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🧑‍🎨 | Until Tuesday, April 4th, at Shin-Yamaguchi Station, a photo exhibition of the Taisho and Showa periods "Feeling the past and present of Yuda Onsen"


Photo ▲ Photo taken in XNUMX (Taisho XNUMX) near "Taraya"

Until Tuesday, April 4th, at Shin-Yamaguchi Station, a photo exhibition of the Taisho and Showa periods "Feeling the past and present of Yuda Onsen"

 
If you write the contents roughly
Fifteen photographs of the "old" Yuda Onsen district, taken from the Taisho era to the Showa era, are displayed on a panel with commentary.
 

Until Tuesday, April 4th, the "Changing Yuda Onsen Photo Exhibition (Taisho-Showa)" will be held at JR Shin-Yamaguchi Station (6 Ogorikamigo, Yamaguchi City) 1 ... → Continue reading

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First published in 1978. We issue 3 copies of free local information paper three times a week on Wednesday, Friday and Saturday in the distribution area of ​​Yamaguchi City, Yamaguchi Prefecture. In addition to daily life information, we also deal with "hard articles" such as Yamaguchi Prefectural Government, Yamaguchi City Government, and local economy.


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Showa

Showa(Showa)It is,Japan OfEraone of.

TaishoAfter,HeiseiBefore.Dahua246th since then[Note 1] OfEra.Emperor ShowaReigning period[1] Is1926/(Showa XNUMXst year)May 12から1989/(64)May 1Until[2].

hereJapanese history period classificationUp,Gregorian calendar(AD) At20st centuryAccount for most ofShowa period(Showaji)Is also described.

Overview

Emperor Taisho OfdemiseAlong withInherit the throneOn the same day as "Showa"ChangeWas done. Showa is the longest-lasting era in Japan's successive eras, and the "Gen-Yen" and "64-Year" are both used for 7 days, so the actual period is 62 and 14 days. Become. It is the longest-running era, including foreign eras, and the era that has continued for more than 60 years in history is Japan's Showa (64) years,clear OfKangxi(61 years) andQianlong(60 years) only.

Second World War(Pacific War) Has ended1945/(20)May 9OrTamane BroadcastSame yearMay 8(Anniversary of the end of the war)ModernとmodernMay be divided into.

Change

"Calligraphy』Koutenori

Common peopleAkiraMing, kyo和Manbang
→Common people(Hyakusei)AkiraLight(Seimei)InManbang(Banpau)TheAssociation和(Kefuwa)To

Showa isDecree(Imperial lawIs part of the last era under the system,1979/(Showa 54)Era lawAt the time of enactment, it was determined as "those determined based on the provisions of paragraph 2 of this regulation" in accordance with paragraph 1 of the supplementary provisions of the same law.[3].

The origin of "Showa" isFour books and five sutrasone ofCalligraphy堯典's "PeasantAkiraMing, kyo和According to "Mangoku" (to reconcile Mangoku with Akiaki Baixing).Han scholarYoshida ZouzoDevised. This is the first time that "Showa" has become a candidate for the era.[4].. In addition,Edo PeriodWith exactly the same sourceMeiwa"(1764/~1772/) Has been enacted ("Akira Hyakusho"Light, Kyo和Manbang”). It means wishing for peace of the people and coexistence and prosperity of each country in the world.

at that timePrivy CouncilWas the chairYuzaburo KuratomiAccording to the diary ofMiyauchi(Current:Imperial Household Agency) "Godification", "Genification", "Showa", "Kamwa", "DowaThere were "Succeeding", "Shunmei", "Meiho", "Kanan", and "Moanan", but after several reviews, "Showa" was selected as the candidate, and "Genrification"DowaThe final plan was decided. On the other hand, in the cabinetKobun"Shomei" and "Kyochu" were listed as candidates for the era.

Start

1926/(Taisho15 years)May 12,Emperor Taisho demiseAnd on the same dayCrown prince(Regent Palace) Of HirohitoPracticeImmediately upon receivingChange OfPoemWas promulgated and reformed on the same day in Showa, and only the last week of 1926 became the first year of Showa (ADDecember 1926, 12 is the year of Taisho 25 and also the first year of Showa[5]). In addition, at this timeTokyo Nichini Shimbun"The new era is a light sentence"False positivedid(Kobun incident).

Showa Kaisho no Shosho (December 1926, 15)

朕 The Emperor's Emperor's Religion Lance (abbreviated below)

Finish

1989/(64)May 1At 6:33 am, Emperor Showa died.Along with this1947/The Constitution of Japan and the Constitution of Japan that came into effect in 22Imperial rule(Act No. 22 of 3) According to the provisions of Article 4Akihito(Hirohito 1st Prince)Inherit the throneHe became the 125th emperor.so that,1979/"(54) enforced"Era law(Law No. 54 of 43) "Cabinet Order Revising the Era (Ordinance No. XNUMX of XNUMX)Will be promulgated within 7 days, next time8 daysHas been enforced byHeiseiIt was reformed.

Ordinance to change era name (January 1989, 64)

The Cabinet shall enact this Cabinet Order in accordance with the provisions of paragraph XNUMX of the era law (Act No. XNUMX of XNUMX).

Change the era name to Heisei.

Supplementary provisions

This Cabinet Order will come into effect the day after the day of promulgation.

After World War I

In the 20th century, where rapid technological progress continues,World warUnlike in the past, it destroys the land itself as symbolized byLarge-scale modern warIt was also a time of upheaval accompanied by.

Japan is domesticConstitutional monarchyThe appearance of the originalFeudal politicsTake off1920 eraToPolitical parties form cabinetComes toTaisho democracyIn the form of inheriting the trend ofParty politicsWas done.

However, the corruption that party politics has shown on one side buys the distrust and anger of the people who are in need in a series of recessions, leading to the emergence of powers aimed at overcoming the situation due to the invasion of the continent and remodeling the state.1920 eraThe military that strengthened its independence from the end,1930/After (Showa 5), ​​a large number of military activities and battles against the government's will were caused, causing a series of military activities.Coup d'etatAs a result, he finally buried the party politics.

Financial crisis

World War IThen.War economyThe rare boom seen byJapanese economyHas grown significantly and rapidly. However, when the war ended and the production power of various powers recovered, Japan's exports decreased and as early as the postwar period.panicIt became.

さ ら にGreat Kanto EarthquakeAccumulation of scorching of handprints caused bybankToUpset 1927/(2)May 3It arises from the climax around April 4th.Showa financial crisisBecame. In the early Showa periodTohoku regionIs largeBad cropThe farmers women did not have the ability to raise children,ThinningWas held actively.Cold injury,povertyFor the Tohoku regionRuralThen "Daughter OfFor sale(Trafficking of unmarried girls)"社会 問題It became.

1st Wakatsuki Cabinet(Reijiro WakatsukiIs the prime ministerSuzuki Shoten OfBad debtHoldingTaiwan BankTried to issue an emergency edict for the rescue ofPrivy CouncilThe opposite ofResignationdid.

Received afterYoshikazu Tanaka Cabinet(Yoshikazu TanakaIs the prime ministerKosei TakahashiFinance ministerUnder 3 weeksmoratorium(Payment grace) was issued and all banks were closed all over the country.Bank of JapanIt surpassed the emergency with an emergency loan of 9 million yen. In addition, the Taiwan Bank's bailout measures were also put out. After this, the consolidation of banks proceeded and the five major banks (Mitsui Bank-Bank of Mitsubishi-Sumitomo Bank-Yasuda Bank-Daiichi Bank) Concentrated deposits.

on the other hand,Chugoku(Republic of ChinaIn)1925/Died in (Taisho 14)GrandchildAfterChiang Kai-shekIs connected,1926/(Taisho 15) In JulyChinese National Party OfNational governmentThe army has Chiang Kai-shek as commanderNorth cuttingStarted in OctoberWuhanOccupied the1927/(Showa 2) In MarchShanghaiOccupied,NanjingI got it in my hands[6].

Tanaka Cabinet and Shandong Troops

The Tanaka CabinetZhang Zuo3 times trying to solve various problems in Manchuria[7] Extend toShandong troopsTo gather foreign and military personnel in TokyoEastern ConferenceOpenMitsuruMengIt was confirmed that he would protect his interest. Based on thisZhang ZuoWe negotiated with Manchuria to expand its interests, but Zhang did not respond.Kanto ArmyThe train that Zhang rides1928/(3)May 6Bombed in and assassinated (Manchuria certain serious incident). The Kanto Army originally announced that the incident was the work of the Chinese National Government Army, but in fact the Kanto Army staffDaisaku KawamotoIt was the work of. Therefore, from the domestic oppositionManchuria certain serious incidentPrime Minister Tanaka tried to perform, but he expressed discomfort because he did not want to hear the explanation from Emperor Showa.Tanaka CabinetFor this1929/(4)May 7I resigned to. In the world, he read the name of the prime minister (Yoshikazu) from below and was ridiculed as saying, "Nothing was good."

The Tanaka CabinetSecond Guardian MovementWas born inThree guardiansIs the Cabinet ofKato Cabinet(Takaaki KatoPrime Minister) Among other things, it is the Foreign MinisterKijuro ShimeharaChina's domestic non-interference policy (Ziyuan diplomacy) Was criticized as "soft diplomacy" and appeared. As a result, Tanaka himself served concurrently as foreign minister and strongly interfered with the progress of the revolution in China.

However, in order to exchange criticisms against the use of force in China.1928/(Showa 3),France OfParisThe so-calledParis Treaty of WarSigned on. However, this treaty treaty states in Article 1 that it abandons the "People's Name at the World" war,National bodyCriticism has arisen within the country, saying that "they should be neglected." For this reason, after a lot of debate on newspapers, the following year, it was ratified with a declaration stating that the word "each person's name is not applicable" to Japan. It is also known that the Tanaka Cabinet made efforts to strengthen thought control in Japan.

General election

In the early Showa periodTaisho democracyWith the achievement ofTwo-party system(Seiyukai-Constitutional society),Japanese govermentThe aggressivepublic investmentInsist on economic recovery byConstitutional societyAnd the constitutional government (from 2Constitutional political partyRenamed to)) and the two major political parties alternate to form a cabinet.Parliamentary Cabinet SystemUnder "Constitutional roadAlso calledParty politicsWas the era of[8],In particularJapanese people2 million men, or 1200%VotersVoted1928/(3)May 2The boyGeneral election(16th House of Representatives general election) After the implementation, showed an unexpected advanceChildless party,Japan Communist PartyAgainstCrackdownIn 1928 (Showa 3)XNUMX-XNUMX incident, Next yearXNUMX/XNUMX incidentAnd caused a large amount of arrests of Communist party activists and sympathizers. in the meantime,Emergency edictByPublic Security ActAmend theDeath penaltyAnd

On the other hand, in the study of culture and social scienceMarxismIs flourishing1932/(Showa 7)Eitaro NoroBy "Japanese Capitalism Development History Course"ButIwanami ShotenPublished by, has had a great impact on the knowledge base. The author is "Lecture groupWas called, but was critical of itItou KosakaMagazine "Labor and agriculture], "Labor groupWas called. Both sides have been engaged in active debates since then,NationalismWith the rise of the innovation movement, it was repressed and forced to converge.Inoue Nichisho ClanWas organized.Later became the basis of Soka Gakkai and Komeito organizationSoka Education SocietyWas born.

1929/(4)May 10,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク OfWall streetAtStock price crashByWorld DepressionWas triggered. It spread to Japan, and received the Tanaka Cabinet after the next year.Hamaguchi Cabinet(Yuki HamaguchiPrime Minister)Gold banTriggered byShowa DepressionWas triggered. thispanicWas the most serious pre-war depression.United Kingdom-France-The United States of AmericaEtc. due to colonial enclosureBlock economyI tried to rebuild it in, but due to the defeat of World War IastronomyOfCompensationWas owedGermanyOr high profitColonyJapan, which does not own the property, fell into a serious economic recession. This isfascismIn GermanyAdolf HitlerLeadNaziIn Japan, Manchuria was claimed to be the lifeline of Japan, which was one of the factors that pushed the military into China.1930/(Showa 5), ​​mainly in the United States and EnglandLondon Navy Disarmament ConferenceWas held. This is the main ship1936/Second, it was extended to (Showa 11). Secondly, the ratio of holding auxiliary ships was US:UK:Japan = 10:10:7. Ambassador of the plenipotentiaryReijiro WakatsukiAccepted, but the Navy revolted against the Cabinet for violating its command.Marshal Right Criminal Problem).

