column] "Korean wave stars are too cheeky"
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2014/03/20 10:26 Chinese fan protest advertisement in "Korean drama lovers have low education" paper
- ^ Reuters News August 2013, 08 10:13 JST Angle: The secret of the popularity of "Korean wave" in cosmetics and the rapid growth of the Chinese market August 23, 2013 08:10 JST
- ^ "The Chinese media has a" Korean decree "?Mosaic for Korean starsAsahi Shimbun. (April 2016, 11)
- ^ "China fully applies the" Korean decree "... Jun Ji Hyun's drama, Song Joong Ki's advertisement is also" prohibited "(1)"JoongAng Ilbo Japanese version. (March 2016, 11)
- ^ "China shoots Lotte in retaliation for THAAD or shuts out Korean stars with" Korean ban ""Sankei News. (March 2016, 12)
- ^ Hakuhodo Global HABIT Survey Comparison of Japanese / Korean / Western Content Acceptability in 10 Asian Cities
- ^ Oh Seung-ho (June 2015, 6). “From“ Korean wave ”to“ dislike Korea ”spoken by the director of the World Korean Wave Society” The “Korean wave boom” that has spread from Japan to the world now. Nikkei Business.
- ^ Sekai Nippo (Korean) “Korean wave did not exist from the beginning
- ^ "Korean Wave, in the Center of World Culture" June 2006, 06 29:11 JoongAng Ilbo / JoongAng Ilbo Japanese version 
- ^ Integrated News JYP Entertainment to withdraw from US corporation
- ^ Wonder Girls video, suppressed overseas famous singers, the number of views is YouTube 1st July 2009, 07 17:09
- ^ "[Korean wave now ②] To the American Korean wave opened by BTS and to Europe”. Sports Soul. 2019/11/28Browse.
- ^ "BTS selected as "Most memorable moment in the last 10 years" by US music magazine”. KBS. 2019/11/28Browse.
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo <Interview Diary> 41% of French people "I don't know what kind of country Korea is" January 2009, 01 12:09
- ^ a b JoongAng Ilbo May 2011, 05 23:10 Jang Geum to KARA as a girl ... "Thank you, Korean wave"
- ^ a b c Chosun Ilbo 2011/05/03 "K-POP: Signs of a boom in Europe, including demonstrations calling for" extension of performances ""
- ^ 93% of French and Korean fans "I want to go to Korea" Dong-A Ilbo 2012/04/04
- ^ 2012/6/17 Chosun Ilbo K-POP: "June 2011, 6" that rewrote history
- ^ Korean wave at "Japan Expo" ... Japanese people complain
- ^ Korean anime and manga culture is dangerous at "Japan Expo"
- ^ Toa Nippo 2011-07-11 14: 45: 43  "야마다 가 방송 에서 주장한 내용 에 대해 한국 콘텐츠 진흥원 관계자 는" 재팬 엑스포 에 마련한 전시관 에선 한국 만화 관련 컨텐츠 정보 만 전시 했다 "며" 한류 드라마, K-POP 을 소개 했다는 주장 은 사실 무근 "이라고 반박 했다. 이 관계자 는 "타이틀 이 재팬 엑스포 로 돼 있지만 이 행사 는 만화, 애니메이션 컨텐츠 를 주로 소개 하는 전시회" 라며 "일본 측 에서 사실 을 왜곡 하고 과장 한 것" 이라고 덧붙였다. "
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo "French, Japanese enthusiasts decrease and Korean wave emerges" June 2011, 06 14:11
- ^ a b JoongAng Ilbo June 2011, 06 10:08 K-POP idol enters Paris ... Korean song echoing at De Paris Airport
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2011/05/09 "Korean Cultural Event at the Espace Champele Trade Fair in the 17th Arrondissement of Paris, France" Correspondent Kim Hong-soo, Paris
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2011/05/03 "K-POP: Signs of boom in Europe, including demonstrations calling for" extension of performances "
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo May 2011, 05 02 K-POP fans request additional performances in central Paris
- ^ K-POP 부터 만화 까지!… 식지 않는 프랑스 한류 (From K-POP to anime! ... Uncool French Korean Wave)
- ^ Girls' Generation Sooyoung, "Happy Birthday!" From 1 fans Finance and Economics Newspaper 2012-02-10
- ^ 
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2011/04/21 "Korean wave boom in France, about 200 out of more than 50 members of the K-POP club come to Korea"
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo "The unstoppable Korean wave boom, a new coined word" Kore de Kore "appears in France" June 2011, 06 20:11
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo April 2012, 04 23:14 K-POP, not a Korean culture ... Internationalization of popular culture
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo "Korean Wave is the First Example of Culture Spreading Through IT" April 2012, 04 23:17
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo Japanese version "SHINee dyes the Beatles' sanctuary with a chorus of'K-POP'" June 2011, 06 20:11 
- ^ "4minute ・ BEAST and others make London enthusiastic”. JoongAng Ilbo. 2019/11/27Browse.
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo "BEAST ・ 4minute ・ G. NA, popular in London" December 2011, 12 05:15
- ^ Pop coreano y dobles de Justin Bieber en la primera jornada del Salón del Manga 
- ^ JYJ performs in Spain attracts 3 European fans
- ^ KBS Cancels Large-scale K-Pop Performance in Germany 2014-08-28 14:39:24 
- ^ Chosun Ilbo Japanese version 2012/05/14 11:02
- ^ Chosun Ilbo 2012/6/3 "Korean drama heading into Latin America"
- ^ K-POP Night in Japan 2010(Korean Cultural Center)
- ^ [Entertainment] Korean government to support K-POP competitiveness Toitsu Nippou June 2011, 6
- ^ Pop coreano y dobles de Justin Bieber en la primera jornada del Salón del Manga (Korean pop and Justin Bieber double on the first day of Salon del Manga)
- ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun January 2010, 11
- ^ (PDF) p.8
- ^ (PDF) p.10
- ^ (PDF) p.64
- ^ http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/entertainment/tv/watch/20121029-OYT8T00355.htm
- ^ About initiatives related to overseas expansion of content
- ^ "CJ to build arena, dedicated to concert”. NNA. 2019/7/2Browse.
- ^ JoongAng Ilbo April 2012, 04 13:16 Promote construction of the Korean Wave Museum on Yeongjongdo Island, where Incheon International Airport is located
- Yutaka Narita - DentsuChairman.2002 FIFA World CupWas co-sponsored by Japan and South Korea, and promoted the "Korean wave boom" in Japan and Asia.In 30, the Korean government announced that it had been praised for its achievements in actively sponsoring the Korea-Japan Cultural Exchange Program for 2009 years.Order of DiplomaticReceived the "Evolution".
- Masayuki Furuya --Received the "Korean Government Medal with the Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism" in 2009 for contributing to the spread of K-POP.
- K-POP - Korean movie - Korean drama - Korean food
- Saturday wide, Korean wave hour - Dramatic korean wave - Hallyu Premier - Hallyu α - Ajidora!
- Dislike - Fuji TV turmoil in 2011 - Fuji TV protest demonstration
- Nichiryu(Japan)- Huayu(Greater China）
- Korean agate(Taiwanese politician and third generationKaohsiung Mayor.. Political fever that occurred after 2018 is called "Korean wave" because of its surname)