Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🎥 | Daniel Radcliffe, Emma Watson and others gathered for the 20th anniversary special program of "Harry Potter"


Photo "Harry Potter" 20th Anniversary Special Program with Daniel Radcliffe, Emma Watson and more! (* The photo is from "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone") Photo courtesy of AFLO

Daniel Radcliffe, Emma Watson and others gather on the 20th anniversary special of "Harry Potter"

 
If you write the contents roughly
On November 11th, to commemorate the 28th anniversary, a quiz show "Harry Potter: Hogwarts Tournament of Houses" was broadcast in the United States, hosted by Helen Mirren, where fans compete for knowledge. It seems that the first look of the special program announced this time will be unveiled.
 

A special program "Harry Potter 20th ..." celebrating the 20th anniversary of the release of the movie "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone" → Continue reading

 Crank in!

Mainly on the latest information on domestic and foreign movies & TV dramas, the "now" of entertainment, which has become a hot topic on the Internet such as animation and overseas gossip, is transmitted daily with news!


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

HogwartsTournamentofHouses

Quiz show

Quiz show(Quiz Bangumi) is a problem (quiz) Is set and the performers answer the program ()TV program,Radio programEtc.).

Overview

Quiz is generally widespreadknowledgeIs to be asked.But in a broad senseQ&AIf it takes the form of, it is often treated as a "quiz show", and in the quizGameIncorporating sex, while the moderator and answerer give a quizTalk showThere is also.

In the performers,talent[1]Is the appearance typeViewer participation typeIt is divided into.The former has many programs with relatively strong game characteristics, and the latter has many programs that compete for pure knowledge.Recently, the number of programs in which viewers appear is decreasing, whileDigital terrestrial broadcasting-BS digital broadcasting OfInteractive serviceThere are also quiz shows that you can participate in while you are at home.

The answer method isFast pressThose who argue for the right to answer in the form,FlipAnd using the monitor screennotesThe main answer is.For programs with many participants, there is a method of expressing the answer by operating a computer or moving to another place.

Western quiz show

In English-speaking countries, it is called "Game show" and is not distinguished from "games" that are not quizzes.

Most of the programs are for general viewers, but special editions featuring celebrities may also be produced.Unlike Japan, the prize money will be donated after clarifying the purpose of use (guarantee will be paid separately).

History

In the 1930s, there were several quiz shows on American radio programs, but the most popular was NBC's radio program "information Please" (1938-1948), which began in 1952. Has appeared on the TV version[2]..Cultural people and celebrities act as answerers to answer difficult questions posted by general listeners.[2]..This format was later introduced in Japan as "Fountain of talkWas made into a program[2].

In the 1940s, quiz shows in the form of Twenty Questions were popular in the United Kingdom and the United States.[2]..In this format, the respondent asks the questioner "Is it a plant?" "Is it a mineral?", And the questioner answers only "Yes" or "No", starting from a total of 20 questions. Guess the name of the celebrity or thing that became the title[2]..This format was later introduced in Japan as well.Twenty doorsWas made into a program[2].

Main quiz shows

The following are typical quiz shows.

Japanese quiz show

History

Dawn

JapanThe first quiz show1946 May 12Started broadcasting on NHK RadioFountain of talkWas (December 1946-March 12)[2]).The content is rather than a modern quiz showSavingsIt was like a knowledgeable program to talk about.Before this, that is, before and during the warNHK Radio(The only broadcasting station at that time) did not have a quiz show, and the word "quiz" itself did not exist in Japan.

Commercial broadcastThe first quiz show atCBC Radio"Stop the music"Met.After that, many radio quiz shows appeared, but with the spread of television, it became a corner of wide radio programs and became smaller.

The first TV original quiz show in Japan1953 May 2Start NHK "What is my job"[3](By the way, 1953May 2The quiz show, which was overwhelmingly popular on the radio at that time,Three songsIs being broadcast on TV, and this will be the first quiz show broadcast on TV in Japan.[4]).After that, commercial television started, and quiz shows that emphasized entertainment will appear one after another.

There is no need to prepare a large-scale set for the quiz show, and the performers are relatively low-budget and easy to arrange, so the reorganization periodSpecial programAnd another programCensoredAfterConnecting programOften used as.

