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🎵 | HappyPeopleParty, new single "Tennoji Rubber Girl" MV released


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HappyPeopleParty, new single "Tennoji Rubber Girl" MV released

 
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The stage of the song is Tennoji, Osaka, so it is also a highlight that members who do not have a Kansai dialect are playing in the Kansai dialect.
 

The music video for the major second single "Tennoji Rubber Girl" released by HappyPeopleParty on December 12nd (Wednesday) ... → Continue reading

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Kinki dialect

Kinki dialect(Kinki Hogen) is mainlyKinki(Osaka,Kyoto,Hyogo,Wakayama,Nara,Shiga,Mie)Japanese dialectIs a general term for.Western Japanese dialectBelong to.First generationからThe early modern periodIt is a central language until the middle termKinaiWords and modern timesKamigata dialectIt is a dialect that draws on the lineage ofTokyo dialect,Metropolitan dialectNext to recognition and influence (Later).

Kansai dialectIt is also called (Kansai dialect), but what is pointed out in "Kansai dialect" and "Kinki dialect" does not always match, for example, vaguely.West JapanThe dialects of the entire region are sometimes collectively called "Kansai dialect".[1].

Overview

Ancient timesThe Kinki region is a lowland in the central part (Nara Basin-Osaka Plain-Kyoto basin) Developed around.中 世Later京都, Since the early modern periodOsakaBecame the largest city and formed a cultural area, and in terms of language, a relatively cohesive dialect area was formed centering on Kyoto and Osaka.Combine the dialects of Kyoto and OsakaKamigata dialect(Kamigata dialect / Kamigata dialect)KeihanAlso say.

Around the Kinki regionShikoku dialectとHokuriku dialectThe Kinki dialect character is well recognized, and the exchange with the Kinki region is particularly active.TokushimaHas a strong influence on language, and Hyogo prefectureAwaji IslandThere is almost no dialect difference between the opposite banks (Awabenreference)[2].Gifu/Aichi dialectHas much in common with the Kinki dialect in terms of grammar and vocabulary,SeinoPart ofaccentIs also a Kinki dialect (Mino dialectreference).Kinki·Shikoku-HokurikuBehind the fact that the dialects have much in common, it used to be easier to travel by sea than by land.Seto Inland Sea,Sea of ​​JapanIt is thought that the words were well propagated along[2].

The main feature of the Kinki dialect is that it pronounces 5 vowels clearly.Keihan accent, Like "Yoyuta (well said)"U sound service, Like "Hayoshi (make it faster)"Continuous typebycommand, Asserted "ya", negative "n" and "hen" combined, represented by "haru"HonorificThe system etc. can be mentioned,grammar,vocabularyThere are many things that are widely common not only in the Kinki region but also in western Japan.However, in central Kinki such as Kyoto and Osaka, the use of "Iru" and the disappearance of Saikoi sound flights, etc.East Japan dialectThere are also elements in common with.

In Kinki, where written language such as stories was developed, there was relatively little change in language, and it was easy to keep old accents.In particular, it is said that the accent has hardly changed since XNUMX years ago.[3].

Dialect division

Various proposals have been proposed for dialect divisions within the Kinki dialect, but while considering the physiographic and cultural conditions,KeihanIt is often divided considering the distance from (Dialect theoryTarget). That is, Keihan and the central part of Kinki surrounding it (within a radius of about 50 km)[5][4]) Has many characteristics that are generally regarded as the Kinki dialect, and the surrounding area away from Keihan (Kitakinki-Kii PeninsulaEtc.), while the difference from other Kinki dialects becomes larger, the old language state is maintained.[2].

HyogoTajima(Tajima dialect) And Kyoto PrefectureTangoWestern (Tango dialect) Is administratively in the Kinki region, but in dialectTokyo accentThere is a big difference, such asChinese dialectare categorized.Also, in the Kii Peninsula, the mountains are particularly steep in the back of Nara prefecture.Yoshino TheLanguage islandFamous as, with few Kinki dialect features[6].. Economic activityWide area broadcastingIn terms ofChukyo areaRegarding Mie Prefecture included inAichiNear the prefectural border withIbigawaThe language boundaries such as accents run in, and it is much closer to the Keihan dialect than Oku-Yoshino, and is included in the Kinki dialect.[7].

Osaka, a major city in the Kinki region,Kobe, Looking at the dialect of Kyoto, the accent is slightly different on the voice (Osaka / Kobe ""Go"I did" and "GoingIt is a difference in grammar that is likely to be a problem.In particular, the differences between Keihan such as "Dosu" and "Dasu" are often contrasted, and the dialect of central Kinki is used.Kyoto languageWith the categoryOsaka DialentThere is also the idea of ​​dividing into spheres (described later).[2].. However, there is a significant difference between Kobe and Keihan in terms of aspect (whether or not there is a distinction between continuation and perfect).[1].

For details of each dialect, see each item individually, and for comparison with the other dialects around it.Comparison table of Japanese dialectsSee.

Subdialect

History

From the retail period to the early modern periodJapan Ofculture-EconomyThe center ofKinaiBecause the retail price was Nara Basin,Heian periodSince then, the dialect of Kyoto has long been regarded as the central language.LanguageIn the Heian period貴族Established based on the Kyoto dialect ofUsed Japanese).JapaneseIt is the only dialect in which literature materials remain continuously from ancient times, and it is the most important dialect for talking about the history of Japanese because it was the center of literary activities.long都In Kyoto, where the dialect was placed, a tendency was formed in which one's dialect was taken as the central language and the dialects of other regions were despised.At the end of the Middle AgesPortugalI came to Japan fromMissionaryAlso,Official houseIt treats the Kyoto dialect (Gosho dialect) as a powerful Japanese that should be modeled (Joan Rodriguez"Japanese Great Literature"Such).

History changesEdo PeriodLate,Edo ShogunateWith the stability of the administrationEdoThe townspeople's culture has matured, and the center of Japanese culture and economyAboveIt was an era when we moved from to Edo (Chemical cultureSee also). With the development of tradesman culture in EdoEdo languageThe status of the Japanese language has improved, and the only situation in Japanese history has occurred in which the two leading dialects of Kamigata and Edo coexist and compete with each other.[Note 1]..With modern KansaiKantoThe dialect confrontation consciousness was formed from this historical background.comic book"Ukiyo bath』(1808 ) Also has a description of the word conflict between Edo and Kamijo (the following are some of them).

"That's what I say. I laugh at the Edo lyrics, butOne hundred peopleWhat is in the song of (Hiyakuninshi). "
"Sole Sole. It's already Hyakunin Isshu. It's not Areha's neck, but Hyakunin Isshu. It's still good. "
"Well, I'm afraid I'm sorry."
"It's not there. It's not a bad word. It's hard to hear. It's the last time to see a play, the idea.[8]) What are you saying, what are you saying, what are you saying, hurray, hurray, and elephant?[9]The man said that he wasn't there, but he wasn't there. "
"That's right. The upper part is also bad. Hikarijin Ssa. What is Hikaru?lightningTo?Otsuda Ne.In Edo, it is said to be scolding.Ai I wouldn't say such a word. "
"Hikaru Gippa. I see. I made a mistake."

Advanced Edo until the middle of the Edo period, when Kamigata dialect was regarded as an authoritative wordsamuraiAnd the liberal arts are said to have imitated Kamigata dialect.After that, as the status of the Edo dialect improved, the way of speaking Kamigata was abolished, but on the other hand, the wording of Kamigata was changed to "the words of the old man" and "the words of the authority".kabuki,PlayEtcStereotypeIt was turned into.This is an old man like "I don't know" or an old-fashioned authority (such as a lord)Role wordIs the origin of (Old manSee also)[10].

The Edo period was also the time when Osaka prospered as a commercial city and became the largest city above Kyoto. Against the background of abundant economic powerUpper cultureIn terms of language, the Osaka dialect became the core of the Kamigata dialect along with the Kyoto dialect, and the conservative Kyoto dialect and the enterprising Osaka dialect became aware of each other.1759 OfFashionable book"Yummy Sushi" also has the following description[11].

A woman who is coming from Kyo these days It ’s warm, and it ’s a song with no words.

Meiji OfTokyo ShrineByStandard language TheTokyo dialect(EspeciallyMountain hand word), And the Kinki dialect has become a local dialect. Although there was a backlash, against standard language education and standard languageNorm awarenessThe Kinki dialect has also come to be influenced by the standard language due to the rise in the number of people.1954 ToTadao UmesaoIs "the second standard language theory"[12](The theory of creating a second Kansai standard language against the "Kanto standard language"), but it was not realized.

Current status

Large speaker populationKeihanshinThe Kinki dialect is still a powerful dialect with the background of its cultural and economic power.Especially the Osaka dialectPerformanceIt is widely recognized throughout Japan through. However, the Osaka dialect used in performing arts may be exaggerated or mixed with a common language so that viewers nationwide can easily understand it.Osaka dialectDifferent from traditional Osaka dialects such asYoshimotoSome people ridicule it as a "valve"[13].

The Kinki dialect is not only well-knowncommon languageAnd may affect local dialects. "together[14]"Shindoi" "Boyaku" "Loose[15]"I'm sick[16]"Complicated" "YankeeA wide range of vocabulary such as "Kanto is incorporated into common words"Fool, KansaiStupidWasTokyoHowever, the majority of people "sound stupid more than stupid"[17].

It is said that the Kinki region has a strong attachment and pride to their dialect because of its high level of recognition and its rivalry with Edo and Tokyo since the early modern period.actual,2000 According to an awareness survey conducted in Osaka, 7% of the words in Tokyo are "dislike" and "dislike", and 9% of the local language are "like" and "like". "[17].. However, as in other regions, common language and Tokyo dialectization are progressing, and young people have common language and Tokyo dialect.Youth wordsThe following speech styles mixed with are the mainstream (1993 In OsakaNeyagawaPart of a conversation between a 20-year-old woman and a 21-year-old woman recorded in[18]).

A: After all, hair, as it isPermI'm wondering if I should hit it or cut it a little short.
B: What if I cut it short?
A: Hmm. That's right. It's not so good in magazines.

In the Kinki region, the Gosho language of Kyoto and the merchant language of Osaka (Osaka dialectAnd Dojima words) and entertainment words (Kansai Kabuki-Bunraku-Kakugo RakugoSuch),PlaygroundWords (KyotoShimabaraAnd Osaka(I.e.Such),Shima Peninsula OfSeamanword,Kii MountainsForestryMountain worshipRelated words,Ise OfLion DanceThere were various wordings such as Kagura words according to rank and occupation.HoweverModernAfter that, especiallyPacific WarLater, diversity has diminished due to major changes in traditional hierarchical societies and lifestyles.The decline of diversity is also occurring between regions, and due to the expansion of the metropolitan area centered on Osaka with the development of the transportation network, "Kansai common language(The so-called Kanto regionMetropolitan dialectIt is being homogenized into a dialect that should be called). For example, the Kyoto dialect and the Osaka dialect, which were conscious of each other and showed a big difference, also have such a clear tendency.Baby boom generationIs being limited to.

Supported by the performing arts cultureBroadcasting stations in the Kinki area OfローカルIn variety shows, performers andannouncerIt is not uncommon for people to talk in dialects, and it is easy to be regarded as a norm for common languages.NHKIs no exception. It is rare in other regions that dialects have a certain range in the public place of the media. On the other hand, due to the strong influence of the media, the dialect spoken on the air also contributes to the homogenization of the Kinki dialect.