Manchurian Incident

1931/(Showa 6) In April, the leader of Reijiro WakatsukiConstitutional political partyThe Cabinet (the second Wakatsuki Cabinet) was established. In JulyChangchunIn the vicinity, there was a collision between Korean immigrants and Chinese officials/farmers, creating a situation that was instantly prompt. The Army decided in August on the “Outline of the Manchurian Problem Solving Policy”.

On September 9, the same year, due to the Kanto army's plotLake Yanagijo IncidentTriggered byManchurian IncidentBroke out. Kanto ArmyFengtian, Changchun,Gongzhuling,Siping StreetSuch asSouth Manchuria RailwayAlong the linecapitalHe began military action in major cities and entered the wartime regime. This is1945/It was the first step in the war leading up to the defeat in (20).[9].. The government adopted a policy of non-expansion of war, but the Kanto army developed in a way that ignored it (Tang Dynasty AgreementSo Japan and China will once be a ceasefire).

JapaneseManchuriaBefore and after the founding of the country,League of NationsIs BritishVictor Brewer-LittonLeadLytton Study TeamDispatched, and based on the survey results,1933/(Showa 8), Japan's withdrawal recommendation proposal 42 to 1[10] It was passed by.Japan has decided to withdraw if the draft recommendation is passed by the Cabinet meeting on February 2th.Yousuke MatsuokaThe representative was sent off (February 2th) and announced on March 24th that he would withdraw from the League of Nations.As a result, Japan will decisively follow the path of isolation internationally.

また1932/(Showa 7) September 2,18th House of Representatives general electionOf the political party during the warJunnosuke Inoue(Former Finance Minister) was shot dead while supporting the election,May 3ToTeamwork(Chairman Mitsui)Mitsui BankAt the entrance of the main storeShooting deadWas done. So-calledClan caseIs. Then in May, naval officersDog breedThe prime minister was shot deadFifteen-fifteen incidentHappened,Inuyo CabinetAfter the resignation, the Saito Minoru Cabinet was established on May 5,Teijin caseBribery suspects spread to the Cabinet1934/, (Showa 9)May 7Resigned toMay 7ToOkada Cabinet(Keisuke OkadaPrime Minister) was established.MilitaryRadical,Right wing groupCentered onMeiji RestorationRevival of the spirit ofEmperor ParenthoodAsk for "Showa Restoration"sloganToRight wingThought is advocated, and with this influence1936/(Showa 11)Imperial schoolYoung officers shot dead Saito Minai and Minister TakahashiXNUMX incidentHappened.1936/(11)May 2ToOkada CabinetResigned,Political party cabinetCame to an end.

After that, it was established on March 3, the same yearHirota Cabinet(Hiroki HirotaThe prime minister had executed a large-scale military operation as a measure against the XNUMX incident, but was virtually abolished.Minister of the Military Active military systemWas revived.However, the system contained the problem that the Cabinet would be in trouble without the cooperation of the military, and with the resurrection, the political intervention and political superiority of the military was established, and the parliament later virtually stopped its role. August 8, Prime Minister, Foreign Minister, Finance Minister, Land Minister, Sea MinisterFive-phase conferenceWas held, and important national policies (standards for national policies) centered on foreign issues were decided.The content was not disclosed, but it was a sketch and plan of the war policy.In the same month, the Five-Phase Conference decided on the "Second North China Processing Guidelines." "The Army has a 12-year defense plan[11], Navy's second replacement plan[12] Set up[13].

For this reason1937/The budget for (Showa 12) reached 14 billion yen in both the Ministry of Army and Navy. A budget proposal of over 11 billion yen was decided in a short time by a budget cabinet meeting at the end of November. Compared to the previous year, the amount was increased by 30 million yen. To cover this huge expenditure, a tax increase of 8 million yen and a bond issue of 4 million yen were issued. When this budget was announced, prices started to soar, and it had a great impact on the lives of the people.[14].

The Cabinet1936/(11)11ToBerlinでJapan-German Defense AgreementWas signed.1937/(12)May 1Resigned due to unification in the cabinet,May 2ToForest cabinet(Hayashi KurjuroPrime Minister is establishedMay 5On June 6thFirst Konoe Cabinet(Konoe TemplePrime Minister) is established. In ChinaXi'an incidentWas kidnapped byChiang Kai-shekとZhou EnlaiBetweenNational collaborationWas established, the anti-Japanese struggle was promoted (Second country co-production).

Sino-Japanese war

In Showa 12Japanese and Chinese troops collide at Marco Polo Bridge, Even after the armisticeTongzhou case,Second Shanghai IncidentAnd so on,Sino-Japanese warHas begun.Instead of the "broad-sense national defense" theory of asking the people to cooperate with the wartime system by controlling ideology and improving the lives of the people as the front expands, all the people and national power are put into the war.Total warMobilization policy forNational Total Mobilization ActWas established. Regarding domestic culture and thought,Wartime regimeAs is strengthenedPublic Security ActThe thought suppression byKanju Kato-Shigeru SuzukiThose involved in labor and agriculturePeople's FrontArrested for attempting to formPeople's Front CaseHappened.

14, after receiving the Konoe CabinetMay 1Hiranuma CabinetIs born.Hiranuma was a major bureaucratic bureaucrat and chairman of the Privy Council. In February the militaryHainan IslandIn March, it declared the possession of an uninhabited island on the western sea of ​​the Philippines and named it the New South Islands. This military action greatly stimulated Britain and the United States. Also in JuneTianjinBlockade the English-French concessions (Tianjin Incident).In TokyoArita HachiroForeign MinisterRobert CraigieBritish AmbassadorThe meeting was held. In JulyUS Government US-Japan Trade and Navigation TreatyThe British government's response changed as it was notified of the abolition of the[15].. In Manchuria, Japan and the Soviet Union were in Showa 14May 5 OfNomonhan caseAnd so on. In August, a new 8th Army centered on the 23rd Division was formed, with enough planes and tanks to be collected from Manchuria, but more than 6 people were killed.The 23rd Division was in a state of near annihilation.It was a defeat, showing a marked difference in mechanized equipment, firepower, and transportation capacity.After this incident, Army officials announced an unusual discourse, saying, "We must consider physical strength as well as mental strength."May 9Has signed a ceasefire agreement for the Nomonhan case[16].

The situation in Europe changed rapidly in August.German-Soviet non-aggression treatyWas concluded.Trilateral allianceThe Hiranuma Cabinet, which could not solve the problem, was in 14.May 8Resigned in total. "Due to the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Treaty signed this time, the world of Europe has created a complicated and mysterious new situation. It has become necessary to establish a policy. "It is probable that this explanation exudes that the Japanese rulers were unable to adapt to the international situation and formulate foreign policy.[17].

same yearMay 8ToAbe CabinetWas born, soon after thisSecond World WarHas begun. CabinetMay 9"The Empire did not intervene during the outbreak of the European War,Chinese incidentI will work hard to resolve the issue. "Japan, which believed that Germany and the Soviet Union had conflicting ideologies and would not join hands, was forced to revise its foreign policy.May 11Foreign MinisterKichisaburo NomuraIs the ambassador of the usaJoseph GlueI started to talk with. In addition, there was a feeling of resumption of talks between Japan and the UK, which had been in a broken state.

US-Japan negotiationsDid not progress, and in January 15US-Japan Trade and Navigation TreatyHas expired[18].. 1th of JanuaryImperial Assembly276 members of the House of Representatives resolved to leave the Abe Cabinet. The armed forces took the attitude of not supporting the government, fearing that anti-military sentiment would be born.May 1The Abe Cabinet retired.

Adjacent to the CabinetU.S. MitsumasaIs the leaderUS Cabinet May 1Was established. Two people from the Democratic Party/Political Party and from the business worldGinjiro Fujiwara Commercial ministerI entered the cabinet.

Showa 15May 11からMay 11In the same yearEmperor JimmuIs the 2600th year sinceXNUMX ADCeremony" will be held nationwide.

Second World War

In Europe1939/(14)May 8Suddenly,German-Soviet non-aggression treatyWas announced.May 9To Nazi GermanyPolandBreak into theMay 9Britain and France declare war on GermanySecond World WarHas started.Abe Cabinet"Don't intervene in the European war," he said.1940/(15th year of Showa), France surrendered to Nazi Germany, Germany,ItalyAs the power ofJapan-Germany Ikoku UnionConcluded.Atlantic CharterOf the United States and the United KingdomAlliesIn contrast, Japan, Germany and ItalyAxis powersCame to be called. Also, with the Soviet UnionJapan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyHas been concluded,Manchuria-People's Republic of MongoliaThe promise of respect and mutual inviolence was promised.

Sino-Japanese war(Chinese incident) After the start, the Army publicly embarked on the cabinet collapse movement,Shunroku HataThe land minister resigned alone in order to rebuild the national defense nation and resigned alone, and the successor land minister was not decided1940/(15)May 7ToUS CabinetHas resigned.

Eve to the Asia-Pacific War

In the next cabinetKonoe Temple First Konoe CabinetAs the Cabinet,1940/(15)May 7Was established. Mainly KonoeNew system movementWas promoted, and in October of the same year,Taisei Tsubasa CouncilWas formed, and the established political parties were disbanded.This wing support group is a control group that creates a new economic system.Dainippon Industry Bulletin DietAlongside the political war between Japan and China (Chinese incident)Pacific War(Great East Asian War), and promoted a campaign to support the great government aiming to establish an "advanced national defense system". In terms of organizational principles, a “general congressional” form was adopted in which the consensus was exhausted but the final decision was made by the president. this isNational Socialist German Labor Party(Nazi party)Nazi GermanyIt is said that it mimics the organizational principle of"Red"The former samurai governmentShogunateLikeRoyal familyThere was also strong criticism that it was a figurine, and it changed to focus on mental movement.For successive presidentsKonoe Temple,Tojo Hideki,Kuniaki Koiso,Kantaro SuzukiWas appointed, and at the beginning, the Secretary-GeneralArima Yorining(Arimayoyasu) was appointed, and five departments of general affairs, organization, policy, planning and parliament and 23 departments were set up at the central headquarters. This branch was also set up in rural areas, and most of the branch chiefs were appointed by the governors and mayors of municipalities, and cooperation meetings were set up in the central and regional areas. However, there are frequent battles for initiative within that department, and1941/(Showa 16)Kaichiro HiranumaInterior MinisterIt was made a public association by the government and political activities were banned, and the Konoe group of Arima and others retired,Ministry of InteriorAnd became an administrative aid organization led by the police.

In October 1940United States GovernmentHas taken strong measures such as the abolition of trade treaties.Japan is led by Nazi GermanyItalyAnd in September 1940 (Showa 15)Japan-Germany Ikoku Military AllianceI tried to deal with it by concluding, but it only caused a backlash of the US government. Besides, the southBuddha in IndiaFrom the US governmentoilIt led to an embargo. United States, United Kingdom,Republic of China・The relationship with the Netherlands has cooled down, and in Japan, take the English acronym for each countryABCD siege networkCall.

On the other hand, in JapanarmyAiming for a war against the Soviet UnionNorth theoryAnd aim to move southwardSouthern theoryThere were two factions, but with Zhang Khasan, whose border line was in conflict.NomonhanClashed with Soviet troops.As a result, he abandoned the advance to the north andJapan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyWhile preparing for the war against the United States by concludingMinistry of Foreign AffairsUntil late fall of 1941 (Showa 16)US-Japan negotiationsAnd continued on October 10,First Konoe CabinetHas resigned,Tojo Cabinet(Tojo HidekiPrime Minister) is established.

However, negotiations were difficult due to the hard-line stance of the military, and Britain, which was completely inferior to Nazi Germany at that time,Republic of ChinaRequest for participation in the United States by, andJapanese NavyTo the movement ofFranklin RooseveltPresident of the United StatesWas angryCordell HullSecretary of StateNegotiation plan (commonly known as withdrawal from mainland China)Hull Note, The actual drafterHarry whiteAssistant Secretary of Finance). thisSino-Japanese war-Russo-Japanese WarThe Japanese government, who interprets it as a request for withdrawal from all colonies acquired since then, is de factoUltimatumRecognizing that, the opening of the war against Britain, the United States and Lan was decided.Japan is like thisSecond World WarIt was decided to participate in. America and EnglandAtlantic CharterAnd establish your own campAlliesOf Japan, Germany, ItalyAxis powersCountered.