Western program format import

Until the 1980s, adapted programs using the format of famous Western quiz shows[5]Was seen a lot.

NHK “My secret← America "I've Got a Secret, Fuji series "Quiz Grand Prix← America "Jepady!(Jeopardy!) ”, TBS series“I asked 100 quizzes← America "Family Fude, TBS seriesThe chance!← America "The Price Is Right(The Price Is Right) ”, TBS series“Quiz derby← America "Celebrity Sweepstakes] Is the representative.

As of 2020, the quiz show produced by officially importing the format is NHK in 2012.Continuous quiz hold on!← France "Everyone wants to take his place] Is the last.

Viewer participation type quiz program

The heyday of viewer-participation quiz shows was around the 1980s.Many quiz shows were broadcast during that period,Prime timeThen, it is almost always broadcast on some station every night, especially "The biggest ever! Ultra Quiz across America』Reigned as a large special program once a year, of universities nationwideCircle"Quiz study groupIt became an opportunity to do.

However, in the fall of 1985, "Up-down quiz''Quiz Heaven and Hell”Was finished, and in March 1986, the following year,“Quiz time shock''Saegusa country stealing game''Round the World Sugoroku Game] Has also ended one after another, and the heyday of the viewer participation type quiz show has come to an end.And in the early 1990s, "Quiz KingThere was a "boom", but the level of the problem became too high, causing viewers to leave, and in 1992, "The biggest ever! Ultra Quiz across America" ​​ended its regular holding and "I asked 100 quizzes" finished.

High price since 2000Prize moneyAlthough there were signs that the number of programs for sale was increasing,Quiz $ Millionaire] Was not established.

As of 2021, quiz shows featuring talents without high prizes or prizes are the mainstream.On the other hand, as a viewer participation type quiz show, "Panel Quiz Attack 25Was completed in 2021, and is a derivative of "Ultra Quiz across America".National High School Quiz Championship ("High School Quiz")Is still on the air.

In addition,インターネット,Digital broadcastingWith the spread and start ofInteractive quiz showIs seen as a new form. "Touch Answers" and "Touch Answers" for several years from the start of BS digital broadcasting in 2000TIME OVERThere were two-way quiz shows with prizes and prizes at each commercial broadcasting station, but currently BS does not broadcast regular broadcast programs.[6]..In terrestrial broadcasting, a quiz for winning variety shows[7]And the information program quiz corner[8]Data broadcasting is used for such purposes.

Limiting the maximum prize pool for quiz shows

In a viewer participation type program, for example, "Belt quiz Q & Q(Initially, the highest prize is 270 million yen) and "Quiz time shock(Initially, there is no upper limit on prize money and prizes for all correct answerers. In addition to the prize money of 100 million yen, it will be a supplementary prize.AutomobileThere was also) and so on, and won big prizes and prizes.Audience,entertainer-Cultural personBesides, "Up-down quiz(InitiallyHawaiiTravel and supplementary prize 20 yen) and "Olympic Show Largest quiz on the ground(In the "Olympic ..." era, the prize money was 100 million yen. In the latter series "Jet Show, the largest quiz on the ground", the prize money was 100 million yen.Around the worldThere was no limit to the prize money and prizes due to travel).

However,1971 Broadcast on Fuji TVLeave it to the Quiz King!"The prize of the top prize is" 1 million yen per roomTokyoYoga OfApartmentWas applied,Fair Trade CommissionFrom "The viewer's prize money is too high.Fire spiritReceived strict attention as "to incite"[9]..With this as a trigger, the Public Commission opened "quiz programs, song battle programs, game programs, and even TV and radio program gifts, products, and magazines.SweepstakesThe total amount of prize money and prizes in the project is limited to 100 million yen. "However,Gentleman agreementUp,PharmaceuticalCompany'sProvided by one companyFor programs, the maximum is 10 yen, and the prize money won will be donated to the program production bureau's donation campaign.DonationI was doing things like that.

after that1996 Deregulation will be carried out in April, raising the upper limit to 4 million yen.The first program isTelevision Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd."Battle! The Emperor of the Quiz"was.It's not a quiz show later, but TBS "Happy family planningWas a total prize of 300 million yen.In addition to this, when raising the price to 1000 million yen, high-priced prize programs such as the "Quiz $ Millionaire" mentioned earlier have begun to appear.