2014 IsFacebookOfficially supported the Kansai dialect[19].2019 ,VivaldiAnnounced official support for the Kansai dialect[20].

image

literature-Drama-movies-ComicIn fiction such as, the Kansai dialect with a stereotypical image of Osaka in mind is intense.Role wordIt is often used as a symbol of character differentiation.

Advocate of "Yakuwarigo"Satoshi KinmizuAccording to the report, the Osaka dialect and Kansai dialect in fiction had the property of "affirming and pursuing pleasure and desire" (attachment to money, amorousness, flashiness, etc.).Trick starIt is a symbol that represents the role of the Edo period, and it is said that it originates from the contrast between the idealistic Edo culture and the realist upper culture in the Edo period.[21]..In connection with this imageHigh economic growth periodOr later,Kikuta Kazuoof"The clinging guy] OrFlower boxThe image of "guts" has been established from the fashion of "guts".[21].

From modern times, from OsakaComicAnd entertainment programsradio,tv setThe image of "Kansai dialect = comedy" was strongly established because it became popular all over Japan.[21].. This thingShoichi InoueNegatively points out that "Kansai language is punished by clown phrases."[22].. Also, after the Pacific War, a powerful work set in the Kinki region (Yakuza movieThe Kansai dialect has come to be associated with a violent image such as "violence" due to the epidemic of (such as), the frequent occurrence of violent incidents in the Kinki region, and the overheating reports.[21](Before the war, people from KamigataEdokkoIt was said to be patient, weak, and feminine compared to[21]).

In addition to the stereotypes described above, the Kansai dialect in fiction tends to become an unnatural "similar dialect" due to exaggerated exaggeration and incorrect accents and expressions, making it an object of discomfort and discomfort for people from the Kinki region. Often becomes[23].Kansai UniversityIsamu Kuroda, also in the mass media such as sports newspapers, may use the Kansai dialect arbitrarily to add commonality and reality to the content of the report.[24]On the other hand, it points out that the Kansai dialect is an easy yakuwarigo that represents a "deviation" from "Tokyo-like values" and that it "hurts the culture and people of Kansai."[25].

1980 eraSince then, an image different from the conventional stereotyped image of Osaka has been born.Yoshitaka YamashitaAccording to the report, young people have come to accept it with a positive image such as "mellow," "fashionable," "urban," and "interesting as a talent."[26].. As a factor, KansaicomedianIs becoming more active in Tokyo, and it is broadcast nationwide.Entertainment showsAtComic,ControlIt is possible that there are more opportunities to hear the Kansai dialect as a free talk instead of the words of the fake, and that the number of Kansai talents other than those from Osaka has increased and the recognition of the Kinki region is no longer the only one in Osaka.[26].. In addition, the reasons why people in Tokyo and other countries have become easier to accept the Kansai dialect are that the Kansai dialect has become milder due to the common language, and that the Kansai dialect of talents who are active in Tokyo has become more common. It is said that the appearance of a talent who uses the dialect and the common language properly in TPO can be mentioned.[26].

voice

Kinki dialectphonemeThe system is almost the same as the Tokyo dialect,vowelPolitely long and strong,consonantTends to pronounce weakly and lightly[27].

vowel

Even in the Kinki dialect, there are five types of vowels, ai u e o, but u is pronounced with rounded lips rather than the Tokyo dialect (Rounded back tongue narrow vowelClose to)[27].

Because the vowels are pronounced carefullyDevoiced vowelsIn the Tokyo dialect, for example, the "ki" of "kiku" and the "tsu" of "moon" are devoiced, but in the Kinki dialect, they are all pronounced clearly ("is" in the younger generation of Kinki dialect speakers. There is also a tendency to devoice with "masu" etc.)[27].. Like "Red → Ake", "Amazing → Amazing", "Cold → Samii"DiphthongThe assimilation fusion of Ai Oi Ui does not occur except for a few cases such as "Watai → Wate (first person)" and "Kai → Ke (question / irony final particle)".[27]In some parts of the Kii Peninsula, "A-> E" such as "Polite-> Hey" does not occur.Also in generalnasalThe previous u is easy to nasal like "delicious → nmai", but in the Kinki dialect it is pronounced politely as u.NasalizationIt's difficult to do[28](There is also disagreement[29]).

Vowels become longer in one-beat words, such as "tree → key" and "eyes → mee", and in specific words, "yaito (moxibustion) → yaitoo" "alley → rooji" "last year" Words with one or more beats such as "Kyoonen" and verbs with one stem such as "I want to sleep → Hey" may be lengthened.[27].. On the other handMiyukicho Dori→ Gokomachi-dori (street in Kyoto city) ”“ Let's go to school early → Hayogakoiko ”, the long vowels in and at the end of the word may be shortened.[30].. These phenomena are thought to be due to the ambiguous consciousness of the speaker's vowels.[27].

Depending on the word, vowels often change, such as "moving → Igoku / Inoku", "fox → ketsune", "raccoon dog → raccoon dog", "carrot → carrot", "visible → meeru", but each one It is a word-related problem, not a regular or systematic sound change.

consonant

Consonants are almost the same as the Tokyo dialect, but generally have less friction and burst than the Tokyo dialect.[27].. "Hi" isArticulatory partIs pronounced with a weak sound, unlike the Tokyo dialect (Silent glottic fricativeClose to)[27].. "Ji" and "Zu"Pop soundCan hardly be heard, regardless of the beginning or the middle of the wordFricativeIs (Voiced gum hard palate fricativeandVoiced gum fricative).

Due to weak friction and bursting, consonant corruption, confusion, and omissions often occur. In various parts of the Kinki region (especially Wakayama prefecture), confusion of la line sound, da line sound, and the line sound such as "at all → denden" and "body → kadara / karara" occurs.[27], There is also a small story that ridiculed it, "Yorogawa no Mirunore, Hararaburabya / Hararakurariya (drinking water from the Yodo River, hungry and hungry)"[31].. In addition, the sa line sound is often a specific word, such as "pawn shop → Hichiya", "then → real / hona", "Yamada-san → Yamada Han", "do not → Shimahen", or "Washi → Wai (first person) ”“ Umbrella inserted → Umbrella struck (Sayuki Ionbin) ”[27].. There are many alternations between ma and ba sounds such as "smoke → keburi" and "cold → sabui".[27].. In Nara prefecture, etc., there is also a wa line sound like "Fang → Kiwa".[27].

In the elderly in areas far from urban areas, it is like "Kuwaji (fire)"SoundOld pronunciations such as Kwa Guwa, She Jae such as "Shenshi (teacher)" and "Jeni (sen)" remain.[32].. As a remnant of the nasal sonants in the middle and the end of the word that were performed in medieval Kyoto, there are nasal sonants in the Kii Peninsula and Awaji Island, and nasal sonants in the Kii Peninsula and Ba are in Shima, Mie Prefecture. It remains in a specific word such as "Anbu"[27].Ga line nasal sonantIs heard in a wide area of ​​the Kinki region, but it has weak nasal and bursting properties, and it is not as conscious of nasal sonants as in Tokyo.phonemeMost of the speakers do not take it as[27]..It is declining more than Tokyo,1999 Hyogo prefectureTakasagoAccording to a survey conducted in Japan, the percentage of people who pronounce nasal sonants is 70% in the elderly aged 87-74, while it is 17% in the young aged 20-8.[33].

Other

Prompt / repellent sound
As a fusion change of sounds characteristic of the Kinki dialect, when Aya line sound follows Lee U, "Sunday → Nichoo" "I like it → Sukkyanen" "Katsuo → Kattsuo" There may be a bonito sound such as "lively → Ningyaka" or "drinking → nonmyoru".[34].
Consonant
Since the consonants are weak, the sokuon is not so strong compared to the Tokyo dialect, and there are few sokuon in compound words such as "karakaze" and "kawappuchi".[27].. On the other hand, in the Kinki dialect, there are dakuon and la line sounds that are hard to appear in the Tokyo dialect, such as "Take off → Nugyoru", "Aruzo → Azo", "Railway → Teddo", and "Aruyaro → Aryaro". There are many examples of dakuon in[27].
Sound repellency
Kanto dialectSimilar to the above, the sound repellency of the la line sound in words such as "what do you do → what do you do" and "behind the scenes → okun na hare" is popular.In certain words, "burdock-> gonbo", "ghost-> yuren", "sumo-> sumo", "confectionery-> kashin", etc.RadishThe sound repellency may drop out like "Daikodaki" or "Entrance → Genka". In the Edo period, Edo townspeople sometimes sang a playful song that ridiculed it, "I don't need to attach something that should be attached."[35].

accent

Kinki regionKeihan accentIt is a large sphere of influence. Keihan styleTokyo accentIt is a big factor that impresses the Kinki dialect.

Even if you say Keihan style in a bite, "Subway: ChiOrTetsu / ChikateOneAnd "Tokyo:Tookio(Osaka) / TookiyoContact(Kyoto) ”, there are individual differences and regional differences, and changes are occurring.The change is the most advancedKeihanshinEven though it is a "Keihan style", Wakayama prefecture is far from Keihan.Tanabe CityTraditional pre-modern accents remain in the vicinity and in the Shikoku region.

AdjacentChugokuとTokai regionIs Tokyo style and the difference is clear.Even in the Kinki region, there is a Tokyo-style area in Oku-Yoshino in an isolated form, following Tajima and Tango, following the Chugoku region, and the Keihan-style and Tokyo-style contact areas have a slightly different accent of the Keihan style (Tarui-style accent). Also on the Kii PeninsulaOwase City-Kumano CityVarious accents are scattered around. In such areas, there is little commonality with other Kinki dialects in terms of phonology, such as less lengthening of one beat, devoicing of vowels, and changes in diphthongs.[1].. This is noted as a hint of the relationship between accent and phonology.

Performance

U sound service

In the continuous form of the five-row verbs of Wa line and the continuous form of adjectives, U sound stool is used. The vowels differ depending on the vowels at the end of the stem as follows.

  1. End of stem a --- Change a to o to lengthen the sound. (Example) Koota (bought) Akoota (not red)
  2. End of stem i --- i is changed to yu to make it longer. (Example) Yutoru (saying) Fun (not fun)
  3. End of stem u --Long vowel as it is. (Example) Kuuta (eaten) Thin (thin)
  4. End of stem o --Long vowel as it is. (Example) Mainly (I thought) Mainly (heavier)

Historically, these vowel alternations were established by the following diphthong fusion.

  1. au → oː (Example) akaku → akau → akoː
  2. iu → yuː (Example) tanosiku → tanosiu → tanosyuː
  3. uu → uː (Example) usuku → usuu → usuː
  4. ou → oː (Example) omoku → omoo → omoː

The above is common to Western Japanese dialects except Sanin, but as will be described later, these have changed further in the Kinki dialect since modern times.

verb

Some of the inflected forms that have become obsolete in the Tokyo dialect remain. In the Kanto region, "getting bored," "borrowing," "shumming," "sufficient," and "hanging" were used even more in the early modern period, but in many Kinki dialects even after the Meiji era.Godan utilizationIt was kept as it was (eg, I borrowed a book at the library ← → I borrowed a book at the library). "Die" and "Dog" to the elderly in each regionNa row transformation useHowever, on the Kii Peninsula, such as "falling" and "seeing"Upper two steps-Lower two-stage utilizationRemains, and in Shiga prefecture, "kick"Lower one step utilizationThere is a remnant of[36].. On the other hand, there is a tendency in various places (especially the Kii Peninsula) to use one-row conjugations such as "see" and "sleep", and in Okuyoshino and other places, it seems like "see" and "come". So-calledEasy wordsWas established earlier than in Tokyo[36].

