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🤖 | "Crayon Shin-chan Mononoke Ninja Jinfuden" opening video released!The famous scene of the original, Shinno ...


Photo "Movie Crayon Shin-chan Mononoke Ninja Chinfuden" Main Visual (C) Yoshito Usui / Futabasha / Shinei / TV Asahi / ADK 2022

"Crayon Shin-chan Mononoke Ninja Jinfuden" The opening video of the main story has been released!The famous scene of the original, Shinno ...

 
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A lively baby's voice echoed from the delivery room, and Hiroshi Young entered the room and said, "Well done!
 

The opening video of the main part of "Movie Crayon Shin-chan Mononoke Ninja Chinpuden" (currently being screened) is ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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birth

birth(Shu-san,alone: birth,British: birth, childbirth) IsPregnant womanからChildIs born, a childchildbirthWhat to do[1][2]. "Birth(Osan) ".

To give birthchildbirth(Bunben, English:delivered) Also called. "Birth" is a more general term and also includes social and cultural aspects.Biologically speaking, delivery (childbirth) isFetusAnimal offemale OfからFetusRefers to or is issued.Approximately 6-8 weeks for the pregnant woman to return to her original condition after childbirthPostpartum period(Sanjokuki) "[3][4].

Terms and concepts related to childbirth

SexAlternatively, when the fetus is fully matured and goes out of the body on average 266 days after fertilization due to the use of assisted reproductive technology such as infertility treatment, it is called term delivery.The time to full term delivery and the maturity at birth vary from species to species.If it is faster than the standard, "Premature birth", And if it is closer to an accident,"abortionIf it is late, it is called "pretermum".

Before or during childbirthAmniotic membraneIt is called "hasui" that the amniotic fluid is torn and the amniotic fluid comes out.After delivery,placentaEtc. will be dischargedAfter birthIt's called (Atozan / Chizan).

If delivery is relatively easy, "light delivery" (easy delivery), and if there are some difficulties, "heavy delivery" (heavy delivery)Difficult labor).Births are light in very small species such as kangaroos, but when the fetus is fully grown and then delivered, such as large herbivores.Human capitallikepelvisIf the bones are well developed, the baby is narrower than the fetus, so if the fetus is large, the delivery will be heavier.The age of first birth among humansPubisIt depends on the state of binding.

Birth in the Edo period

In the record of childbirth in the Edo period, the midwife is referred to as "a person suitable for a midwife".

  • Calm and not stubborn
  • Don't move
  • I'm fine both physically and mentally

Is written[5]..In addition, although there were obstetrician doctors, there were few pregnant women who were too embarrassed to entrust themselves to the doctors because they were all men.Therefore, a guidance book was published so that a midwife alone could deliver safely.[6]..Also as something related to childbirth

  • "Shoulder tatami mat" (a rare tatami mat designed to be held by a pregnant woman during childbirth)[7]
  • "Anjin-san" (powdered medicine used for women's illness and care. There is a real thing in the "Pharmaceutical Museum" (Toyama Prefecture))[8]
  • "Chikaratsuna" (a rope that is stretched on the ceiling and clings to the baby during childbirth. Also known as a rope-making rope (Nawaumitsuna))[9]
  • "Chikuto" (used to cut the umbilical cord)
  • "Sankago" (a lacquered chair that allows pregnant women to sit after giving birth. The real thing is in the "Rakuto Enhokan" (Kyoto Prefecture), which is mainly owned by wealthy people.)[8]

There is.And when I gave birth, I was sitting down.And after giving birth, I had to spend seven days insomnia while sitting (because I was afraid of losing consciousness and dying) because of the myth that "blood should not be on my head".[8].

Biological aspects

Birth is from the mother for the childPhysiologyIt means becoming an independent entity.In the past, the mother supplied nutrition through the placenta, depended on the mother to dispose of the excrement, and exchanged gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide through the placenta.The first thing a child has to do islungInhalation of outside air to.Birth is said to have the meaning of promoting this activity.

Also, fetal red blood cells for receiving oxygen from blood with low oxygen partial pressure in the mother's womb are normal within a few days.Red blood cellIs replaced with.At that time, with the decomposition of red blood cellsjaundiceSymptoms appear.

