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🤖 | What is the artificial satellite business involved in the NSR, which is attracting attention?


What is the artificial satellite business that is also involved in the NSR, which is attracting attention?

If you write the contents roughly
There are more than 4000 artificial satellites in the earth's orbit.

Space business is one of the rapidly developing business fields in the world.A long time ago, it was the stage for science fiction and anime ... → Continue reading

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Artificial satellite

Artificial satellite(Jinkou Eisei,British: artificial satellite) Is惑星,mainly地球 OfOrbitBeing on top and having a specific purposeArtificial celestial body..On the earth, an objectrocketPut onFirst cosmic velocity(TheoreticallyAbove sea levelAt 0 m, about 7.9 km / s = 28,400 km / h[Note 1]) By acceleratingEarth's gravityAnd trying to escape from gravityCentrifugal forceIs balanced, and the object isEarth orbitBecome an artificial satellite that keeps orbiting[1]..However, even if it continues to orbit, debris of used rockets and fragments of artificial satellites that have no purpose areSpace debrisDistinguished as.Also, orbits other than planets (Lunar orbit,Orbit around the sun) Orbiting artificial celestial bodiesSpace probeIs generally distinguished.Also referred to simply as a "satellite" in the context of what is clearly known to be an artifact.

Manned spacecraft,Space station,space shuttleIs also included in the artificial satellite,US Aerospace AgencyAlthough it is also published in artificial satellite orbit data such as, it is generally not called an artificial satellite when referring to these.

Mankind's first artificial satellite1957/ToSoviet UnionLaunchedSputnik 1.21st centuryBy the beginning, thousands of satellites had been launched into orbit around the earth.

Artificial satellites have a wide variety of uses, and the most common ones areMilitary satellite,Reconnaissance satellite,Communication satellite,Broadcast satellite,Earth observation satellite,Navigation satellite,Meteorological satellite,Science satellite,Amateur satelliteAnd so on.

Most artificial satellites are in orbit around the earth,Planetary explorationFor the purpose火星,SaturnSome observation aircraft have reached the orbits of other planets such as, and they are artificial satellites of each planet.These make observations of planets,Mars probeVarious observation data from space probes that have landed on the surface of other planets are relayed to the earth.



The first time an artificial satellite was drawn in fiction(English edition)Short story, "(English edition)].This storyThe atlantic monthly Made into a series from 1869[2][3]..This concept first appeared in 1879.Jules Verneof"(English edition)].

1903/,Konstantin TsiolkovskyIs "Space Exploration with Reaction Utilization Device" (Russian: Exploration of world spaces by jet instruments) Is published.This is for launching a spaceshipRocket engineeringIt was the first academic paper on.Tsiolkovsky is required for the smallest orbit of the earthOrbital speedIs calculated as 8km / s,Liquid fuelIt was usedMulti-stage rocketIf so, it is achievable.Also heLiquid hydrogenとLiquid oxygenSuggested the use of.

1928 years,スロベニア Of(English edition) The Problem of Space Travel — The Rocket Motor(German: Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums — der Raketen-Motor) Was published and described space travel and human permanent stay.He conceived a space station and calculated the geostationary orbit of the station.He also described in detail that artificial satellites can be used for peaceful and military observations on the ground, about the significance of special conditions in outer space for scientific experiments, and the use of geostationary satellites for communications, etc. Also mentioned.

1945 years,Arthur C. ClarkIs a magazine(English edition)Above, using a communication satelliteMass communicationDescribed in detail the possibility of[4]..Clark also investigated plans for artificial satellite launches, possible satellite orbits, and proposed that three geostationary orbit satellites cover the entire globe.

Birth of artificial satellite

Second World WarDeveloped inGermany OfV2 rocketWith its technology and its engineers, rocket technology in the United States and the Soviet Union has made rapid progress, and artificial satellites are becoming a reality.