2006 Since then, the regulations have been further relaxed, and the upper limit has been abolished for the first time in 36 years.But,Japan Private Broadcasting FederationSo, contrary to this deregulation, we have established a self-regulation that limits the prize money per participant to 1 million yen.[10]..For this reason, in quiz programs that give out large prizes such as "Quiz $ Millionaire", one person was able to win a prize of 2006 million yen in the broadcast before 1, but after the self-regulation setting, there are always multiple including participants. In some cases, the rule has been changed to require the name of a person (for example, 1000 people if the maximum prize money is 1000 million yen).

Talent appearance type

On the other hand, the talent appearance type quiz show1980 eraof"Focus with hints''Quiz derby''Whole world HOW match!!"Such,comedianThe interaction between the talents, including the talents, and the moderator becomes attractive and popular.1990 eraToGolden periodIn particular, the Nippon TV series "Quiz world is SHOW by show bye!!''Magical brain power!!''Both !! Laughing, Fuji TV series "I see! The World''Heisei Board of Education''Quiz! What a year difference』Is amazingAudience ratingTo record.

But,mannerismOverdone or overkillGameThe viewers gradually got tired of the change, and in some programs, the master of ceremoniesRetirement,DiedSince the end of "Magical Brain Power !!" in 1999, "Magical Brain Power !!"Discover the world and mystery!] "Quiz $ Millionaire" etc. are left, and the number of quiz programs continues to decrease.

Meanwhile, in 2003, "Quiz! Hexagon』Starts quizboomThere were signs of a resurrection, and in 2004,Brain supplement IQ supplementAnd the late-night program at that timeSardier], The boom of talent participation quizzes has rekindled. Many quiz shows were born in the golden time from October 2005.In particular, from October 10 to March 2006, Fuji TV consisted of quiz shows at 10:2007, except Tuesdays and Fridays (excluding Tuesdays and Fridays).Belt Quiz F & F).For a while, the quiz boom was down, but since 2007, "Nep League"(Fuji Television Network, Inc),"Quiz presentation variety Q-sama!!(Pressure STUDY) ”(TV Asahi) and other knowledge-based quiz shows, Hexagon, which was suffering from a decline in viewer ratings, renewed the rules and“Quiz! Hexagon IIReborn as "Your bacatalentA new quiz show was born to entertain viewers with unpredictable and unusual answers.

In addition,BS digital broadcastingOn December 2002, 12, when the broadcast started, at 1:11 pm, three hours after the broadcast started at 3:2 am, "" (BS-i)soBidirectionalQuiz show has started.Most of these programs are designed so that viewers can participate in quick-press quizzes using the remote control, and can enjoy them by participating in games with various productions and programs.TIME OVER』And the end, againPersonal Information Protection LawIt is declining due to changes in the management of viewer information and changes in viewers' awareness of personal information.

Entering 2008, TV Asahi performed well in the midnight era.Trivia quiz that can be used right now], [I've been studying Quiz Gulliven"ButPrime timeIn addition to the strong "Q-sama !!"The Quizman!] Was promoted to golden and actively increased the number of quiz shows.In response to this, Fuji TV is broadcasting by 2007 "Heisei Education Preparatory SchoolIn addition to "Nep League," "Quiz Hexagon II," and "IQ Sapuri in the Brain," from April, "Nationwide Japanese test''Certification JaponWill be newly established and all 6 days except Tuesday will be made into a quiz program.Belt Quiz F & FIt was becoming a "quiz boom rekindling", such as going into a game with "".Weekly Oriraj Economic White Paper"("The class you want to takeMay give a quiz, but it is not counted as a "quiz show"), but it disappeared formally, but "Oji Suns 11"ButLever caseBecause it was renewed mainly for quiz planning, it was effectively a quiz show.TV TOKYO has not lasted long since "Quiz Red Shame Blue Shame", and in recent yearsPrime timeThere were few quiz shows in, but in April 2008, "Japanese style homemaker』Has started. TBS has been around for many years, "Discovering the World, Mystery!"pacific saury's SUPER Karakuri TV''Animal fantasy outrageous!"("Pittanko Kang Kang』Has a strong gourmet program color).However, in 3, at around 2009:23, "Quiz! Time Door], [Quiz door』, SeriesEvery day broadcastingAt 22:XNUMXNo.1 deciding match for all quizzesWill be aired for a limited time, and then from October, "THE 1/8 million(MBS), "We are! Quiz MAN(Sunday 20:XNUMX), "Quiz ALL FOR ONE』(Midnight) and so on. NHK is reluctant to quiz shows, but since April 2009Prime timeWhat is being broadcast onQuiz monsterEnd and "Art Entertainment Labyrinth MuseumThe quiz show from prime time disappeared due to the change in the broadcast time of ", but from April 2010, 4,"New sense game Questa』Start.In addition, the above "The Quizman!", "Test Japon", and "Ojisan's 11" have been completed in half a year, and "IQ Sapuri in the Brain" and "Quiz Gulliven I've been studying" have also changed routes. It ended at the end.