From the mother's point of view, childbirth妊娠With the end ofParentingIs the start of.Physiologically, with the cessation of the secretion of female hormones released from the placenta, the pregnancy state was released andProlactinIs releasedBreastmilkSecretion is promoted and love for the child is increased (at the same time, aggression to people other than the child is increased).

Social and cultural aspects

In traditional societies, childbirth is thought to be a natural force and is perceived as a congratulatory and extraordinary event.Therefore, by setting up a maternity store (Ubuya) and spending time before and after childbirth there, outsiders, especially men, can approach.tabooThere are customs such as.Birth is considered to be as unclean as menstruation, and there are many societies where purification rituals are performed after childbirth.Preparing for future childbirthGynecologyActivities for childbirth, such as undergoing a medical examination, are "childbirth activities"[10][11]Called.

Human birth

Birth method

Vaginal delivery
The case of being born through the vagina of the mother (mother) is called vaginal delivery.Before the introduction of the technique of cesarean section, all deliveries were vaginal deliveries (transvaginal natural deliveries).childbirthreference).
Planned delivery
Due to the condition of the mother and child, or the hospital's circumstances (for example, the delivery room is too crowded, the obstetrician's manpower is insufficient, etc.), do not wait for labor to come naturally.Labor promoterVaginal delivery may be performed systematically using.It is necessary to attach a delivery monitoring device and pay sufficient attention so that the accelerator is not too effective and does not harm the mother and child.
Natural delivery
1933/In the delivery method devised by a British obstetrician, "Birth is originally a physiological phenomenon, and there is no pain other than physical pain in the uterus and birth canal."不安 緊張Invited and unnecessarypainBased on the idea that it may induce dystocia, we will adopt a method (lead method) to relieve the pain during delivery by letting the mother acquire knowledge about childbirth from the time of pregnancy and remove anxiety.[12]
Caesarean section
With the development of obstetricsCaesarean sectionIt is also possible to deliver by.Delivery at high risk in spontaneous delivery, such as breech birth, cephalopelvic disproportion, placental abruption of the placenta, etc.Placenta previaCaesarean section is applied in such cases.Once delivered by Caesarean section, another Caesarean section is recommended to avoid the risk of uterine rupture due to labor (uterine contractions).However, depending on the situation of the mother and baby, "Vaginal Birth After Cesarean" (VBAC) may be possible.

Labor pain

Labor pain is a regular contraction of the uterus that repeats before giving birth.Also, the pain that the mother feels at that time.Initially, the intervals are long, such as "getting hungry" and "hardening", but as the childbirth progresses, the intervals become shorter, the degree of contraction becomes tighter, and "pain" is recognized.

At the strongest stage, it is commonly described as "the shoji screen is invisible", and pregnant women may panic.There are large individual differences in how they feel.AlsoLamaze method(Lamaze Technique), Etc., it is possible to lighten the feeling to some extent if both mental and physical preparations are made.

If you wish to deliver without feeling any pain, you may choose "painless delivery" with "epidural anesthesia", but not all cases can achieve complete pain relief.

risk

DeliveryPregnant womanIt is a life-threatening act for us.With the development of perinatal medicine, the risk has been significantly reduced,Perinatal mortality rateHas declined significantly in Japan. Japan's perinatal mortality rate in 2007 was 1,000 for every 4.7 live births, the lowest in the world, but it is stillPreeclampsia,Placenta previa,Placenta accreta,Umbilical cordEntrainment, heavy bleeding,HELLP syndrome, (abortion,stillbirth・ ,,AbortionThe risk of the loss of the newborn surrounding childbirth) has not disappeared.

Postpartum bleedingIs the number one cause of maternal death worldwide, most of which occurs in developing countries such as Africa.[13]..Most of the causes of bleeding are uterine two-handed compression (put your hand in the vagina, place your other hand on your abdomen, and press with both hands to pinch the uterus) to directly compress the bleeding point. ,OxytocinIf bleeding cannot be controlled by administration of drugs such asballoon((English edition) Is placed and hemostasis is attempted by compression from the uterus.[13][14].