United States of America1945/Than(English edition)Under the circumstances, we have been considering the launch of an artificial satellite.1946/U.S. Air Force in MayLand InstituteReport, "Preliminary Design of Experimental Orbiting Spacecraft" (Preliminary Design of a Experimental World-Circling Spaceship ) States that "artificial satellites equipped with suitable equipment can be one of the most powerful scientific tools of the 20th century."[5]I didn't think artificial satellites had military significance, but rather scientific, political, and propaganda at the time.US Secretary of Defense The1954/"I don't know about domestic artificial satellite plans" (I know of no American satellite program)[6].

1955/7/29,White House The1958/Announced that it will launch an artificial satellite by the spring of.this isVanguard planBecame known as.On July 7, the same year, the Soviet Union1957/Announced that it will launch an artificial satellite by the fall of.

Sergey KorolevAnd assistant(English edition)Of the Soviet Union led bySputnik programBegins,1957/10/4The first artificial satellite "Sputnik 1Was launched[7]..Sputnik 1 helped confirm the density of the upper atmosphere by analyzing its orbital changes, and provided data on radio signal disturbances in the ionosphere.The satellite's airframe was filled with pressurized nitrogen, and temperature data sent to Earth revealed that meteorites penetrated the airframe's surface and reduced internal pressure.This is the firstMeteoroidIt was the detection of.

This sudden successThe United States of AmericaToSputnik shockAnd then the fierceness of the United States and the Soviet UnionSpace development competitionWas connected to.

In June 1, three and a half years after Sputnik 3, the U.S. Air Force(English edition)Created a list of 115 artificial satellites using the resources of[8].

Space surveillance network

The United States Space Surveillance Network (SNN) has been tracking space objects since 1957, and as of 2008 it has been tracking more than 8,000 artificial objects.The number of man-made objects in orbitT5 from artificial satelliteskilogramThere are various parts such as rocket parts.These 7 percent are artificial satellites in operation, and everything elseSpace debrisIs[9].

SNN is tracking objects over 10 cm in diameter.US Strategic ArmyIs primarily interested in active satellites, but is also tracking space debris that will re-enter so as not to mistake it for a missile approach.

Non-military satellite service

There are basically three types of non-military artificial satellite operations.[10].

Fixed satellite service

(English edition)Processes hundreds of billions of voice, video, and data communications tasks between specific points across countries and continents.

Mobile satellite system

Mobile satellite systems are used not only as navigation systems for cars, ships, planes and people in remote areas, but also for communicating with other mobile and fixed communication devices in different parts of the world.

Scientific observation satellite (commercial / non-profit)

Scientific observation satellites include meteorological information and ground information.Earth scienceof,oceanographyof,Atmospheric physicsUsed for surveys.

Classification of artificial satellites

Classification by purpose

Other classifications

  • Small satellite--Small and lightweight artificial satellite[11].Amateur satellite,Piggyback satellite,CubeSatMost of them are classified here.The new classification method is further divided into mini satellites (500-100 kg), micro satellites (100-10 kg), and nano satellites (10 kg or less).[12].
  • Space station --A structure designed so that humans can survive in outer space.Other in that there is no propulsion / landing gearManned spacecraftIs distinguished from.
  • - Nuclear powerA satellite powered by.It was launched by the US and Soviet Union in the early stages of space development, but it has not been launched at present.SovietCosmos 954Fell to Canada.
  • Tether satellite --A satellite connected to other satellites with a thin cable called a tether.


Orbit type

World's first artificial satelliteSputnik 1 TheEarth orbitWas launched into.Currently of this kindOrbitIs the most common, so the earth is often omitted in the orbital name.Orbits around the earth are further classified by altitude, orbital inclination, and orbital eccentricity.

Classification by center

Classification by altitude

  • Low orbit (LEO) --Earth orbit at an altitude of 2,000 km or less.The International Space Station and others are in this orbit.
  • Medium earth orbit (MEO) --From an altitude of 2,000kmGeosynchronous orbitOrbit around the earth up to (35,786km).
  • High orbit (HEO) --Earth orbit outside the geosynchronous orbit.

