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Kyoto language

Kyoto language(Today's words,Kyoto dialectAlso written)京都Used inJapanese dialect.Kyoto language(Kyotogo),Kyoto dialect(Kyotoben), in the old daysKyodanAlso called (Kyodan).Kinki dialectIs a type ofOsaka DialentAt the core of it.hereKyoto CityFocusing on the oldYamashiroTake up the dialect of.Other than YamashiroKyotoFor the dialect ofTamba dialect-Maizuru dialect-Tango dialectSee.

History

KyotoHeianjingWas constructedHeian periodFor over 1000 yearsJapan OfIt is the area where there wasEdo PeriodThe Kyoto dialect has a high prestige and is moderncommon languageIs the mother ofTokyo dialectHas influenced dialects around Japan, including.Even now, in Kyoto, there is a strong pride in their own words, and it is recognized that the Kyoto dialect is not "namari" but "just different" from the common language.[1]..From KyotoJapanese scholarUgaki MinoruHowever, when studying the Kyoto dialect, he said, "From our point of view, it is somewhat unsatisfactory to call the Kyoto dialect a dialect, so I would like to make great efforts from the proud feeling of preserving the tradition of the national language." Are[2].

Kyoto is considered to be a conservative city that values ​​tradition, but the Kyoto dialect continues to change in the ancient metropolis.Heian periodSinceOld languageThere is not much left.Meiji RestorationIt is said that there was a big change before and after, and the typical Kyoto dialects "Dosu", "Yasu" and "Haru" were also used.BakumatsuIt is thought that the word was born in the early Meiji era, and Utagaki states that "the elegance of the Kyoto dialect seems to have been further enhanced during this period."[3].

Currently, common languageKansai common languageAs the conversion (Osaka dialect) progresses, it is the generation born before the middle of the Showa era that uses the Kyoto dialect that seems to be the Kyoto dialect.Flower Street OfGeishaLimited to society.1993/(HeiseiFrom 5 years)1994/In the dialect survey up to (6), 80% of the respondents in their 49.2s answered that they would use "Dosu", while 10% of those in their teens answered that they had never heard of it.[4]..Utagaki1950/(ShowaAs of 25 years), I wrote it down as follows.

The Kyoto dialect-the graceful and graceful Kyoto dialect-is about to disappear in Kyoto.It was the last preservation placeGionEven around that tendency is not visible.
(Somewhat)
Kyoto is also one of the modern cities, and has undergone a transformation after being baptized by the social turmoil after the end of the war.Moreover, on the other hand, the wave of standardization rushed to Kyoto,accentThere are significant changes in vocabulary and vocabulary, leaving only.Old words and the like have little room to survive these changes.Only the very deep-rooted ones are still left. — Minoru Umegaki, “Kokugogaku”, 4th page 26

image

The Kyoto dialect has an image of "elegance" and "feminine".2019/(ReiwaIn the first year), Kyoto Prefecture ranked second in the "prefectures with cute dialects" ranking.[5]Such,21st centuryEven if it becomes, the image is still deep-rooted.On the other hand, Utagaki said, "To be honest, from the perspective of Kyoto people, it seems that Kyoto is generally considered to be a little idealized." Many people think that there is. The charm of Kyoto language may be born from such a place. "[6]..Regarding the image of words with a relaxed and gentle atmosphere, he said, "It must be an image created by associating with the words spoken by Gei Maiko." I can't say that it's rather tight in tone. "[1].

Classification

Japanese scholarMitsuo OkumuraClassifies the dialects of Yamashiro as follows (the characteristics of the dialects used as the criteria for classification and the names and ranges of cities and counties are generally the same.1962/(At that time)[7].

  • Kyoto city (excluding the old county area that was incorporated after the war) --Progress "-teru".The final particles "ze" and "de" are rarely used.Uses the so-called Kyoto dialect (such as "dosu", "osu", and "yasu").
  • Others --There is a progress "-Taru".There are final particles "ze" and "de".Rougher than in Kyoto city.
    • oldAtago-gun(CurrentSakyo WardIwakura-YaseNorthKitaKumogahata)・Otokuni-gun-Uji city-Kuse-gunMost of each --- Kyoto dialect is used a lot.
    • Tsuzuki-gunAnd each western part of Kuse-gun (currentlyYawata,Fushimi WardYodo(Some of them, etc.) ――Kyoto dialect is used a lot.The influence of the Osaka dialect, such as the female final particle "shi" and the adjunct particle "yoteni".
      • Regarding the fact that Yawata is more Osaka-like than Otokuni, Okumura went to and from Kyoto and Osaka before the opening of the railway.Yodogawa(Ujigawa)Kyo KaidoI speculate that it may be the influence of the times when it was used exclusively.[7].
    • With the southern part of Tsuzuki-gunSoraku-gunMost of-Slightly less use of the Kyoto dialect.There is a dear expression "-Raru".
    • oldKuzuno(CurrentUkyo WardNakagawa / Onogo) --Slightly less use of Kyoto dialect.There is a dear expression "-Raru".Influenced by Tamba words such as the reverse particle "Kendo".

