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🤖 | [Cosplay] "Are you sure you want to hold your breath?" The popular layer, Thera Okudera, said "SPY ...

Photo Yor Forger "SPY x FAMILY" / Model: Okudera Thera, Photo: tama

[Cosplay] "Are you sure you want to hold your breath?" The popular layer, Thera Okudera, said "SPY ...

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Many cosplayers also participated in the event, which attracted 2 people in two days.

Participatory event "Nikoni ..." with the theme of "Nico Nico Douga" at Makuhari Messe in Chiba on April 4th and 29th. → Continue reading

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    CosplayAndComic,Anime,GameRefers to the act of acting as a character or character. Lovers of those genresFanCircles gatherComic market,Doujinshi sale eventVarious includingEvents,Also,Visual bandYou can see it at the live venue of. CosplayersCosplayers (cosplayer),layerCalled.

    Cosplay isCostume playComes fromJapanglishBut世界Pass in単 語Is[1],EnglishNotationcosplayIt is,United Kingdom OfOxford english dictionaryAre the English words listed in[Note 1].

    In recent years the meaning has expanded and it has been adopted in specific occupations.uniformAnd those who prefer specific clothing, wear clothes made from imitating that costume or genuine articles, andcharacterSometimes becoming cosplay is called cosplay[3].. However, there is an opinion that it should be limited to cosplay in a narrow sense.[4].


    The beginning of a culture that people disguise

    As the first example of a culture that people disguised and permeated widely even in posterity,ItalyWas bornMasqueradeCan be mentioned. At first, it was a kind of ball, which was held only in the upper class, but later, regardless of statusEuropeIt has penetrated all over the country. In the 16th centuryMasqueradeIt also developed and became established as one of people's entertainment[5].

    また17st centuryOriginallyCelticWas the culture ofHalloweenInEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,IrelandThe custom of disguising around the movie begins to be seen in the literature. That customキ リ ス ト 教Spread within the area,The United States of AmericaAlso in19st centuryAlthough it is transmitted to, the first appearance as a record1911/ToOntarioKingstonIssued inNews (Chinese)Seen at. However,the 1930sUntil Halloween costumes were mainly for children[6].

    JapanThen,Edo PeriodMany people wore costumes when visiting group pilgrimages and popular dances[7].. Also, in the Edo period京都So popularGeishaImpersonating historical figures and characters in storiesGionWhen a familiar customer calls for "desire!" during the course, he is called "Nerimono" who stops and shows a dance related to a role.Fancy dress matrixThere is[8], Like the current cosplay photos, individual costumesUkiyo-eDrawn in and gained popularity[9][Source invalid].

    Prosperity as a costume show

    May 1912, 5 First Award for Record-Costume Costume ShowState of Washington"Masquerade (Masquarede Ball)” is said to have been cosplay by a woman whose name is unknown. What became the subject1908/More drawn from "Mr. Skygack From Mars"American comicsIs the main character, Sky Gac. This report was reported by Tacoma Times, a local newspaper that existed at the time[Note 2][10].

    1939/ThanWorld science fiction competitionThe cosplay competition was not held in the first competition, and it is said that only two people, Forest J. Ackerman and Myrtle R. Douglas, were cosplayers at this time. What was the subjectHerbert George Wells 1933/Written in1936/Sci-Fi work made into a movieThe Shape of Things to Come(In the movieThings to Come.. The Japanese name was "The world will be like this")[11][12]. Cosplay tournament from the 2nd tournamentThe MasquaradeWas called). The winner wasFlash GordonIt was the villain of Emperor Min.

    the 1950sAfter entering the hall, the culture of Halloween began to change, and the custom of wearing costumes began to emerge regardless of adult men or women even if they were not participants in the World Science Fiction Convention.the 1960sWhen you enterComic ConThe predecessor of Academycon (Academy of Comic-Book Fans and Collectors(ACBFC)) will be held. Some cosplayers laterMarvel comicsBecome the editor-in-chief ofRoy ThomasThere was also a figure.

    Second World WarLater, in the Japanese science fiction competition that was strongly influenced by the world science fiction competition held mainly in the United States in Japan, from the end of the 1960sthe 1970sWas already included in the program as a costume show[13][14].. Cosplay at the Japanese science fiction competition is1974/It is said that the show-up was held from the Kyoto convention in Japan[13].