System in Japan

Lump-sum birth allowance
When an insured person or dependent of the public medical insurance system applies for childbirth, "Lump-sum birth allowanceWill be paid. For childbirth after January 2022, 1, the amount paid will be 1 yen per child, and an additional 408,000 yen will be added if the prescribed requirements are met.
Maternity leave
WorkerAbout childbirth inLabor Standards ActIn Article 65Maternity leave(maternity leaveAlso called) is stipulated.
出産 手 当 金
Health insuranceIf the insured person does not work due to childbirth, the amount calculated by the prescribed amount will be paid to compensate for the income.
Obstetric medical compensation
Childbirth fund loan
Premature baby care
Hospitalized midwifery
Child Welfare ActThe hospitalization midwifery system stipulated in Article 22 is financially difficult despite the need for health care, and if the childbirth costs at hospitals and other facilities cannot be borne, the cost of childbirth will be charged if the person applies. A system to pay at public expense.Delivery will be at a designated institution.Lump-sum birth allowanceCan be received by the person as an expense for childcare.

Birth place

Childbirth at home

It is not impossible to give birth at home if both the pregnant woman and the fetus are doing well, but at present, we cannot find a "midwife" who manages the birth at home.In addition, if there is a high risk of preeclampsia, breech birth, twins, etc. in either mother or baby, hospital delivery is recommended.Home delivery is a high risk, and a medical journal states that "home delivery has three times the neonatal mortality rate compared to hospital and other medical interventions."LancetHas been announced in[15].

Childbirth at a maternity home

MidwiferyIn, the midwife or the midwife who goes to the birthing place such as the home manages the birth.Only low-risk pregnant women.If your condition is getting worse, you need to contact your obstetrician.However, unlike hospitals, midwives who cannot apply advanced medical techniques cannot perform treatments that require urgency on a minute-by-minute basis, and the risk of disability that leaves sequelae for a lifetime is high.

Childbirth at the hospital

In Japan, more than 90% of the people gave birth at home before World War II and during the postwar turmoil, but after the recovery period from the war damage and the high growth period, the number of births at hospitals increased and the number of births increased. By the end of the term, more than 90% of the population began to give birth in hospitals.[16].

Since the 1950s, when the reconstruction from the war disaster began, the number of births in hospitals has increased due to the improvement of medicine and medical technology, economic development, government income, social security expenditure, medical expenses and public expenditure on medical expenses. By the end of the high-growth period, more than 90% of the people gave birth in hospitals, and now 99% of the people give birth in hospitals.[16].. as a result,Maternal mortality rate[17][18],Perinatal mortality rate[19][20][21],Neonatal mortality[22]Has decreased with the progress of the times and has reached the lowest value in history.

There are differences in economic and medical development stages in each country, region, income level, and the world as a whole, and there are differences in maternal mortality, perinatal mortality, and neonatal mortality. Due to the improvement of medicine and medical technology, economic development, government income, social security expenditure, medical expenses and the increase in public expenditure of medical expenses, all of them have decreased with the progress of the times and reached the lowest value in history.[23][24].

Gender birth

A British research team has announced thatbreakfastPull out or lowcalorieWomen who eat a meal are more likely to give birth to a girl, according to a study.Eating a high-calorie diet has a high probability of giving birth to a boy[1]. CurrentPrenatal diagnosisAnd artificial pregnancy techniques are prohibited for the purpose of separating men and women.HoweverPeople's Republic of China-IndiaEtc.AsiaIn the areaNewborn OfGender ratioIs extremely inclined to men, so men and women are separated.

Animal birth

Viviparity (andOvovivipar) All animals have births, but the appearance varies from animal to animal.dogAlso depends on the variety.Larger ones have relatively many dystociaHerbivoreIs.The born childCarnivore OfPredationIt's easy to be a goal, and parentsnestSince it is difficult to grow in a cage, it is necessary to grow larger than a certain amount and be able to escape immediately after birth, and for that purpose it is large.LimbsIt is necessary to have a baby in a well-developed state.Long limbs tend to get in the way of childbirth, which is also a factor in dystocia.AlsoHuman capital TheUpright bipedalTo do内 臓From the need to holdpelvisThe bones are well developed and it is difficult to give birth.FetusMust give birth in a small and immature state.