In Okumura, the dialect difference between Tango and Taba is not so remarkable compared to that between Tango and Taba.Nantan OfKitakuwata District(EspeciallyKyokubokuHirokawara) said that there are quite a lot of Kyoto dialect tendencies.[7]..According to Utagaki, the influence of the Kyoto dialect is not limited to Nantan.FukuiWakasa-Shiga-MieNorthern (Kita Ise-Iga)NaraThe northern part is also said to be "an intermediate area where older people are closer to the Kyoto dialect and younger people are more Osaka dialect."[8]..According to Shunji Yamamoto,OsakaEven withinMishima district-KitakawachiAlong the Yodo RiverNose TownoldUtagaki VillageIt is said that the influence of Kyoto can be seen in the dialect of[9].

The Kyoto dialect in the center of Kyoto cityphaseIn terms ofKyoto Imperial PalaceWas spoken inKuge language(Gosho language) And spoken in the cityTown language(Machikata language) Can be roughly divided.The former isMuromachi PeriodEarlyFemale officerOriginated from the spoken language of MiyanakaMiyake-Official houseUsed in some areas after the Meiji eraNun ruinsIt is inherited by.The latter can be further subdivided according to the profession and region of the speaker, for example Yuichi Inoguchi.Reiichi HoriiLists the following four[10].

In addition, YaseOhara(OharameSee also) ・Kitashirakawa-Kaohsiung-Katsura・ Oeda etc.[11], There are also dialects peculiar to rural villages in the suburbs.

pronunciation

phonemeThe system is almost the same as the common language, but the consonants are weak and the vowels tend to be pronounced long and politely.[12].

vowel

Continuous vowelThe change of Ai Oi Ui is only seen in a few words such as "Watai → Wate (first person of female)" and "Sakai → Sake (connecting particle)".[13]This is in contrast to Kanto and Tango, where "black → kure" and "bad → wari" occur.In addition, there are changes such as "disappear → keru" and "visible → meru".[14],Retrograde assimilationIt is due to.

The characteristic is that the long and short consciousness of vowels is somewhat ambiguous. Like "school → gakko", "sansho → sansho", "teacher → sense"Long vowelTends to pronounce shortly, especially in the Odan sound[13]..Shortening occurs mainly at the end of the word, but "Miyuki TownThere is also an example of shortening the sound in a word such as "→ Gokomachi".[14].. One-beat nouns are pronounced as "mosquitoes → ka" and "field → noun".AdjunctIt is difficult to lengthen words with or with a descending accent.[13].. Two-beat and three-beat nouns may become longer, such as "Roji-> Roji" and "Last year-> Kyonen", but unlike the case of one-beat nouns, they are limited to specific words.[13].

Examples of other vowel changes are as follows:[14].

  • B → D: Lice → Lice, Carrots → Carrots
  • D → I: Front hanging → Maidare, Habutae → Habutai
  • U → O: Rabbit → Heron, Tanuki → Tanoki, Muromachi → Moroyama

consonant

"Sakai / salmon (connecting particle)-> hakai / hake" "persistent-> hitsukoi" "do not read-> read mahen" "then-> horekara" etc.[s]-[ʃ][H]-[ç]There are many changes, but it is a little like "People → Shito"[ç][ʃ]There is also an example of[13].[z]-[D]-[r]Confusion ([D][z](Almost never) can also occur in Yamashiro, especially in the Minamiyamashiro region, such as "Immediately → Taraima" and "Medetai → Meitai".[D][r]Is often confused[13].[z]-[D]-[r]There was a lot of confusion among old people and school children in Kyoto city, and it was regarded as an educational problem as a wording that the tongue does not turn around.1942/In (Showa 17), "Yomikata dialect correction material for children in Kyoto City" was created.[15].

Examples of other consonant changes are:[14].

  • [s][ʃ]: Salmon → Shake
  • [m][B]: Cicada → Sebi

More informations

When a ya line sound continues to a step sound or a step sound such as "Death → Shinnyoru", "Omiyahan → Onmyahan", "Elderly → Tossori", "Sunday → Nicho", etc. In addition, the ya-line sound may become a yoon with sound repellency and sokuon.In many cases, a nasal sound (na line / ma line) is inserted as a nasal sound, and a sokuon is inserted as a other sound.[16].

accent

The accent of Kyoto dialect is typicalKeihan accentIt is almost common in Keihanshin, but it differs in some expressions (the following is an example)[17]).There are regional differences and generational differences even in Kyoto, for example, "clay" and "Friday" are "ne" in the old city of Kyoto.HmmDo "" KinYeahPronounced "bi", "bi" in Fushimi Ward and Minamiyamashiro regionI"Mondo" "KinyoPronounced "bi"[14]..Also, in the southern part of Kyoto city, "-" is pronounced the same as Osaka and Kobe.[14].