    1978/17th held at Lake Ashi in Kanagawa PrefectureJapan SF competitionAt the fancy dress party of SF critic who was one of the fans at that timeMari Otani,Reiko HikawaThe fantasy circle "Laurelias" made up ofEdgar Rice Burroughsof"Mars secret weapon』(Sougen SF Bunko) Cover illustration (Takeichiro TakebeParticipated in a form imitating[Note 3].. The other participants see the figure and see the animation "Sea TritonIt is said that Triton came to be said to be the first Japanese cosplay because he misunderstood that it was a costume and did not deny it. After that, a cosplay contest was held at the Japanese science fiction competition.[Note 4].

    Appearance of Japanese-made English called "Costume Play"

    Doujinshi sale eventEtc., cosplay is being performed, and manga and animeOutfitWhat came to be called costume play,Comic market(Comiket, Comiket)Yonezawa YoshihiroWas a member of[17].. Yonezawa says that while manga doujinshi and fans of shojo manga were originally dressed as flashy at Comiket, people dressed up as anime characters appeared and gradually increased.[18].

    A manga artist who became a pioneer of cosplay idolsIppongi SavageFrom around 1980 before the professional debutUrusei Yatsura"ofLambMade his own costume, cosplayed at the Comiket venue and attracted attention[Note 5].. Before the cosplay of anime and manga appeared, in Comiket, it was also possible to wear rock costumes that I love, but in 1977, Comiket anime ``Sea TritonA girl dressed in a costume appeared, and attracted attention.Science Ninja Team Gatchaman] Cosplay appeared and gradually spread[13].

    In the Japanese media, anime magazines have begun to pick up cosplay little by little in connection with doujinshi sale events, but the biggest deal isLaportIssue of "Fan load"1980/In the August issue (first issue), the magazine was sweeping Harajuku at the time.Bamboo shootsTwisted and posted a "feature article" that states that the cosplay group "Tominoco" appeared in Harajuku.[19].. "Tominoko" is "Mobile Suit Gundam"ofYuno TominoIt is derived from the director, and the article includes characters from Mobile Suit GundamMobile suit-GundamA photo of people in costumes dancing was posted. Actually, there was no such customs at the time, this was a movie advertising project in the style of news articles.[13].

    However, the following year, February 1981, 2, at the time of "Anime New Century Declaration" (sponsored by Sunrise, Shinjuku Station East Plaza) held before the movie version was released, more than 22 Gundam fans gathered, Some of them voluntarily produced costumes for characters and participated (Nagano Mamoru,Kawamura MariaAnd others were also participating[20]).

    Publishing producerNobuyuki TakahashiIt is,1983/,Akita Shoten"My animeStarted serializing "Costume Play Daisakusen" in ", but the person in chargeTomohiro MachiyamaIn response to the indication that "costume play" is not correct as English, he coined the word "cosplay" and stated that the serial title was "Cosplay Daisakusen".[21][22].. Next day1984/"Weekly Young JumpPublished in the November 1984, 11 issueHisashi EguchiShort stories "Jugoro Show"I am confident only in cosplay (*)" in the work "Amateur Winning Manga Battle"Urusei Yatsura"LambCosplayer said, "* Cosplay → Abbreviation of costume play" is added in the margin.[23], It can be seen that the recognition of the words "costume play" and "cosplay" was increasing around this time.

    1985/To become and,TBSInterviewed Comiket on a TV program and interviewed many cosplayers[13].. On TV, in 1989,TV program"Hanakin Data Land』(TV Asahisystem,1989/ - 1995/), had also announced the cosplay ranking when the anime ranking feature.

    Around 1985, it was popular in the doujinshi world.Captain TsubasaT-shirtExpand from the ease of just remodeling or ordering from a uniform shop.1986/It is said that a group of cosplayers have occurred, and at the same time,FujifilmReleased byIt’s a photo shootThe spread of people has dramatically increased the number of people shooting cosplay[24].

    On the other hand, from around 1988, the number of events where cosplay at coterie magazine sale sites was banned increased due to problems such as congestion, manners, and excessive exposure.[13].