Pacific War

1941May 12(Local timeMay 12),Hawaii time"The Ward Incident", in which a special submarine that entered the restricted area at 6:30 am is sunk.British Malay invasion of JapanAfter,Imperial Japanese Navy TheAttack on Pearl HarborI went. However, I was not convinced of the future of the war due to weak productivity, etc.Yamamoto IsorokuCombined Fleet CommanderHe said he could maintain the war situation for a year, but not more than that, and despite the superficial flashy publicity, his perception of the situation was more pessimistic from the beginning.At the beginning of the war, the Japanese NavyAircraft carrier(Aircraft carrier)Carrier-based aircraftUsing a new tactic with the main force, and leading pilots with skills that greatly exceed the Allied side, it is undefeated against the Allied opponents, such as sinking a battleship in action for the first time in history by attacking only aircraft, Japan The people were drunk with this early victory.

1942/(Showa 17),Tojo HidekiLed by prime ministerTojo CabinetUses the victory in the first match to support the elections (21th House of Representatives general election) Was carried out and a supporting political system was established. AlsoDainippon Industry Bulletin Diet...Dainippon Youth Group-Dainippon Women's Association6 government-made national movements were subordinated to the wing advocacy group. furtherNeighborhood associationとBurakukaiTo take care ofNeighboring groupI put a caretaker in. The town council chairman also served as the coordinator, and there were about 21 people nationwide, and the counselor was the neighbor group chairman, about 154 million people. Neighborhood associations are essential supplies for daily life.distributionSince it also served as a mechanism, the people's lives were exposed to control and monitoring in every corner.

At that time, Japan had only two years' worth of oil reserves, so it embarked on the control of southern oil and natural resources. at that time,Southeast AsiaIs in Western countriesColonyTherefore, there were movements in favor of the Japanese army as an opportunity for independence from this war, but as the Japanese side exploited resources, worked hard to extinguish local residents, and as the Japanese army became inferior, its support continued to separate. It was As Japan calls for legitimacy of rights in Asia,1943/(Showa 18) October in TokyoGreat East Asia ConferenceTo open up their independence and tout mutual cooperation among East Asian countriesDaitoa Joint Declarationannounced. this isEast AsiaIt was the first international conference held in. However, the reality was Japan-led and it was incomplete.

The Japanese Navy had a series of consecutive wins at the beginning of the war,Midway naval battleThen, due to the misreading of the war situation, he lost four of its most important main weapons, regular aircraft carriers, and suffered the first major defeat after the outbreak of the war. With this defeat, with the Japanese NavyUS NavyThe battle of one by one started and started, and the front gradually receded.

From this time on, the false news of the war was reported to the people, and the people were not informed of the defeat of the Japanese Navy, and could not know the situation of the war. Around this time, although the Chinese front had not been defeated, the guerrilla tactics by the Chinese army caused the division of the force, resulting in a deadlock. In addition, oil, which was the most important resource,Sea controlStockpiling has bottomed out because it was becoming difficult to transport to Japan as it was being lost. Japan's war situation, which is only a few tenth of the US in terms of both its financial power and industrial productivity to replenish the loss of weapons and strategic materials, has visibly deteriorated. Because the transition to the mainland decisive battle system,1945/Disbanded in (20),National Volunteer CorpsWas reorganized into.

1944/(Showa 19) On July 7,Saipan IslandWill fall and take responsibility for this defeat on July 7Tojo CabinetResigned,Kuniaki KoisoLed by prime ministerKoiso CabinetIs established.Mainland Japan is now exposed to air raids on a daily basis (Japanese mainland air raid),1945/(20)May 3ToTokyo air raidWas done. In Japan, factories that had already stopped operating due to lack of fuel and materials and social capital such as roads, harbors, and railways were completely destroyed, and even daily necessities became poor. same yearMay 4ToKoiso CabinetResigned and formerSamurai chief OfKantaro SuzukiLed by prime ministerSuzuki CabinetIs established. Although various peace works have been attempted at this point, the Allied powers around this time have decided not to approve anything other than unconditional surrender of the Japanese forces, and Japan's peace efforts have not been successful. same yearMay 7,Allies ThePotsdam DeclarationHowever, the Japanese government did not immediately give a formal reply (silence), and as a result showed its intention to continue the war.

Atomic bomb drop and end of war

1945May 8ToAtomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima cityWas carried out, and hundreds of thousands were injured including non-combatants.May 8As well asAtomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki cityWas carried out, and more than XNUMX casualties were reported.Atomic bomb dropped on Japan). This is the world's firstnuclear weaponsIt was a bombing by.

Japan was the only major country at that time,Japan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyAttempted peace work mediated by the Soviet Union government, which had not become a warring nation, but the Soviet UnionYalta talksAccording to the agreement inMay 8Declared war on the night ofSoviet war against Japan). From the dawn on the 9th of the next daySoviet Union ArmyIs ManchuriaKorean PeninsulaI advanced to the northern part, Karafuto and Kuril Islands. In Manchuria, the Kanto army was completely destroyed, and at this time, large-scale plundering by Soviet soldiers in Manchuria also occurred frequently. I didn't see a solution for a long time after the warChinese residual orphansThe problem arose at this time.

With the participation of the Soviet-Japanese War, the hopes of peace have been cut off, and the government has exhausted all possible measures. There was a conflict between the foreign minister's proposal on the condition of "guarantee" and the military proposal on the condition of "voluntary disarmament, punishment of war criminals by Japan, occupation restrictions, etc." At the Gozen Kaigi meeting held at midnight on the 8th, the two proposals were in conflict, but it was decided by the decision of Emperor Showa that "only the guarantee of the status of the emperor" should be stipulated (the Emperor Showa himself requested the guarantee of the status). No).May 8"With the understanding that it does not embrace the demand for changes to the emperor's power of state control"Potsdam DeclarationAn offer to entrust was made through radio and neutral nations[19].

May 8 OfGozen meetingAnd so-called "imperial decisionByPotsdam DeclarationI have come to the conclusion that I accept. This decision is the nextMay 8, Emperor Showa himself read aloud and recorded "The Imperial War of the End" at noon on the same dayJapan Broadcasting CorporationRadio broadcast (so-calledTamane Broadcast) Was sent to the people of the inland and the outside. Two days laterMay 8ToKantaro Suzuki CabinetResignedHigashi Kumon Palace Cabinet(The shortest administration in the history of the Japanese Cabinet) is established.

In this way, the war, which is said to have killed 300 million people in Japan alone and 2 to 3 million people (actual number unknown) including related countries, has come to an end.In addition, even after August 8th, the Kuril IslandsShimori Island,NanabattaThen, there was a fierce battle between the Soviet army and the Japanese garrison that had invaded after the acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration. The ground battle at Karafuto ended,May 8Was that.May 9Signed the Potsdam Declaration, Japan restricted sovereignty,Allied Forces (GHQ) Was occupied. The end of the Soviet invasion wasMay 9(By the same dayNorthern TerritoriesAll are occupied).

Postwar GHQ occupation

Overview

Pacific Warrear,1952/(27)May 4 OfPeace Treaty with JapanUntil effectiveAllied forcesUnder the military occupation ofAllied Supreme Commander General Command (GHQ / SCAP) military government was not promulgated, there was direct control by the US governmentOkinawa-Amami archipelago-Tokara IslandsLower 7 islandsHabomai Islands-Ogasawara IslandsAnd was occupied by the Soviet UnionHabomai Islands-Kuril Islands-KarafutoExcept by the Government of JapanIndirect governanceWas done.Stop publishingPress codeCalledSpeech control-censorshipThroughMilitarism-Anti-American・We were unable to report what was regarded as an anti-Allied Power and GHQ.

First Demobilization Ministry,Second Demobilization MinistryA demobilization organization such as was established.Japanese people areOccupied landHe was forced to withdraw from various regions and outside land. Most of the Japanese in the inland areas (Kabata and Kuril Islands) that became Soviet military occupation areas have also been repatriated to the Japanese government-controlled area, and someSiberian detentionAnd engaged in forced labor.Repatriation from outside is extremely difficult,Tonghua caseIn a confusion such as the Japanese massacre case likeRemaining Japanese in ChinaI left the problem behind. Also,Indonesian Revolutionary War,Vietnam Revolutionary War,National warMany Japanese have joined.In the former Manchuria, Taiwan, and the Korean Peninsula, Japanese engineers managed the infrastructure for several years, after which the management was taken over by the local side.

1st Yoshida CabinetUnder1946/(21)May 11Promulgated inThe Constitution of Japan TheImperial Japanese ConstitutionGHQ was deeply involved in the process of its establishment. The content isSymbolic emperor systemundersovereigntyIs said to exist in the peopleNational democratic right(Sovereigner)",Equality under the lawandLiberty-Social rights-Suffrage-State claim rightGuarantee rights such asBasic human rights"Respect of", abandon war, and do not resolve international conflicts by intimidating or using forcePacifismWas the three major principles[20].. So in Japan todaySDFToConscription systemIs not implemented as a constitutional violation. Also,EmperorIs said to be "a symbol of Japan and the national integration of Japan," and although the imperial family was maintained as a constitutional monarchy, its involvement in the national administration of the Emperor was prohibited (Symbolic emperor system).1946/(Showa 21) From February1954/(Showa 29) To AugustEmperor Showa TheOkinawaExcluding 46PrefecturesVisited. The word "Oh, yes" answered by Emperor Showa1946/(Showa 21)BuzzwordBecame[21].. However, Emperor Showa1947/(22)May 9To the GHQ with the “Okinawa Message” to request long-term military occupation of Okinawa.[22][23],1975/(50)May 10``I regret to say that the atomic bomb was dropped, but it is such a war, so I feel sorry for the citizens of Hiroshima but it is unavoidable. "Masu", a political statement prohibited by the Japanese constitution.

In addition, the following reforms were implemented under the leadership of GHQ.

  1. Farmland reformImplementation of[24][25].
  2. Zaibatsu DemolitionImplementation of[26][27].
  3. The freedom of association and freedom of association was guaranteed.
  4. Japan Communist PartySuch asPolitical prisonerTo release him.
  5. Conservative politicianBanishment of public officeI do.
  6. Red purgeImplementation of political intervention such as.
  7. Shinto DirectiveImplementation of.
  8. Special higher policeWill be abolished. Instead by the Ministry of InteriorPublic security policeIs installed.
  9. Ministry of InteriorDismantling.
  10. UnionPromote the formation of.
  11. Liberation of the ladyとWomen's suffrageContribution of.
  12. Ethnic familysystem·Family systemWith the abolition ofAristocrat(Imperial AssemblyAbolition of the Senate)Feudal systemAbolition of.
  13. Shoup RecommendationTax reform by.
  14. 新 し いEducation system Of6/3/3/4 systemTo introduceAmerican Education Mission ReportBased onSchool reformImplementation of[28].
  15. Old Education Basic LawEstablishment of.

1952/(27)May 4ToPeace Treaty with JapanJapan regains sovereignty with the entry into force of the (common name: San Francisco Peace Treaty). The GHQ has been stationed.

In addition, Article 9 of the Constitution of JapanThen.軍隊Was decided not to hold, but at the same time as the San Francisco Peace TreatyUS-Japan Security TreatyConcludes the US militaryUS Army in JapanAs it continues as it is, the next1952/(Showa 27)Police reserveRenamed fromSecurity forces(After thatSDF) Was also established, and effectively rearmed.Cold WarDuring the period, he allied with the United States and opposed the Soviet Union.

Occupation by GHQ

After the end of the war, Japan had control over that time,Taiwan-Korea-Nanyo archipelago, Mainland Japan (Inland) Was part ofNanabatta-Kuril IslandsandShikotan Island-Habomai Islands-Ogasawara Islands-Nansei IslandsLost north of 30 degrees north. Of these, the Nansei Islands and the Ogasawara Islands were later returned from the United States. For the Kuril Islands,Karafuto-Kishima Exchange TreatyAlthough there is a view that all Kuriles belong to Japan because the sovereignty has been confirmed by the government, the Japanese government is currentlyKunashiri Island-Etorofu IslandClaiming that only two islands are unique to Japan,Habomai IslandsandShikotan Island2 islands belong to Hokkaido.