京都OsakaKobeRemarks
-WasAllWas食 べOr official
(Unvoiced and "eat"BetterSome people say "ta")
Even in Kyoto, the pronunciation may be the same as in Osaka and Kobe, centering on low-pitched verbs.
-HasAllI got stuck食 べHa haIt was
(Traditional Kobe dialect does not use "Haru")
mirrorOrGamiKagaBody
OrGami
Or Body
KagaBodyKobe keeps the oldest pronunciation, and even in Kyoto before the end of the Edo period, "KagaIt was "only".
For young people in the 2000s, regardless of region, "Or"Gami" or "ka" There are many "only".

grammar

Unless otherwise noted, the description will be centered on the records of the Showa 20-30s.

verb

Conjugation of verbs is the same as common wordsGodan utilization-Top one step utilization-Lower one step utilization-Utilization of power conversion(Odd)UtilizationThere is a (sa-hen), but there is a tendency for the sa-hen to be in the upper two stages and the upper one stage.[18]..The basic inflection form is as follows[19].

BeforeContinuous usestopUnionAssumptioncommand
Five sections[20](go)The squid-
Iko-[21]
breath-GoGo(Iya)
(if I go)
Go
Lower one step (exit)and-and-OutOut(Derya)
(Tara)
and
Upper one step (wear)tree-tree-WearWear(Kirya)
(When you come)
Ki
K-irregular (coming)tree-
child-
tree-comecome(Kuriya)
(When you come)
Ki
Come
Changedeath-
height-
death-ToTo(Surya)
(if you do)
Shi
Sir
  • When "-ta" and "-te" follow the five-row verb (in modern kana usage, a line and wa line)U sound serviceHowever, it is often shortened except for two syllable words.[22]..In addition, the five-stage verb of Sa lineA sound flightOccurs only when "inserting"[22].
    • Example: Kotara Egana (should I buy it)[22]
    • Example: Nambohara (-) Tanya (how much did you pay)[22]
    • Example: Umbrella holding (putting an umbrella)[22]
  • In addition to the imperative form of the conjugation table, there is a light imperative expression equivalent to "-do" using the conjunctive form.In the female layer, "YoshiHowever, according to Utagaki, it is an expression that spread from Kawahigashi (the area east of Kamogawa) in the late Taisho era, and it is speculated that it may have originally been a word around Yamashina.[23]..Also, in the female class, "-tegoran", which is equivalent to the common word "-tegoran"-ToomiThere is also an instruction expression.
    • Example: Run (Run)
    • Example: Good luck (go fast)[23]
    • Example: See and see (see)
  • As with the common language, "it's raining" like "it's raining"-TeruIs used, but "falls" like "falls"-TakeAlso used (masculine)[24]..In the Minamiyamashiro region, like "falling"-TaruIn addition to using "" continuouslyUjitawara Town,KasagiIn such cases, "get off" like "get off"-evening"use[24]..In Kyoto City, etc., "-taru" indicates the result (Utagaki says "-taru" instead of short sound.[25]), "-Yoru" represents a slight contempt for the agent (masculine)[24]..This derogatory "-yoru" is sometimes used via "te" like "write".[26].
    • Example: It's bad even if it's hot[24](In Ujitawara and Kasagi, it means "doing bad things", and in Kyoto, etc., it means "doing bad things")
  • Auxiliary verb "-Hmm""-Strange"use. In the five-row verb, "-hen" follows the a-dan like "gokahen", and in other cases, it follows the conjunctive form via "ya", but the stem is lengthened without "ya". There is also a subsequent form (as follows)[27]..""-Hin"Is a relatively new form, and in 1949, Uedaki recorded that" the form of Mihin, Kihin, and Shihin appeared among school children in the near future, and they are gaining power one after another. "[27]..In Osaka, the five-stage verb is sometimes used to say "edan + hen" like "go hen", and it is said that a communication gap is likely to occur with Kyoto, which means that "edan + hen" is impossible, but Yamashiro. However, there are areas that use the form of "Edan + Hen" in the usual denial (areas near Osaka Prefecture and various mountainous areas of Kyoto City).[28].
    • Lower one (doesn't appear): Deyahen, Dehen
    • Upper one (not seen): Miyahen, Mihen (rare), Mihin
    • K-irregular (not coming): Kiyahen, Kihen (rare), Kihin
    • Sahen (not): Shiyahen, Seihen, Shihin
  • For wills and solicitations, the five-stage verb extends the negative form (Odan), and the one-stage verb adds "-yo" to the negative form, but it is often said shortly.[29]..It differs from the common language in that the sa verb is "sho (-)" and the ka verb is "ko (-)".[30]..May represent familiar instructions[30]..In the common language, "let's go" may express inference in the same way as "will go", but in Kyoto dialect, inference is expressed only in "imperfective form + yaro" like "go yaro".[30].
    • Example: More than that, I'm burned (I thought I'd come sooner)[30]
    • Example: Quickly (quickly)[30]
  • Possible expressions use the auxiliary verbs "-reru" and "-reru" as in the common language.[31]..In the five-stage verbs, in Osaka, only positive forms such as "go" and "go karehen" have been changed to possible verbs, but in Kyoto, both positive and negative forms such as "go" and "go kehen" are possible verbs. Is migrating to[32]..When expressing the impossible, there is also a way to say "Yo-n".
    • Example: Yoran