    In the United States,the 1970sIn the second half, the science fiction movie "Star WarsThe popularity of cosplay has made cosplay popular, and at events such as anime conventions that have been held throughout the United States due to the popularity of Japanese anime,Comic,AnimeYou can see the scene as a character. It is called the cosplay name derived from Japanese English, not the traditional masquerade.[25].

    Development in the 1990s

    the 1990sThe cosplay population has increased, and Comiket cosplayers have1991/About 200 people,1994/About 6,000 people,1997/Counted about 8,000 people[13].

    Several events overlap as a background of this. First of all, as a direct background, animation "Neon Genesis EVANGELION』Due to the fashionsub cultureIt is said that the attention has been paid to, and that the term and act of cosplay has spread. The indirect background was the early 1990sVisual KeiBandIt was a boom, and it was especially a sparkX JAPANThe trend is to show off elaborate cosplay by fans, and this tendency is2007/Even after the revival, was able to see a small number, and the same fans continued in the cosplay of other visual bands. Also, the establishment of Halloween in Japan coincides with this period. Since 1997Tokyo DisneylandInHalloween eventAndKawasaki CityInKawasaki HalloweenEvents such as these will pioneer and create opportunities for the culture of costume to take hold.

    From around the same time, commercial capital began to focus on cosplay, and traditionally cosplay costumes were only homemade by cosplayers, but a company that manufactures and sells them as ready-made clothes "Costume Paradise" (currentlyCOSPA) Appeared. This is popular because it maintains a certain level of quality for home-made items whose performance depends on the craftsmanship of the creator, and has established a brand. After the success of COSPA, the market expanded due to the increase in the number of cosplay costume manufacturing companies.

    About the event, until then, there were doujinshi sale events such as Comic Market,Wonder Festival,Japan SF competitionFrom the state that was held as an incidental in etc., the event of cosplay alone is now held. As a form, do cosplayDance musicAnd dance to the anime songCosplay dance partyOr, cosplayers interact with each other and shoot, amateur photographers (Camera boyThere is a photo session to provide a place to shoot.

    The event venue isTokyo fashion town(TFT hall)Ota Ward Industrial PlazaVarious exhibition halls such as (PiO) are used, but in the dance party formatDisco,ク ラ ブEtc. are sometimes used. In addition, Korakuen Yuenchi (currentlyTokyo Dome City Attractions)ButHalloweenCosplay event that started as a costume event foramusement park,Theme parkBut the event has started. Aside from this,"Tokyo Game Show"Or"Character festival","DreamPartyVarious events such as exhibitions that allow for cosplay, etc. are also being held. A uniform coterie magazine sale event and cosplay event called "Costume Cafe" and events limited to cosplay of a specific genre will also be held.

    An information magazine that collects information on doujinshi sale events and cosplay events was released as a doujinshi, and information sites appeared after the spread of the Internet. Mook and magazines specializing in cosplay will also be published from this time[26].

    Cosplay era without definition. Harmfulness of disguise culture

    From the late 1990s, adult goodsMaid,Race queen,Sailor suit,blazerWill be rented and sold asLove hotelAre often seen, or shop assistants wear cosplay costumes to provide servicesCosplay restaurant,Image clubAlso appeared. Also,AV actressAppears wearing anime and game character costumesAdult videosEtc. will also be sold, and it coincides with the time when the definition of cosplay became sexually customary and became stronger.

    Introducing the definition of cosplay

    Due to its historical background, cosplay may be equated with fancy dress, but these days it is considered differently. Unlike witches and zombie makeup, which are commonly used in Halloween costumes, cosplay has a certain theme as a motif. In the case of Halloween, the aim is to make costumes (disguise) that reflect the culture and symbol, but in the case of cosplay, the purpose is to duplicate a specific character of some work as described above. Therefore, when wearing the costume of the character, the character's emotions, facial expressions, and gestures are imitated.

    Also, those who continue these as a continuous hobby areCosplayersIs called. These definitions of cosplay have been reimported overseas, which has contributed to the way of thinking of cosplayers worldwide these days.

    Internet spread and cosplay

    the 2000sAfter that,インターネットWith the spread ofHome PageTo createNet idolTo include the target element. In addition, cosplay photo collection at independent production / coterie levelCD-ROMCreate a photobook,Doujinshi,Doujin softwareAs a result, some cosplayers and cameramen have come to distribute it directly at comic markets or through doujinshi specialty stores.

