Photograph Akino Miyagi explaining a photo of the protest site of the construction of the new Henoko base = Naha Citizen's Gallery on the 24th
"Return" 50 years photo exhibition with a palette that captures the "everyday" of the base Explaining the work of butterfly researcher Miyagi
If you write the contents roughly
Mr. Miyagi said, "The new helipad in 16 has increased military training both in the air and on the ground, affecting the ecosystem.
At the "Return" 6 Years Photo Exhibition, Okinawa Photo Trajectory, which has been held since the 21st at the Naha Citizen's Gallery on the 50th floor of Palette Kumoji ... → Continue reading
Okinawa Times + Plus
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Ecosystems are dynamic and complex bodies that interact as ecological units.
The word "Ecosystem"1935ToUnited KingdomEcologistArthur TansleyAppears for the first time in the dissertation..However, it was Tansley's colleague who actually coined this word.Roy ClafamIt was (1930).
The origin of the ecosystem
The biological part of the ecosystem is large,Producer,consumer,DecomposerIt is classified into.Plants (producers) take energy from sunlight into the system, and animals use it (consumers).Corpses and excrement are mainly used by microorganisms, and there are organisms that eat them (decomposers).
Through these processes, the energy taken in by the producer is consumed, and the substances that made up the organism are mineralized.They are again incorporated into the food chain starting from plants and microorganisms.thisMaterial cycleThat.
In a certain areaBiology When I saw it, thereAnimal,plant,FungiIn addition, various creatures inhabit.thisBiological communityBut that kind of combination isn't random, it's similar.EnvironmentIf so, there are some common combinations.
Between themPredationEating,competition,Symbiosis,Parasitic, And various other relationships.Predation-prey relationshipThe flow of energy between living things likeFood chainHowever, in recent years, the food web has been emphasized by emphasizing its complexity.Is often used.
When looking over the food web, there are food webs that start from living things, such as plants, herbivores who eat them, and carnivores who eat them.On the other hand, starting from the bodies and emissions of living thingsmicroorganismThere is a food web that takes advantage of this and is also used by other creatures.The former is called the grazing food web and the latter is called the detrital food web.In reality, the two are connected in places and are not completely independent.
It can be seen that in both food webs, energy travels through multiple stages of organisms, starting from photosynthesis by plants.These are called producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers or primary decomposers, secondary decomposers, and such stages are called (trophic level)..
Usually, a group of organisms in an ecosystem has a well-balanced relationship with other organisms and the environment.New environmental factorsSpeciesIt is possible that the introduction of such substances will cause significant changes, causing the collapse of ecosystems and the extinction of native species.
On the contrary, it lives in an extreme environment.Bacteria,ArchaeaThe ecosystem in which they live can be very simple due to the small number of species that can adapt to the situation.Desul Foldis Audax Wiartor (""Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviatorThe bacterium ") is said to have a complete ecosystem with this one species.
Material cycle and energy flow
Substances in the ecosystem are thought to circulate in various ways.
Looking at the individual elements, in such a relationship, there is a large cycle in which the biological cycle moves through the food chain and decomposition, and at one time returns to the organism via the abiotic environment. ..
thiscarbonIf you look mainly atphotosynthesisThe organic matter produced in the above moves through the predator-prey relationship, and also flows to the decomposer through animal and plant remains and excrement.In addition, organic matter is emitted as carbon dioxide by the respiration of individual organisms, part of it is used for photosynthesis, and part of it escapes to the atmosphere or dissolves in water.These are called the carbon cycle.
When considering mainly nitrogen and sulfur, there is a circulation that is slightly different from carbon.In particular, nitrogen is an essential element for protein materials for living organisms.Animals excrete inorganic nitrogen due to their low nitrogen assimilation capacity.Plants can absorb inorganic nitrogen and synthesize organic nitrogen compounds.Therefore, animals rely on plant-synthesized organic nitrogen compounds.There is a large amount of gaseous nitrogen in the atmosphere, but organisms can hardly use it,LightningIt can be used in the form of ammonia synthesized in such cases, or through the action of microorganisms capable of fixing nitrogen.
Matter circulates in the ecosystem, but energy is flowing.The energy of animal activity depends on what was synthesized by photosynthesis and chemical synthesis of plants and the like.Photosynthesis depends on solar energy, and chemosynthesis depends on the difference in binding energy due to redox.In addition, the energy that drives life activities becomes waste heat and is discarded as the water temperature rises.This energy is stored in water vapor as latent heat and reaches the sky, and when it returns to the liquid phase, it is emitted into outer space as infrared rays.
Ecosystems vary in size from vast forests to small ponds.Each ecosystemDesertIt is often separated by geographical barriers such as mountains, seas and rivers.Alternatively, when separated by such a barrier, it is easy to regard the inside as one unit.These boundaries are not absolute, so ecosystems are mixed.As a result, by changing the perspective of the scale,地球The whole can be seen as one ecosystem, or conversely the lake can be divided into several ecosystems.
In general, different-looking natural environments consider each to be an independent ecosystem.For example, forest ecosystems, river ecosystems,Marine ecosystemAnd so on.Ponds and marshes can be regarded as independent because their outlines are clear, but in reality, many substances flow in and out, and many organisms come and go.It is necessary to think on that premise.
Attempt to build an ecosystem
Ecosystems are ideally only supplied with solar energy from the outside, and can be seen as a mechanism for maintaining the survival of biological communities within it.This is the very mechanism by which humankind survives if we consider humans as members of the crowd.
For example, fantasy, but to other starsSpace travelthink of.Of course, it takes a long time, so you can't bring all the food, water, and air you need in the meantime.A natural way to solve this is to create an ecosystem.Plants grow in the spacecraft, and animals grow by eating them, and some of them are used as food, and the processing of excrement etc. is left to them.Despite various unexpected troubles, it was held in Oracle, Arizona from 1991.Biosphere 2", And experiments with such intentions have actually been conducted.However, although it should be possible theoretically, it is quite difficult to construct such a system experimentally, and the balance is often gradually lost.In the cases of failure in these experiments, the amount of activity of microorganisms functioning as decomposers is underestimated, and the oxygen concentration in the closed environment gradually decreases, leading to the termination of the experiment.
However, it is really easy to create such a system unless it is intended to selectively determine the components.For example, put a boiled straw juice in a flask and add a drop of water from the pond.ImmediatelyBacteriaThe species proliferate and the water becomes muddy, but after a week the water becomes clear,ProtozoaIt can be seen that has appeared.If you leave it as it isAlgae,RotiferThe number of species that appear gradually increases, and even if the mouth is closed, these organisms will continue to coexist for a long time.This is a very simple reproduction of the ecosystem.At this time, if the mouth of the bottle is covered with a cotton plug or the like, air can freely flow in and out, so if this is placed in a closed container, a truly isolated system can be obtained.In this case, the greater the amount of air enclosed, the longer the stability tends to be maintained.It is also said that it is due to the fact that it can flexibly accept minute fluctuations inside.
- Shunji Ota "Climate and Food Production: 21st Century Global Environmental Information," Corona Publishing Co., Ltd., 2009.ISBN 9784339066159.