Classification by orbit inclination angle

  • Inclined orbit --SatelliteOrbital inclinationOrbit that is tilted with respect to the equator of the planet.
    • Polar orbit --Planetaryvery, Or an orbit that passes over the very vicinity.Therefore, the orbit inclination angle is close to 90 °.
    • verySun-synchronous orbit --Close to polar orbit,equatorialOrbit that always passes through at the same local time.å½±Is convenient for taking images because it can always be in the same place.
  • Retrograde or prograde --Orbits with an inclination angle of 90 ° or less.It orbits in the same direction as the rotation of the planet.
  • Retrograde or prograde --Orbits with an inclination angle of 90 ° or more.It orbits in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the planet.Apart from sun-synchronous orbit, few satellites are put into retrograde orbit due to fuel problems.This is because when launching a rocket from the earth, the projectile has already obtained the same rotation speed as the latitude of the launch site.

Classification by eccentricity

  • circular orbit - Orbital eccentricityIs 0, and the orbit is in the shape of a circle.
  • Elliptical orbit --Orbits with an eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1.Draw an ellipse.
    • Geostationary transfer orbit --An elliptical orbit with a perigee on a low earth orbit and a perigee on a geostationary orbit.
    • Molniya orbit --An elliptical orbit with an orbital inclination of 63.4 ° and an orbital period half that of sidereal time.
    • Tundra orbit --An elliptical orbit with an orbital inclination of 63.4 ° and an orbital period similar to that of sidereal time.
  • Hyperbolic trajectory ――Has an eccentricity of 1 or moreOrbit.Space velocityIt has the above speed and shakes off the gravitational force of the celestial body.
  • Parabolic trajectory --Eccentricity is 1Orbit..It has the same speed as the cosmic velocity and shakes off the gravitational force of the earth.If the velocity increases, it becomes a hyperbolic trajectory.
    • (English edition) (EO) --A parabolic trajectory in which an object moves away from the earth at cosmic velocity.
    • (English edition) --A parabolic trajectory in which an object approaches the earth at cosmic velocity.

Classification by periodicity

  • Return orbit —— An orbit that orbits the planet several times in a day and returns to its original surface at the same time a day later.The rotation period of the planet is an integral multiple of the orbital period of the satellite.
    • Synchronous orbit (SO) --The rotation period of the planet and the satelliteRevolution cycleOrbits that are equal.From the perspective of ground observers, satellitesAnalemmaMove on.
      • Geosynchronous orbit (GEO) --Synchronous orbit around the earth.Altitude about 35,786 km.
      • (English edition) --Synchronous orbit around Mars.The orbital period is on MarsSidereal timeEqual to (24.6229 hours).
        • (English edition) (ASO) --Mars synchronous orbit at an altitude of 1700 km on the equator of Mars.It corresponds to the geosynchronous orbit of the earth.
      • (English edition) --Synchronous orbit around the sun.The orbital radius is 0.1628AUAnd it is a little smaller than half the orbital radius of Mercury.
    • Semi-synchronous orbit (SSO) --Orbits whose orbital period is equal to half the rotation period of the planet.
  • Semi-return orbit —— An orbit that orbits the earth several times in a day and does not return within that day, but returns to the original surface of the earth after a certain number of days.
  • Sun-synchronous orbit —— An orbit in which the angle between the orbital surface of the artificial satellite and the sun's rays is always constant.Because sunlight is always available and the angle of the sun's rays is always constant with respect to the surface of the earth.Earth observation satelliteIs used for.

Pseudo orbit

Artificial satellite configuration

The artificial satellite system is "Satellite system"When"Ground support systemConsists of[18], Between the twoUplinkとDownlinkIs done.The satellite system is a "satellite" for carrying out missions specific to that satellite.Mission equipment"Whenelectricity,communication,Attitude controlRequired for basic functions such as "Bus equipmentIt is composed of.In addition, the ground support system consists of equipment for tracking artificial satellites, acquiring data, and operating and controlling them.[19].

Satellite bus department

TTC system

TTC is a telemetry (transmission of satellite operation status to the ground), tracking (transmission and reception of orbit measurement signals), and command (operation commands such as power on / off of equipment and mode switching).However, in recent years, the number of cases where commands are automatically transmitted by the installed computer is increasing, and the TTC system is called the C & DH system (command data handling system).[19].