    In addition, Japan ExpoContent such as Japanese-made anime and games has come to be taken up overseas, and as the years go by, Japan's work has been cultivated overseas.

    The shooting place is not only for various events, but also for individual photo shoots voluntarily sponsored by cosplayers and photographers, and photo shoots may be held in the form of contracts with event companies and model offices.Akihabara OfPedestrian heavenThere are also cases of shooting shop assistants and cosplayers engaged in advertising activities such as cosplay restaurants and various games.

    There are also cases in which a popular cosplayer is appointed as an "official cosplayer" as a publicity staff member for anime and games, and there is also an example in which the name was raised by becoming an official cosplayer even though it was originally unknown. As an official website content, there are also examples of introducing cosplay costumes and linking to mail-order sales.

    Some of them belong to an entertainment office,talent,An actor(AV actressIncluded),Event companion,Race queen,Campaign Girl,Fashion ModelLet's sayモデルWork,Voice actorThere are people who act as etc.,IdolEvents, talent, voice actors, etc.promotion,Gravure picturesThere are cases of cosplaying above, and some profess that cosplay is a hobby.On the contrary, there are cases where a person who has become famous as a cosplayer makes his debut as an idol, a talent, etc. (All band members are cosplayingPsycho le CemuWas formed by gathering famous cosplayersPanache!Cosplayers debuted in the existing idol groupRainbow Color Fantasy-Prism Fantasia, Added cosplayers to the initial membersDempagumi.incAlso seen.

    Social MediaIt's no exaggeration to say that the appearance of “Hiroshi” contributed to the worldwide spread of cosplay, and the culture of posting and sending self-portraits and taken photos by themselves has taken root.

    Cosplay that spreads

    2003/FromTV Aichi(Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.Sponsored byNagoya cityInviting famous cosplayers from all over the world to JapanWorld Cosplay SummitIt came to hold. Cosplay summit2005/Is not only in Nagoya cityAichi ExpoHeld at the venue, onlineLive doorWith the cooperation of (having the world's largest cosplay community site "Cure" under its umbrella),2006/ TheOsuHeld at the summer festival,Ministry of Foreign Affairs-Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIt is getting larger every year as it gets sponsorship.2005/Are six countries in Europe, America and China,2006/FurtherThailand,BrazilBut qualifying is being done.

    In August 2007, costume manufacturing companies and others established the preparatory committee for the non-profit corporation, "Japan Costume Association," and announced that they would formally launch the association within the year after recruiting participating companies. The association holds regular events and contests for the purpose of raising awareness and healthy development of Japanese costume culture.Social MediaIt is said that the site will provide information exchange sites for cosplayers and cosplay fans, maintain the quality of costume products, establish a consumer protection system, conduct market statistics surveys, and carry out PR and cognitive activities.

    on the other hand,Water businessSuch asSex shopEven inthe 2010sIn the latter half of the year, the appearance of anime song bars made it possible to see stores that serve customers while performing cosplay with the characters of anime and game works as the theme, showing the spread of cosplay-related businesses regardless of field. ing.

    As a cosplay magazine, "COSMODE" (In forest), "Dengeki Layers" (Media Works), "CosCure" (Livedoor CureFutabashaThere were many othersPublication depressionDue to the influence of a series of suspended publications, as of 2020, after a variety of circumstances,COSPLAY MODE"()Butfashion magazineIs only sold as.

    Cancellation and scale reduction due to Corona

    the 2020sIn that case, the event was canceled, postponed, or reduced due to the spread of the new coronavirus infection, and the event was canceled by the national and local governments such as Nihonbashi Street Festa, Comic Market 98, Hococos, World Cosplay Summit 2020, and Ikebukuro Halloween Cosplay Festival 2020. Due to the notification, large-scale cosplay events were canceled one after another.Even if the cosplay event is resumed later, the scale has to be reduced by limiting the number of participants and adopting a complete advance sale system.From the perspective of preventing the spread of new coronavirus infections, some venues cannot be rented, and some cosplay events have ended or have been suspended indefinitely.Meanwhile,Nippon TV"Round and round nine nine", The performer cosplays, and the" Daredare? Cosplay Show "that guesses who it is has started, and now"It will be a gourmet chicken race gochi!It became a popular project along with.