As mentioned above, U-on stool occurs in the continuous form of the five-row conjugation of Awa line, but in the case of three syllable words and "eat", "waroota → worota (laughs)" and "kuute → kute (eat)" It is easy for syllables to fall off. It's not a sound flight, but even if you "have" and "go", you "brought (brought)" "Come on(Go, do it.) ”, The prompting stool may drop out. In the continuous use of the five-row conjugation, a sound flight such as "Hanate (speaking)" occurs, and special sound changes such as "Hanate → Hanase" are scattered in various places such as Shiga Prefecture. , In the central part of Kinki, it is rare except for "Umbrella"[27].. In addition, to Shima and Okuyoshino, there are moth-repellent stools such as "I swam" and Ma-ba stools such as "Oda (drinked)" and "Asooda (played)". There is[36].

adjective

U-on stools also occur in the continuous form of adjectives, but in the Kinki dialect, U-on stools are often shortened, such as "Akonai" and "Omonaru". In Keihan, those with the stem end of i are predominantly in the form of straightening the yoon, such as "not having fun" or "not having fun", and the original form is the word for the elderly.[37].. After the war, the conjugation was further simplified, and there was a tendency to unify with stem forms such as "Akoonai → Akanai" and "Eat and growl → Eater", and "No black" and "Red". There is also a tendency to make it useless[36].. Also, when following "te (mo)", there are more shapes like "red (mo)" than "akoote (mo)" due to the influence of the hypothetical expression "continuous form + cod".[38].

In the Kinki dialect, "ni" is sometimes added to the continuous form, such as "become hard" and "say goodbye", which is especially popular in Osaka and Kobe.[39].. In addition, we rarely use the continuous use discontinuation method such as "winter cold and summer hot", and almost always accompany "te" such as "winter summer and summer hot".

Adjective verb

It is almost the same as the Tokyo dialect except that the inflected ending is "ya" (also called "ja" or "da" in the surrounding area and the elderly), but it is an adnominal form such as "mamenaya (master)" in various places. There is a secondary terminal form resulting from[36]..In addition, "Kireiya" is sometimes used as an adjective such as "Kirei" or "Kireihana", and its use in the younger generation has already been recorded in the 30's.[36].

Existence verb

When expressing the existence of people and living things, in eastern Japan, "To haveIn western Japan,OruHowever, in Keihan and Shiga prefectures, "Iru" is a neutral or higher expression, and "Oru" is a slightly crude expression ("Ori" and "Oru").[40](Except when used in the form of "), use both properly. "Iru" multiplied by the progressive tense "I'm going-I take, And "Iteru" is often used especially in Osaka. In some parts of the Kii Peninsula, the classical grammar is used as it is, such as "There is no teacher. Oh, there is no teacher. Oh, there is there."[41].

The polite word for "aru" is changed to "go"OsuWas used in a wide area of ​​the Kinki region centered on Osaka. In Kyoto etc., the change of "Ohasu"Push, At Osaka Senba, the change of "Gozari"Twist-Tomorrow"And. The usage is the same as "Are", and it is used to express a polite assertion by attaching "de" such as "honma masu", or to connect to an adjective continuous form such as "yoroshuomasu". The negative forms are "Omahen", "Ohen", and "Gowahen / Owahen", respectively.

Asserted

The assertive expression of the normal body is ",Is used.MuromachiSince then, the variant "de" of "da" has changed to "ja", and since the latter half of the Edo period, it has changed to "ya" ("da" in the Kanto region has also changed to "de"). "Ya" has been replaced by "Ya"See youIs also used only in the final form when the tone is strong, such as taunting (Example: What a look!). As an inflected form that "da" does not have, the past canceled form that is close to "da"do it(Example: I had a hard time when I was young because my parents were poor). In the common language, "da" is also used at the beginning of a sentence, such as "because", "but", and "if it is", but it is not common to use "ya" at the beginning of a sentence (example: ○ soyasakai × yasakai). Being attracted to "ya", "ya" (eg, I don't know, but something), final particle "ya", "yan (ka)" (egLater), Etc., there is a tendency to use "ya" a lot in the Kinki dialect.

If you want to follow the word "ya", you can use "no" to "no".The Ya(Example: Going). Just "Hmm""Neya""Nya"And so on. As for the connection with "ya", "noya" is "nanoya" (example: real), and "neya" is "neya".Yaneya"(Example: Really Neya). Unlike the common word "noda-da", it can also be connected to a respected body (example: ○ go or ← → × go)[42].. "Nen", which will be described later, is a further change of "Naya".

The expression (cancellation of the word) that is paired with "ya" is "No(Or)"When"Different from(Or) ”. Regarding "Yanai (ka)", it is sometimes understood as "ya" + "no (ka)", but to be exact, it is a transition of "not (ka)". To emphasize irony, "Is there anyThere is. Regarding "different (ka)", the terminal form / adnominal form and the continuous form following "masu" are "Chau""ChaI often fall. Omission of "to" also occurs frequently.recent years[When?]Then young people[When?]In some cases, "different" is used adjectively, such as "was different" and "different" (the original form is "chigo" and "chigo").

For a polite assertive expression, "Start"Or"DosuIs used. "Dasu" is an expression that extends from Harima to the northern part of Nara prefecture and Iga, centering on Osaka, and "Dosu" is an expression that extends from eastern Tanba to Shiga prefecture and Wakasa centering on Kyoto. BothBakumatsuEstablished as a slightly vulgar expression from the Meiji era to the Meiji era[43].. Shortly after its establishment, the standard language was "is" in Tokyo.[44]”Was propagated, so it declined from an early stage without penetrating beyond the middle stream.[45].. Currently, it is only heard with some elderly people in special situations (classical rakugo, geisha language in Kyoto, etc.).Same as "is", Is not originally attached to adjectives.

Expression

In the Kinki dialectHonorificからScornBy auxiliary verbsExpressionIs well-developed, and it is characteristic that it is frequently used on a daily basis for the actions of a third party who is talking.

The honorific system developed in a complicated manner around Kyoto. The foundation of honorifics in the Tokyo dialect was also formed in the early Edo period under the strong influence of the Kyoto dialect.Good morningYes ""OriNoHmmYou can see the remnants of it. After the Meiji era, the honorific system has been simplified and made into a common language,Absolute honorifics(Do not distinguish between Uchi and Soto, always use honorifics for those who are superior to me) Keeping a personality, the common language is becoming obsoleteMaterial honorifics(Honorifics that enhance the actors in the conversation) are rather prosperous, showing the development of honorifics that are different from the common language.[46].

In the Kii Peninsula, etc., treatment expressions using auxiliary verbs like those in central Kinki have not been developed, and it is sometimes regarded as "no honorifics" (Kishu dialect # honorific(See also), in dialects of such regions, the treatment expressions are distinguished by particles (particle honorifics).[47].

"More'
As with the common language, "masu" is used for the respect. Solicitation "Let's go" is "Paralysis, Negation "No" is "Mahen"And so on. To deny it, the euphemism of "continuous form + hashimanu" (same connection as "hen") +Do not-ShimahenThere is also (Example: Go Kashimahen, Go Kashimahen). The past form "ta" has different accents in Osaka and Kyoto, and in Osaka it is "Go"I did", in Kyoto "GoingI did. " For polite words ending with "su" such as "masu", "dasu / dosu / desu", and "omasu / osu", "su" may become sokuon or syllabic when a specific particle is added to the end. This is remarkable in Osaka, and it contributes to the Osaka dialect (eg, is it profitable? →Is it profitable?, It's sloppy → It's sloppy). Also, in Osaka, "su" itself may be omitted (example: stop → stop).[48].. In modern Osaka, etc.Ease(Example: I understand), and it is still used by some elderly people.
Continuous form + "Naharu(Example) Going
The transition of "Nasaru". At the beginning of the word "ContactIs often added (eg, go). After the Meiji era, the variations of "Yaharu" and "Haru" became widespread, and "Naharu" became an old-fashioned expression, but the imperative form of "Haru" became almost widespread except in some areas. Because it was not, the imperative form of "Naharu" is still in the imperative expression.Nahare"Or"Naye"(In turn,"Absent"And) continued to be used. Often used with "Okure" (eg, Goto-kun swelling, Goto-kun na yes).
Five-stage a sound / other continuous form + "Haru(Example) Go
"Go Naharu"-> "Go Yaharu"-> "Go Yaharu". Even now, in the upper one-stage, lower one-stage, sa-hen, and ka-hen,Yaharu"Or"Yaharu(Example: Kiyaha, Kyaha). It expresses light respect for the other party and a third party, but now that "Nasaru", "Naharu" and "Yasu", which express high respect, have declined and common language honorifics have become widespread, the highest honorific expression next to common language honorifics. "Haru" came to cover. It is used in a wide area in central Kinki and is often heard in business and public situations. In Osaka, from the consciousness of returning to "Nasaru", even the five-stage verb "Continuous form A sound + Haru(Example: Going). When connecting to "te" and using it as an auxiliary verb, "Teharu"When"TaharuThere are two forms, the latter of which is common in Kyoto (eg, eating, eating = eating).
In Kyoto and other places, "Haru" is used particularly frequently to describe the actions of third parties (especially women), "My brother cried", "A cute dog walks", and "Country people" It is sometimes used with little respect for relatives, current people, unspecified persons, movements of inorganic substances, etc., such as "relaxing Haru" and "the train is about to arrive" (a polite usage). In extreme cases, it may even be used for objects that are clearly not good for you, such as "B29 has arrived!" Or "a cat has stolen a fish."
"(Contact) Continuous form +Ease(Example) Easy to go
It is a more respectful expression than "Haru" and is often used as a polite command expression. Often used with "Okure" (eg, go and go, go and go). According to Haruhiko Kindaichi, "O ... Asobase" has changed to "Going Asobase"-> "Going Asbase"-> "Going Aso"-> "Going Easy". It is a popular expression in Kyoto, but it was often used in idiomatic expressions such as "I'm sorry / I'm sorry" in other areas as well. If you repeat "Yasu" like "Going and giving", you will show extremely high respect. When connecting to "te", change "teiiyasu"To say(Example: Healed to go). "Yasu" + "ya" in a simple expressionYasha"(Example: I'm sorry).
Continuous form + "On"+ Assertive auxiliary verb (example) Go (go), go (go)
Show light respect or familiarity with the other person or a third party. It is often used in the early modern period in Kyoto and Osaka. It is still used in Harima and Tamba, but the influx of "Haru" is progressing from the Osaka area, and as of the 30's, Kobe City.Higashinada Ward OfSumiyoshi RiverWas the boundary between "teya" and "haru"[49]However, "Haru" is now spreading to the eastern part of Harima. It is distinguished from the same type of command / request expression by accent, for example, "Go to Toteya" is "Go"Go", "Go"Go"Ya" means "Come on." The past form "I did it" is "There was-only[50]"Or"I got it[51]It becomes.
Continuous form + "do(Example) Go
It is a diversion of "aru" as an auxiliary verb for treatment, and in the early modern period it adds a light respect to the actions of the other party, and from modern times it adds a familiarity to the actions of third parties below the same age. Mainly used by women in Osaka. In Kyoto, "Haru" covers the usage of "Yaru", so neither men nor women use it.
Continuous form + "According to(Example) Go
It is a diversion of "Oru" as an auxiliary verb for treatment, and adds light contempt, irritation, discomfort, etc. to the actions and actions of third parties below the same level. Men's casual conversations are often used with little contempt. It is used differently in Harima, Kobe, and Tamba (#aspectreference).
Scorn

As a derogatory word in the Kinki dialect, "Kusaru""Expose""Get tired, Etc., and among them, "Ketsuru" is a very strong curse word. "Kusaru" is used for the continuous form and "te", "exposed" is used for the continuous form, and "ketsuru" is used for the "te". "Ketsuru" alone represents the profanity of "aru" and "is" (although it is almost a dead language), and "exposing" alone represents the profanity of "do".