Honorific

longImperial PalaceExists and in the palaceGosho languageAlso influenced the words of the common people, and the feudal social stratification progressed in the old urban society.HonorificIs very well developed.This is especially noticeable among females, who always prefer polite language, not just honorifics, and try to use "eat" rather than "eat" and "delicious" rather than "delicious" in their daily lives. The nouns are often given honorific titles like "beans".[33].

  • -stretch: The most representative honorific of Kyoto and its surroundings, "Nasaru" is said to have changed through "Naharu".[34]..In the five-stage verb, it follows the a-dan like "writing", and in the others, it is like "deyaharu (exit)", "kiyaharu (come)", "shiyaharu (do)". Following the conjunctive form via "ya"[35].. "Haru" is a five-row conjugation, but there is no imperative form.[34](Ugaki records that he is a close friend of a man and sometimes says something like "Yes, that's right.")[35].. "-Haru" is also used in various parts of Kansai other than Kyoto, but when compared to Osaka, in addition to the formal differences of "Go Kaharu (Kyoto)" and "Go Haru (Osaka)", Kyoto is better. The usage rate of "-haru" in daily conversation is high (especially for third parties who appear in the topic of conversation), and it is clearly used as a respected word in Osaka, while in Kyoto it is a relative, current, animal It is also used with familiarity to the listener.Polite language-Beautification wordIt is said that it also serves as[36]..For example, in a survey in the 1990s, the ratio of using "-haru" when talking about "father" and "baby" was about 2% for both men and women in Osaka, while in Kyoto "-haru" was used for fathers. 9% of women and 6% of men use "-Haru" for babies, 8% of women and 4% of men use "-Haru".[36].
    • Example: I can get on (you can get on)
  • Naharu: Honorific word for "do". It is also used for command expressions of various verbs in the form of "-nahare" and "-nahai", but "-nahare" is an Osaka-like word and is rarely used in Kyoto.[35].
    • Example: Ansan is Nahatandosuka (did you do it?)[35]
    • Example: Good morning Yes (Welcome early)[35]
    • Example: Don't rely on me (please give me too)[35]
  • Conjunctive form + Yasushi: Honorific expression with higher respect than "Haru". It is used only in and around Kyoto City, such as "Going Yasahen" (doesn't go), but it is used as a command expression in the Yamashiro / Kuchitanba area, and is used as "Good night" and "Good night". I used "Yasu" such as "Come on" and "I'm sorry".挨 拶Words are used more broadly[34]..As an emphasis for confirmation to the other party, "Yasha"
    • Example: Come on, don't come out (I won't come out at all)[35]
    • Example: Come again and come back (please come again)[35]
    • Example: Quickly do it (make it faster)[35]
  • -Toyasu: A variant of "Oiyasu".
    • Example: Healed (Welcome)
  • Conjunctive form +: Not always polite, but an expression with very close emotions.According to Utagaki, from the end of the Edo period, the words "go" and "go" that do not use sound stools were used with "o", and from there the imperfect form like "go". ButReverse intoIt is said that it was done[37].. The particle "na" is added after "o + conjunctive form" to indicate prohibition, or the negative auxiliary verb "-n" + particle "ka" "kai" "kaina" is added to indicate solicitation or order. , Negative auxiliary verb "-n" + auxiliary verb "to" is added to express the condition.[37]..Of the above, "O" can be omitted in the case of prohibition / solicitation / command expression.[37].
    • Example: He said he was very angry when he heard it (he said he was very angry when he heard it).[37]
    • Example: I'm in a hurry too much (because I'm in a hurry too much)[37]
    • Example: Don't go to such a place (Don't go to such a place)[37]
    • Example: Do you walk more (walk faster)?[37]
    • Example: I don't understand if I say it slowly (I don't know if I don't say it slowly)[37]
  • Push:"Is therePolite languageSo, it is equivalent to "Oma" in Osaka.Also attached after the adjective.
    • Example: Nobody (Nobody)
    • Example: It's delicious (it's delicious)
  • Dosu: An assertive polite word used in a wide range from Kuchitanba to Yamashiro, mainly in Kyoto City.[38].. It is said that "de + male" has changed.[39].. The conjugation of "dosu" is similar to the common word "desu", but the word "desho" is not "dosho" but "dossharo".[38].. The pronunciation may change or the "do" may be omitted depending on the surrounding words, such as "kotodosu → kottosu", "hennodosu → hennosu", and "dosunoya → donnya".[40]..Negative form says "Yaohen"[40].. It is an expression that represents the Kyoto dialect, as the saying goes, "Edo Berabo ni Kyo Dosue", but nowadays it is only heard in limited situations such as the elderly and geisha.
    • Example: Where do you want to go (where was it?)[39]
    • Example: How amazing (what is it?)[39]
    • Example: This is what (this is probably)[39]
    • Example: Great[40](It was a big deal)
    • Example: Torehen no Sharoka[40](Can't you get it?)
    • Example: Who is it?[40](Who is it)
    • Example: Dosu[40](how is it)