    Cosplay in Japan

    In Japan, it is often regarded as a problem to walk in a place unrelated to an event or venue while wearing cosplay because of discipline. Therefore, in Japan, it is a violation of manners to come and go while wearing cosplay, and to change clothes and make up in a place not designated as a changing room, which is prohibited in some events. Too many[27][28].. Also, depending on the venue and the organizer, costumes that expose the skin extremelyMen's-Women's clothingBoth may be banned.

    For crime and safety reasonsModel gun,Imitation sword, Sharp decoration, etc.armsAlthough it is prohibited to bring in something that is reminiscent of, or possession of an imitation sword is permitted, it may be prohibited to remove it. Some sticks[Note 6]In some cases, it is prohibited to bring in things such as long ones. Some events prohibit grotesque expressions such as blood glue and site defects from the perspective of other ordinary people and tourists.

    Generally, the places and trends of cosplay in Japan are roughly classified as follows.

    Doujinshi sale and cosplay event

    Comic marketRepresented byDoujinshi sale eventIn, you can see the participation of cosplayers of all sizes. Therefore, the coterie magazine sale party organizer also participates by creating rules and regulations for the cosplayer side and agreeing accordingly.

    The same applies to rules and conventions at events that mainly consist of cosplay, and similarly, cosplayers must agree to the conventions. In these events, the actionable range and the shootable range are clearly described at the same time, so you can stop by and pass through while wearing cosplay, but be careful as there are areas where shooting is prohibited including self-shooting is necessary.

    Personally sponsored cosplay event

    The personal sponsorship is an event mainly held by clearly setting the work that the cosplayer is the subject of, and recruiting people who are lovers of the work and who can cosplay the same work.Combined eventIs called. Depending on the event, there may be events where each character of the work is restricted so that participants do not suffer, or there are events where only the same character gathers. It is an event format that is increasing due to the spread of SNS. It has the side of a fan meeting or a social gathering, and the organizer will set the place to hold the event and calculate the cost of the event. In many cases, the photographers are procured from the contacts of the cosplayers as they are accompanied by shooting. Eventually with cosplayers who participate in personally sponsored eventsDutch treatBe done. Since it is sponsored by an individual, rules and regulations are often based on the place of use.

    Cosplay in a shooting studio

    Depending on the cosplayerStudioThere are also cases where cosplay is performed using. In the past, many studios prohibited shooting in cosplay, but in recent years the studio side has become more tolerant due to increased demand, and more studios are allowed to shoot in cosplay. There are also studios that claim to be dedicated to cosplay. Basically, it is a shared studio, and unless it is a private studio, multiple individuals and groups use the same studio. Most of the cosplay studios are divided into booths, and there are backgrounds and furniture that match various motif works.

    Cosplay using public places and private land

    In some cases, the cosplayers or individuals use a public place or a private land to shoot. In this case, it is necessary to obtain a license from the municipality or individual who owns the land or house.[Note 7].. Depending on the place of use, there are associated charges. In addition, it is a manner that it is necessary to give consideration to cosplay at facilities where general customers may enter.

    Outdoor type as a typical example as a result of neglecting manners and behavior problemsMuseumIsMuseum Meiji VillageThe action taken in the place became a problem, and it regulated the subsequent cosplay shooting[29],Chiba Prefectural Boso NomuraThere is also a case where it has been temporarily developed into a ban on cosplay like[30][31].

    Relationship with the law

    The unique costumes that represent the originalCopyright lawSubject to protection, but within the scope of private useDuplication rightsNoRight to adaptIt is said that it can be used without permission by the right holder due to the restrictions of[32].. In addition, when making cosplay costumes for the purpose of commercial acts without the permission of the right holder,Trademark law,Unfair Competition Prevention LawMay be in conflict with[32].

    Military uniformOrSDFAbout uniformsLight crime lawThere are also events that are prohibited because they violate Article XNUMX-XNUMX.

    In addition, Steal,Portrait rightIn order to prevent infringement, there are events that require participation registration on the day of the event or in the form of advance application, and some organizers may set restrictions on special cameras, lenses, and shooting equipment.[27][28].

    Cosplay around the world

    WesternStarting countries,East AsiaIn countries South Korea-Chugoku-Taiwan-Hong Kong-Southeast AsiaThe number of people performing cosplay in various countries is increasing.