Polite expression

In Keihan, there is a strong tendency to try to be as polite and humble as possible to the other party. For this reason, modern merchants often use honorifics such as "Goodbye and mess up."Even if it's pickled in bubu ...Or "Bochibochidennaa"EuphemismHas developed. There is a tendency not only in modified conversations but also in daily conversations, and third-party command / request expressions such as "Doitareya" and "Patience" (Later) Can be said to be a typical example. In the common language, it is sometimes regarded as rude.to get something done for you-I will do itIs also called a honorific expression that has spread from the Kinki region to the whole country.[52].

Titleof"San"(In a casual scene,"Han[53]”) Is also used frequently on a daily basis, and idiomatic expressions such as“ Good morning ”and“ Congratulations ”,“Ebesan""Ohigashi""Sumiyo"Sansuke" is also actively performed on the names of shrines and temples such as ". It is so difficult to distinguish between "san" and "han" so that even genuine Osaka natives can make a mistake.OsakaFromTV writerIsShin Shinno"Marugoto Naniwa Entertainer Han" (1996 , Liberty Shobo), a book whose title should be "Entertainer" has been changed to "Entertainer Han".[54].Wife words"Imo-san," "beans," and "oKudoPeople who are familiar with daily life (especially food and drink) such as "san" and "candy" are also given honorific titles.

aspect

The form of a predicate that expresses the difference in how far an action or event has progressed,AspectCall.

Relationship between existence verbs and aspect forms
 Kobe / HarimaKeihan / Shiga PrefectureIse
Existence of living thingsNeutralOruTo haveOru
Looking downOru
Progressive phaseNeutralBy (yo)TellTake
Looking downTake
Perfect phaseNeutralTake (Too)Tell
Looking downTake
Continuous form + "Tell""Take-Toru'
The transition of "doing" and "teru". "Toru Toru" is popular in western Japan and is widely used in the Kinki region, but in Keihan and Shiga prefectures, the Eastern Japanese dialect "Teru" is also used. Similar to the proper use of "Iru" and "Oru", "Teru" is a neutral expression, and "Toru / Toru" is a slightly crude expression.
In other Western Japanese dialects, "Toru / Toru" represents the result / state after completion (completion phase), and "Yoru" represents progress / continuation (progressive phase). Even in the Kinki region, Hyogo prefecture (excluding the Hanshin area) and parts of the Kii Peninsula have this usage, and there is a remarkable conflict with Keihan, which is used as a treatment expression. In Harima / Kobe, "take" and "yuru" are "Too""YooIt often turns around, which is a characteristic of the Banshu dialect and the Kobe dialect. (Example) I was sick! (I was about to fall!) The cherry blossoms are falling (the cherry blossoms are falling) The cherry blossoms are falling (the cherry blossoms are just falling and are about to fall)
Continuous form + "There is-Barrel'
The transition of "Tearu". In Wakayama Prefecture and Izumi, "Cha". Unlike the common word "tearu", it is widely used for intransitive verbs and intransitive verbs (eg, a house was built or it is known). Also, "aru" is used to mean "is" In some parts of the Kii Peninsula, "teru" is used to mean "is".
Continuous form + "Temau'
A simple expression of "getting it". It corresponds to "Chimau" and "Chau" in Tokyo, but it is not often used in advertising phrases like "I can do it!".
Continuous form + "Call'
"Kake" has two meanings, "... in the middle of starting" and "a little more ... starting", but in the Kinki dialect, the former tends to be used. For example, in the case of "the phone rang when I was about to eat rice", many people in Tokyo think "when I'm about to eat", whereas in the Kinki region "when I had a few mouthfuls in my mouth". Many people think that. Also, "call" is used in request / command expressions such as "go ahead" (start going ahead).
Continuous form + "Toku""Ntoku'
"Toku" is the transfer of "Toku", and "Ntoku" is the transfer of "Ntooku". In the common language, "toku" and "do not leave" are used to mean "finish the operation in advance" or "leave it in that state", but in the Kinki dialect, it may be used without such a meaning. In particular, it is often used in light commands and prohibited expressions such as "when going" and "when going".

Auxiliary verb

denial

Imperfect form + "Hmm(Example) Go
"Nu", which is derived from the adnominal form of the literary auxiliary verb "zu", is further transformed. It has been a common expression in western Japan since the Middle Ages, but since "hen" has become widespread in central Kinki since the Meiji era, the scenes where "n" is used are often used in strong words or in idiomatic expressions such as "de-demo" and "nto". The usage with particles such as "" is somewhat limited.
Inflection is not as developed as the common word "not", and all conjugation forms are the same continuous form, terminal form, adnominal form and hypothetical form. The continuous form is "And""Also do(Example: Yes, even if you go). The hypothetical form is "ne", but it is fused with the subsequent particle "ba" to "I"Or"Hmm(Example: I have to go → I have to go, I have to go → I have to go, I have to go). The lack of conjugations is supplemented by other word forms, for example, when connecting with the adjective "none", "Makoto"(Example: never go), when connecting to a verb,"Good morning(To) ”(Example: You will be able to go).However, young people[When?]Then, the mixed form of the common words "naku" and "n"NkuIs becoming widespread (eg, even if you go, you can't go).
As an expression equivalent to "without" and "without", "imperfective form +"Come on"And" imperfect form +Hmm(Example: Go anywhere, go anywhere). "Ide" is also used in irony expressions in the form of "Ideka" (eg, Yarai Deka = can I have to do it?). "Nto" may represent a hypothesis such as "gokan and akan", and is distinguished by an accent (in the case of "zuni", "nto" is "Go"Hmm", in the case of assumption "To go"). The expression equivalent to the prohibition "Don't" is "And"When"What", Which is a connection of" put "and" stay "to" nto "(eg, go anywhere, go anywhere).
Five-dan a sound or d sound + "Strange", Upper one-stage, lower one-stage, sa-variable, ka-variable continuous form +"Yahen(Example) Going, going, getting up, eating, eating, sick, sick
From the end of the Edo period to the Meiji era, the emphasized expression of "n", "continuous form + hasn", is "going" → "going / going" → "going / going" → "going" → "going" What turned into. Since the Meiji era, "hen" has spread rapidly, and the emphasis has diminished and it has become overwhelming. A-sound connection in the fifth stage is popular in Kyoto, and d-sound connection is popular in Osaka. The utilization of "hen" itself is the same as that of "hen".
"Yahen" is currently being consolidated into "Hen" (eg, eating and eating → eating). If the stem is a one-beat verb, instead of omitting "ya", lengthen the continuous form (eg, deyahen → deehen). In the upper one, "Hen" is "Hen", attracted by the continuous form of "I".Hin(Especially Kyoto. Example: Miyahen → Miihin, Iyahen → Iihin), or conversely, the continuous form changes to E-sound due to "Hen" (especially Osaka. Example: Miya) Hen → Meehen, Iyahen → Noh, Ehhen). Sahen is a change of "Shiyahen"Sehen"Or"Shihin, The denial of the strangeness is the change of "Kiyahen"Keihen"Or"Kihin"And so on. Regarding k-irregular varieties, "not coming" was influenced by the common word "not coming".KoohenIs becoming widespread.
Continuous form + "Yan(Example) Miyan, Shiyan, Koyan
Negative expression used together with "n" and "hen" in Wakayama, Nara, and Mie prefectures.Do not connect to five-stage verbs.Even in Osaka, etc., women are identified as "seeing and seeing, seeing and seeing (must see)", "seeing and seeing (let's not see)", and "seeing and seeing (if you don't see)". It is reported that "Yan" is becoming popular as a normal negative form among young people in Osaka in the 2010s.[55]..It is said that the above-mentioned "Yahen" has changed (Miyahen → Miyan), but the influence of the use of the one-stage verb La line five-row conjugation (Miyan → Miran → Miyan?), Which is common in the Kii Peninsula, is seen. Some researchers think[55].
Past tense
The past form of denial is the "imperfect form +" since Muromachiwhat"(Example: Go Kananda), and in the Meiji era, with the establishment of" Hen ", the change of" Senanda ""What's wrongAnd its variants "It's strangeWas born (eg, go or not). However, since the Taisho era, the mixed form of the common words "not", "n", and "hen"It was-It was strangeHas appeared and is becoming mainstream[When?].

impossible

Like other Western Japanese dialects, the Kinki dialect distinguishes between the impossible due to ability and the impossible due to circumstances. However, nowadays, due to the influence of a common language that does not distinguish between the two, the distinction has become ambiguous even in the Kinki dialect, and a mixed form of the two (eg, Yosuigen / Yosumirehen) has come to be used. There is.

Impossible due to ability "See Imperfect form +Hmm(Example) Without a float, you can swim cancer
It means that you do not have the ability to do it, you are not in a position to do it, you are confused about doing it, you do not feel like doing it, and you can not do it at all. It is synonymous with the old word "e ... zu" and is said to be derived from it. "Yo" in impossible expressions is pronounced on a flat plate and has a different accent from normal "yo" (example:See食 べHmm= I can't eat itよEatHmm= I don't eat well).
Impossible due to circumstances Imperfect form +"Rehen(Example) I can't swim with jellyfish
It is often used in areas such as Osaka where the usual denial is "e sound + strange".Possible verbsIt is an old expression that does not use, and the old form was kept to avoid the homophone collision between the impossible expression using the possible verb and "e sound + hen". Areas such as Kyoto where the usual denial is "a sound + hen" often use "e sound + hen" using possible verbs (example: swimming hen), and are willing to be people in areas that frequently use "rehen". It may interfere with communication. For example, a Kyoto person may mistakenly say "I can't go" to mean "I can't go (because of my inconvenience)", but the other Osaka person may mistake it for "I can't go (because I don't want to go)".

Will / Solicitation / Guess

For expressions of will and solicitation, "Cormorant""SeeIs used. In Sahen, the old-fashioned "Let's go[56](Example: Don't you think?), And when using it mainly as an auxiliary verb even in k-irregular conjugation, the old form of "like thisMay be used (eg, let's go). Also, the long vowels associated with "u" and "yo" are easily omitted (example:Let's go, Don't you think).

Guessing expression is "terminal form +" using "ya" after the Meiji eralet's do itIs the mainstream, and expressions such as "I went", "Red", and "Nakaro" are considered to be old-fashioned. The polite form is also "Respectful body end form + yaro"(Sokuon is"Shall”), And the inferred forms of“ dasu ”and“ dosu ”do not take the form of the common word“ probably ”, but are“ dasyaro / dasharo ”and“ dosyaro / dossharo ”. Also, in the common language, "would" is a masculine expression, and women often use "desho", but the Kinki dialect "yaro" has a weak masculine impression and is often used by women. .. Currently, "Nyaro" and "Henyaro" are the mainstream for canceling guesses, but "Mai" was used in the past. "Not in common language"Imperfect form + good + goodThere is also a form of "(eg, shomai, gokomai, eatenmai)", and "Imperfect form + good + good(Or) ”Was used in the solicitation expression (eg, do you want to go early?).

Assumption

The assumption is "Continuous form + TaraIt is almost unified into. For example, in common language, "if you go", "if you go / go", "if you go", "if you go", "if you go", "if you go", etc. There is a tendency to just say "if you go (if you go)". In particular, "nara" is rarely used except for idiomatic expressions such as "honnara / hona" (transition of "nara") and "sainara".