adjective

  • Conjunctive forms are like "Nago Naru (become longer)", "Oshu Naru (become regrettable)", "Atsushi Naru (become hot)", and "Omo Naru (become heavier)".U sound serviceHowever, those with a stem of i (inflection of shiku) tend to say in the same form as the imperfect form, such as "Oshinaru" (especially when "te" continues).[41].. When "not" continues, the conjunctive form may be the same as the imperfect form except for the use of shiku, and as of 1949, Uedaki points out that "the term for school children has become more prominent in recent years."[41]..The conjunctive form may be shortened, and in particular, the usage of repeating the conjunctive form to emphasize the meaning (Tatami) Is a characteristic of the Kyoto dialect[41].. There are times when we continue to use "ni" in a conjunctive form, such as "Hayo ni Tandota" (I asked for it earlier), but unlike Osaka, we do not continue to use "ni".[41](Okumura points out that it can be seen to some extent in Fushimi and the southwestern part of Yamashiro.[42]).
    • Example: I can't say anything because it's stupid (I can't say anything because it's stupid)[41]
    • Example: Not a little sweet (not sweet at all)[41]
    • Example: sloppy (long and long)[41]
    • Example: I said in detail (I told you in detail)[41]
    • Example: I asked Hayo (I asked early)[41]
    • Example: Clean cleanly (clean beautifully) (Fushimi and the southwestern part of Yamashiro)[42]
  • The imperfective flexion is omitted in the exclamation sentence (Word trunk usage), In the use of shiku, omissions may occur other than exclamation sentences[41].
    • Example: Ah Takayano! (Oh, that's expensive!)[41]
    • Example: Ah Shinki Kusa! (Oh, I want to get angry!)[41]
    • Example: You don't have to come (you don't have to come)[41]
  • The hypothetical form fuses "ba" like "longer → longer / longer", but usually substitutes with words like "longer", "longer", and "longer".[41].
  • I rarely use forms like "long" for guessing, and like verbs, I use "imperfective form + yaro" like "long yaro".[43].

Adjectival verbs and assertions

  • The adjective verb flexion and the assertive auxiliary verb are ","use[42]..The negative form is "no" like "quiet", but avoid the word "no" and often use the form like "quiet".[42].."If you do it" is used for the hypothetical form, but "if" is also used to some extent.[42].. There are times when the adjective verb adnominal form "na" is followed by "ya", such as "Ero-quiet Yana (it's very quiet)".[44].

