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"Avengers" Jeremy Renner accuses ex-wife

 
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I don't do that, I refuse, "he continued using the banned broadcast term.
 

Jeremy Renner (50), known for his role as Hawkeye in the movie "Avengers" series, is his ex-wife Sony Pachi ... → Continue reading

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Broadcast prohibited terms

Broadcast prohibited termsWhat is (Hosokinshogo)?tv set,radioSuch asMass mediaIn, for some reasonbroadcastIs prohibited from use inwordThat.Today'sJapanWith a few exceptions (as stipulated in the Radio Law), there are no broadcast-prohibited terms stipulated by law, just broadcasters.Self-regulation of expressionIs.in Japan,2008 After that, mainly from the viewerclaim(Of course, this includes those by public authority), and it is called "broadcast caution term" or "broadcast self-restraint term".[1].

Overview

CountryAlthough there are differences depending on each countryRadio ActIn addition to what is stipulated in and related lawsFreedom of speech and expressionIn a country where is permitted, it is generally against "public order and morals", that is,DiscriminationTarget orcontemptof,obscene,crimeWords that affirm and have the meaning of imitating or promoting this, such as those that hinder the neutrality and soundness of broadcasting, are contrary to the public welfare, or are likely to do so, are "inappropriate for use in broadcasting. It is subject to regulation as "a word", and certain restrictions are set on not using it for broadcasting or using it for broadcasting.But do that "judgment" and "regulation"main bodyDifferent, different countriesHistoryReflecting the background, etc.CountryAsdecreeSome countries have "prohibited broadcasting terms" in some countries, while others have made it completely voluntary.In countries where freedom of speech and expression is not granted or restricted by the state.Public authorityThere is a clear banned term by.Pacific WarThe same was true of Japan during the previous war.

After the war, the Japanese media was involved in prewar and wartime propaganda, so broadcastersBroadcasting lawBroadcast according to the provisions ofprogram OfConstitutionProgram standard (broadcasting standard) that should be called (commonly called thisBroadcast code), And operate this at the own risk of each broadcaster.[2]..Under this program standard, "words inappropriate for broadcasting" are treated.Broadcasters make their own decisions, regulate themselves, and maintain neutral and sound broadcasting.In Japanese broadcasting, there is no banned term,It exists only in the "interpretation" of the program standard.In other words, it is not something that is "prohibited" by a third party, but something that decides whether to use it for broadcasting or "self-restraint" at the site judgment of the broadcasting station and the person in charge of production, that is,voluntary restraintsBecause it is something to do, "Broadcast caution term","Broadcast self-restraint termAlso called[1]. further,Words that get caught (conflict) in the broadcast codeAlso called.ConventionallyJapan Broadcasting CorporationIn (NHK), avoid the word "prohibited" and "Broadcast problem terms[3]However, it has been officially abolished since 2008 for the reasons described below.

In the case of Japan, since it is a "self-regulation", there is no "broadcast prohibited term list" stipulated by a third party, and both the television and radio industries interpret their program standards.public opinionDepends on trends, program types (classification of culture, entertainment, etc.), and time zoneAudience,ListenerIn many cases, the judgment is made by adding factors such as changes in layers.For this reason, for example, for those that include words or expressions that require attention when broadcasting, consider that the age group of viewers and listeners will differ depending on the time of day, program genre, etc.Prime timeThen, even if it is regulated, there are things that are broadcast in the middle of the night[4]..In addition, although each word is not inappropriate, comments, songs, videos, etc. that make the "content" that combines them inappropriate are also subject to regulation.In the past, in Japan, "Music censorshipThere was something called, but it is abolished today.[5]..Others that include personal or group information that is not necessary for the content of the program,design,商標Etc. are subject to regulation according to the scope of the law of each country.

Private broadcasting station(Commercial broadcasting) advertising broadcasting (CMSince there are many specific grounds for (= commercial message), there are more specific regulations including expressions, and they are generally broadcast after "preliminary examination" in each country.金融Relationship,tobacco,Medicine,Quasi-drug,So-calledhealthy foodIs a typical example[6].

Incidentally,GermanyThen.Nazism OfpropagandaAnd similar actsCriminal lawBecause it is forbidden byPunishmentThere are formal "broadcast ban terms" and "broadcast ban expressions" that are the subject of.In addition, as it is internationally unified and prohibited by regular broadcasting,Distress signal, That is, "" by the predetermined communication methodmay Day, Etc.