Power supply system

  • Solar cell,battery,, consists of a power controller.The solar cell is mounted on the surface of the airframe or on the solar cell paddle.
  • Once smallReactorHas been used for artificial satellites, but now it is almostSolar cellIs used.Also, without the solar cell,batteryThere are also only satellites.
  • Solar cells may not be usable on space probes, but in that caseAtomic batteryPrepare an alternative power supply.

Posture control system

Artificial satellites are the strain of the earth's gravitational field, the attraction of the moon and the sun,Solar windThe attitude gradually changes due to minute forces other than the gravitational force of the earth, such as dilute air molecules.Posture stabilization is roughly divided into "spin attitude stabilization method" and "three-axis attitude stabilization method". The former was often used in the early stages of space development because it has a simple structure and does not require special equipment. The shape is limited to a cylinder, and the solar cell can only be attached to the surface of the cylinder.The latter has the advantage that the posture direction can be freely selected and a large vertical solar cell paddle can be attached, but it also has the disadvantage that thermal control becomes complicated.[19].

Propulsion system

  • Even if the satellite is put into the planned orbit, if it is left unattended, the earth'sGravity anomalyAndSolar windThe trajectory gradually changes due to the disturbance caused by.so that,ThrusterIs operated to control the orbit.
  • Reconnaissance satelliteIn the case of, it is also used to make the necessary orbital changes for reconnaissance.
  • Geostationary satellite, this means a Geostationary transfer orbitからGeostationary orbitTo change the trajectory toApogee kick motorIs installed, but it also constitutes a propulsion system.
  • It is also used to finally increase orbit altitude so that geostationary satellites have reached the end of their life and debris does not occupy valuable geostationary orbit.It can also be used to create a safe inrush orbit when an orbiting satellite falls to Earth.

Structure system

Satellites receive large loads, vibrations, and shocks during launch and separation.Therefore, it is necessary to design the airframe so as to reduce the burden on the on-board equipment.There are structures such as a central cylindrical type, a panel support type, and a truss type, and they may be composed of a composite of these.Where strength is required as a material,TitaniumEtc. are used[19].

Thermal control system

Satellites are exposed to harsh high to low temperature environments in outer space.Also, in outer space, which is a vacuumradiationbyWaste heatThere is only.Therefore, in order for the mounted equipment to operate well, it is necessary to design it well so that it falls within the operating temperature.ActualhardwareWill be realized by making full use of the following means.

  • --Insulation material.Suppress heat in and out.
  • heat pipe --Transfer excessive heat dissipation from the heat source to the radiator.
  • Radiator --A thermal radiator.
  • heater --Warm the equipment so that it is not overcooled.

On geostationary satellitessummer solstice,winter solstice,spring equinox,Autumn equinoxUnder the conditions of, the condition of sunlight and from the earthradiationDesign analysis is performed using a finite element satellite structural model.

Mission department

Observation equipment

Observation equipment to realize the mission.For details, refer to the item of each artificial satellite.


transponderIs a device installed in the case of communication / broadcasting satellites.A transmitter / receiver that receives radio waves emitted from the ground, converts frequencies, amplifies high power, and sends them back to the ground.

Antenna system

antennaIs a gateway for radio waves and plays an important role in broadcasting / communication missions and radar observation satellites.

Ground control system

Satellite abandonment

As the satellite's mission nears completion, there are options to move the satellite out of its current orbit, leave it in place, or move it to graveyard orbit.Early artificial satellites rarely had the function of changing orbits due to budgetary reasons.For example1958/Was launched intoVanguard 1Is the fourth satellite put into orbit,2009/8It still exists in orbit and is the longest satellite in orbit.[20].

Currently, satellites in geosynchronous orbit, including meteorological satellites, are equipped with thrusters to control attitude and orbit.When the thruster runs out of fuel, the satellite will not be able to maintain a geosynchronous orbit, so at the end of its life, it will be in a higher orbit from the geosynchronous orbit.Graveyard orbit),Stoppage·Discard.However, some of them could not get out of orbit for some reason,Space debrisSome satellites turn into[21].AirbusEtc. are considering a service to catch and drop an old artificial satellite that cannot move[22].