Particle

  • Case particle"O" "ga"Particle"Ha" is often omitted[45].. The abbreviation of "ga" is not as many as "o" (especially when the subject is inanimate), and when the abbreviation of "ga" occurs, the subject is often lengthened or another particle "non" is often accompanied.[46].
    • Example: reading a book or writing[45]
    • Example: Fire-burning[46]
    • Example: I like red ones[46]
    • Example: Characters-good burns-bad pictures-[45]
  • "OnlyThe usage of "" is broader than the common word, meaning "more than" in addition to the meaning of "other than".[46]Or "is better"[45]But use it. "Shika" is "OtherAlso says[46].
    • Example: Only we know (only I know)[46](Usage used in common language)
    • Example: You are better than me (you are better than me)[46](Usage not said in common language)
    • Example: Only he is good (he is better)[45](Usage not said in common language)
  • Cause / reasonConnection particle"(I.e.""Therefore""Tooth", And" Sakai "is"It's a big deal""Salmon""BrushI often change it to[45], "Hakai" and "Hake" are not as many as "Sake", especially in Minamiyamashiro.[46].. "Sakai / salmon / salmon / salmon" and "yote" are sometimes referred to by adding "ni" to the end.[46].
    • Example: Wait for me to go now (wait for me to go now)[45]
    • Example: Wait for me to go soon (wait for me to go soon)[45]
  • "Definite reverse connection particle"butIs used, but in some of the former Otagi districts and Minamiyamashiro, "" is used.KendoSay[46]..The hypothetical reverse connection is "OnceIs used, but in Kyoto City and its surroundings, ""OnIs also seen quite a bit (do not say "te" like the common language)[46].. "Kate" is also a particle that means "even" and "but".[45].
    • Example: scolded / scolded, kamahen (may be scolded)[46]
    • Example: I don't want to go, eh (you don't have to go)[45]
    • Example: I don't know, I know (I know without saying)[45]
    • Example: Nago-Kate-Mijiko-Kate as you like (long or short as you like)[45]
    • Example: You can do it (I can do it too)[45]
    • Example: It's not too late (it's not too late)[45]
  • Sub particle"Narito" to "As likeIs abbreviated and used to mean the common word "but"[45]..In parallel particles, "YaraOther than using[46], The indefinite particle "Yara" is changed to ",Is often abbreviated as[45]..In addition, the indefinite particle that corresponds to the common word "ka" is "".This"use[46].
    • Example: If you don't want to run, you can do it (even if you run)[45]
    • Example: Drinking with water (I wonder if I should drink with water)[45]
    • Example: Say what you want to say (say whatever you want to say)[45]
    • Example: There are horses and cows (there are horses and cows)[46]
    • Example: Really lie or unknown (I don't really know the lie)[45]
    • Example: Who said where (someone said somewhere)[45]
    • Example: What is it (I wonder if there is something)[45]
  • In doubtFinal particleGenerallyOr"" Is used as a sloppy expression.(In addition, in Nantan, "ke" is a slightly polite expression)[46]..In the Minamiyamashiro region, etc.,(Always use "ya" to lower the accent)[46].
  • The final particles "ze" and "zo" of the announcement are """When"Ze / de" is a little more polite than "zo / do", but it is less used in Kyoto city than other Yamashiro areas.[46]..Also, as a final particle that refutes the doubts and decisions of others, "GanaThere is[45].. afterwards"Yan (ka)Is also used, but when using "Yanka" in the sense of "What is it, that's it", there is a difference in the wording between Kyoto and Osaka.[16].
    • Example: Did you go to Umeda yesterday? (I went to Umeda yesterday, so ...) (In Osaka, it will be "I went to Umeda yesterday")[16].
  • The final particle that corresponds to the common word "yo" is "Huh"When""use[46].. "Wanima" is "goWhen it goes down with "wa" like "wa" and when it goes down with "wa"I'm goingThe former is widely seen not only in Yamashiro but also in Tamba, but the latter is limited to Yamashiro and is more polite and soft.[46].
  • Interposition particlesas"NahIs used most often, and in a slightly polite situation, ""Hey"use[46]..In Kyoto City and its surrounding women, when trying to get the other person's attention strongly, "na" is called "na".NahhhSay[46].. "Nah" and "Nee" are also used as independent words like "Nah, mom"[46].

Conversation skills

Euphemism

When expressing a request or decline, avoid direct language and prefer euphemistic and non-assertive language.For example, when asking "Please give me XX", you may express it as a negative question, such as "○○ Okureya Sashimahenyoroka" (Would you like to give me XX?), Or say that you do not have enough change. When telling the clerk, I indirectly express "I think it's a little short"[47]..Even when declining, by making ambiguous expressions such as "big" and "thinking and truthful", the expression that respects the person who recommended it is given.In addition, a method of making others take the initiative and politely refusing, such as "I do not know unless I ask my husband" is often used.Sometimes I use compliments to make a mess (meaningful), for example, it is said that "Ouchie-Kimono is coming, Kiredosuna" (You are wearing a good kimono, isn't it?) However, it is the kimono that is praised as beautiful, and it is not always said about the person, so do not be pleased easily.[48].

When talking about Kyoto's apocalypse, it is often mentioned that "when you visit another person's house in Kyoto, if the person in that house recommends chazuke (chazuke), it implicitly urges you to go home. It is a custom thatKakugo RakugoPerformance "Kyoto tea pickles"Kitamori KoThe novel "The mystery of the legendary chazuke], Etc., even works with this theme are made.For more informationChazuke #Rite related to ChazukeSee.Expressions based on a climate that dislikes such direct expressions are for those who do not understand the Kyoto dialect.communicationIt is thought that it is difficult to take.

vocabulary

The expressions and vocabulary unique to the Kyoto dialect are as follows (including those common in Kinki). From another part of speech, such as expressing "a child who kneads crap" as "dadako"nounThere are many patterns that create.also,Wife wordsThere are expressions that give honorific titles "o" and "san" to nouns (mainly related to daily life) derived from.alsoOnomatopoeiaIs used a lot, which is one of the factors that make up the sense of rhythm.