Problems you have

Relationship with freedom of expression

In the first place, of peoplethought-思考Speech and expression by means have a specific purpose and cannot maintain strict neutrality.Therefore, freedom of thought / thinking, speech, and expression must be guaranteed.However, people with a "society" sometimes have a stake in them.The relationship between "freedom" and "responsibility" is established here.In particular, it is easier to create interests between the parties and third parties if freedom of speech and expression is guaranteed by easily expressing everything as it is in broadcasting to the masses. It is a common international perception that it is not desirable.For this reason, speech and expression as "responsibility for broadcasting" are regulated in each country.[7].

Basically, the responsibility for the act of expression belongs to the artist.Therefore, it is the regulation of expression that is done by the expressor himself taking into consideration whether his expression act violates other human rights.In other words, the regulation of expression is not limited to the mass media, but in a democratic society where freedom of expression is guaranteed, it is more widely practiced on a daily basis than at the individual-to-individual level.On the other hand, there are many ways of thinking about what should be expressed concretely, and it is virtually impossible to show it uniquely.[8]..For this reason, even if the broadcast is "determined by the broadcasting station" to be within the range of freedom of expression, it may result in a problem.In recent years in Japan,Lawyer OfTohashi Hashishita Yomiuri Television"Takajin's saying to the committee"soCriminal accused OfCounselTo the defense counsel because he called on the viewer to demand disciplinary action againstDisciplinary requestIs flooded, Hashishita is a business obstruction from this defense counselSuingAndTrialAnd in the second trialplaintiffIt was a victory.In addition, the Osaka Bar Association has imposed disciplinary action on Hashimoto for two months, saying that it falls under the category of "acts that impair dignity".But thenSupreme CourtAlthough Hashishita's remark was "a careless act, and there was an inappropriate point in the remarks," the plaintiff was defeated because it was unavoidable that the defense counsel for a serious case would be criticized by society. Let me[9]..This ruling does not directly justify the broadcaster's judgment, but broadly recognizes the freedom of commentary in broadcasting.[10].

On the other hand, in the past,China broadcasting(RCC)announcerUsing the extra broadcast timeAd libIn some cases, the content spoken in was out of the scope of freedom of expression, and the content was disciplinary action taken by the company for self-regulation, resulting in a complaint and a plaintiff's victory.This was triggered by the announcer in charge, who was a leader of the labor union, talking about the next day's transportation strike etc. in ad lib.[11].

Paraphrase of words

The commercial media is constantly looking for ways to avoid discrimination denunciations.As one of themdiscriminative termIs being paraphrased and replaced.

In Japan, from the standpoint of opposition to some or all paraphrases of discriminatory terms,Word huntSome people criticize it as[12]..Similarly, it is mainly done in English-speaking countries such as the United States.Political Correctness(Political correctness) ”.

"Language expression" is based on "sentences in which words are arranged", and even if only words that are considered to be discriminatory are paraphrased and replaced, it is meaningless if the sentences themselves are intended for discrimination.This is the basis for the criticism of "word hunting" mentioned above.Of course, it is not preferable to use words that are not limited to discriminatory words and that many people feel uncomfortable, but even if only those words are "clean" for that reason, the sentences themselves are unpleasant. Anything that remains is still inappropriate.On the contrary, even if a word that is considered to be discriminatory is used, it is not necessarily inappropriate if the sentence is intended for discrimination denunciation or the like.Furthermore, so-called "verbal violence" can be established even with "all clean words", and even if only "inappropriate words" are regulated, it will never disappear.[13]..Nobuhiko Kobayashi wrote an episode in "Encyclopedia of Laughter" that a commercial broadcaster was angry because he described a bald man as "a person with hair inconvenience."

Words treated as broadcast prohibited terms

Japan

Japanese

There are many words and expressions that are specifically targeted from the historical background, and they are not accurately grasped.From this, NHK,Japan Private Broadcasting Federation(National Association of Commercial Broadcasters) The basis is the interpretation of broadcasting standards.dialectIn many cases, each broadcasting station considers it individually when it becomes a problem.Specifically, it is important to interpret the "spirit of broadcasting standards" rather than listing the target words and expressions, that is, adding the "spirit of broadcasting standards" to the good sense that individuals have acquired so far. Is said to be the "broadcasting standard mind" and is operated according to the "voluntary standards of each person involved in broadcasting".[14].. However2005 After that, regarding words or expressions whose personal information is exposed or may be exposed,Personal Information Protection LawWith the full enforcement of, it is subject to regulation with the exceptions specified.