Over the seven years from 1945 to 20 (Showa 1952), it wasGhq), and MacArthur as Supreme CommanderMarshalArrived. MacArthur is politicallyRepublican PartyRight-handed, originallyAnti-communismThere was a tendency towardDemocratization TheHigashi Kumon Palace CabinetIt had radical content that exceeded expectations.The Higashikube Cabinet has resigned as a whole because it could not respond to the progress of democratization, and has recorded the shortest administration among the successive cabinets.Under American occupationSuibara Cabinet(Kijuro ShimeharaPrime Minister, thenYoshida Cabinet(Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida)Farmland reform-Zaibatsu Demolition-Labor reformDemocratization measures called the three major economic reforms of Japan were implemented.AlsoWomen's suffrageIs recognized,Public Security ActWill be abolished and secondaryBanishment of public office20 social leadersMilitarismIn addition to being expelled from public office as a personRight to voteWas suspended. I was in a position to fight for Shigeru Yoshida and the Prime MinisterIchiro HatoyamaIn case of, prewar Kyoto UniversityTakigawa incidentMinistry of Education (currentFaculty of Education), political activities were restricted. In addition, censorship was thoroughly carried out by the occupation forces, and reports criticizing the Allies and Koreans were banned. Also1946/(Showa 21)Far East International Military Trial(Tokyo Trial) was opened and the person who was made a war criminal was charged with the crime of planning and carrying out the war (A class), the usual war crimes such as abuse of prisoners of war (B class), and crimes against humanity such as massacre ( Were killed as (class C) (Class A-Class B-Class CDoes not represent the magnitude of sin, but classifies it.)[29].

AlliesJapan's policy of occupying Japan was carried out by the United States alone, except for the South Karafuto and Kuril Islands, which the Soviet Union incorporated into its own territory.Direct governanceDepending on methodMilitary administration(Government by the American High Commissioner)OkinawaThe policy was implemented through the Government of Japan by the indirect rule method in the mainland of Japan.Disagreements began to appear in the United States over the occupation, and Stalin proposed to occupy the northern half of Hokkaido in the Soviet Union.TrumanRefused this. Meanwhile, Truman emphasizes the need for "communist" containment.Truman DoctrineTo announceGreeceChurchill intervened in the civil war inIron curtain"East and West predicted in the speech"Cold WarIs in full swing.

In Japan, even in the same defeated country, Germany divided into east and west,Austria(Vienna), Became a monopoly territory of the Soviet Unionルーマニア,Bulgaria,Hungary,Czech Republic,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euA different form of occupation was adopted.1951/(Showa 26), MacArthurKorean WarHe was dismissed in conflict with Truman because he made a strong claim to use the atomic bomb in Japan, and he became his successor.Matthew RidgewayLieutenant General arrived. In Japan, on the surface, the Soviet occupied regions (South Karafuto, Kuril Islands) and the American occupied regions (Ryukyu Islands, Ogasawara Islands) are controlled by the Japanese government (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Izu Islands and their associated islands). ), Japan also had sovereignty, but all laws and documents required strict prior inspection and approval by the Allied Forces.1st Yoshida CabinetOn November 1946, 21 (Showa 11) belowThe Constitution of JapanWas promulgated, and it came into effect on May 1947, 22 (Showa 5), and was signed on September 3, 1951 (Showa 26).Peace Treaty with JapanJapan regained sovereignty on April 1952, 27 (Showa 4), the following day after the peace with the Allies was completed under the (San Francisco Peace Treaty).HoweverUS Army in JapanRemains almost as it is, and is spread throughout Japan by a method called the nationwide base method.American baseWas left.

Article 9 of the Constitution of JapanAbandons the war and the threat or use of force, which is the exercise of state power, as a means of resolving international disputes.PacifismHas been set. for that reason,US-Japan Security Treaty,SDFWhether there is a violation of the same article by the establishment ofRight to self-defenseThere is also discussion.

Although the domestic economy was destroyed by the war, the people's lives were at the height of confusion.1949/May 10Won the national civil warChinese Communist PartyByPeople's Republic of China FoundingWhat was doneKorean WarThe situation changed completely with the outbreak of. At the request of the Occupation Army, more than 8000 public and privateUnited Nations ArmyParticipated in the operation and caused many casualties[30].. Initially, the United States carried out demilitarization with the complete disarmament of Japan,SwitzerlandWas said to be built. However, the tendency of political reaction began to appear as early as 1947 (Showa 22). Moreover,1949/When the People's Republic of China was established in (Showa 24), it completely changed its strategy toward Japan, promoted the re-arming of Japan, and positioned it as the most important military strategic base in East Asia.Reverse courseThe change of policy, also called "," occurred one after another. The characteristics of post-war changes areLabor movementWith the excitement ofNational railway,Yomiuri ShimbunEtc.UnionbySelf-managementWas also done.

1952/(27)May 1In KoreaTakeshimaInsist on possession ofLee Seung-nou lineDeclared, thousands of fishermen were detained[31], The following year, Takeshima was occupied by the military.

In terms of cultureJapanese movieEntered the heyday,Toei-Daiei-Shochiku-Toho-Nikkatsu5 major companies compete every week to screen 2 new films on averageMovie theaterHas become the largest entertainment facility. AlsoradioBroadcasting has spread widely,Popular songAnd variety,Sumo,baseballI was asked to listen to the live broadcast of. At the same time foreign movies such as Americajazz-popularAlso flowed rapidly. on the other hand,Romanization of national languageWas abandoned,1946/(Showa 21)Modern day-KanjiWas enacted. Starting from the Constitution of Japan promulgated in the same year, laws and official documents were also written in modern Kanakai.

Socialist policy by the Japanese Socialist Party

1947/(Showa 22)23th House of Representatives general electionでJapanese Socialist PartyBecame the first partySatoshi Katayama Prime ministerBecame[32].Right wingNot tooLeft wingBecause of the character of the cabinetMiddle roadadministrationWas called.Ghq OfCharles L. CadethAlsoDemocratizationFrom the standpoint of promotion, I supported this middle road line[33].Emperor ShowaDidn't want radical change by socialism,キ リ ス ト 教徒There is a description in the Imperial Household Agency's document that he liked Katayama's personality and had a certain understanding of the people's will that the Japan Socialist Party gained support for labor issues.Democratic Party-Japanese Socialist Party-National Cooperative PartyIs a coalition governmentKatayama CabinetとAshida CabinetIs the followingEconomic policy[34] Was carried out.

  1. Labor union lawIs established,Board of educationPublic election voting systemJapanese Teachers' UnionAnd moreUnionWas formed.Part-time high schoolEnhancement of education for working adults, such as the establishment of a public junior college night club for social sciences.
  2. EmperorOfficialAs a minister to the peopleNational Civil Service LawWas enacted.
  3. Ministry of InteriorDismantle thePrefectural governor-Mayor OfPublic electionSystem (direct election)recall[Avoid ambiguity]Defined the system.
  4. Municipal policeImplemented police system reforms, including the establishment of
  5. Dealing with labor issuesMinistryAs newlyMinistry of LaborInstalled.
  6. Employment Security ActWas promulgated.
  7. Social insurance systemAs,Unemployment insurance lawAnd enact the Unemployment Allowance ActUnemployment insuranceWas founded.
  8. National Health Insurance ActAmended.
  9. Child Welfare ActPromulgated[35].
  10. Headsystem·FamilyinheritanceAbolition of feudal family system and freedom of marriage,Gender equalityAmendment aimed at the creation of inheritanceCivil lawEstablishment of.
  11. The concept of marital equality and the establishment of a marital joint property system, the right of wife's ability and the right to inherit as a spouse, and the new system of equal inheritance for all children have been established for the wealthy.inheritance taxIs increasedInheritance lawAmendment[36].
  12. For married womenAdulteryThe abolition of the imperial familyGreat treasonas well as the BlasphemyMajor revisions to the criminal law, such as the abolition of.
  13. WritPrinciple,Silent rightAdmitCriminal procedure codeAmendment.
  14. Court lawIs established,The Constitution of JapanStipulated inSupreme Court,Lower courtAbout the organization and authority about.
  15. Coal minenationalizationWith the goalTemporary Coal Mining Management ActEnacted (commonly known as “Coalmine National Management Law”).
  16. Eugenic protection lawTo establishAbortionTheLegalization.

otherWelfare ActIs established,1950/(Showa 25)WelfareSuch as starting operation of the systempolicyWas made[37].

In the Showa 20sNationwide companyReorganizedBuraku Liberation AllianceIt became.In cooperation with the Japan Socialist PartyBuraku Liberation MovementWas carried out, and the disparity improvement and village improvement projects were carried out.Toho disputeThen, when the president carried out a personnel arrangement aiming at the expulsion of the two reds (the red character and the red flag),Mifune Toshiro,Ryo Ikebe,Kuga MikoEmployees, including those movie stars, went out on the streets and campaigned against them.[38].. HoweverPost-war turmoilAt that time,Shimoyama incident,Mitaka case,Matsukawa incidentThe mysterious incidents such as[39], They were advertised as caused by the labor movement. After recovery of independence1952/(27)May 5ToBlood May Day Casewas there[40].. at the same timeRed purgeAnd the communist faculty of elementary, junior high and high schools and universities were expelled. It blew up in AmericaMcCarthy Whirlwind(Red picking) Was similar to.Hitoshi AshidaWas involved and was arrestedShoden PrisonThen the central government collapses.

After peace and high economic growth

Japan, which has become an important frontline base for the United States,Farmland reformThe domestic market expanded compared to before the war due to labor reforms, special demand for the production and transportation of supplies such as barbed wire and drums, and the increase in demand such as the huge consumption of the U.S. forces stationed in Japan. The economy has recovered at a miraculous speed, and it has been astonishing since the 30's.High economic growth(Nominal period from 30s to 40s)economic growth rateWas the world's No. 1 at 15.4%. It was 30 trillion yen in 8GNP(Gross national product) was 45 trillion yen in 70, more than 15 times in 8.5 years, and the second largest in the world.economic superpowerWill be achieved)[41].

In urban areasskyscraperLined up,Reinforced concrete OfApartmentThe number of people living in built-for-sale houses in the suburbs has increased rapidly.From all over Japansteam locomotiveDisappears,Electric train,Diesel carCame to run around. The main roadasphaltPaved withShinkansen(Tokaido Shinkansen)Whenhighway(Tomei Expressway-Meishin Expressway) Was completed.Sano Hirata(Mayor of Yokkaichi)Ono MutsumiBy (Liberal Democratic Party Diet member) etc.Tokai regionとSea of ​​JapanTieCanal across JapanWas planned for construction. In almost every householdtv set-Electric washing machine-Electric refrigerator-TelBecame popular,Private carIs no longer unusual.Department store,HotelTo go toLimited express trainIf you get onAir conditioningYou can now benefit from.Bread,meat-cake such asWestern food,Western confectioneryI also started eating normally.Average lifeIs one of the world's leading universitiesEducation continuance rateAlso increased dramatically. InsteadBig cityPopulation in the departmentOvercrowding, In rural areasDepopulationThe phenomenon that occurs,Pollution,Traffic war 社会 問題Became[42].

Immediately after the defeatinflationI was hit by (postwar inflation).Inclined production method AdoptingDodge line(Stable depression) occurs.Korean WarOutbreakKorean special demand(Special Demand Economy) Happens.1954/From (Showa 29)High economic growthHas startedGachaman businessDue to the booming textile industry,BoomとRecessionWhile repeatingJapanese economyGrew steadily.1955/(Showa 30)Rightist Socialist PartyとSocialist LeftbitterReunificationWas doneJapanese Socialist PartyとLiberal party-Japan Democratic PartyJoined togetherLDPWas formed,55 yearsWas established[43].

Postwar economic history

  1. Shinmu business.1954/(Showa 29) From December ~1957/(Showa 32) Refers to the economic boom until June.
  2. Pan bottom depression.1957/(Showa 32) From December ~1958/(Showa 33) Refers to the recession through June.
  3. Iwato business.1958/(Showa 33) From December ~1961/(Showa 36) Refers to the economic boom until June.
  4. Income doubling plan.1961/From (36)~1971/It refers to the economic plan up to (46).
  5. Olympic economy.1962/(Showa 37) From December ~1964/(Showa 39) Refers to the economic boom until June.
  6. Securities recession(Structural recession).1964/(Showa 39) From December ~1965/(40) The recession era until October.
  7. Izanagi business.1965/(Showa 40) From December ~1970/(Showa 45) Refers to the economic boom until June.
  8. Japan World Exposition The1970/It is commonly known as the Osaka Expo in the event of (Showa 45).
  9. Nixon shock(Round up) Is1971/Refers to the economic shock of 46.
  10. Japanese archipelago remodeling theoryBy the archipelago remodeling economy1972/Large (Showa 47)Public worksとinflationThere was (price increase)[44].

Home appliances boom

In the 20's, the followingHome appliancesBecame a hit product.