Transfer

In the Kinki dialect, there is a tendency to prefer the form of "A asks me to ..." rather than "A does ...". The expression "I want you to ..." is "I want you toIt has spread all over the country since the Showa era. As an antonym of "I want you"I don't needThere is. "I'll do" is "Barrel"Or"Chacha"(Kii, Izumi, etc.) is often shortened. Do not use "give me" for actions from yourself to the other party, such as "I'll give you what you want". There are third-party and euphemistic command / request expressions that use "I'll do it" such as "I'm disturbing you and retired (= please retire because it's annoying)" and "I'm patient (= forgive me)". .. Also, in the strong way of saying "I'll do it", "I will”, And you can put humor in your actions like“ I'm gone (= I'll beat you) ”or a fighting word like“ I have nothing to say and I'm sleeping now ” Used for.

Causative

Causative "To""As expectedIs often used, but inflections may be made in five stages, such as "Eat-san (= not letting you eat)" and "I let you go (= letting you go)". "Sasu" to "Continuous form + easyIn some areas (eg, easy to see, Mr. Kuriya).

Particle

Omission of case particles in simple sentences is more popular than in Tokyo, and "to" and "(tsu) te" such as "My name is Tanaka say", which is a non-sentence in common language, are also omitted ( It is called "to omission"). The omission of "to" and "(tsu)" occurs only before "say" and "think", and the frequency of omission before "say" is particularly high. Sometimes "say" and "think" are reduced to "chu" and "tomo".[57](Example: What a mess, I'm okay with this). The case particle that is frequently omitted is the object case "o", but other case particles are also likely to be omitted after one syllable word (eg, eye hurts → eye hurts).

The particles that characterize the Kinki dialect are "HeyThere is. Nowadays, the common word "Hey" is also used as a somewhat modified expression, but it is still frequently used by both men and women as a postpositional particle, a final particle, and an interjection for calling. According to a survey by the British translation company Today Translations, the Kinki dialect "Naa" is the third most difficult word to translate in the world.[58].. "", which was often used in the Middle Ages and early modern times for similar expressionsOfHowever, in modern Keihanshin, "o" is a crude and masculine expression. Both "naa" and "o" are separated from "nau" used in Kyoto in the early Heian period, and "naa" is said to have occurred in the Muromachi period.[59].

In addition to "naa", the following particles are characteristic of the Kinki dialect.

Nen
AboveIn the transition of "Naya", "I"And. Since it ends with sound repellency, the wording is softer than "Naya", but the intention of self-assertion to the other party is stronger. The connection with "ya" is the same as "neya" (example: Honmayanen), but some young people have an example of directly attaching to the word without using "ya" (example: like). Because the consciousness of derivation from "ya" has diminished, "Yaneya"Or"Yanyan(Or) ”(Young people) is also possible (example: Honmayanenyaro. Translated literally into a common language,“ Is it true? ”). The past form is "Taneya"TenHowever, in some cases such as Izumi, "Nen" is directly added to the past form and "Tanen".
わ
It has the same form as the women's language in Tokyo, but the Kinki dialect "wa" is in a downward trend and is often used by both men and women. However, add inflection to "wa" to strengthen the mourning (example:CanRei Wow →CanReiyaわA) is a feminine usage, and in the women's language of Osaka in the Showa era, "Hayo come (= come early)" and "you go ahead (= go ahead of you)" There was also such usage[60].. When it is made into a sokuon, "Ssa(Example: Going straight). The emphasis on "wa" is "I", And is now regarded as a masculine expression. "Wana" and "Waina" combined with "na" are also often used.
Assertion
Particles that express assertions, questions, tastings, etc. include "でIs used a lot. Although it is a change of "ze", there are differences such as solicitation usage such as "let's go" is not so common for "ze" in Tokyo, and women often use it in a light sense like "yo". is there. Depending on the area / individual, "zo" can be changed to "zo" in the same way as "ze → de".WhenHowever, "do" has a masculine and crude impression. An expression that appeals to the other party more strongly than "de"GanaIt is used not only to blame the other person but also to comfort him gently.[61].. For women in Kyoto, etc.HuhIs also used, and when it is made into a sokuon, it becomes "Sesse(Example: Go away).
No, no
It is an expression often used in the early modern period, and is attached to the end of various sentences to express emphasis and impression. "No" has a stronger meaning in "No" and "No". Nowadays, emphasis is placed on continuous form instruction expressions (Later), "Kaina / Kaiya", "Waiya / Waiya", "Doi na / Doiya", and "What?" Emphasis form "What?" "Doiya" was regarded as a feature of Kobe dialect as "Nandoiya of Hyogo Kobe".
Of
When the questionable final particle is continued to the particle "no" or when it is used as a quasifield particle, "Hmm"Or"Non(Example: Are you going to play? Are you going to play? That's strange. That clothes are mine). It is also popular for both men and women to omit the final particle of a question and use "no" and its variants as it is as the final particle of a question (eg, do you go to play? Do you go to play?). "Non" is mainly used in Osaka, and is also used by women for light claims (eg, I'm going to Tokyo next time). The connection with the asserted "ya" is "no-non" for "yano-yanon" and "n" for "what" (example: real-no-han-no-hon-ma-ya-non?
Question / irony
Like the common language, "Or"When"OrIs used. However, there is no usage of light questions such as "Is that so?" Or "Do you want to eat this?" In the Kinki dialect "Kai". If you want to add implications to "kai",Kana""Kaiya". "Kae" or "kai" instead of "ka"けMay be used. In Keihanshin, "ke" is often used by men in crude conversation, but in some areas it is often used as a word equivalent to or more familiar to "ka", and is especially known as a characteristic of the Kawachi dialect. Depending on the area, "This"And. Note that "ke" such as "what is it?" Is a change from the old word "keri" and has nothing to do with "ke" here.
Yanka-Yan
Represents ironic assertions and claims. "Yanka" is an expression that spread from young women in Osaka in the late Meiji and Taisho eras, and there is a theory that "Yanaika" is a change and a theory that "Ya" + "Nka". "Ke" is used depending on the area / individualYanke"And a stronger way of saying"It's troublesome""Yankisa"Well as. "Yan" is an abbreviation for "Yanka" and became popular among young women after the war. The new Kanto dialect "Jan" means that it can be connected to a respected body (example: Honma de yan) and usage close to "Isn't it?" (Example: No way ... lie ?!)[62], There are differences such as euphemistic communication expressions that lower the ending (example: I'm going to Tokyo next time ↓, yanka ↓). "Yanna"" Means "dayo, daye" (example: real). Also, when connecting "Yanka" to "Nen / Ten", "Nenka-TenkaMay be omitted (eg, is it really good or is it going?).

As a particle peculiar to the Kinki dialect, "Katete" and "Katete" were changed to "Katete".Once-OnceThere is.Connection particleInflected words (mainly past "ta" and negative "n") are connected to the adnominal form to express the reverse connection condition (example: what did you do), etc.Sub particleIt is connected to the body language and case particles to express the meaning of the common words "but" and "even" (example: in Osaka, which I can do). When used at the beginning of a sentence, "Soyakate-That's right".

As a connecting particle that expresses the cause / reason, the expression widely used in the Kinki region is "(I.e.There is. It is said to have been established at the end of the Middle Ages, and there are theories that the etymology is a diversion of the noun "border" and that it is derived from the ancient word "ke". "In the meantime""Sakai""SalmonAnd so on. The expression was so representative of the Kinki dialect that there was a saying "Osaka Sakai ni Edo Berabo", but in the current Keihan, the common word "kara" is overwhelmingly predominant. In addition to "Sakai", "Sakai" such as OsakaTherefore-Depending on, Kyoto's "Tooth(Example: Try eating this deliciously), "Mie prefecture, Shiga prefecture, etc."で"(Example: Waiting for rain or something).

Order / prohibition

In the Kinki dialect, multiple commands and prohibited expressions have been developed, and strong expressions and gentle expressions are used properly according to the situation.

Instruction expression
Imperative expression
The imperative form of the five-dan / ka-variable verb is the same as that of the common language, but the imperative form of the sa-hen / one-stage verb is the imperative of the literary imperative form "... yo".There(Example: see → see), and in the case of Sahen and the lower one, it is drawn by the previous sound and "...HuhIs often pronounced (eg, sei → sei, sei, eat → eat). Women often use the continuous form expressions described below instead of the imperative expressions, and Isamu Maeda said, "If you were an Osaka woman and said" go up "," drink ", or" wait ", then It can be a man or a devilish woman. "[63].. The imperative forms ending with "ro" such as "shiro" and "eat" are not originally used in the Kinki dialect except as a common language. The final particle attached to the end of the imperative form (including "... ro") is the same as the common word "よ"When",Is common.
Continuous form expression (example) going
Gentle command expression. Abbreviation for "continuous form + made". Behind "I"",Is often added, but mainly for young peopleよMay be added. Almost always in one-syllable words, long vowels (although the lower one is also called "i" instead of "e") occur when you gently remind yourself of something other than one syllable (eg, shii, ki, go, go, Eat, eat).In the one-step verb, the conjunctive expression and the imperative expression have the same form, but there is a distinction by accent, for example, "Look" and "Eat" are "Eat".Take a look"I" "foodAllEh, the imperative expression, "Take a look""eatHuh"" Represents a conjunctive form.Also, in the one-step verb, "i" may be extended to strengthen the mind (eg, good to eat, good to eat).In Kyoto, etc., "O" may be added to make it a polite word, such as "Go" and "Omi", or "Yoshi" may be added to make a feminine command expression (eg, good to go, good to eat). ).
Negative auxiliary verb + question final particle
Negative auxiliary verbs such as "gokanka" and final particles of doubt are often used. Those that use "kai" represent particularly strong commands (eg, go!). Not only the verb imperfect form, but also a somewhat gentle command "Continuous type+ N + Question ”(Example: I'm not going) or“ Te (O) Kurenka ”abbreviationTenka"(Example: Do you go?)
Expression using "te"
"Te" is used as often as the common word. Behind "I"",Is often added (example: go, go). "TeeIf you stretch it out, it will be a slightly sweet expression (example: go, go, go).
Forbidden expression
Terminal form expression
As with the common language, "termination form + na" is used to indicate prohibition, but in the case of sa-hen, in addition to "do not do"sandIs also used. Also, when strengthening "na", in addition to "nayo", "Shed(Example: Don't go).
Continuous form expression Continuous type+ "I(Example) Go
Gentle forbidden expression. Abbreviation for "continuous form + do not do". Before "na", the sound may be lengthened (example: Shinaya). In addition to "na", "Shed""No"And so on (eg, don't go, don't go).It may have the same form as the command expression, but there is a distinction by accent, for example, "Go" is "Go".Don't goCommanded, "GoingIf it is "na", it means prohibition.
Expression using "te" (example) Do not go
There are expressions that use "te" not only in instructional expressions but also in prohibited expressions. The usage is similar to the continuous form prohibited expression, "Tena""Tenaya""NotIt is used in the form of. It may have the same form as the command expression, but there is a distinction by accent, for example, "Go" is "Go".Don't goCommanded, "goIf it is "na", it means prohibition.