    Some of the qualifying venues in various countries such as the World Cosplay Summit are so exciting that even Japanese people can't imagine.[33].. There is a big difference in the image of cosplay, where the image of Japanese cosplay is "what otaku do" and the image of cosplay in all the countries of the world is "It's best to make a noise with everyone" Have an opinion[33].

    In other countries, there is a strong tendency to be seen as a "new culture originating from Japan" due to the influence of anime works and cosplayers participating in Japan Expo, but depending on the work that is the motif, the blood and character of the character may be damaged. The expression of may be regarded as a problem. It may also be the subject of discriminating thoughts on different cultures of other countries. VariousAnime conventionThen.American comicsAnd "Star Trek], [Star WarsNot only works from your own country like Japan, but also costumes that originated in Japan are cosplayed.ItalyThe ancient city ofLuccaThe oldest "Lucca Manga & Game Festival" in Europe, which started in 1966.it: Lucca Comics & Games)” is being cosplayed[34].

    In China, cosplay by those who love Japanese manga and anime (cosplay) Is performed. The Chinese government, every year, organizes a national competition of cosplay events, the Kakuiro Kaenka (Cosplay Carnival), in consideration of crisis awareness and business opportunities. In China, there is a culture in which costumes are disguised and played with various themes,cosplayMeans forming a club and having a few people dress up as characters and perform a skit. Doujinshi spot sale events and events are held in Taiwan and South Korea, and cosplay of Japanese works is also held.

    Cosplay classification

    Since the purpose is to "become a character," the categories of manga, anime, games, etc. also match the categories of cosplay. There are also things derived from the aspect of "cosplay for showing." You can also see cosplays of organizations and companies with specific occupations and unique uniforms.


    In addition to the costumes that individually reproduce the costumes and belongings of the characters in each work, there are also costumes that reproduce the uniforms of the school to which the characters attend and the organization to which they belong, rather than the costumes of specific characters.

    More informations

    Wearing a mask and cosplay costume imitating an anime character
    Wearing costumes such as robots and animal characters, or wearing special effects hero suits

    Tools used for cosplay

    Off-the-shelf items that imitate the character, handmade, orMade-to-order, Diversion/modification of general-purpose products.
    Character'sHair color,HairstyleUsed to reproduce. There are two methods, one is to use your own hair and the other is to hide all your hair in the wig.
    bustWhen dressing as a character of different size, or as a woman or a manchestUsed to increase or decrease the size of.

    Some of these are listed here, and there are various methods for expressing characters.


    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ Concise Oxford English Dictionary"Cosplay" was recorded in the 2008 version[2]. "movies,Our,Video gamesEspecially ofJapanThe practice of dressing up as a character in the manga and anime genres."
    2. ^ In addition, "Mr. Skygack From Mars"Extraterrestrial lifeIt is said to be the first comic work on the subject.
    3. ^ Mari Kotani wasn't the only cosplayer at the tournament,GainaxThe director, Yasuhiro Takeda, also wrote a science fiction movie "Star WarsHe said he was dressed as a character[15].
    4. ^ A program called "Costume Contest" was held at the 1980th Japan Science Fiction Convention in 19. 『Superman''Girl taking time''Astro boy''Resurrection day] Appeared[16].
    5. ^ As a result of this, he has appeared in the gravure of anime and manga magazines and has published a photo book.
    6. ^ At some eventsSelfie stickThere are some places that prohibit the use of.
    7. ^ In some public places, special permission is not required for cosplay unless it is used for commercial purposes or commercial use.In that case, measures such as those described in the terms of use of the operated site etc. Has been.