noun

  • Ame-san --Candies.Women's language. Do not add "O".[49]
  • Give upHmm - Fried[49]
  • ContactThererice field - Kamaboko.[50][49]
  • Osan --Dhutanga monk. Also known as "Oh no Bo-san". Because the voice chanting "law" can be heard in "oh".[49]
  • HillCho --Mosquito net.[50][49]
  • ContactOrBo-- Pumpkin..It is also called "Kabo" at the site of Daishoji Gate.[50][49]
  • ContactKuDosan- (Kamado).God of Kamado.[49]
  • ContactToNah--back.Baby talk, women's language.[49]
  • recommendIt wasJi, MuEt al.Saki-Soy sauce. "Murasaki" is especially used in restaurants.[50][49]
  • ContactChaや の Banto --Ladybugs.It was often used before the war.[49]
  • ContactOsho-Osho. "Uncle"Old man.[49]
  • ContactOnenothing - Head..Although it is a Gosho word, it is also used by children and women in general.[49]
  • Onemoji- Leek
  • ObanzaThere ――A regular side dish.[49]
  • And --Supper.[50][49]
  • Oyone- Rice[50]
  • Crab here --The first flight of a baby or the flight of a dying person.It is also an adverb that means barely enough.As of 60, many Kyoto citizens in their XNUMXs answered that they did not understand.[49]
  • Tojo-Going to Tokyo.Before going to Tokyo, going to Tokyo was called "eastward", and going to regions other than Kyoto, including Tokyo, was called "downward".Coming to Kyoto is "Kamigyo".

Adjectives / adjective verbs

  • This-Tona-It's sober and elegant.Frugal. A word that contrasts with "Hannari".[49]
  • ZanNo--not sloppy.It's crap.When giving something, he humbly says, "It's not a big deal, but it's easy to use."[49]

副詞

  • HuhHmmBanto-Unfortunately.Thank you.In Uji, Joyo, and Minamiyamashiro, they are also called "enbato" and "engato."In Keihoku, it means "just".[49]
  • TheHmm, hmmIRi --Cheerful and elegant brightness.Bright and soft. "Flower" is made sound-repellent by adding the suffix "ri" to indicate the state. It is often used in the form of "Hanari".[49]
  • TrueIt wasRi ――A smooth mouthfeel.It is also used to describe a person with a profound feeling.[49]

Idiomatic expression

  • Ikenohata ZThereKi-The potato stalk at the edge of the pond. A fancy word for "Ikezu".When the girl is mean to play, she makes a tease and says "Ike no Hata no Zuiki".[49]
  • Well, I'm sorry--Well, enter.In Nishijin, a word that a wholesaler hangs on a trusted middleman.[49]
  • Irimahenka ――Isn't it necessary?Shirakawa: When she sold flowers, she said, "Flowers, Irimahenka", and it is also used by ordinary merchants.[49]
  • come,Okoshi,-Welcome. "-OkoToothAlso called. "Okoshiyasu" is more polite, and the superlative polite word is "Okoshiyashi and Kureyasu".[49]
  • OhCanTo --Thank you.At the Nun monzeki, "Okini" is not used, but "Okini" is used.Thank you"To" is used before and after meals and in replying to greetings.[49]
  • Okibari,-Please do your best.In Gion Hanamachi, when the proprietress tells Geiko, "It's about time to get your husband."ItsIt's about time,I say.[49]
  • Okutabure-sanWhenI did--Gion Hanamachi greetings when I got home after work.Currently, he says, "I'm sorry."[49]
  • deepChi Beppin ――A word that expresses the characteristics of the Kyoto dialect that it is graceful on the surface but has a meaning behind it.[49]
  • Ok-Sandosu-Greetings at the end of the year when preparations for the New Year are busy.On New Year's Eve, it is used to mean "prosperity and above all."Currently, the geisha says on the first day of December 12th (December 13th) in Gion Hanamachi, but it was also used by merchants in Muromachi before.[49]
  • ContactToothCrabs-Used with the meaning of "slowly" when advancing meals to people.Also, when sending people out, it is used with the meaning of "don't do anything".[49]
  • Folding fanThat ――The marriage is almost complete.There is a custom to replace the folding fan before the delivery.[49]
  • OyakaOrI'm sorry to bother you.Greetings to decline.[49]
  • Good night,-Good night.[49]
  • KanninHuh - sorry.Women's language. Also known as "crab", "crab", "crab", and "crab".In Gion, "Kannindose" is often used.[49]
  • sorry,I'm sorry.Excuse me.excuse me.To put it especially politely, "I'm sorry for you."[49]
  • Where do you go ――Greetings to neighbors who go somewhere. Also called "where Ikiya".Those who are hung will return "a little so far" or "a little".[49]
  • who is itSanMosaCanDosu-I'm sorry to hear that.Greetings to the waiting person when he / she returns after his / her turn in the waiting room of the clinic.[49]
  • Quite ――No, no.Words for lightly crying.[49]
  • HashijikaDosuBut-when dealing with customers who are not enough to invite them to the back, they proceed with the cushions by saying "It's close to you" at the front door or the edge.[49]
  • Hadashi-san ――Thank you for your hard work.I say it when I get a little help.[49]