When dropping while controlling on the ground, it is on the South PacificPole of inaccessibility(Point Nemo) To drop[23].

There are also plans to extend the life of the spacecraft by refueling and repairing it.[24].

Countries / organizations that have successfully put artificial satellites into orbit

This list is the launch machine of your own country (Launch Vehicle) Is a list of countries that have succeeded in getting artificial satellites into orbit.Many countries have the ability to design and manufacture artificial satellites, but the countries that can launch artificial satellites with their own launch vehicles are2013/19 countries at the end (Russia,ウクライナ,America,Japan,Chugoku,India,Israel,(I.e.,north korea) And 1 institution (European Space Agency(ESA)) only, and the majority of countries will rely on these few countries and agencies for launch operations.

Launch capability by private organizations

  • Orbital Sciences TheTaurus rocketWe are launching using.
  • 2008/9/28, Commercial airlinesSpace x TheFalcon 1The rocket was successfully launched into orbit.This is the first time a privately built liquid fuel booster has reached orbit.[25]..The rocket launched a 1.5 m long model into orbit.This dummy satellite called Ratsat burns out in the atmosphere in 5 to 10 years.[25]..In addition, a small number of private companies are developing rockets capable of ballistic flight.
  • Arianespace,Mitsubishi Heavy IndustriesEtc. have been transferred from the space agency to launch artificial satellites.

First artificial satellite by country

The country's first artificial satellite, including one from another country's rocket[26]
Country / institutionfirst
Launch year
First artificial satelliteNumber of satellites in orbit[27]
As of 2013 (2011)
Soviet Union flag Soviet Union
(Russian flag Russia)
Sputnik 1
(Cosmos 2175)
1,457 (1,446)
United States flag America1958/Explorer 11,110 (1,112)
British flag United Kingdom1962/Ariel 10030 (28)
Canadian flag Canada1962/Alouette 10034 (32)
Italian flag Italy1964/San Marco 10022 (18)
French flag France1965/Asterix0057 (49)
Australian flag Australia1967/WRESAT0013 (12)
German flag Germany1969/Azul0042 (41)
Japanese flag Japan1970/Osumi0134 (126)
Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku1970/Toho Beni No. 10140 (117)
Dutch flag  Netherlands1974/ANS0013 (12)
Spanish flag Spain1974/INTASAT0009 (9)
Indian flag India1975/Ariyabata0054 (49)
Indonesian flag Indonesia1976/Palapa A10012 (11)
Czechoslovak flag Czechoslovakia1978/Magion 10005
European Space Agency1979/(English edition)0000Unknown (49)
Bulgarian flag Bulgaria1981/Bulgaria 13000001 (1)
Saudi arabia flag Saudi Arabia1985/(English edition)0012
Brazilian flag Brazil1985/Brasilsat A10013 (12)
Mexican flag Mexico1985/(English edition)0007 (8)
Swedish flag Sweden1986/Viking0011 (13)
Israeli flag Israel1988/Ofeq 10011 (10)
Luxembourg flag Luxembourg1988/(English edition)0005 (19)
Argentina flag Argentine1990/LUSAT0009 (9)
Hong Kong flag Hong Kong1990/(English edition)0009
Pakistan flag Pakistan1990/(English edition)0003 (3)
Republic of Korea flag  South Korea1992/Uribyeol No. 10011 (10)
Portugal flag Portugal1993/(English edition)0001 (1)
Kingdom of Thailand flag Thailand1993/Thaicom 10007 (7)
Turkish flag Turkey1994/(English edition)0008 (7)
Ukrainian flag ã‚¦ã‚¯ãƒ©ã‚¤ãƒŠ1995/Sich-10006
Malaysia flag Malaysia1996/(English edition)0006
Norway flag Norway1997/Thor No. 20003
Philippines flag ãƒ•ã‚£ãƒªãƒ”ン1997/Abira No. 2
(Mabhai No. 1)
Egyptian flag Egypt1998/(English edition)0004
Chilean flag ãƒãƒª1998/(English edition)0002 (1)
Singapore flag Singapore1998/ST-10003
Taiwan flag Republic of China1999/FORMOSAT-10008 (8)
Danish flag Denmark1999/(English edition)0004
South African flag South Africa1999/SUNSAT0002
United Arab Emirates flag United Arab Emirates2000/Thuraya 10006 (5)
Morocco flag ãƒ¢ãƒ­ãƒƒã‚³2001/(English edition)0001
Algerian flag ã‚¢ãƒ«ã‚¸ã‚§ãƒªã‚¢2002/(English edition)0002
Greek flag Greece2003/(English edition)0002
Nigerian flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu2003/0004
Iran flag (I.e.2005/Sina-10001
Kazakhstan flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu2006/KazSat-10002
Colombia flag ã‚³ãƒ­ãƒ³ãƒ“ã‚¢2007/Libertad 10001
Vietnam flag Vietnam2008/Vinasat-10001
Venezuelan flag ãƒ™ãƒã‚ºã‚¨ãƒ©2008/Venesat-10001
Swiss flag Switzerland2009/Swiss cube [28]0002
Polish flag Poland[29]2012/(English edition)0002 (1)
Hungarian flag Hungary2012/MaSat-1 [30]0005
Romanian flag ãƒ«ãƒ¼ãƒžãƒ‹ã‚¢2012/Goliath [31]0001
Belarusian flag ãƒ™ ラ ル ー シ2012/BKA (BelKA-2)0000n / A
Democratic People's Republic of Korea flag DPR Korea2012/Gwangmyeong Star No. 3 Unit 2 [32]0001
Azerbaijan flag ã‚¢ã‚¼ãƒ«ãƒã‚¤ã‚¸ãƒ£ãƒ³2013/(English edition)
Peru flag Peru2014/(English edition)