Sports type (show type)

It is said that the sports type, which takes the form of competing after pure rules are set, was born in the latter half of the 1980s. "Trans-American Ultra QuizThe university quiz study group, which was created in response to the above, has accumulated quiz know-how by deepening program research.Hayato Nagato,Kazuyuki Nose,Kenichi TanakaTheir success in "The Strongest Quiz King Decision Battle in History"Kenji NishimuraA number of legendary quick pushes by, "FNS 1 million quiz king deciding match!』,Yoshiaki NagataThe era of "sports" has arrived in the form of attention to quiz athletes who are active in quiz athletes and programs that have become gachinko, such as focusing on these characters, but by 1995 the quiz king program was completely gone[11]..Players who have lost their place of activity on television continue to quiz by participating in quiz circles and open competitions held by volunteers.

In 2000, when it was called "Koshien of Intelligence", "High school quiz''Brain king』And a small number of resurrection[12].

Since the 2000s

In the 2000s, the audience rating of quiz programs was overwhelmingly popular on regular broadcasts, "Quiz Hexagon II" (Fuji), followed by "Nep League" (Fuji).

On the other handEscape GameとquizMixedSecret room mystery variety escape game DERO!There were not a few programs that incorporated elements of quiz programs into game programs.

As a trend since the 2010s, since the end of "Quiz Hexagon II", the appearance of "Baka Catalent" in quiz programs has decreased, and instead, members and OBs of university quiz study groups, students of famous advanced schools and past quizzes People other than entertainers, such as working people who were active in the program, have come to appear.

Due to the increase in quiz programs, the material of the problem that is asked may be covered with another quiz program or trivia program,Ijuin HikariHowever, there is a rare case in which he learned the wrong question in the same program before, and was asked again a few months later and answered correctly.In the situation where quiz shows are crowded in recent years, duplication of material and "It is a laughing material to make a stupid answerBullyingIsn't it a kind of? "," It's not a quiz show, it's just a variety show. "[13].

Tendency of quiz show questions

There was a general tendency to ask questions between the viewer participation type and the talent appearance type.

In viewer participation type programs,knowledgeContent that is asked, for example, the pastHistory,Hit song,RecentCurrent eventsProblems are often taken up.

On the other hand, the talent appearance type has recently become "SardierAnd 'Brain supplement IQ supplement], [Shimada Test!! National Potential Test』And more than knowledgeThinking powerQuiz to try (Riddle,There is no quiz,Looking for mistakes, Things guessing, etc.) are increasing.

Since 2007,Suzanne-Uechi YusukeIn response to unusual answers such as, the quiz show itself, as well as the entertainer's "" that greatly spread the name of the person himselfYour bacatalent(From "Quiz! Hexagon II"Pabo,"shame"To sayMusic unitWas formed up to) and was called the "Trivia King" or "Highly educatedIsIntellectualThere are three types of talents, group talents and average grades, and demand varies depending on the program.There are many intellectual talents in knowledge-based programs, and there is a strong tendency for idiots to play an active role in programs such as "Hexagon II" where unusual answers are expected.In quiz shows that have nothing to do with the gameaverageMany talents with similar knowledge will appear.In addition, in knowledge-related programs since the 2010s, there are also programs in which active Tokyo University students and intellectual talents compete against each other.

Therefore, there are many cases where talents who rarely appear in programs other than quizzes appear.Recently, a young man who has a short art history and rarely appears in news programs, but is called because he has a high degree of education.EntertainerOr, I don't usually appear on variety shows other than quizzesAn actor,singerRepeated rare answers when appeared onceYour bacatalentThere is an example that it is recognized as and is often called.