In addition, since the broadcasting standards of each commercial broadcaster generally comply with the commercial broadcasters' standards.[15], Japan has roughly two broadcasting standards, but since there is no big difference in the basic parts, the terms are interpreted and handled in almost the same way for both NHK and commercial broadcasters.However, since NHK is "public broadcasting" and commercial broadcasting is "commercial broadcasting", there is a difference in the contents handled, and as a result, NHK tends to be "more severe".[16].

Since it is difficult to implement ambiguous concepts such as public order and morals, the basis for the regulation of each language is the "law and morals" in the broadcasting standards.PoliticsThat is, "We will respect the law and do not treat it in a way that approves the words and actions that hinder its enforcement." Be careful ""Race,People, When dealing with things related to the people,感情As a result, the target words are frequently used in each law.事件And multiple domestic and foreignjudicialIt will be based on judgment etc.[17].

In addition, in NHK, scripts and terms that are mainly specialized and difficult to understand are also paraphrased.[18].

In Japan, the detailed setting and handling of prohibited broadcasting terms is still "limited to those involved" at each broadcasting station (as a rare example, the word "mekanchi" is recognized by the judiciary and made public. There is a "Chinba"[19].. ).This is because the regulation of expression in broadcasting is basically done by each broadcasting station's voluntary judgment = subjective judgment, and the range of free thought of each broadcasting station, ultimately as mentioned above, "broadcasting". Because it is "the range of the worker's good sense"[20],Usually due to "biased grounds"This is because it is judged that the publication of prohibited terms is inconsistent with the neutrality that oneself advocates.However, there is no objective correctness in the judgment criteria that are the basis of this.[21].

As one answer to these problems, NHK summarized the results of NHK's original language research for about half a century.2008 The new broadcasting guidelines stipulate that "broadcasting scripts, terms, and pronunciations are based on the" NHK New Script Glossary, "" NHK Language Handbook, "and" NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary. " "Broadcastable terms considered by NHKPublished about[22], Based on the judgment of the public, it was decided to add or remove as appropriate[23]..Commercial broadcasters are generally following this.[1].. Therefore,Words and usages not found in the "NHK New Character Glossary" and "NHK Language Handbook"Has become a practically banned term, so the term vs. the reason for the restriction that has existed in each station for many years is shown.Broadcast problem termsThe "list" is a thing of the past.

However, since it is very difficult to operate these smoothly,2016 (28) At present, the actual operation is mainly in accordance with the ones appropriately determined by the complaints from the viewers (including those by public authority), which are new "broadcast caution terms" or "broadcast self-restraint terms". It has become something called[1].

However, even if broadcasting is prohibited today, such as classical literature, when reading a work, it may be read as it is with respect for originality and historical background, so please refuse it.[Annotation 1]In some cases.

Languages ​​other than Japanese

Foreign language broadcasts in Japan are treated in much the same way as those in Japanese.

Besides Japan

Outside of Japan, it may be a formal broadcast prohibited term stipulated by law.

Western

The following will be described using English as an example.In the West, there is a cultural concept that the use of obscene and crude words in public places is taboo. The use of words such as "shit" has been legally restricted not only for use in public places but also for publications.Even today, there are quite a few places that have legal restrictions on the use of extremely obscene words such as Fuck and Cunt in public places.In this way, because of the existence of higher-level cultural concepts and direct legal regulations, the situation is the opposite of that of Japan, where self-regulation is firmly established.

In the case of discriminatory terms, there is no idea that the use of each discriminatory term is uniformly prohibited by self-regulation.For example, discriminatory terms such as Nigger are commonly used (by villains) when racial conflicts are portrayed in dramas. Before the 1970s, "vulgar broadcast content" became a problem, and it was regarded as a uniform broadcast prohibited term.Seven Great Profanity"(The Seven Dirty Words, Dirty 7 words) are not currently treated as such.