During childbirth, the fetus usually comes out of the head.This method is rational because it is the easiest to get out of.In rare cases, it may appear in reverse, and thisReciprocal childThat is.Breech births are prone to dystocia.On the contrary, there are some that always come out from behind.Dolphin,A whaleBut that ’s why they ’re水中It depends on giving birth at.In that case, if the head comes out first, the fetus will be in the air at that point.BreatheWill be required.However, if the second half remains in the mother's womb空 気I can't go inside, so I just leave itDrownThe possibility is high.The child who gave birth was helped by her motherwater surfaceGo out and take your first breath.note that,MesozoicMarine reptileIchthyosaurIt is also known that there was an ovoviviparous one, and that the birth was also from the tail.fossilIt has been confirmed from.

footnote

  1. ^ Kojien "Childbirth"
  2. ^ In Japanese, if you add "suru" to "childbirth", you can use it as a predicative verb, but in English, the expression "give birth to" is "give birth to" or "deliver". ..
  3. ^ "Healthy for both mother and child ... How to spend after childbirth | Health Lab for Women Mint +”(Japanese). Health Lab for Women Mint +. 2022/1/17Browse.
  4. ^ "Overview of the puerperal period ―― 22. Women's health problems”(Japanese). MSD Manual Home Edition. 2022/1/17Browse.
  5. ^ Time scoop hunter(NHK General 1ch 11: 30 ~ 0: 00) Broadcast on May 2013, 5 Episode 4 "Protect Life! Miracle Birth Record" Materials appearing in the in-program explanation → "Women's Kotobukigusa" ] (Medical book of the Edo period).
  6. ^ Time scoop hunter(NHK総合1ch 11:30~0:00)2013年5月4日放送分 第5話『守れ命!奇跡の出産記録』番組内説明に登場する資料→1830年『坐婆必研(ざばひっけん)』助産技術が記された産婆のための指導書。(国立国会図書館 所蔵)
  7. ^ Time scoop hunter(NHK General 1ch 11: 30 ~ 0: 00) Broadcast on May 2013, 5 Episode 4 "Protect Life! Miracle Birth Record" Materials appearing in the in-program explanation → "Fuzoku Gaho No. 5" (National Diet Library) From the library collection).
  8. ^ a b c Time scoop hunter(NHK General 1ch 11: 30 ~ 0: 00) Broadcast on May 2013, 5 Episode 4 "Protect Life! Miracle Birth Record" In-program explanation
  9. ^ Time scoop hunter(NHK General 1ch 11: 30 ~ 0: 00) Broadcast on May 2013, 5 Episode 4 "Protect Life! Miracle Birth Record" Materials appearing in the in-program explanation → From "Women's Jusou".
  10. ^ If you don't even know a man, it's dangerous "Production" circumstances: PRESIDENT Online PRESIDENT 2010/3/15
  11. ^ “Production” market A business opportunity for services that support women's bodies Drugstore News Pick-Up Diamond Online 2010/8/12
  12. ^ Britannica International Encyclopedia "Natural Childbirth"
  13. ^ a b "Amazing way to save lives with just one condom”. M3.com (April 2020, 12). 2021/1/14Browse.(Registration required)
  14. ^ "(1) Relaxed bleeding”. Japan Obstetrics and Gynecology Association. 2021/1/14Browse.
  15. ^ "Home delivery triples mortality" Listen to the paper's warning Archived August 2011, 1, at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ a b Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare> Council> Social Security Council> Medical Subcommittee> Welfare Administration Report Example> Page 9> Birth Place
  17. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare> Council> Social Security Council> Medical Subcommittee> Welfare Administration Report Example> Page 35> Annual Transition of Maternal Mortality Rate
  18. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare> Council> Social Security Council> Medical Subcommittee> November 2008> Pages 11-1> Annual changes in maternal mortality rate
  19. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare> Overview of 22 Vital Statistics> Stillbirth rate / perinatal mortality rate
  20. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare> Council> Social Security Council> Medical Subcommittee> Welfare Administration Report Example> Page 37> Annual Changes in Stillbirth Rate
  21. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare> Council> Social Security Council> Medical Subcommittee> November 2008> Page 11> Annual Trends in Perinatal Mortality
  22. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare> Council> Social Security Council> Medical Subcommittee> Welfare Administration Report Example> Page 38> Annual Trend of Neonatal Mortality
  23. ^ WHO> World Health Statistics 2012> Pages 63-83> Cause-specific mortality and morbidity> Maternal mortality ratio
  24. ^ WHO> World Health Statistics 2012> Pages 51-61> Life expectancy and mortality> Stillbirth rate, neonatal mortality rate

References

"Birth in the Edo period"

  • Time scoop hunter(NHK General 1ch 11: 30 ~ 0: 00) Broadcast on May 2013, 5 Excerpt from episode 4 "Protect Life! Miracle Birth Record" in-program explanation

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