Showa Genroku culture

Showa Genroku[48] It was called, and the launch of weekly and monthly magazines was outstanding.Osamu Tezuka-Shotaro Ishinomori-Fujio Fujiko-Hasegawa Machiko-Mizuki Shigeru-Fujio AkatsukaSuch asComicBased onAnimeWorks such as[49] ,Akira Kurosawa-Eiji Tsuburaya Film directorBecameJapanese moviesSuch asShowa culture,Popular cultureWas born.Popular songBecame popularHibari Misora-Ichiro FujiyamaSuch as a singerYujiro Ishihara[50] ,Kiyoshi AtsumiActorsス タ ーNextEntertainment worldWas active in.Comic-moviesAlongsideTV broadcastAlso became popular.In the 40's of the Showa eraProfessional baseball OfV9Is the era,Grand SumoFrom the 30's to the 50's of the Showa eraRikidozanIs active in professional wrestling, etc.Fighting sportsIt was popular. "Giants, Taiho, and fried eggsSuch asBuzzword [51][52] was born.Tokaido ShinkansenOpening (1964/(39))Meishin ExpresswayOpening (1963/(38))Tokyo OlympicsHeld (1964/(39))[53]Japan World Exposition(1970/It reached its climax due to the success of the Osaka Expo (Showa 45),Middle East WarBrought byOil shockGrowth ends.

Defense issues

This miraculous reconstruction will be carried out on a small scale for domestic security and homeland defense due to the strategic needs of the United States.Police reserve(laterSDF), But the constitution prohibits the retention of force, which is largely contributed by the financial stigma that is equivalent to being completely free from the burden of defense spending.On the other hand,US-Japan Security TreatyとUS-Japan Status AgreementUS troops are left in various parts of Japan by theCompassionate budget) Was a large expense, and troubles arose constantly, including trials and accidents during crimes in the US military. EspeciallyOkinawaThen these problems often occurred. Also, "Do not have nuclear weapons, do not make them, do not bring them in"Three non-nuclear principlesMeanwhile, it is becoming clear that the Japanese government and the US government have entered into a secret agreement to tolerate the introduction of nuclear weapons into Japan during an emergency.

Meal

Due to the youth's departure from the farm農民(Especially the old man)FarmerからemployeeBecame, and the so-called "mother, grandpa, grandma"Sanchan AgricultureIs increasing rapidly,MechanizationIs progressingFull-time farmerThanPart-time farmerThere are more.School lunchOf the post-war generation who grew up eating breadStaple food RiceからBreadAnd when there is too much riceReductionMake policy,TransferBywheat Of輸入Has increased, and as a resultFood self-sufficiencyHas dropped. In the second half of the warwhalingFlourishingWhale meatIs mainstreamCarnivoreHowever, since the 50s, IWC (International Whaling Commission) Banned commercial whaling inbeef-豚 肉-chickenBecame the mainstream meat diet[54]..During the period of high economic growth, the heat source for cooking changed from firewood and charcoal to electricity and gas.In 30Tokyo Shibaura ElectricLaunched an electric rice cooker竈From the rice cooking method usingrice cookerChanged to the one using (At that time, the electric rice cooker and the gas cooker were almost equal)[55][56]..The work of housewives has changed from cooking rice to cooking mainly side dishes.Gas stoveWith the spread ofWestern food,Chinese cuisineIt became easier to cook.40'sRefrigerator With the spread ofFresh produceHas appeared.From around 35, the consumption of rice decreased and the consumption of bread, noodles, meat, dairy products, seafood, and vegetables increased.[57]Around 42, when rice was left over from 45 and rice production was adjusted from 40.Nissin Food OfInstant noodleな どInstant FoodHas been developed in large numbers.The first in 43Retort food, In 46Cup NoodleWas developed.After 45Fast foodShops andfamily restaurant,convenience storeHas become widespread.[58]Ramen,coffee,croquette,hamburger National foodIt became.

Living problems such as housing medical care

The housing situation after the war wasWar damageHousing burned down byDemobilization,SalvationDue to the increase in population, housing shortages have been a problem.1950/In (25), to support the construction of owning a houseHousing Finance CorporationWas founded[59].1951/(Showa 26)Kakuei TanakaCentered onLegislatorでMunicipalitiesBuild a housePublic Housing ActWas established.1955/(Showa 30)2st Ichiro Hatoyama CabinetByJapan Housing CorporationWas founded. From 31 to 33Asian coldWas popularMinistry of Health and WelfareThe medical conditions of the people have improved due to the influence of the establishment of.The number one cause of death in the postwar periodtuberculosisからcancerAs a result, Japan has become a low-death society in which the number of deaths for one year decreases sharply.High economic growthIn the period,Showa single digitGenerationalHusband and wifeWith 2 peopleNew human generation OfchildrenA total of four homes of two became the average family model.dining kitchenとJapanese-style roomWith twoFlush toiletA housing complex that lives in a Western style has appeared in a housing complex that is fully equipped with[60]..In urban areasPublic bathThere were manyDowntownThe number of public baths has decreased.

Female history

1948/(Showa 23)Eugenic protection lawIs establishedAbortion LegalizationWas done.Civil lawHas been revisedheritageinheritance Gender equalityIt became.SuffrageAiming for further improvement of the status of the female who wonWomen's liberation movementBecame active.1970/(Showa 45)Woman ribFollowing the exercise started,1975/(Showa 50) was designated as the International Women's Year, and improving the status of women became a human issue.[61].1956/The Prostitution Prevention Law was enacted in 31.1958/(33)May 4Is enforcedProstituteThe system is completely abolished,Red lineDisappeared[62].1947/(22)May 10 OfCriminal lawAmendment ofAdulteryWas abolished.1947/(Showa 22) with a major revision of the Civil CodeFamily systemWas abolished. It was the mainstream in the 20sMidwifeFrom birth with the assistance ofObstetrics and gynecologyAtbirthincreased.

FashionIn terms ofpanties,braWestern styleunderwearKindnapkin,tamponSuch asSanitary itemsHas become widespread.In the 30's of the Showa eraUpperCalled a tubularDressesBecame popular. In the 40sBaby boom generationFocusing on womenMini skirtThere is a boom[63]In addition to skirts and kimonos, womenpantsAuthorized to wear[64].. Woman exposes skinSwimwearSwimwear became popular among young women after being recognized for wearing.HairstyleThen.ShortcutIs socially recognized,Cosmetics,Beauty salon-cosmetic surgerySuch asFemaleBusiness has spread.

In terms of life, in the 30'sミ シ ンBecame popular, and in terms of economy,Department storeMainstreamShoppingEasy for housewives to shopsupermarketBecame popular. Of post-war generations who had not advanced gender equality or higher educationShowa single digitFrom generationShirage generationA woman who has a husbandOffice workerThe family with two children was the average model home. Postwar womenhousewifeWas the mainstream. The number of women receiving higher education has increased rapidlyNew humanityFor highly educated women in their 20s after generationsOLThere was a change such as increase.

Golden egg era

RapidHigh economic growthWith the progress of agingInfant mortalityな どIllnessThe number of people in Japan has decreased, and the population of the city has increased rapidly. 1st after the warBaby boomThrough[65]In the 40s, the total population of Japan finally exceeded 1 million. The generation born of the baby boomBaby boom generationCalled, he became warless and devoted himself to the race to survive in its huge generational population, making self-assertion more intense than any generation. People from rural areas are collectively sent to urban areas to reduce their consumption (Group employment),They are"Golden egg", and a group employment train was also operated. Urban中小企业Their abundant workforce supported the Japanese economy[66].

Left wing movement

On the other hand, those from cities and those who can afford it went on to high school and university, and higher education became popular. In "60 Years of Security", demonstrators gathered at the Diet Building and there was a movement to resign from the Kishi Cabinet.1960 eraAround (Showa 35)Assassination of Inajiro AsanumaRight-wing terrorism due to violent incidents occurred one after another.1970/(Showa 45) peaked in the 70 security struggleLeft wing movementThere is a storm surge in Europe and AmericaVietnam WarOpposition struggleMay RevolutionAnd so on.All-combat generationSome of the young people who are said toPeace revolutionRepulsed on the routeNew LeftPut yourself in the movement,Right wingRepeated clashes with young people of the system.Japanese student movementAfter the frustration of[67], The New Left movement is isolated,Japanese Red Army-Union Red Army-Yodo issue groupEtc. have become radicalInner GebaAnd the general publicJapanese Red Military Case-Asama Sanso Incident-Narita Airport control tower occupation case-Consecutive company bombings-Yodo Hijacking CaseSuch asterrorismI was pushed into activities. The numerous incidents they caused caused a backlash of public opinion, which had been relatively sympathetic until then. Many young people also moved away from the radical student movement after the failure of the University of Tokyo conflict, and many urban citizens became a nonpartisan with no supporting political parties.

Social issues (pollution, welfare, traffic war)

In the 30s,Universal insuranceThe system is in place[68],High economic growthAs a harmful effect of, it refers to the four major pollution diseases that have become four pollution trials.Pollution diseaseWas born.[65][69][70][71] From the 30's to the 50'sMieYokkaichiOccurred inYokkaichi asthma(Also known as Shiohama Asthaku and Yokkaichi pollution)KanagawaKawasaki CityOccurred inKawasaki pollutionAir pollution has become more serious in industrial areas and urban areas such as (the main pollution disease name is Kawasaki asthma).KumamotoMinamataOccurred inMinamata disease(Also known as Minamata disease in Kumamoto)NiigataOccurred in the Agano River basinNiigata Minamata disease(Also known as the second Minamata diseaseAgano RiverMercury poisoning) and other mercury poisoning occur, andToyamaJinzu RiverOccurred in the basinItai-itai diseaseAlso became a problem[72].. To respond to serious pollutionBasic Law for Pollution ControlWas established.TrainCentralTransportationからAutomobileJapan's national railway becomes a central societyLocal lineArounddeficitIt became management. From the 30s to the 40sRailway electrificationConstruction is done,steam locomotiveWas completely abolished.motorizationByTraffic accidentThe number of deaths due to[70],Traffic warと[73] I came to be told.In such an era situationOppositionIt is,Japanese Socialist Party,Japan Communist Party Socialist revolutionSupporting urban residents from the workers' partyInnovation partyChanged toMiddle politicsReciteDemocratic Party,Soka GakkaiSupport baseKomeitoIncreased supporters in urban areas and actively worked on improving the status of workers, pollution control and welfare policies for the elderly.Opposition parties were housewives and commerce and industry in the 40s.Office workerExpanded support to urban residents such as.large companyWas a priority growth pathLDPAlso,Eisaku SatoUnder the prime minister's strong initiative,1971/(Showa 46)Environment AgencyWas newly established.

Return to mainland

Temporary Northern Southwest Islands Government OfficeWas installedNansei IslandsThe area is1952/(27)May 2ToTokara IslandsBut,Amami archipelago 1953/(Showa 28)May 12Returned from the United States to Japan.1968/(43)May 6ToAgreement between Japan and the United States regarding Southern Islands and other islandsByOgasawara IslandsWas returned.1972/(47)May 5ToRyukyu governmentWas installedOkinawa Prefecture returns to Japan official[74]. PrefecturalReturn to homeAs a result of the fruitful movement, the fact that the US military base in Okinawa was left as it was left behind.

Energy problems

With the progress of high economic growthfuel coalからoilConvert toEnergy revolutionWas started, and the rationalization of the coal mining industry, which had been one of the leading industries, was pressed for.1959/(Showa 34) ~1960/(Showa 35)Mitsui Miike disputewas there[75].1973/The first (Showa 48)Oil shockWith the (oil crisis)FrenzyHigh-growth economic growth came to an end after the measures to curb total demand for restraint were implemented.Kakuei Tanaka Cabinet Theoil,Natural gasな どOverseasfromresourceDepends onThermal power generationGet out ofNuclear powerTo promotePower Development Promotion Tax Law-Law on special accounts-Law for regional development around power generation facilities OfPower methodWas established[76].

Stable growth period and subsequent bubble economy

Due to the high economic growth, JapanOverpopulation problemAs a result, the people's lives became rich for the first time in history. A sudden after two oil shocksinflation(Frenzy) And the recession ended in a short period of time,ProfoundThe industry fell,Energy ConservationPromotion ofHigh-tech industry-Service industryIs growing,Stable growthWe were able to make a smooth transition to. Western countriesStagflationIn the midst of suffering from the sudden increase in production of automobiles and electric appliances and the expansion of overseas exports due to the torrential rain, the trade surplus continued to increase, and finally the Japanese economy becameWest GermanyNo. 2 in the worldeconomic superpowerIt became.1980/(Showa 55), only 30 years after the war, at the GNP levelUnited States economyIt has become the second largest, and the standard of living of the people isXNUMX million total middle classWas called. During this time,Convenience store-Walkman-karaokeBecame popular,US-Japan trade frictionBecame a problem. JapanesePopulation growthWas progressing rapidly after the war,Baby boom generationThe second due to the increase in marriages (especially women) (46-49)Baby boomWas a turning point in Japan's population structure.Immediately after a temporary increase in the number of births1975/After (50)Shirage generationBirth rate fell below 2 due to rising unmarried rate among women. From the 50sJapan TheLow birthrateAging societyMove to.