Since the concept of respect for freedom of speech and expression has been established in the masses for a long time, the act of censoring words tends to be avoided.For this reason, the tendency to directly ask the speaker to take responsibility for it has become established.in AmericaThe Tonight ShowBlind singer who appeared inTom sullivanThe moderator said, "Silents (blind) is hard," but Sullivan said, "I've been blind since I was born, so I think it's a bit crippled. No. I'm having fun. I don't have to say it's silent for me. "[24].

Broadcasters will be held liable for those who make inappropriate remarks and expressions, and for the easy use of program materials containing inappropriate words and expressions, and for conflicting opinions. From the idea that the opinions and judgments of the general public should be respected rather than the judgments of, words other than "fuck" are not banned from broadcasting.Furthermore, even with Fuck, that part is only erased by sound effects, etc., and it is not specifically prohibited for the performers to say the words.

In other words, since the handling of prohibited words is the responsibility of the speaker, not the broadcasting station, muffling measures are often taken at the discretion of the broadcasting station only for performers who are not responsible for their own remarks. ..In countries where freedom of speech and expression is guaranteed, if a broadcaster suffers damage due to inappropriate remarks or expressions by a performer, the broadcaster will file a suit for damages against the performer, vice versa. In addition, as a result of muffling measures at the broadcaster's own discretion, there are cases where the broadcaster is sued by the performers for not being able to correctly convey his claim to the public.

Seven Great Profanity
AmericaFederal Communications CommissionBroadcast prohibited terms specified by (FCC)

In addition to the above, hell and damn were also specified, but they were canceled around 2000.[25].

Problem terms other than the seven profanity

Anime movieCastle Laputa in the SkyThe title of the English version for the United States is "La puta"Spanishso"ProstituteBecause it is a word that means "HispanicIt is said to be "Castle in the Sky" (castle in the sky) in consideration of viewers.Also"nigga"Is a word that despises black people and is also commonly called" N word ", but of course there can be no broadcast content that positively treats insulting black people with this word, and racial conflict is incorporated in the script. It may be used in programs that are being broadcast.

Even if there is no problem with the main point of the music, since it is a short song, there is a possibility that the main point may not be accurately conveyed to the viewer / listener.The United States of AmericaThen, if derogatory words, discriminatory words, etc. are used in the lyrics and sound effects, that partvocalCut and edit the soundSelf-regulating soundOr replace it with a word or phrase that has a discrepancy in meaning but has a similar pronunciation, or a word or phrase that does not have a similar pronunciation but has a meaningful meaning.

Nazi related or similar

As mentioned above, in Europe and the United States, words other than "fuck" are not banned from broadcasting.GermanyThen of NazismpropagandaAnd similar acts are prohibited by Article 86a of the Criminal Code, and Germany has formal "broadcast ban terms" and "broadcast ban expressions" that are subject to punishment.

National Socialist German Labor Party(Nation alsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, so-calledNazi party) In some words and expressions that treat positively, especially in the same partyHaken Kreuz(Hakenkreuz, Swastika) and somesymbolRegulations are strict and basicallyAcademicIt cannot be used for any other purpose.

In recent years, regulations have been somewhat relaxed, provided that the party is clearly treated as a criminal organization with the aim of uplifting.Since it is prohibited by the criminal law, this regulation is not limited to broadcasting.Publication,インターネットEtc. are also widely targeted.

A nation that prohibits Nazist propaganda and similar acts by criminal law, etc.EuropeThen besidesAustria,Hungary,Poland,Czech Republic,Franceand so on.Broadcasters in these countries use words and expressions related to or similar to the Nazis as the same as or similar to Germany.Prohibition or restriction of use.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Subtitle display example: "We will respect the intentions of the original author and creator, and broadcast the original as it is."