Other

  • Gender difference
Like the common language, many Kinki dialects have different expressions due to gender differences. Especially in modern Osaka, "I hate it.New(= I hate it) "" BuyrattanWow (= please buy it) "" Lookで(= Look at it) ”Women'sHas developed. The characteristic of the gender difference in the Kinki dialect is that women's language often spreads to the male group, and the basic expressions of the Kinki dialect are the assertion "ya", the cancellation "hen", the respected word "naharu", and the end. It is said that the particle "de" was also popular among women.
In Osaka and other places, it is more popular than common words to repeat words at a good tempo, such as "Chow Chow" and "Soya Soya Soya". In Kyoto, there are also expressions with adjectives such as "hot and hot" and "tightly packed".
  • Exclamation expression
In the Kinki dialect, it is not an expression like "Atsui!" Or "Achii!", But an expression like "Atsuu" or "Ashindo".Word trunk usageIs used a lot. It can also be applied to "tai" (eg, I went abroad). In the early modern and modern Keihan women's class, "Stem + Yano(Example: Oh Shindoya).
Many of the demonstratives are the same as the common words, but "there" is "there"Ako"Or"AkkoMay turn to. In addition, the expression that corresponds to "like ○" is "○".AbsentAs for the etymology, there is a theory that "like ○" and a theory that "○ general" is changed ("○ ŋai" → "○ nai").[64].. (Example) I'm not feeling well?
When continuing the assertion "ya" to "kosoado", in the case of "so" and "do", "yes →Soya"Apparently →DoyaIt is often shortened. further"Saya-Shiya""Deya"And so on.
Well-known KeihanFirst personUsed by girls and young womenhome(The plural "Uchira" is also used by men), "Watai / Atai"Wate-Address(Originally a female language, later used by men), "Washi" used by menI(Also used in the second person). "Wate / Ate" and "Wai" have been regarded as the first person of stereotyped Kansai people, but now they are almost limited to the elderly.
In Keihansecond personAs in Tokyo, "you" and "you" are often used. "you"" Is rarely used except as a common word, and "" is used for the polite second person.Nerd(San)” and “You-Ensemble","Omahan"(Transfer of" Gozensama ". For peers and below). "自 分"Or"I""Oore-OndoThere is an example of using the first person as the second person, but it is the same phenomenon as "Temee" in Tokyo.

vocabulary

Here, we will take up the vocabulary widely used in the Kinki region. Since the vocabulary of the Kinki dialect was often transmitted to the surrounding areas as a central language, many of them are distributed outside the Kinki region, including the vocabulary mentioned below. For example, "Ookini" is used not only in the Kinki region but also in various parts of western Japan and the Tohoku region. For food and drink related vocabulary such as "Kanto boiled" and "Reco"Kinki region #food cultureSee also