Implementation of Keynes's policy by public works

Urban population influx and rural population decline continueDepopulationとOvercrowdingBecame a social problem.In the 40's of the Showa era, innovation forces emerged mainly in metropolitan areas, and the Socialist Party and the Communist PartyInnovationAn agreement forTokyo OfRyokichi MinobeBeginning withKyoto-Osaka-KanagawaOne after another in major local governments such asInnovation municipalityWas born. Above allKyotoThen,Torazo NinagawaServed as governor for 7 years and 28 years. Under these circumstances, maintenance forces (LDP) IsThree major metropolitan areas,Pacific belt OfIndustrial areaBecame seriousOvercrowdingAnd became worse in rural areasDepopulationPopulation problems andRegional disparityUrgently to improve the infrastructure of urban areas and solve roads andField maintenanceSuch asPublic worksIt implemented a profit guidance policy that increased investment and gained support from rural conservatives.社会 保障In terms of1961/(Showa 36)Universal insuranceIs realized,1973/(Showa 48) The realization of free medical care for the elderly was realized, andWelfare stateThe momentum for realization has increased. In this way, public works investment, which swelled to account for about 1% of GDP, and social security investment, which increased with the aging of the population, were the main causes of fiscal deterioration.[77].

Conflict between faction politics and Hosei

1972/(Showa 47)Japanese archipelago remodeling theoryChantedKakuei Tanaka CabinetWas established[78].Lockheed caseThroughTriangle Daifuku OfLiberal Democratic factionConflict[79] Has come. LeatherHakuchu DietでMiddle roadPolitical party(Komeito-Democratic Party)WhenInnovation party(Japanese Socialist Party-Japan Communist Party) Is growing in powerKakuei Tanaka Dark generalReigned as1976/Since 51, political reformers from the LDP have separated.New freedom clubStructural reformists separated from the Japanese Socialist PartySocial Democratic UnionThe number of members such asNew partyWas formed.Conservative and innovative of the Liberal Democratic Party and the Japan Socialist Party in the 30'sTwo-party systemFrom the 40s to the 50s, the central political party and the new urban party became more powerful and multiparty.1980/(Showa 55)Disappearing happeningbySame day electionThe Liberal Democratic Party won a big victoryCompanySince the disappearance of, the reversal of the conservative forces becomes noticeable. In the 50s, in terms of political thoughtYasukuni Shrine Problem,History textbook problemでRight wingとLeft wingThe conflict ofAkahotai caseA terrorist attack by the right wing occurred.As of 22, the era name was abolished due to the legal system, but the usage penetration rate of the Showa era name was high.1947/から1979/Until then, the Showa era was widely spread to the entire nation as a custom, and the legal basis was unclear, so there was a movement among the left to abolish the era.To give a legal basis to the era1979/(54)May 6Ohira CabinetEra lawWas established, and the legal preparations for the revision were completed.Era Name Act is the sameMay 6ToAnnounce,same dayEnforcementWas done.

Entertainment history

Entertainment worldNews in the 50sMasako Mori-Junko Sakurada-Momoe Yamaguchi OfThree trio in the flower,Candies-Pink lady-Seiko MatsudaSuch asentertainerBecame a hot topic among the people.Bubble economyBegan in the 60s,Onyanko ClubSuch asIdolThere was a boom[80].

Educational issues

In terms of education,Competition-Deviation valueeducation·Educational society-Management educationIs progressing,1986/(Showa 61)Nakano Fujimi junior high school bullying suicide caseWas noted inBullyingSuicide problem[81][82]-Juvenile crime・Educational issues such as delinquencyMediaWas accused of.At the request of the business worldTechnical collegeInstalledEducation reformWhen,Stuffing educationThe shift from personalized education to individualityYutori educationThe need for was actively advocated.Nintendo OfVideo gamesMachineNESSuch asGameWas born.

Transition to neoliberalism and the bubble era

Suzuki CabinetからNakasone CabinetCalled for administrative reform in the timesAppearanceWas installed. Nakasone Cabinetadministrative reformStarting from the line, the welfare was reduced by abolishing the system for free medical care for the elderly.SankoshaPrivatization(Japan Monopoly Corporation → Japanese tobacco industry .Japan National Railway → Japan National Railways Clearing CorporationとJRgroup.Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation → NTT Group)Whenconsumption taxThe introduction plan is envisioned[83], There was fierce opposition from the opposition,1988/(Showa 63)Consumption tax lawThe plan was passed. The welfare state route has been reviewedNeoliberalismThe rudder was turned to the line.United Kingdom OfThatcherism,America OfReganomics,Eastern countries OfPerestroika,Reform and opening upPolicy, andAsian NIEsIn the midst of the great transformation of the world economy such as the rapid progress of countries, the Japanese economyPlaza agreementStarting fromAppreciation of the yenIn the progression ofBank of JapanbyYen recessionMeasures are takenDomestic demandExpansion continuesBubble economyRushed into[84][85][86][87][88].1986/(Showa 61)Equal Employment ActWas executed, and women's social advancement progressed in the 60s.[61].. Students are the employment seller marketBubble generationWas called.BoomIn the Showa periodHeisei,Cold WarThe end of.

Post-war regime

After World War II, Japan has led the United States internationallyWestern countriesBelongs to the (liberal camp),US-Japan Security TreatyThe Soviet Union as the first ally basedEastern countriesAgainst the (socialist camp),Cold warI was able to survive.Political system-Foreign relations-Economic structure-Family system Pacific WarChanged drastically after the endHistoryTypicallyPrewar TheModernToAfter the war ThemodernIs said to belong to. PrewarNational regime TheImperial Japanese ConstitutionIs belowEmperor sovereigntyIt was a system era. After the warThe Constitution of JapanとCold WarUnderneath,National democratic rightSystem andUS-Japan Security TreatyIt was the age of the system.1956/(Showa 31)Economic Planning Agencyof"Economic White Paper"Is no longerAfter the warNot,"BuzzwordBecame. However,Cultural・Financially, there is considerable continuity between prewar and postwar, and ratherWartime regimeAnd whenHigh economic growthThe change depending on the period is also large.Many traditional with high economic growthJapanese cultureWas forced to change. In the late Showa periodHigh culture OfCultureThe legal authority also gradually dismantled, and commercialShowa culture,Popular cultureIs extremely prosperous.

Chronological table

From the early Showa period to the end of the war

1926/(Taisho 15/Showa XNUMX)
May 12ToEmperor Taisho demiseIn response to what I did,HirohitoIs practiced from December 12th to ShowaChange.
1927/(Showa 2)
Showa financial crisisoutbreak.Nanjing Incident.1st Wakatsuki CabinetTotal resignation.Yoshikazu Tanaka Cabinet(SeiyukaiCabinet) established. Enforcement of promulgation of monetary debt payment postponed by an emergency edict (moratorium). The 53rd Extraordinary Assembly was convened to counter the financial crisis.Shandong troop dispatch # XNUMXst troop dispatch.Eastern Conference.Iwanami libraryPublication started. December 12, Japan's first between Ueno and AsakusasubwayOpened.
1928/(Showa 3)
First boyGeneral election(16th House of Representatives general election) Is carried out[89].XNUMX-XNUMX incident: 1 prefecture 3 prefectures 27 prefecturesCommunist party-Labor Party-Council-Childless Youth AllianceThousands of people includingPublic Security ActArrest for alleged violation. At the 55th Imperial Special AssemblyPublic Security ActThe proposal for revision is submitted and the deliberation is not completed. The second Shandong troop dispatch was decided by the cabinet meeting.Jinan Incident.Zhangsaku bomb murder case-Manchuria certain serious incident.. Enforcement of the revision of the Security Maintenance Law by an emergency edict (additional charges of death and execution of purpose).Amsterdam olympicでMikio Oda(Triple jump)Yoshiyuki Tsuruta(Swimming 200 meters breaststroke) was the first gold medal for a Japanese player,Hitomi KinueBecame the first female medalist to win a silver medal at 800 meters.Emperor ShowaCoronation.
1929/(Showa 4)
World DepressionOccurrence of.Yoshikazu Tanaka CabinetTotal resignation,Hamaguchi Yuyuki Cabinet(Civilian partyCabinet) established.
1930/(Showa 5)
Showa Depression.Lifting of gold export ban.London Navy Disarmament ConferenceHeld.17th House of Representatives general election[90].. Proposed amendment to the municipal/town/village system that recognizes women's civil rights, passed by the House of Representatives,AristocratThe deliberation has not been completed. November,Prime Minister Hamaguchi's distress case.
1931/(Showa 6)
Captain Nakamura.Lake Yanagijo Incident,Manchurian Incidentoutbreak.Gold export re-ban.March case.October case.2st Wakatsuki CabinetEstablished.Inuyo CabinetEstablished.
1932/(Showa 7)
Clan case.18th House of Representatives general election[91].Lytton Study TeamCome to Japan. March 3stManchuriaFounding Declaration.Fifteen-fifteen incident.Inuyo CabinetTotal resignation.Saito CabinetEstablished.Japan-Manchukuo ProtocolConclusion,ManchuriaApproval.First Shanghai Incident.
1933/(Showa 8)
Yo-yo trend.Tokyo Ondo hit.Showa Sanriku EarthquakeOccurrence.May 12PalaceAkihito(NativeCrown princeThen, the 125th Emperor) was born. MarchWithdrawal from the League of Nations.. JulyTakigawa incident,Tangyu ceasefire agreement(Stop military collision in Manchurian Incident beginning with the case of Lake Yanagijo). JulyShinbei Case.
1934/(Showa 9)
Muroto TyphoonAttack.Babe RuthThe US Major League selection team came to Japan.Army Military Academy Case.Teijin case, Resigned from the Saito Cabinet. JulyOkada CabinetEstablished.
1935/(Showa 10)
Emperor Institution Theory Case.Aizawa incident.
1936/(Showa 11)
January 1th, Japanese plenipotentiary notice of withdrawal from London disarmament conference.19th House of Representatives general election[92].XNUMX incident.Keisuke OkadaCabinet resignation.Hiroki HirotaTo the Cabinet Order.Minister of the Military Active military systemIs back.Japan-German Defense AgreementConclusion.Suien incident.Xi'an incident.
1937/(Showa 12)
Hirota Cabinet resigned due to unification within the cabinet.Hayashi Kurjuro CabinetEstablished.20th House of Representatives general election[93].. Resigned from the Cabinet of Directors.First Konoe CabinetApproval. July 7,Rozobashi incident,Sino-Japanese war(Chinese incident)outbreak. On July 7, a local ceasefire agreement was established. Statement of government Hebei troops. On July 11th, the Japanese military launched a total attack on Hebei. August 7, Sino-Japanese military engagement in Shanghai (Second Shanghai Incident). August 8th, a full-scale war begins. September Encourage the people's war cooperation with the slogan of "Kunitachikoku, Jonghohokoku, Kennin Kokuhisa, Ichiyu Hachihiro"National Spiritual Mobilization MovementBegins. October 10th,League of NationsThe General Assembly voted to condemn Japan's actions. The Imperial Headquarters was set up on November 11th. NovemberJapan-Germany defense agreementConclusion. Government in KoreaImperial vowTo distribute. The Cabinet Information Department recruited national anthems,Patriotic March"Performance presentation, 100 million records sold.White-white religion incident.Japan Prostitution Party Public Security ActBanned due toPeople's Front Case). On December 12, Japanese troops occupy Nanjing.Nanjing Incident.
1938/(Showa 13)
Konoe Statement.. JulyNational Total Mobilization ActEnactment.Battle of Xuzhou.. July, at the southeastern tip of ManchuriaZhang Gufeng Incidentoutbreak.1940 Tokyo OlympicsDecided to cancel. AugustOperation Wuhan.
1939/(Showa 14)
1Hiranuma CabinetEstablished.Chongqing bombing.. May A military clash with the Soviet-Mongolian Allied Forces near the Manchuria border, a big defeat on the Japanese side (Nomonhan case). JulyNational Conscription OrderEnactment. AugustGerman-Soviet non-aggression treatyWith the enactment, he lost the grounds for the pro-Germany policy since the Hirota Cabinet, and Hiranuma resigned, leaving the words "European situation is complicated and strange".May 9,Germany OfPolish invasionBySecond World WarBegins.Abe CabinetApproval. ・Price control regulations(Nine and eighteen suspension orders) Promulgated.
1940/(Showa 15)
US CabinetEstablished.Celebration of the 2600 AD. MarchWang Ting administrationEstablished (NovemberJapan-China TreatyApproves the government). JulySecond Konoe CabinetApproval. MarchJapan-Germany Ikoku Military AllianceConclusion, northBuddha in India.. JulyTaisei Tsubasa CouncilFormed. NovemberDainippon Industry Bulletin DietFormed.
1941/(Showa 16)
Sorge case.. JulyJapan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyConclusion,US-Japan negotiationsstart. July,Third Konoe CabinetEstablished,Southern French India.ABCD siege networkBanned oil exports to Japan.Gozen meetingでImperial National Policy Implementation GuidelinesDecision. OctoberTojo CabinetEstablished.Hull NoteIs presented.May 12,Southern strategy(Murray Operation-Attack on Pearl Harbor),Pacific War(Great East Asian War) The open war.Battle of Murray.Battleship YamatoCompletion. Promulgation and enforcement of the Temporary Control Law such as press conferences and associations.
1942/(Showa 17)
Battle of Singapore,Battle of the Philippines.. Aug. 4,Do-lit air raidThe US Army aircraftTokyoTokyo city,KanagawaKawasaki City,Yokosuka,AichiNagoya city,MieYokkaichi,HyogoKobe CityFirstAir raidTo do.21th House of Representatives general election[94].. Aug. 6,Midway naval battle.Kanmon Railway TunnelOpening of business.Battleship musashiCompletion.Battle of Guadalcanal Island.
1943/(Showa 18)
Yamamoto IsorokuKilled in actionNavy A case).Tokyo cityとTokyoIs abolished,TokyoInstalled.Japanese Army withdrawal from Guadalcanal Island.Battle of Attu.Battle of Solomon Islands.Student camp.
1944/(Showa 19)
Continent Operation,Operation Imphal,Mariana Offshore Battle,Guam battle,Battle of Leyte,Battle of the Philippines (1944-1945).Saipan Islandfall.Koiso CabinetEstablished.Tsushima Maru Incident.Evacuation of school children.Showa Tonankai Earthquake.B-29byTokyoToAir raidBegins.
1945/(Showa 20)
Yalta talks.Battle of Iwo Jima,Battle of Shimori Island.Local General OfficeSet upMainland decisive battlePrepare for Large-scale air raids will be conducted in various places until the end of the war.
May 3-10 days Tokyo air raid
3 Nagoya air raid,Osaka air raid,Kobe air raid
May 4 U.S. militaryOkinawa main islandLanded in and became a ground battle (Battle of Okinawa).
May 4 Kantaro Suzuki CabinetEstablished.
5 Yokohama air raid
6 Shizuoka air raid
May 6 The organized battle of the Japanese army ends in Okinawa (Memorial Day).
7 Hokkaido air raid
8 Toyama air raid
May 8 Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima city
May 8 USSR Japan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyDiscardDeclaration of war on Japan.Kuril Islands-KarafutoInvades.
May 8 Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki city
May 8 Potsdam DeclarationAcceptance decision
May 8 Accepted Potsdam Declaration
May 8 Miyagi incident.Tamane BroadcastTo the peopleThe end of the warIs announced (The end of the war).
May 9 Surrender documentSigning
May 9Of the bombed areaHiroshima cityMainlyMakurazaki TyphoonInvasion