Source

  1. ^ a b c d "Where is freedom of speech and expression ... Too strict self-regulation of "prohibited broadcast terms""Oricon News", April 2016, 2.2019/9/4Browse.
  2. ^ "Broadcasting Handbook: Private Business Knowledge to Become Culture"Japan Private Broadcasting FederationHen,Toyo Keizai Inc., March 1992, 3 (Original work May 16, 1991), 5th printing p23-4 and others.ISBN 4492760857.
  3. ^ The "Broadcast Problem Glossary" is usually kept secret about its very existence, but the author'sToshio OkadaBecame publicly known by his book "Introduction to Otaku Studies" published in May 1996.
  4. ^ "Broadcasting Handbook: Business Knowledge of Commercial Broadcasters that Make Culture", edited by National Association of Commercial Broadcasters, Toyo Keizai, March 1992, 3 (original work May 16, 1991), 5th print p23-4 and others.ISBN 4492760857.
  5. ^ Tatsuya Mori"Broadcast Ban Song"Kobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd.<> (Original work June 2003, 6), p. 6.ISBN 9784334782252.
  6. ^ "Broadcasting Handbook: Business Knowledge of Commercial Broadcasters that Make Culture", edited by National Association of Commercial Broadcasters, Toyo Keizai, March 1992, 3 (original work May 16, 1991), 5th print p23-4 and others.ISBN 4492760857.
  7. ^ "Broadcasting Handbook: Business Knowledge of Commercial Broadcasters that Make Culture", edited by National Association of Commercial Broadcasters, Toyo Keizai, March 1992, 3 (original work May 16, 1991), 5th print p23 and others.ISBN 4492760857.
  8. ^ "Broadcasting Handbook: Business Knowledge of Commercial Broadcasters that Make Culture", edited by National Association of Commercial Broadcasters, Toyo Keizai, March 1992, 3 (original work, May 16, 1991), 5th print p23-4.ISBN 4492760857.
  9. ^ Supreme Court 21 (Received) 1905 Judgment.
  10. ^ Supreme Court 21 (Received) 1905 Full text of the judgment p12 Supplementary opinion of the judge, etc.
  11. ^ "The" Ad-lib "Case and the People's Right to Know--The 11 Years of the Chinese Broadcasting Workers' Union" Nobuyoshi Azami, Nobuyoshi Azami (Original September 1975), 9st printing p1-2.
  12. ^ "" Word hunting "and freedom of publication"Akashi bookstore(Original May 1994, 5).ISBN 9784750305820.
  13. ^ "" Kotobagari "and Freedom of Publishing" Akashi Shoten (Original May 1994, 5).ISBN 9784750305820.
  14. ^ "Broadcasting Handbook: Business Knowledge of Commercial Broadcasters that Make Culture", edited by National Association of Commercial Broadcasters, Toyo Keizai, March 1992, 3 (original work May 16, 1991), 5th print p23 and others.ISBN 4492760857.
  15. ^ "Broadcasting Handbook: Business Knowledge of Commercial Broadcasters that Make Culture", edited by National Association of Commercial Broadcasters, Toyo Keizai, March 1992, 3 (original work May 16, 1991), 5th print p23 and others.ISBN 4492760857.
  16. ^ It depends mainly on the difference between handling and not handling advertisements.
  17. ^ "Broadcasting Handbook: Business Knowledge of Commercial Broadcasters that Make Culture", edited by National Association of Commercial Broadcasters, Toyo Keizai, March 1992, 3 (original work May 16, 1991), 5th print p23 and others.ISBN 4492760857.
  18. ^ "NHK Language Handbook"NHK Broadcasting Culture Research InstituteHen,Japan Broadcast Publishing Association(Original work November 2005), 11nd edition.ISBN 9784140112182.
  19. ^ Political broadcast deletion casechecking ...
  20. ^ "Broadcasting Handbook: Business Knowledge of Commercial Broadcasters that Make Culture", edited by National Association of Commercial Broadcasters, Toyo Keizai, March 1992, 3 (original work May 16, 1991), 5th print p23-4 and others.ISBN 4492760857.
  21. ^ "Broadcasting Handbook Revised Edition", edited by National Association of Commercial Broadcasters, Japan,Nikkei BP, April 2007, 4 (Original work April 7, 2007), 4st edition "Broadcasting Ethics".ISBN 978-4-8222-9194-5.
  22. ^ "NHK New Character Glossary" edited by NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, Japan Broadcast Publishing Association (original work March 2004), 3rd edition.ISBN 9784140112007.
  23. ^ "Handbook of NHK Language", edited by NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, Japan Broadcast Publishing Association (original work November 2005), 11nd edition.ISBN 9784140112182.
  24. ^ Tatsuya Mori "Broadcast Ban Song" Kobunsha <Wisdom Forest Bunko> (Original June 2003, 6), p. 6.ISBN 9784334782252.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Tatsuya Mori "Broadcast Ban Song" Kobunsha <Wisdom Forest Bunko> (Original June 2003, 6), p. 6.ISBN 9784334782252.

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