Canada is the third country to make artificial satellites[33]The launch was carried out by an American rocket at an American range.Australia was donated by the United StatesRedstoneAnd by the American support teamWRESATLaunched[34].. ItalyNASAAlong with a trained Italian team in the United StatesWallops IslandからScout rocketLaunched using[35].


Attack on satellite

In the early 21st century, satellites were used by military organizationspropagandaFrom purpose or military networkConfidential informationTo stealhackingIs receiving[40][41].

Low earth orbit artificial satellites from the earthBallistic missileIt can be destroyed by.Russia, the United States, and China have conducted experiments on satellite destruction[42].. In 2007, China launched its own meteorological satelliteFengyun No. XNUMX CDestroy[42], February 2008, US Navy launches its own reconnaissance satelliteUS-193Is destroying[43].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The higher the altitude, the smaller the effect of gravity, so it is possible to orbit at a lower speed (smaller centrifugal force).For example, at an altitude of about 36,000 kmGeostationary orbitThen, at about 3.1 km / s, an artificial satellite (Geostationary satellite).


  1. ^ The 12th "7.9km / s" Hokkaido University Research & Business Park
  2. ^ "Rockets in Science Fiction (Late 19th Century)”. Marshall Space Flight Center. 2008/11/21Browse.
  3. ^ Everett Franklin Bleiler; Richard Bleiler (1991). Science-fiction, the Early Years. Kent State University Publishing. pp. 325. ISBN 978-0873384162 
  4. ^ Richard Rhodes (2000). Visions of Technology. Simon & Schuster. Pp. 160. ISBN 978-0684863115 
  5. ^ "Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship". Land Institute. 2008/3/6Browse.
  6. ^ Alfred Rosenthal (1968). Venture Into Space: Early Years of Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA. pp. 15 
  7. ^ “Kerim Kerimov”, Encyclopædia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/914879/Kerim-Kerimov 2008/10/12Browse. 
  8. ^ David SF Portree; Joseph P. Loftus, Jr (1999). “Orbital Debris: A Chronology". Johnson Space Center. pp. 18. As of September 2000, 9original[Broken link]More archives.2008/11/21Browse.
  9. ^ "Orbital Debris Education Package". Johnson Space Center.As of August 2008, 4original[Broken link]More archives.2008/3/6Browse.
  10. ^ Grant, A .; Meadows, J. (2004). Communication Technology Update (ninth edition ed.). Focal Press. Pp. 284. ISBN 0240806409 
  11. ^ "Workshop on the Use of Microsatellite Technologies”. United Nations. Pp. 6 (2008). 2008/3/6Browse.
  12. ^ "Small space satellite technology competition-NANO / PICO has become an international standard technology- (from large secondary use to optimal small use)". 2010/3/15Browse.
  13. ^ "JAXA begins research and development of "cleaning satellite"-XNUMX years later, commercialization of small aircraft". Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun. 2010/3/17Browse.
  14. ^ Mitsubishi Electric DSPACE / April 2009 Column Vol.4 [Clean up the self-propagating "space debris"! : Kimiyo Hayashi]