The question itself is not difficult, but to the respondents, such as "You must answer more than the specified number of questions within the time limit" and "If all the participants do not answer correctly, it will not be a point"pressureSome of them make the answer difficult by applying.

Quiz show set

Until the late 1990s,Magical brain power!!''Discover the world and mystery!(However, it was a hina-dan shape or a circle for a while.) ”However, "Quiz! What a year difference』Late (1994 )Such,HinadanThe answerer's seat was already used in a small number of quiz shows.

In quiz shows after the 2000s, set quiz shows such as talk shows, or two stages before and afterHinadanAn increasing number of quiz shows have answerer seats in the shape of a letter. "Pittanko Kan" "Focus with hints] And other V-shaped answerer seating arrangements are often used when two teams compete.Also,"Quiz! HexagonThere is also a quiz show with an unusual set, such as the hexagonal set. "Quiz! Hexagon" has been renewed "Quiz! Hexagon II"of"Queue fast exit! Relay quizOrquiz!Doremifadon(Special program after the end of regular broadcasting) ”, each team is lined up in a vertical row, which is also an unusual set.

Types

Viewer participation type quiz program

Viewer-participation-type quiz programs have generally been in the form of problems that require all kinds of knowledge from ancient times to east and west, and points such as points and prizes are accumulated in a game style.Also, only the contestants who won the championship can challenge.TravelingThere are also many programs that have two stages, such as luxury products such as, and a stage where you can win prize money.Also, in most programs, as a participation prize, as a supplementary prize for victory, from the program sponsorSouvenirAnd program specialGoodsWas given.

Until the 1980sCommercial broadcastEach station broadcast many quiz shows of this type and was very popular.In that era, some people appeared in many programs and competed for the title, called "quiz vandalism", and there was a rule that if you participated in a particularly popular quiz show once, you could not re-enter for several years under the pretext of preventing it. It was enough to be provided.However, in recent years in Japanpersonal information,PoliciesThere is a downward trend due to changes in consciousness related to the situation, and the fact that it is easier and easier for the production side to use a well-known entertainer than to spend time recruiting and selecting performers.

As of April 2020, the programs being broadcast on the nationwide network are "Panel Quiz Attack 25And 'National High School Quiz Championship ("High School Quiz")"(Special program once a year),Super Adversity Quiz Battle!! 99 people's wall] Etc., butLocal showThen this type of quiz project may be broadcast.

Other viewer participation type quiz programs

Problems that will be asked in the program in the 2000sTerrestrial digital broadcasting OfInteractive program(For more informationInteractive programSee section) andMobile phone,computerOn the official program website, programs that solicit viewers' answers and correct answer predictions have been broadcast.The programs on the national network that give quizzes in this format are mainly "All-Star Thanksgiving"(Special program broadcast about twice a year)and so on.

Liberal arts quiz show

Mainly in the worldHistory-cultureIt refers to a quiz show that mainly deals with things related to specialized knowledge in each field.Respondents are relativelyIntelliThere are many people of the system.Also,PTA"Programs you want to show to children" in surveys such as[14]Programs that fall under these categories often appear at the top of the list.

In the program currently being broadcast as of April 2020, "Discover the world and mystery!"and so on.

Educational quiz show

mainlyNews programAnd so ontrendAnd generalcommon sense,Compulsory educationFrom what you learn inUniversityRefers to a quiz show that mainly deals with academics up to the specialized department level of. In the program currently being broadcast as of April 2020, "Quiz presentation variety Q-sama!!], [Nep League], [Cream Quiz Miracle 9], [Todai], [Quiz! Are you smarter than 5th grade?], [Heisei Board of Education"(Currently only special numbers several times a year)and so on.These programs often have talks between the moderator and the answerer,talk show,Variety programThe element of is also strong.

Trivia quiz show

Close to education, but useful in general lifeTravel TipsAnd talkAnecdoteRefers to a quiz show that mainly deals with such things.

A typical one is "Quiz Trivia King] And so on. Although the program currently being broadcast as of April 2020 has a slightly different taste from the quiz program,Chico scolds me!] Has become a popular program.Also"Hayashi's first ear study], But this is情报It also includes elements of variety shows.