    1. ^ Daijisen Second Edition [Cosplay]
    2. ^ Web versionoxford dictionaries-cosplay
    3. ^ Mitamura 2008, p. 4.
    4. ^ Sakurai 2009, p. 74.
    5. ^ “The Glamorous And Gruesome History Of The Masquerade Ball”. all that's interesting. (November 2013, 11). https://allthatsinteresting.com/masquerade-ball-history 2020/1/4Browse. 
    6. ^ “From pagan spirits to Wonder Woman: A brief history of the Halloween costume”. CNN(July 2019, 10). https://edition.cnn.com/style/article/history-of-halloween-costumes/index.html 2020/1/4Browse. 
    7. ^ A study on the sandy and fashionable dance and the consciousness of the common people in the late Edo periodNational Institute of Informatics, 1994
    8. ^ Gion NerimonoTanaka Ryoku (local hobby company, 1936) [Page number required]
    9. ^ BatterUkiyo-e search
    10. ^ a b “The Tacoma times. [Volume, May 24, 1912, Image 1 ”]. The Tacoma Times. (May 1912, 5). https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88085187/1912-05-24/ed-1/seq-1/ 2020/1/4Browse. 
    11. ^ "CARAVAN to STARS". David Kyle. (December 2002). http://www.jophan.org/mimosa/m29/kyle.htm 2020/1/4Browse. 
    12. ^ “Meet the Woman Who Invented Cosplay”. Racked.com. (May 2016, 5). https://www.racked.com/2016/5/9/11451408/cosplay-inventor-morojo-myrtle-r-douglas 2020/1/4Browse. 
    13. ^ a b c d e f g Shinomiya 1998, p. 56.
    14. ^ Takeda 2002, p. 102.
    15. ^ Takeda 2002, p. 34.
    16. ^ Sakyo Komatsu"SF seminar of Sakyo Komatsu"Shueisha-Shueisha library,1982/, P31
    17. ^ Shinomiya 1998, p. 55.
    18. ^ "What is Comike, a liberated area of ​​manga and anime? Interview with Mr. Yoshihiro Yonezawa" "Separate volume Treasure Island 358 Take me to Comiket!" Takarajimasha, 1998, p20
    19. ^ Taimatsu Yoshimoto "Chapter XNUMX Formation of Tokusatsu / Anime Fandom and Establishment of Commercial Media" Characteristics and Importance of "Fanroad" "" Origin of Otaku "NTT Publishing, Nov. 2009, 2, p. 17.ISBN 978-4-7571-4209-1. 
    20. ^ Masanobu Komaki "Chapter 1981 New Century Declaration 3/22/1981.2.22 Enthusiasm Cosplay in the Severe Winter" "Mobile Suit Gundam Era XNUMX Anime New Century Declaration"Random House Kodansha, October 2009, 7, pp. 23-26.ISBN 978-4-270-00511-8. 
    21. ^ "President profile”. Deluxe Co., Ltd. 2021/12/17Browse.
    22. ^ "30th Anniversary of COSPLAY”. Studio Hard Co., Ltd. 2021/12/17Browse.
    23. ^ Hisashi Eguchi "Jugoro Show (Action comics)"Futabasha, Nov. 1986, 7, p. 9.ISBN 978-4575930276. 
    24. ^ Toshio Okada Hen "Lecture 1998 Cosplay History" "International Otaku University XNUMX Research Report from the Front Line"Kobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd., October 1998, 7, pp. 30-228.ISBN 4-334-97182-2. 
    25. ^ Horiuchi 2006, pp. 233–234.
    26. ^ Akifumi Masuda "Cosplay/Maniac World" "Separate Volume Treasure Island 358 Take Me to Comiket!" Takarajimasha, 1998
    27. ^ a b Comic market 79 change (cosplay notes) - Wayback machine(For archived March 2010, 12)
    28. ^ a b Akaboo COMIC CITY, Fukuoka Yahoo! JAPAN Dome venue notes example - Wayback machine(Archive for April 2017, 4) Akaboo
    29. ^ About shooting in costumes such as cosplay Meiji village official website, viewed in June 2013
    30. ^ “Don't have enough understanding of the shooting location...” Boso Nomura” Cosplay “Prohibition of shooting” and the museum side have a hard time”. Excitement(July 2018, 2). https://www.excite.co.jp/news/article/Cyzo_201802_post_151800/ 2020/1/4Browse. 
    31. ^ "Boso no Mura" Resuming cosplay reception from April Clarify the rules "Be careful not to cause problematic shooting.". Excitement(July 2018, 3). https://www.excite.co.jp/news/article/Careerconnection_8156/ 2020/1/4Browse. 
    32. ^ a b "Is it allowed to cosplay a special effects hero?”. Legal Security Club (October 2010, 10). 2013/6/28Browse.
    33. ^ a b Sakurai 2009, p. 77.
    34. ^ Lucca Manga & Game Festival - Wayback machine(Archive for June 2012, 6) Media Arts Information Office/Supervised by:Agency for Cultural Affairs


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