Chronology of the middle Showa period (after the end of the war and until the period of high economic miracle)

1946/(Showa 21)
May 1The EmperorHuman declaration.Tonghua case.Food mayday.[95]May 11, Promulgation of the Constitution of Japan.Farmland reform.Banishment of public office.May 12,Showa Nankai Earthquake.
1947/(Showa 22)
Two-one general(cancel).May 5,The Constitution of JapanEnforcement.Imperial ruleas well as the Imperial economic lawEnforcement,Old royal family11 Miyake 51 peopleWithdrawal from the Imperial Family.Local government lawEstablished.Izu Islands Return to mainland.
1948/(Showa 23)
Showaden construction.Korea OfJejuMassacre (Jeju Island XNUMX/XNUMX Incident), many islanders flow into Japan.Hanshin Education Case.Fukui earthquakeOccurrence.Teijin incident.Sugamo Detention CenterでHideki Tojo,Hiroki HirotaExecution of 7 people.
1949/(Showa 24)
Dodge lineImplementation.Shimoyama incident.Mitaka case.Matsukawa incidentOccurred one after another.[96] From KoreaTsushimaRequest for refund[97].Yuuki HidekiIs the first JapaneseNobel PrizeAward.
1950/(Showa 25)
Korean Waroutbreak.Japan Coast GuardMinesweeperTheKorean PeninsulaDispatch to near sea[98].. Japan isKorean special demandByEconomyreconstructionAccelerates.Police reserve(CurrentJapan Ground Self-Defense Force) Launch.
1951/(Showa 26)
San Francisco Peace Treaty,Security Treaty between Japan and the United StatesSigning.radio OfPrivate broadcastingStarted.
1952/(Showa 27)
Tokara Islands Return to mainland.US-Japan Administrative AgreementIs concluded.Lee Seung-nou lineIs drawn.Restoration of sovereignty.IndiaAnd peace restoration (laterIndonesia-BurmaSigned peace treaty).
1953/(Showa 28)
TV main broadcasting started.Amami archipelago Return to mainland.. To KoreaTakeshimaAre occupied.
1954/(Showa 29)
May 1Double bridge case.May 3ToBikini atollでHydrogen bombAn experiment was conducted,Daifuku RyumaruCrew members were exposed.Toyamaru accident.
1955/(Showa 30)
Liberal Party and Japan Democratic PartyLDP, The right and the left have mergedJapanese Socialist PartyIs established (55 years,Maintenance[99]-Socialist Party Reunification).Shinmu business.Basic Nuclear LawEstablished.Shiunmaru accident.Toyota crownLaunched.
1956/(Showa 31)
Atomic Energy CommissionSettings.Japan Atomic Energy Research InstituteSettings.Soviet UnionAnd diplomatic relations recovery,Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration.United Nations membership.
1957/(Showa 32)
Pan bottom depression.Science and Technology AgencySettings.Five thousand yen banknote #C ticketIssue.
1958/(Showa 33)
Iwato business.Tokyo TowerIs completed.Nagashima Shigeo Yomiuri GiantsJoin the group.XNUMX yen bill #CIssue.Nankai Maru Accident.Chicken RamenLaunched.Subaru 360Released.
1959/(Showa 34)
May 4ToCrown Prince Akihito(Later the 125th Emperor)Michiko ShodaMarry (Mitchie Boom).Sadaharu OhJoined the Yomiuri Giants army.Isewan TyphoonOccurrence.Niigata Red Cross Center Bombing Attempt.
1960/(Showa 35)
May 2ToTokujin HiromiyaBirth (later emperor).May 6To(New) US-Japan Security TreatyRevised effective.Security struggleOccur.Assassination of Inajiro Asanuma.
1961/(Showa 36)
Basic agricultural lawEnactment.Shimanaka Incident.
1962/(Showa 37)
Olympic economy.Mikawashima accident.
1963/(Showa 38)
Japan's firstNuclear power plant,Tokai Power StationWorking. First 30 minutes in JapanTelevision AnimationSeries[100]"Astro boy』Started broadcasting.
1964/(Showa 39)
Meishin Expressway-Shuto Expressway,Tokaido ShinkansenOpening.May 10-May 10,Tokyo OlympicsHeld.
1965/(Showa 40)
Japan-Korea Basic TreatySigning.Securities recession(Structural recession).
1966/(Showa 41)
Total population of JapanExceeded 1 million.Izanagi business.Beatles to Japan.Sanrizuka StruggleStart.
1967/(Showa 42)
firstNational Foundation DayApplication of.Basic Law for Pollution ControlPromulgation.Yokkaichi asthmatrialIs sued.
1968/(Showa 43)
Ogasawara Islands Return to mainland.XNUMX million yen incident.Todai conflict,Japan-Japan disputeSuch asAll-out fighting movementIs intensifying. Manga"Golgo 13Series has begun.
1969/(Showa 44)
Television Animation"Sazae』Started broadcasting.Tomei ExpresswayAll lines are open.
1970/(Showa 45)
May 3-May 9ToJapan World ExpositionHeld (Osaka Expo).Yodo Hijacking Case.Mishima incident.

Chronology of the late Showa period (from the post-high economic miracle period to the bubble)

1971/(Showa 46)
May 7ToEnvironment AgencySettings.Nixon shock.Cup NoodlesReleased.
1972/(Showa 47)
Sapporo OlympicsHeld.Asama Sanso Incident.Sanyo Shinkansen OfShin-Osaka Station-Okayama stationThe space is open.Tel Aviv airport shooting case.Sennichi Department Store Fire.Okinawa return.Japanese archipelago remodeling theory.Joint statement of the Government of Japan and the People's Republic of China(Japan-China Joint Statement,TaiwanBreaking).
1973/(Showa 48)
Middle East WarBy the firstOil shock.Kim Dae Jung Incident.Ocean department store fire.
1974/(Showa 49)
Consecutive company bombings.Tanaka gold vein problem.Seven-ElevenThe first store in Japan opens.
1975/(Showa 50)
May 3On the Sanyo ShinkansenOkayama station-Hakata StationThe space is open.Okinawa International Ocean ExpoHeld.
1976/(Showa 51)
Lockheed case.Sadaharu Oh Babe RuthBeat home run record.
1977/(Showa 52)
Japanese abduction issue by North KoreaBecomes popular.Sadaharu Oh # home run : Hank AaronBecame the best in the world, surpassing his homerun record.Dhaka Nikko Hijacking Case.
1978/(Showa 53)
Japan-China Peace and Friendship TreatySigning. New Tokyo International Airport (currentlyNarita International Airport) Opening of the port. The firstSumida River fireworks display.
1979/(Showa 54)
(I.e.Islamic revolutionBy the secondOil shock.. Television Animation"Doraemon』(2nd term) broadcast start.Tokyo Summit.Invader gamesIs fashionable[101].Nihonzaka tunnel fire accident.Era lawEstablished.
1980/(Showa 55)
Disappearing happening.Masayoshi Ohira sudden death.HarajukuでBamboo clanAppears[102].Shinjuku West Exit Bus Arson Case.
1981/(Showa 56)
Chinese residual orphansIs the firstVisit to JapanTo do.Building Standards LawEnforcement order revision (newSeismic standard).Kobe Port Island Expo.
1982/(Showa 57)
Hotel New Japan Fire.Tohoku Shinkansen(Omiya Station-Morioka Stationwhile),Joetsu Shinkansen(Omiya Station-Niigata Station(Pause) Open.May 3ToKawasaki pollutionThe trial started.
1983/(Showa 58)
Tokyo DisneylandOpening.Nihonkai Chubu EarthquakeOccurrence.Oshinboom.
1984/(Showa 59)
Glico Morinaga Incident.Takamado PalaceHome establishment.
1985/(Showa 60)
Tohoku Shinkansen and Joetsu Shinkansen Omiya Station-Ueno StationThe space is open.May 4,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation-Japan Monopoly Corporation PrivatizationBeingNippon Telegraph and Telephone(NTT)Japanese tobacco industry(JT) is launched.Tsukuba Science ExpoHeld.May 8Japan Airlines Flight 123 crash.G5でPlaza agreement(60Yen recession).
1986/(Showa 61)
Equal Employment ActExecution.Tokyo SummitHeld.Japanese Socialist Party OfTakako DoiBecame Japan's first female leader as a parliamentary party.Miharaeruption.
1987/(Showa 62)
Bubble economy(Heisei economy) is in full swing.Privatization of the national railway divisionでJRA group is established.
1988/(Showa 63)
Seikan Tunnel,Seto Ohashi BridgeOpened.Recruit caseIs a problem. Television Animation"Go! Anpanman』Started broadcasting.
1989/(64/XNUMX)
High school girl concrete murder case(Discovery1989 (Heisei XNUMX)March).May 1ToEmperor Showa demiseThen,Crown Prince Akihito125th Emperor of JapanCoronationWith the next8 daysToHeiseiIt is changed to.