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b Sato ed. (2009), pp. 210-217.
  2. ^ Ugaki (1949), p. 26.
  3. ^ Utagaki (1950), pp. 32-34.
  4. ^ Shinsuke Kishie and Fumiko Inoue "Dynamics of the Kyoto Dialect" 1997, Kinki Dialect Study Group.
  5. ^ "Prefectures" ranking with cute dialects, Goo ranking, updated December 2019, 12, viewed May 12, 2020.
  6. ^ Utagaki (1949), pp. 4-5.
  7. ^ a b c Okumura (1962), pp. 262-267.
  8. ^ Utagaki ed. (1962), p. 14.
  9. ^ Utagaki ed. (1962), p. 428.
  10. ^ Inoguchi and Horii (1992), pp. 289-290.
  11. ^ Inoguchi and Horii (1992), p. 290.
  12. ^ Utagaki ed. (1962), pp. 17-18.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Okumura (1962), pp. 269-273.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Inoguchi and Horii (1992), pp. 302-306.
  15. ^ Utagaki (1949), pp. 131-137.
  16. ^ a b c Matsumaru (2018)
  17. ^ Yukihiko Nakai "Keihan Accent Dictionary", 2002,Diligence Publishing, 52.
  18. ^ Okumura (1962), pp. 275-276.
  19. ^ Utagaki (1949), p. 168.In the source, only the five-row conjugation is abbreviated and written, but here, the stem is supplemented to the five-row conjugation according to other conjugations.
  20. ^ The source is "XNUMXth dan" because of the historical kana orthography.
  21. ^ The source is historical kana usage, which says "go", but it was changed to modern kana usage when quoting.
  22. ^ a b c d e Utagaki (1949), pp. 170-171.
  23. ^ a b Ugaki (1950), p. 34.
  24. ^ a b c d Okumura (1962), pp. 288-289.
  25. ^ Ugaki (1949), p. 177.
  26. ^ Ugaki (1949), p. 179.
  27. ^ a b Utagaki (1949), pp. 185-187.
  28. ^ Okumura (1962), p. 283.
  29. ^ Okumura (1962), p. 285.
  30. ^ a b c d e Utagaki (1949), pp. 183-185.
  31. ^ Okumura (1962), p. 280.
  32. ^ Supervised by Sanada (2018), 150-152
  33. ^ Utagaki (1950), pp. 28-29.
  34. ^ a b c Okumura (1962), pp. 280-283.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i Utagaki (1949), pp. 191-194.
  36. ^ a b Shinsuke Kishie "Framework of dear expression structure in Keihan dialect"Japanese Science", National Institute for Japanese Language, 1998.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h Utagaki (1949), pp. 171-175.
  38. ^ a b Okumura (1962), p. 287.
  39. ^ a b c d Ugaki (1949), p. 190.
  40. ^ a b c d e f Ugaki (1950), p. 32.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Utagaki (1949), pp. 151-165.
  42. ^ a b c d e Okumura (1962), pp. 277-279.
  43. ^ Okumura (1962), p. 286.
  44. ^ Ugaki (1949), p. 166.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Utagaki (1949)
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Okumura (1962), pp. 289-297.
  47. ^ Inoguchi and Horii (1992), p. 296.
  48. ^ Inoguchi and Horii (1992), p. 297.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Horii and Inoguchi (1992)
  50. ^ a b c d e f Kazuo Fudano "Osaka Ben" Honmamon "Course" 2006, Shinchosha, p122

References

  • Minoru Umegaki "Kyoto dialect" Takagiri Shoin, 1949.Old characters Old kana notation, but some notations were changed when quoting.
  • Minoru Umegaki "Kyoto dialect"Kokugogaku", Vol. 4, pp. 26-38, Japanese Language Society, 1950.
  • Minoru Umegaki, "Comprehensive Study of Kinki Dialect," Sanseido, 1962
    • Mitsuo Okumura "Kyoto Dialect" pp. 253-300
  • Akiko Jugaku "Kyoto Dialect of Living" Asahi Shimbun, 1979
  • Kyozo Kimura "Kyoto Dialect Life" Education Publishing Center, 1983
  • Yuichi Inokuchi and Reiichi Horii "Kyoto Word Dictionary" published by Tokyodo, 1992,ISBN-4 490-10305-0
  • Shin Kano "Kyotoba Tamatebako" Uniplan, 1993,ISBN-4 89704-017-5
  • Koji Obuchi, "The Polite, Horrible Human Relations of the Kyoto Language," Shodensha, 2000,ISBN-4 396-61116-1
  • Ryoichi Sato ed. "National dialect dictionary by prefecture with CD" Sanseido, 2009
    • Hiroko Terashima and Yu Furukawa "Kyoto Prefecture"
  • Shinji SanadaSupervised by "Kansai Ben Encyclopedia" Hitsuji Shobo, 2018
    • Masahiro Matsumaru "Overview of Dialects of Kyoto Prefecture" pp. 54-64

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