  • Akan[Akira] --No. should not. Abbreviation for "I don't know". "Akahen""Akehen"
    • Akantare[Dripping] --- A bad guy. Yowamushi. A small person.
  • Hydrangea-guidance[No taste] --It's not delicious. The taste is light. How to say Kyoto.
  • Address --Sake appetizer. What you know is "Hors d'oeuvre". In a completely different sense, it means "I".
  • Aho-Aho[Aho / Abo] --Stupid things. For "stupid" in Kanto. When saying strongly "Apo(Cormorant) ”And so on (mainly children).
    • Aho[Aho]-(Like an idiot) The quantity seems to be enormous.
    • Ahondara[Absurd] --A big idiot.
  • Anjo - Well. well. "Tasteful" transition. (Example) Anjou I'm sorry.
  • Squid streamer-The squid - 凧.. The common word "octopus"OctopusThe appearance is similar to that derived fromsquidDerived from resembling.
  • Igamu ――It is stiff and shifts (orientation). The turn of "distortion". (Example) Is the pillar a little sick?
  • Go[Hot / Burning] --It gets hot (original meaning). Turn around, get angry and angry. Get well. Get in shape. Is it a verb of "breath"? The usage of "getting in shape" is especially popular in Kyoto etc.[65].
  • Ikezu --Meaning. In the early modern periodIkazu"And. Originally, he referred to stubborn people, stubborn people, and rogues because he couldn't go straight.
  • Ikoru[Fear] --- The transition of "Occurrence". It looks like the charcoal fire is burning stably. (Example) Don't let the charcoal feel like it.
  • Ichiba【Market] --A small shopping street where local residents shop on a daily basis.
  • Chibiru ――Get on track. Playfully. Noun form "IchibiriThe meaning of the person who is in good health.
  • Ito - Daughter. Miss. Is it an abbreviation for "I can't (= young)" or "I can't (= dear)"? Antonym of "bon". (Example) Itohan (= young lady)
  • Inu[Leave / Go] --Go home. leave. Remaining of the old word "dog". (Example) Let's go!
  • Disagreeable --A verb that is often used by women by adding intonation to "i". Equivalent to "Oyama".
  • I'm sorry[Fuck] --play. touch. Play with. "Let's go"And. (Example) Scabs are scabs.
  • Irritation[Irritation] --A person with a short temper. impatient. "Irritated"(Frustrated, impatient) noun form. It is said to be a word that simply expresses the popularity of Osaka.
  • Iwasu - settle hash. kick ass. From "speaking the sound of gu". Turn around and let me know. Break (body). (Example) I said my shoulder.
  • Yes —— “Good” transition. It is used only in the terminal form and the adnominal form, and is not usually used like "Eka" or "Ei". "Good" in Kanto is a further change of "Yes". The expression "kawae" is incorrect in the Keihan dialect (because "cute" is not "kawaii" but "kawaii"). (Example)Yeah cheap.
    • Yeah ――The transition of "good people". Good house. Rich house.
  • Nasty --Blatant. Intense. Despicable. It's crazy. originally"I'm sorry""BadI said.
  • Ezuku ――I feel nauseous. Vomiting. It is said to be a combination of the voice (Oe) when nausea rises and "push".
  • Great[Great / Gorgeous / Irritation] --- In addition to being used a lot to mean good, hard, hard, very, and ridiculous, it is also used to mean "tired" in some cases. When used with great or very intention, "great" is used more often than the original continuous form "erou" (abbreviation of "great"). The etymology is "Irashi"[66].. There is also a theory that it was created by young people at the fish market in the Osaka miscellaneous throat during the Kyoho year.[67].. (Example) Great (= very) I went to a distant cousin (= tired). Ero / Great Sunmahen.
    • Great[Great] --A person who has a certain position and leadership position in a certain group. (Example) Mr. Erai from the neighborhood association.
  • Enryo lump[Mass of refrain] --The last leftover of the side dish. Because they are reluctant to stick to each other and chopsticks are hard to attach.
  • Yeah --Indoor. Zashiki. Also pointing to the kitchen. It is called "Government" or "Government". "Old manThe meaning of his wife (of the townhouse). (Example) It's easy to go up.
  • Come on[Easy to come out] --A greeting to express your welcome. For a more polite and somewhat modified expression, "Easy to comeThere is.
  • Oido[Whereabouts] --Ass.Wife wordsOrigin.
  • Big-In addition[Large / Large] --- An abbreviation such as "Thank you for the size", a greeting word that expresses gratitude.
  • Okan,Oton -"Mom""Dad"A simple way of saying.
  • Otokoto-Good morning(San) [Mr. Gojita] --Greetings for work such as New Year's Eve. Shows the aspiration and respect for the other party's busy end of the year.
  • Oshipin[Pushpin]- Thumbtack.
  • Tame[Gift] --A 1% refund given on the spot to the person who gave the wedding ceremony. Found throughout the Kansai region, but originated in Kyoto[68].
  • Come on --Make fun. Make a fool of yourself.
  • The day before yesterday --The day before yesterday.
  • Old man --Uncle (call to middle-aged men), Osho. If you read it on a flat plate, it means the former, and if you read it with "san" lowered, it means the latter.[69].
  • Good morning welcome back(Ease) [Good morning return (Yasu)] --Greetings to forgo leaving[70].. It means "please come back soon", not "please come back quickly".
  • Odd ――Young. Childish. innocent. Naive. The adjective form of "Oboko", the transliteration of "Birth child".
  • Interesting ――Interesting. Negative form "not interesting"I don't think"And. Originally in men's language.
  • Oyakamashi-Oyakama[Mr. Osamu] --Greetings when you decline.
  • ○Or[Times] --University ○ year. Strictly speaking, it refers to the number of years of enrollment, and if the number of years of enrollment and the grade of enrollment are different due to repeated grades, etc. originallyKyoto Imperial UniversityAlthough it is a term of, it is the whole Kinki region. (Example) "How many years are you?" "Two times" "Oh, the same time"
  • Wrinkles[Yellow chicken]- chicken.
  • Ginseng[Hunger dripping] --No stubbornness. Not worth it. No ability.
  • cutter(shirt)- shirt.. In a narrow sense, it refers to a student shirt.Shirt #About the name in JapaneseSee also
  • Kanawan[Suitable / enemy] --I don't like it. I can't finish it. unbearable. "SomethingIs often abbreviated as[71].
  • Kamahen-Turtle[Composition] --It doesn't matter[72].. Abbreviation for "Kamawahen".
  • Clinging ――The vocabulary is often recognized as the Osaka dialect, but in realityPlaywrightKikuta KazuoAnnounced in 1959Drama"The clinging guyIt is a coined word spread in. Detail isThe coined word of the adjective "gametsu"See.
  • Kawaya[厠] --Toilet, toilet. The sound is similar to that of Mt. Koya's "Kouya", and it is derived from the fact that a board was hung on the river to make a "Kawaya" and both flights were flushed directly into the water. In fact, at the temple on Mt. Koya, excrement was flowing down the river.[73].
  • Kankokusai[Paper smell] --Smell of burning. It smells bad.
  • Shichirin - Seven wheels.. In turn, tantrum. (Example) A person who has a tantrum (= has a tantrum)
  • It's bad[I feel sick] ――I feel sick. I feel unpleasant.
  • Kishoi --Creepy. A word that expresses more discomfort and rejection than "Kimoi"[74][75].
  • Gyo-san[Mt. Oyama] --The quantity and degree are enormous. "Yosan"(Mixed with" Yoke ").
  • About [Eating out] --Gluttony. Or someone who goes to the bathroom immediately after eating. From the name of the funnel with a diameter of about 60 cm used when filling 50 kg of rice with rice, "Eating out"[76].
  • Keitai --Strange. Weird. Strange. Funny. It is called "Hexagram" or "Rare".
  • It's bad[Poor feces] --It interferes with tantrum. annoying. Creepy. "Keitai" is a derivative of "Keitai".
  • The day after tomorrow[The day after tomorrow] --The fifth day counting from "today", that is, the day after "Shiasatte". In Tokyo, "Yanoasatte". By the way, "Soon"The day after tomorrow" is the usage transmitted from the Kinki region to Tokyo.[77]
  • Kouko --Scented things. pickles. Also known as "Okoko".
  • To try[Public road] --It seems to be simple and sober, but also elegant. (Example) I'm still in the room.
  • Koke[Roll] --- Fall. Fall down. The transitive verb form is "Scrap. "
  • Kosobai-Koshobai ――Tickle. itch. "Yui KosobaAbbreviation for. Verb form "Sneak upI mean to tickle.
  • Tough ――It's huge. strong. It's squid. Terrible. Mainly in Osaka after the 1970s, "GottsuIt is also used as an adverb of emphasis in the form of. (Example) It's crazy.
  • Iron trowel ――It looks like it is applied thicker than necessary. Not listed in some Kansai dialect-related dictionaries[78] .. By the way, Osaka's cuisine has the image of "kotekote", but in reality it has a light taste based on light soy sauce and kelp stock.[79].
  • Gonta[Gonta] --A naughty kid. Naughty shaven. The strengthened phrase is "Gotakure". Ningyo Joruri "Yoshitsune Senbonzakura』From the character name.
  • Saizen[Foreground] --- Just a while ago. I'm sorry. (Example) Even though I'm just saying it.
  • Sashimi[Measurement] --Measuring rod. ruler. (Example) Take it there.
  • Goose bumps[Warts]- Goosebump.. When I was horrified, "Zozo hair"And. (Example) Ah, goose bumps came out.
  • Furthermore --New things / things. Even in common language, it is used in expressions such as "vacant lot" and "masara". (Example) Further plate.
    • Sarapin --A way of saying that "further" is strengthened. The etymology of "pin" is the "article" theory.PortugueseThere is a pinta theory (same as "pin" in "from pin to drill").
  • New --Continuous nounization of "to". ... people who tend to. ... a person who has just done it. "Do what you need →AnnoyingAnd "Yes, I'll put parentheses →Yeah coolAnd "Imitate →"Imitation"Such.
  • hit —— Hit. I want to pull.Bubble periodBy the time, "Chaashibakehen?" "McDonald'sShibakehen? ""A mouseIt was popular to use it to mean "going to eat, drink or play", such as "Shibakehen?"
  • I don't know-Don't do it - It can not be helped. it's no use.
  • Jerky[Disturbing smell] --Troublesome smell. (Example) Annoying work.
  • Junsai[Watershield] --- It's elusive. In turn, it doesn't matter which one. Bullshit. Sloppy[80].JunsaiBecause it is slimy and difficult to grasp with chopsticks[80].. (Example) Watershield (= sloppy) Don't do it.
  • No help-I'm sorry[No specifications] --It's boring. Uninteresting. It's crap.
  • Shirui-Shurui[Juice] --It seems to be moist and moist. "Jirui"Or"Jurui"(Analogous from" Jukujuku "etc.).Ernst & YoungIn the 5th year of "Popularity of the World", there is a description that saying "Shirui" in Kyoto is called "Jirui" in Yamato and Kawachi, and that Kyoto people are crazy about it.[81].. (Example) The road is juicy due to rain.
  • Shinki Kusai[Spicy / Hypochondriatic] --I want to get angry. It's frustrating. It's confusing.
  • Troublesome ――I'm tired. painful. The adjective of "shindo", which is a transliteration of "hard work" or "heart work"[82].. (Example) The household budget is difficult.
  • Suoi-Nice[Sour and sour] --Sour. Even in the common language, it is used in the idiom of "biting both sour and sweet".
  • Sukatan ――Make. Tonchinkan. Misplaced. In addition, "ManukeIs also an expression that spread from the Kinki region.
  • Awesome - Unfair. Cunning. "Kusui"inverted word.
  • Awkward - Unfair. Is it a mixture of "smart" and "sly"? (Example) You're so cool.
  • Not each-Jutsunai[No technique] --It's painful because there is no technique to do it. painful. A transliteration of the old word "Zuchinashi". (Example) I don't eat each other (= I'm hungry). I don't notice (= bad rules).
  • Because - At best. Greatly. Yeah. "SeizaiAnd so on. It is called "put out the spirit". (Example) I'm enthusiastic.
  • Let's do it-Let's go[Back] --- Carry on your back. "Let's"
  • Sendo[Thousand degrees] --Many times. Often. In turn, a lot. Terrible. (Example) Don't say anything!
  • Wanna[Cook] --Boil. Also used a lot besides cooking rice. (Example) Supper is cooked radish (= boiled food).
  • Dowel --Idiot. A stronger way of saying than "Aho". Used in Harima and Kobe.
  • Dannai --Abbreviation for "not important". There is no problem. I do not care[83].
  • Chai --In infant language, throw it away. (Example) Such a bad guy (= perfect).
  • very - A little. Naturally, it has nothing to do with "super". (Example) Wait a minute.
  • Choke[Mocking] --Playing. It's funny. "Chokaru"And. Noun form "ChokeThe meaning of a person who does or says something silly. (Example) It's different from the case of being a little crazy!
  • Crush[Crush]-Used not only for "become useless" and "deform flat and break", but also for damage and breakdowns that do not involve apparent deformation. (Example) The TV has collapsed.
  • Teleko --Upside down. Abekobe.kabukiFrom the term "care".
  • Den -A demon touches another child by playing tag. Also known as "making a phone". In addition to playing tag, it is also used as a metaphor for simply referring to touch and for a short stay and returning immediately because the demon touches and runs away immediately. (Example) Mr. Yamada, I just came home.
  • Tengo (U) - mischief. Prank. joke.
  • Denbo[Denbo] --Swelling due to bruising. Product. Breakout.
  • When ――Add swearing and dismay to the beginning of nouns, adjectives, and adjective verbs. In turn, just emphasis[84].. (Example) Doaho Dogi Tsugu Dogu[85] Dotama (= Dotama) Dotama, in the middle[86]
    • Dotsuku / Dotsuku[Poke] --- Hit. hit.
    • Get stuck in a pot[Fit in a jar] --It will be in the worst condition. Everything you do goes wrong. "Dotsubo" means a bucket of fertilizer. Originally a comedian's dressing room language.
  • What kind of thing ――The change of "I can't help". It can not be helped. It's over.
  • stupid[Dull smell] --Dull. It's clumsy.
  • Dontsuki[Don't thrust] --At the end. (Example) You can see it all over the place, and it's a shortcut to turn right there.
  • No no[No No] --Clean up in baby talk. (Example) There should be no toys.
  • fix[Fix] --Clean up. Put it back wherever it was before. (Example) Put this on the shelf.
  • Nankin[Nanjing]- Pumpkin.. In Kyoto, "pumpkin"Or"Upland rice. "
  • Namba[Nanban]- corn.. Abbreviation for "Nanban millet".
  • Nambo[What] --How much. how many. How much. "How much" turn. (Example) What a monjayaki! (= How much is it?)
  • Smell / Smell[Smell / Smell] --Used not only as an intransitive verb but also as a transitive verb. That is, it is used not only for the source of odor to "smell" but also for the action of spontaneously smelling. "Smell" is a mixture of "smell" and "smell". (Example) Durian, smell.
  • Neki[Root]-Side. near.
  • Patchi --Long lengthCrotch.
  • Hadashi-san[Mr. Satoshi] --A greeting word for labor.
  • Hara is big[Big belly] --A state of being full. Even if a woman from the Kinki region says "I was hungry," most of them simply mean "I'm full" rather than "I'm pregnant."
  • Flash - very much. Quite. A word derived from the Sanyo region, it became popular mainly in Kobe and Harima in the 1980s.
  • Hannari ――It looks elegant, gorgeous and bright. (Example) A fluffy (kimono) pattern.
  • Bibincho ――A whisper when you make a dirty person out of the group. Engacho. "BebenchoAnd so on.
  • Open[Pick up] --Continuous form A word form created by analogy with "Hiroota / Hiroote".KyohoAfter the period, it became superior to "Hiro". (Example) I went to open the fallen leaves.
  • fresh --Cream and milk used for coffee and tea[87].
  • Sticky ――Biri. Bottom. "Bebe""Bebecha"Or"Dobe"(Do + sticky) and so on.
  • Others[Release] --Throw it away. (Example) Except for this document.
  • Unraveled[Cheek girder] --Complaining. Counterargument (against superior). Talk. The original meaning is "cheekbone". (Example) Vomiting loose (= complaining).
  • Warm --Noisy. Playfully. Play around.
  • Pochi --Celebration. Tip. The bag that holds "Pochi" is "Pochi bagIt is.
  • Unwind ――It looks tired (after finishing one job). In recent years, the number of people who use it for the purpose of relaxing is increasing. (Example) I walked around and felt relaxed (= tired), and should I have a cup of tea?
  • A little ――It's about time, ok. It is said that the word comes from the "potting" of raindrops. For example, when you say "let's go little by little", adding an accent to "bo" means "let's go soon", while adding an accent to "chi" means "let's go slowly". Not often used outside of Osaka[88].
  • Bon --Boy. Especially, a good boy. The turn of "Bo". "Bonbon""BonchiAnd so on. (Example) Growing up bonbon.
  • Bon-san dented[The boy released a flatulence]- Daruma-san fell. "It smelled bad"Continues.
  • (I.e.[Book true] --True. In fact. It is not "Honma". (Example) Honmamon (= real) taste.
  • Maido[Every time] --A greeting word widely used in the commercial society of Osaka. (Example) Maido big!
  • McDonald's - McDonald'sStands for.McDonald's #Names, abbreviations, common names, nicknames in each countrySee also
  • Loose ――Mellow and rich taste. Since the 1990s, more and more people are using it to mean a relaxed and relaxed appearance.
  • Manman-chan --In infant language, Buddha. Depending on the area, it also refers to the god and the moon. The transition of "Namu Amida Butsu". "Representing a bow"AnIs added to the end to indicate the action of praying to the Buddha. (Example) Manman-chan is annoying at the Buddhist altar.
  • Mizukusai[Watery] --Watery. Not enough salt. In turn, it's aloof (usage incorporated into a common language). (Example) This miso soup has a slight watery smell.
  • Mizuya[Mizuya] --Cupboard.kitchenIt can also refer to the whole.
  • Very - very much. Super. Abbreviation for "messed up", it spread rapidly from Osaka to the entire Kinki region after the 1970s and 80s. "MessaAnd so on. An abbreviation for "messed up" in a similar wordMuch"and so on.
  • Stye[Eyebachiko]- Stye.. Stye. In Kyoto etc.Meibo-Mebo"(Warts).
  • Menchikiru[Cut off] --Turn on the gun. Gaze. It is said that it was established after "cutting the eyeballs" → "cutting the noodles".
  • Motor pool - Parking Lot.. parking.TroopsIt started when Osaka people who like high color imitated the term[89].. However, since the main meaning in English is the military parking lot and the group of vehicles waiting there, it is originally wrong to use it for general parking lots and vehicles.Chubu regionWidely used west of (Kanazawa, Shizuoka, etc.).
  • No luck-Don't fir - Not delicious. Unpalatable. It is called "no umami" or "no umami". There is also a theory that the etymology is a simmered toad named "Hairai" (Edible frogSee). How to say Osaka.
  • Guy[Looking up] --I'm dressing up. Noun form "GuyThe meaning of a messenger. Originally a secret word in the Kabuki world, it became a popular word among the townspeople during the Edo period. (Example) Where do you go for that guy?
  • Complicated ――It's complicated. It's awkward. Hassle. confusing. suspicious. "Baby" means "YayakoIs an adjective. Taking care of a baby is troublesome and difficult. "SomewhatAnd so on. (Example) Today's weather is confusing (= subtle).
  • Yanpe-Yanpi ――A shout when you stop doing things. Mainly used by children. Is it a "stop" roll? (Example) Already.
  • Yoke-Avoid ――The quantity is enormous. Lots. "Extra" transfer.
  • Yoshi[Close] --Add to the group. It is mainly used when participating in play. (Example) Get closer (let me participate)
  • to be called[Called] --- I often use it to mean that it is called as a treat. In turn, it is sometimes used simply as a polite word for "eat." (Example) Yobareya (= eat).
  • Read[Read] --Count the number. Even in common language, it is used in expressions such as "reading mackerel" and "reading votes". (Example) After reading ten, get out of the bath.
  • Good luck(Ease) [Yasushi] --A word for "a treat", meaning that you have eaten enough of your poor meal.[90].. Some households use it after "Itadakimasu" to mean that they should be consumed sufficiently.[90].
  • Wow —— Ruined. A mess. It doesn't make sense. No. Derivation of "Wayaku", a transfer of "Magic". "Wayakucya""WowAnd so on. (Example) Refreshingly refreshing.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Up to this point, "Japanese Language Course Vol. XNUMX History of Japanese" (Daishukan Bookstore, 1990)Tokugawa SokenThe reference was "Language Conflict between East and West".