Idea-based quiz show

mainlyRiddle,IQ testRefers to a quiz show that mainly deals with problems in a format close to.This kind of programCurrent affairsIs it difficult to use or because the genre is limitedmannerismIt's easy to get rid of and run out of materialLever caseThe concept gradually changes due to such factors, and it tends to be difficult to last for a long time.

As of April 2020Tonight tonight], [Potential test, Etc., but the typical one is "Magical brain power!!], [Brain Esthetic IQ Supplement"and so on.

Entertainment quiz show

It mainly refers to quiz shows with a strong variety.If anything, "Entertainment showsIt falls into the category of.Respondents are relativelycomedian,Gravure idolAnd so on.

The program currently being broadcast as of April 2020 is "Pittanko Kang Kang, But the representative one ended in 2014.pacific saury's SUPER Karakuri TV"was there.

Music quiz show

Refers to a quiz program that focuses on music.The main focus is the "intro quiz," in which only the intro of a song is played and the song is hit quickly.

As of April 2020, the representative program is "Quiz Doremifadon!However, in the finished program, "Tamori's music is the worldThere is

Combat quiz show

Rather than competing for quiz results between answerers, we mainly used quizzes.psychologicalTypicalsurvivalIt refers to a quiz show that engages in battle-like battles.Outside Japan, "The Weekest LinkAnd 'The Cheetah, Etc., and these programs were once broadcast in Japan, but in the case of a format in which the answerers try to pull their legs or kick the opponent to survive, the usual Q & A (question and answer) format Due to problems such as complicated rule settings that are difficult for viewers to understand, it often ends in a short life during the golden time ("Quiz! Hexagon』Was strong, but gradually began to struggle, so the above-mentioned content with a strong variety was added).

A quiz show that doubles as a talk show

A guest who is not a moderator and an answerer or a moderator and an answerer, although it is a quiz program or a variety show, is related to the quiz.TalkThe answerer answers the question while excitement with the program.In some cases, one of the highlights is the bargaining in the talk, such as the talk being mixed with hints to solve the problem, and it is rather talk-based.

Nowadays, most quiz shows often talk with strange answers and anecdotes about problems.This format is "Quiz derby], [Pitashi Kang Kang] Is said to be a pioneer.

Main quiz shows

Quiz program list

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ announcerBroadcasting station employees may also participate, but broadcasting station employees give and receive prizes and prizes.Labor regulationsMany stations prohibit it due to such reasons, and regarding the prize money won,DonationMostly donated to activities.Partly because of this, the fact that the bureau staff is the answerer to the quiz show is limited to special projects, especially in programs where prize money is given.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Takeshi Tanikawa, "Keywords of the Occupation Period 100 1945-1952", 2011.
  3. ^ NHK Archives Blog Akai's Note
  4. ^ Published in "Quiz Japan" vol.3 "Exploring the origin of Japanese quiz culture" p.220
  5. ^ The similarities between the home version and the Japanese version of these programs are obvious when compared and viewed, but there are almost no public records or testimonies of the parties as to whether they were introduced under a formal contract or just imitations. Many are unknown because they do not.
  6. ^ Interactive programs # Causes of decrease in interactive quiz programsSee also
  7. ^ Nippon Television "Gurunai"Such.
  8. ^ TV Asahi "Good Morning"Such.
  9. ^ "Fifty Years of Broadcasting" edited by the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, Japan Broadcast Publishing Association, 1977, p. 710. 
  10. ^ The rationale is"National Association of Commercial Broadcasters Broadcasting Standards" Article 83And, the guideline of the cash limit is written.In the case of non-cash equivalents, it is about 300 million yen.
  11. ^ A modern quiz show that "splits" and a challenge to the 35th year of "High School Quiz" -Introduction to the modern quiz as "National Quiz 2.01"- Net Lab
  12. ^ A modern quiz show that "splits" and a challenge to the 35th year of "High School Quiz" -Introduction to the modern quiz as "National Quiz 2.01"- Net Lab
  13. ^ From the April 2008, 4 issue of Weekly Playboy (in the same magazine, trivia programs such as "The World's Most Wanted Class" are also counted as quiz programs)
  14. ^ Document DATA | Japan PTA National Council

Related item


 

Back to Top
Close