  15. ^ Conductive Tether (EDT): Research and Development Department -JAXA
  16. ^ Environmental business --Nitto Seimo Co., Ltd.
  17. ^ James Oberg (July 1984). “Pearl Harbor In Space". Omni Magazine. pp. 42–44. 2008/3/6Browse.
  18. ^ Koichi Suzuki "First Space Engineering" Morikita Publishing Co., Ltd., 2007.ISBN 978-4-627-69071-4. 
  19. ^ a b c d Nobuo Iwasaki "Introduction to Illustrated Space Engineering" Maruzen Planet Co., Ltd., 1999.ISBN 4-944024-64-9. 
  20. ^ "Vanguard Approaches Half A Century In Space". SpaceRef.com. 2010/3/17Browse.
  21. ^ "Conventional Disposal Method: Rockets and Graveyard Orbits". 2010/3/17Browse.
  22. ^ ""Orbital service" Will it be a solution to the space debris problem?”. AFP (July 2018, 12). 2018/12/1Browse.
  23. ^ "The sea farthest from the land, the graveyard of the space facility "Point Nemo"”. AFP (July 2018, 4). 2018/4/7Browse.
  24. ^ "Ministry of Defense considers construction of "space patrol boat" Warning / surveillance, satellite repair: Current affairs dot com”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. 2022/1/18Browse.
  25. ^ a b Tariq Malik. “SpaceX Successfully Launches Falcon 1 Rocket Into Orbit". Space.com. 2008/10/2Browse.
  26. ^ "First time in History". The Satellite Encyclopedia. 2008/3/6Browse.
  27. ^ As of January 2013, 1 (December 17, 2011)."SATCAT Box score”. Celestrak.com. 2011/12/3Browse.
  28. ^ India launches Switzerland's first satellite
  29. ^ In a difference of first full Bulgarian Intercosmos Bulgaria 1300 satellite, Poland's near first satellite, Intercosmos Copernicus 500 (Intercosmos
    Copernicus 500
    ) In 1973, were constructed and owned in cooperation with Soviet Union under the same Interkosmos program.
  30. ^ Hungary launches its first satellite into orbit.
  31. ^ First Romanian satellite Goliat successfully launched
  32. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2012, 12original[Broken link]More archives.2012/12/12Browse.
  33. ^ Daphne Burleson (2005). Space Programs Outside the United States. McFarland & Company. Pp. 43. ISBN 978-0786418527 
  34. ^ Mike Gruntman (2004). Blazing the Trail. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Pp. 426. ISBN 978-1563477058 
  35. ^ Brian Harvey (2003). Europe's Space Program.Springer Science + Business Media. Pp. 114. ISBN 978-1852337223 
  36. ^ http://bddnews.com/post/20140916_806/
  37. ^ http://bangla-joho.com/culture/2015/12/17/703/
  38. ^ "Vremenik". 2010/3/17Browse.
  39. ^ https://sorae.info/030201/4906.html
  40. ^ Dan Morrill. “Hack a Satellite while it is in orbit". IT toolbox. 2008/3/25Browse.
  41. ^ "AsiaSat accuses Falungong of hacking satellite signals”. Press Trust of India. 2008/3/25Browse.
  42. ^ a b William J. Broad; David E. Sanger (2007). “China Tests Anti-Satellite Weapon, Unnerving US". New York Times. 2008/3/25Browse.
  43. ^ "Navy Missile Successful as Spy Satellite Is Shot Down". Popular Mechanics (2008). 2008/3/25Browse.

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