Source

  1. ^ a b c "Dictionary of Japanese Language Studies" published by Tokyodo Publishing Co., Ltd., 1995, edited by the Japanese Language Society, p. 188.
  2. ^ a b c d Ugaki ed. (1962), pp. 5-14.
  3. ^ "NIKKEI STYLE Ese Kansai dialect, why barre (mystery solving cruise) Professor Mizuho Hidaka, Kansai University'
  4. ^ a b Mitsuo Okumura, "Geographical Range of Kansai Dialect," "Language Life," No. 202, 1968. Also recorded in Inoue et al. (1996) (pages 60-69).
  5. ^ Minoru Umegaki, "Kinki," "Interpretation and Appreciation of Japanese Literature," "Map of Japan in Dialects," 1954.
  6. ^ Iitoyo, Hino, Sato ed. (1982), pp. 117-124.
  7. ^ Inoue et al. (1996), p. 63.
  8. ^ At that time, it was pronounced "Kun-nen" in the upper part, and "Kan-nen" was regarded as a Kanto accent.
  9. ^ "Respectable" upward accent.
  10. ^ Kinsui (2003), pp. 22-27.
  11. ^ Maeda (1977), p. 13.
  12. ^ Tadao Umesao "Second Standard Language" "Language Life" No. 33,Chikuma Shobo, 1954.
  13. ^ "New Japanese scene" dialect battle 38 "Yoshimoto Ben" almost common language, dated June 2006, 6Yomiuri Shimbun.
  14. ^ The usage such as "live with him" is originally in the common language, but the usage meaning "same" such as "I and he have the same hobby" has spread from the Kinki dialect.
  15. ^ The word itself is derived from the Kinki dialect, but the usage of "loosely", which is now widely used throughout the country, is not very common in the original Kansai dialect.
  16. ^ The usage of "nausea" is originally from the common language, but the usage of "angry" is widespread from the Kinki dialect.
  17. ^ a b Masataka Jinnouchi, "A Wide-Area Study of the Regionality of Communication and the Influence of the Kansai Dialect," 2003.
  18. ^ Shinji Sanada"Regional Language Ecology Series Regional Language Dynamism-Kansai"Ofu, 1996.
  19. ^ "Facebook supports Kansai dialect, "Like" becomes "Eh!"”(Japanese). GIGAZINE. 2019/11/22Browse.
  20. ^ "Kansai dialect native speaker / volunteer translator, recruitment! | Vivaldi Japanese Official Blog" (English). Vivaldi Browser Japanese Official Blog (September 2019, 11). 2019/11/22Browse.
  21. ^ a b c d e Kinsui (2003), pp. 81-101.
  22. ^ Central public opinion new company"Central public opinion』May 2010 issue
  23. ^ Yoshiko Kaura "Kansai dialect acceptance consciousness of university students in Kansai-based on the consciousness survey of university students from Kansai and non-Kansai university students-"Kansai University of Foreign StudiesInternational Student Special Course Japanese Language Education Collection No. 4, 1994.
  24. ^ As an example, delivered on July 2011, 7NEWS Post Sevenof"A woman who uses air conditioner pounding "Why is it bad to use electricity paid for money?""Such.
  25. ^ "[Speaking to the newspaper!] Kansai University Vice President, Isamu Kuroda" Sankei Shimbun dated October 2009, 10.
  26. ^ a b c Yoshitaka Yamashita "Kansai dialect as a" brand "" "Hokkaido University Graduate School International Public Relations Media Journal 1" 2003.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Ugaki ed. (1962), pp. 15-29.
  28. ^ In fact, "My surname is also pronounced by people in eastern Japan as [m" me "ŋaki], but many Kinki people pronounce it as [" u "megaki]. "It has said. Ugaki ed. (1962), p. 19.
  29. ^ Fumiyo Makimura"If the sound of Ma line comes after U, all of that U will be N."Fumiyo Makimura"Osaka Language Encyclopedia" Kodansha, 1984, p. 754.
  30. ^ Iitoyo, Hino, Sato (1982), p. 10.
  31. ^ Osaka Convention Association "Osaka Dialect Complete Master Course Episode XNUMX Yorogawa, Read June 2010, 5.
  32. ^ Iitoyo, Hino, Sato (1982), p. 11.
  33. ^ Takao Gunji・ Taisuke Nishigauchi ed., "Handbook of Language Science"Research society, 2004, pp. 196-197.
  34. ^ Maeda (1977), pp. 63-64.
  35. ^ Maeda (1977), p. 59.
  36. ^ a b c d e f Ugaki ed. (1962), pp. 30-36.
  37. ^ Inoue et al. (1996), pp. 246-247.
  38. ^ Inoue et al. (1996), p. 250.
  39. ^ Inoue et al. (1996), p. 248.
  40. ^ It is not common in Keihan to connect a respected word to "Oru" (usually "Oraru" and "Ooriyasu" are misused), and "Oru" is used as a common word.
  41. ^ Ugaki ed. (1962), pp. 392-393.
  42. ^ Until the early modern period, Keitai and "da" were sometimes used together in Edo and Tokyo.
  43. ^ "Desu" in Tokyo was also an expression of a limited hierarchy at the beginning of the establishment of the late Edo period, and was not used in the middle class and above. (1917 "Verbal grammar")
  44. ^ There is also a theory that apart from the "desu" in Tokyo, there was also a unique "desu" in the early modern period.
  45. ^ "" Dear "Toif lyrics Niha" Hanaya "" Beautiful Ya "" Busy Yakaya "Nado" Ya "Toyf Also" Flower Dos "" Beautiful Dos "" Busy Yakados "ha Conventional general Niha Narito 雖"Flower Death," "Beautiful Death," "Lively Yakades," Nokata Ni-Migration, Tilt Chiari "(Report from Kyoto in 1906," Spoken Language Survey Report (below) ")
  46. ^ "One of the characteristics of treatment expression operation in the Kinki dialect", "Kokugogaku", Vol. 151, 1987.
  47. ^ Ugaki (1962), pp. 56-57.
  48. ^ When an American traveler asked the driver of a city bus in Osaka, "Do you want to stop at the next station?", He said "Stop," so I was angry with how to reply that people who do not know Kansai Ben do not understand. It is said that the traveler who stood up wrote in the newspaper.
    Mineo Suenobu "Japanese English is understood in the world" <Heibonsha Shinsho> 2010 ISBN 9784582855357 p16
  49. ^ Hyogo Prefectural High School Education Study Group, Japanese Language Subcommittee, "Hyogo Prefectural Language Reader"Tokyo Books, 2003.
  50. ^ ToyamaTakaokaAlso used in the surrounding area.
  51. ^ Minato Maizuru Chacha Festival"Chat" is a characteristic of Maizuru dialect so much that the event is held, but the area where "Chat" is used is part of Tamba and Harima (Hyogo Prefecture).TakamachiKami) Is also distributed.
  52. ^ Osaka UniversityAkihiro Okajima "Miscellaneous texts and thoughts "I will let you", Retrieved July 1996, 7, November 4, 2009.
  53. ^ It is hard to become "han" after a sound, a sound, a sound repellency, and a line. ThereforeKeihan Electric RailwayCatch copy of "KeihanIs strictly misused. According to the answer when Kazuo Tagano, a high school teacher and language researcher, contacted Keihan Electric Railway, "Okeihan" aims to remind passengers traveling between Osaka and Kyoto that there is a Keihan train. He said that he decided that the law of words was correct or not, because he wanted him to like Keihan Electric Railway because he was familiar with it.
    Walther P2006 (38) p40-XNUMX
  54. ^ Fuda (2006) p42
  55. ^ a b Yoshifumi Toritani "Kansai Youth's new negative form "-Yang""National Institute for Japanese Language Studies", National Institute for Japanese Language, 2015.
  56. ^ The transfer of "Seu". The common word "sho" is the one in which "sho" is further changed.
  57. ^ Ugaki (1962), p. 55.
  58. ^ BBC News"Congo word'most untranslatable', Retrieved July 2004, 6, November 22, 2009.
  59. ^ Fuda (2006) p124
  60. ^ Maeda (1977), p. 167.
  61. ^ Maeda (1977), pp. 170-172.
  62. ^ This usage is rare except for "lie".
  63. ^ Isamu Maeda (1949) "Study of Osaka Hou"
  64. ^ Maeda (1965), p. 202.
  65. ^ "Upper Etymological Dictionary", p. 34.
  66. ^ Reiichi Horii, "Kamigata Language Source Dictionary", Tokyodo Publishing Co., Ltd., 1999, p. 46.
  67. ^ At one point, a red sea bream was taken and cooked by six young people, but one injured his finger with gills. At that time, he said, "I want to eat red sea bream, it's a great sea bream."
    FN P2006 (90) p91-XNUMX
  68. ^ Asahi Shimbun November 2003, 6
  69. ^ Fuda (2006) p148
  70. ^ Walther P2006 (116) p117-XNUMX
  71. ^ "Upper Etymological Dictionary", p. 131.
  72. ^ Fuda (2006) p129
  73. ^ Fuda (2006) p143
  74. ^ Fudano (2006) p83 describes the meaning of the word, "If you are told" Kishoijin! "In a courtship scene, you should think that there is no pulse anymore."
  75. ^ Toshiaki Okamoto, a teacher of Osaka Prefectural Abeno High School, published in "Interpretation" Vol. 43 (1997, Educational Publishing Center) edited by the Interpretation Society. According to a questionnaire survey conducted on 54 high school students, "Kishoi", 26% of the students answered "Use when you feel a strong discomfort", and "When you do not have such a strong disgust". 15% of the students answered "use". Thirty-three percent of the students answered "words that make them feel lightly uncomfortable" to "feeling", and 33% answered "words that make them feel uncomfortable and unpleasant to see".
    Fuda (2006) p74
  76. ^ Walther P2006 (143) p144-XNUMX
  77. ^ In Tokyo, the order was originally "Tomorrow-> Asatte-> Yasato-> Asatte".
  78. ^ For example, "Osaka Language Encyclopedia" (Kodansha Academic Bunko, 1984) ISBN-978 4061586581 Not listed in.
  79. ^ Fuda (2006), p67-68
  80. ^ a b Fuda (2006) p131
  81. ^ "Upper Etymological Dictionary", p. 262.
  82. ^ Fuda (2006) p152
  83. ^ Fuda (2006) p128
  84. ^ Originally, it was a word that was used in a negative sense as a whole. Therefore, regarding the fact that Epson appointed Yuka in 2001 to announce the catch phrase "Dokirei" and Nissin Foods appointed Aya Ueto in 2003 to announce the catch phrase "Domai" in linguistics. It was the subject of criticism by experts, and the former was criticized at the 2002th Anniversary General Assembly of "Naniwa Language Gathering" held in 20 (theme "Correcting misuse and misuse of Osaka 辯").
    Fuda (2006) p45
  85. ^ "Radish radish"" Is used positively after the war, and originally means "rotten guts" and "bent guts".
  86. ^ On p2006 of Fudano (47), the opinion of Masaaki Nakai, the representative caretaker of "Naniwa Kotoba no Gathering", which states that "in such a case," the center "is beautiful" is posted in the form of a quotation.
  87. ^ Fuda (2006) p175
  88. ^ Fuda (2006) p149
  89. ^ Asahi Shimbun November 2004, 5
  90. ^ a b Walther P2006 (119) p120-XNUMX

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