Comparison table with the Christian era

ShowaFirst year2/3/4/5/6/7/8/9/10/
AD1926/1927/1928/1929/1930/1931/1932/1933/1934/1935/
Zodiac signsBing YinDing舊舰Yin Earth SnakeNoonSpicyRenshenGuiyouJiaxuOtsuya
Showa11/12/13/14/15/16/17/18/19/20/
AD1936/1937/1938/1939/1940/1941/1942/1943/1944/1945/
Zodiac signsPriestDing ChouYang Earth TigerOneselfDragonSpicyNoonGuiweiJiashenOtoro
Showa21/22/23/24/25/26/27/28/29/30/
AD1946/1947/1948/1949/1950/1951/1952/1953/1954/1955/
Zodiac signsBingxuYin Fire PigWu ZiUglyGora ToraXinmaoRenchenRyomiJiawuYiwei
Showa31/32/33/34/35/36/37/38/39/40/
AD1956/1957/1958/1959/1960/1961/1962/1963/1964/1965/
Zodiac signsBingshenDing YouPennyJihaiGengziSpicyYang Water TigerLichenJiachenOtomi
Showa41/42/43/44/45/46/47/48/49/50/
AD1966/1967/1968/1969/1970/1971/1972/1973/1974/1975/
Zodiac signsBing WuDing WeiYang Earth MonkeyJiyouFamilyXinhaiRenziYin Water OxJia YinMaiden
Showa51/52/53/54/55/56/57/58/59/60/
AD1976/1977/1978/1979/1980/1981/1982/1983/1984/1985/
Zodiac signsBingchenYin Fire SnakeNoonYin Earth GoatComplaintRoosterSkyGuihaiKoshiOtsuyu
Showa61/62/63/64/
AD1986/1987/1988/1989/
Zodiac signsBing YinDing舊舰Yin Earth Snake
First year and last year period
Showa 1926st year (12): December 25th-December 12st <31 days>
64: January 1989st to January 1th <1 days>

Showa in modern times

It is composed of multiple generations.

Showa era

Company/Group

Education/School

Place name

In addition, the place name Showa-cho exists everywhere in Japan.

Transportation

park

Song

Other matters related to Showa

  • When Emperor Taisho collapsedTokyo Nichini Shimbun(Current:Mainichi Newspapers) Scooped "The new era is Kobun", but the new era was announced as "Showa" (as a result) and became a big false alarm. According to one theory, "Kobun" was scooped and replaced with "Showa" in a hurry ()Kobun incident). However, "Kobun" was only presented in the new era draft of the Cabinet, and "Showa" and "Showa" and "Showa" remained until the final third draft of the Imperial Household Ministry, which was actually the center of the new era. It is said to be three plans, "godification" and "generalization". According to the diary of Yuzaburo Kuratomi, the chairman of the Privy Council, the subsequent adjustments1926/(Taisho 15)May 12At that time, it has become clear that the final plan was decided with "Showa" as the final candidate and "Genka" and "Dowa" as references. It is said that one of the Cabinet proposals was leaked during the selection process, and the reporter jumped at it without being able to verify it ("Showa Dairei Record", Takayuki Ishiwatari "Kitamaru" No. 7 ("Koubun"). 1976 [Showa 51] September) "Public record" Showa "", "Kuratomi Yuzaburo Diary" "Kuratomi Yuzaburo Related Documents"[107]).
  • Showa "AkiraIs now popular漢字However, at that time, except that it was rarely used as a person's name.[108], It is said that it was an unfamiliar kanji except for scholars and some aristocrats (originally it was the original character of "teru" and the meaning is the same as "teru"). Therefore, when "Showa" was selected as the final draft, the then Minister of the Imperial Household Ichiki Kitokuro said, "ShowaThere was even a change opinion saying. However,"ShowaIs the past漢とGao ChangIt is the era name used in the era, and in the end it was decided as "Showa" as the original draft.
  • In historySixtieth birthdayThe era name was Showa in Japanclear OfKangxiOnly. (Showa isBing YinIt is "XNUMXth birthday". )
  • Born on December 1926, 15 (Taisho 12)NewbornOn that day, the government office was closed due to the demise of the Emperor Taisho, so the submission of the birth certificate was delayed, and the birthday on the family register was different (mostly the next year (1927), 2). Occurred frequently.Planting trees,Junzo SekineThese are the cases. Also,Merry KitagawaWas born on the same day, but is not included in this case because the place of birth was in the United States.[109].
  • in Japan,The era name that was used once will never be used againThere is a convention. Showa is no exception,Kamakura Period"ShowaThe original issue of the homophone that reads ""MasakazuThere is an example using.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Northern and Northern Dynasties OfNorth morningIncluding the era name of.When excluded, it is the 230th.In addition, it is the 239th when excluding the era name only for the Southern Court.

Source

  1. ^ Emperor Showa is his fatherEmperor TaishoReceived the medical condition of1921/(Taisho 10) On November 11, "Regent Palace".
  2. ^ Emperor Showa The1989/(64)May 1Demise at 6:33 am,Crown Prince Akihito(Currently the Emperor) immediately at the same timeSuccession to the throne.. A Cabinet Order to change the original issue was promulgated on the same day with the signature of the new emperor, and based on the enforcement date of the supplementary provisions of the Cabinet Order, Showa closed the curtain at 12:XNUMX pm on the same day, and the following day.May 1With midnightHeiseiIt was changed to.
  3. ^ 1947/(Showa 22)Former Imperial Court CodeAbolitionThe Constitution of JapanAnd presentImperial ruleWith the enforcement of the era, the text on the era was deleted, and the era lost its legal basis. However, as a result of the fact that the Showa era continued to be widely used both publicly and privately, it was customary.1979/(Showa 54)Era lawHas been enacted.
  4. ^ "Meiji" is the XNUMXth honesty = the original era that was not selected, the most is XNUMX times, Jiji.com, February 2019, 2, 2:15.
  5. ^ The date of "Showa Kaigen no Sho" is December 15, 12, and the date of the Great Mourning Envoy System (Edict No. 25 of 1) promulgated on the same day is December 12, 25. ing.
  6. ^ Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959 Page 32
  7. ^ The second time1927/(2)May 5Sold out in the name of "protection of residents". Since World War I, Shandong Province has many Japanese interests, and many Japanese have also stayed there. The main purpose was to stop the National Revolutionary Army, which was approaching Xuzhou. The second is1928/(3)May 4Introduced one division for the same purpose as the primary dispatch. However, unlike Britain and the United States, which had made concessions to China's unification and national movement, Japan was to curb China's national movement. On May 5, he attacked and occupied Jinan Castle for the murder of residents. The third is 3 days later1928/(3)May 5In addition, one more division was added, and a total of 15,000 hordes suppressed North China. (Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959, pp. 39 and 44-45)
  8. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 20-21
  9. ^ Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959 pp. 78-79
  10. ^ Opposition is only in Japan,Siam (Thailand)Only abandoned
  11. ^ Significant enhancement of modern equipment such as airplanes, tanks and artillery
  12. ^ Construction of the world's largest battleships and aircraft carriers such as Musashi and Yamato
  13. ^ Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959 pp. 135-137
  14. ^ Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959 Page 136
  15. ^ Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959 Page 169
  16. ^ Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959 Page 171
  17. ^ Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959 Page 172
  18. ^ Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959 pp. 172-174
  19. ^ Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959 Page 239
  20. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 18 pages
  21. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa Furukawa94 page
  22. ^ "September 1947, 9 "Emperor's message" is transmitted". Okinawa Prefectural Archives. 2019/4/23Browse.
  23. ^ "Emperor message". Okinawa Prefectural Archives (February 1947, 9). As of February 19, 2019originalMore archives.2019/4/23Browse.
  24. ^ "Illustrated Japanese History Handbook" 291 pages Large book March 2015 Hideo Kuroda (supervised) Teikoku Shoin editorial department (edited)
  25. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 26 pages
  26. ^ "Illustrated Japanese History Handbook" 290 pages Large book March 2015 Hideo Kuroda (supervised) Teikoku Shoin editorial department (edited)
  27. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 25 pages
  28. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 30 pages
  29. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 16 pages
  30. ^ Relationship between Korean War and Japan-Forgotten Sea Transportation- (PDF) Defense Research InstituteWar History Department Ishimaru Anzo
  31. ^ About Takeshima territorial dispute Chairman of the Special Committee on Liberal Democratic Party TerritoryShigeru Ishiba 2006 (Heisei 18)/5/16
  32. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 40 pages
  33. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 100-101
  34. ^ Explanation of the video "Volume 12 of Japanese Records-100 Years of Video Under the Stars and Stripes" → In the content of democratizationThe United States of America OfNew Deal PolicyThanBig governmentWas an innovation policy aimed at
  35. ^ "Volume 12 of Japanese Records-100 Years of Video Democratization under the Stars and Stripes"
  36. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 21 pages
  37. ^ "Illustrated Japanese History Handbook" 292 pages Large book March 2015 Hideo Kuroda (supervised) Teikoku Shoin editorial department (edited)
  38. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 88-89
  39. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 102-103
  40. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 120-121
  41. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPage 140 Upper row
  42. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPage 140 Lower
  43. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa Furukawa136 page
  44. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa Furukawa140 page
  45. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 102 pages
  46. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 130 pages
  47. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa Furukawa142 page
  48. ^ "At that time! XNUMX non-nuclear oath, Diet reply". Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun). (December 2009, 3). http://www.asahi.com/information/db/anotoki/2009_0307.html 2011/4/3Browse. 
  49. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 180-181
  50. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 146-147
  51. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 139 pages
  52. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 194-195
  53. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 134 pages
  54. ^ "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 104 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  55. ^ Transformation of durable goods,Central research company
  56. ^ Changes in the ownership rate of kitchen / kitchen equipment,Central research company
  57. ^ Encyclopedia of Folklore-Reading, Knowing, and Enjoying [Book] Takanori Shintani (Author), p. 232
  58. ^ Encyclopedia of Folklore-Reading, Knowing, and Enjoying [Book] Takanori Shintani (Author), p. 233
  59. ^ "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 121 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  60. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 148-149
  61. ^ a b You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 272-273
  62. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 154-155
  63. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 210-211
  64. ^ Encyclopedia of Folklore-Reading, Knowing, and Enjoying [Book] Takanori Shintani (Author), p. 218
  65. ^ a b "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 120 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  66. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 144-145
  67. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 220-221
  68. ^ "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 107 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  69. ^ "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 117 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  70. ^ a b "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 119 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  71. ^ "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 118 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  72. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 212-213
  73. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 202-203
  74. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 246-247
  75. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 168-169
  76. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 150-151
  77. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 214-215
  78. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 254-257
  79. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 288-289
  80. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 268-269
  81. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 290-291
  82. ^ "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 161 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  83. ^ "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 160 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  84. ^ "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 164 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  85. ^ "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 165 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  86. ^ "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 166 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  87. ^ "Read Again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan" Page 167 Yoshinobu Oikawa [Author]
  88. ^ You can see the flow of the times graphically. "Easy to understand Showa history"Takahisa FurukawaPages 302-303
  89. ^ 217 seats of Seiyukai, 216 seats of civilian party, 8 seats of non-productive factions,Business Association4 seats, 3 innovation seats, neutral and 18 other seats
  90. ^ Minor Party 273, Seiyukai 174, Kokumin Doshikai 6, Non-productive factions 5
  91. ^ 301 seats of Seiyukai, 146 seats of civilian party, 5 seats of non-productive factions
  92. ^ 205 seats of the Civil Party, 171 seats of the Seiyukai,Showakai22 seats,Social mass party18 seats,National Alliance15 seats
  93. ^ Civil Party 179, Seiyukai 175, Social Mass 37, Showakai 19, National Alliance 11 etc.
  94. ^ Winners, 381 recommended, 85 non-recommended
  95. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 42 pages
  96. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 59 pages
  97. ^ Today's history (January XNUMX) Union News
  98. ^ Japan Special Sweeping Corps dispatched to the Korean War (PDF) - Ministry of Defense
  99. ^ Read again Yamakawa Postwar History of Japan 89 pages
  100. ^ Before that, as a TV animation,Mole Aventure''Three new videos''Instant history''Fairy manga calendar] Is broadcast.
  101. ^ Nostalgic Showa / Heisei Trend Encyclopedia 2001-1945, p. 56
  102. ^ Nostalgic Showa / Heisei Trend Encyclopedia 2001-1945, p. 52
  103. ^ Originally the birthday of Emperor Showa. "Tenchobushi" before and during the war, "Tenchobushi" after the warEmperor's birthday holidayWas the name, but in response to the demise of the Emperor Showa, "Greenery DayIt was changed to.
  104. ^ "History of Heisei Trends" pp. 4-5 Author Yohei Harada
  105. ^ However, there were two candidates for national elections born in Heisei.
  106. ^ "Kyoto Party with increased presence, Heisei-born city council is born Kyoto city council election". Kyoto Shimbun(November 2015, 4). originalArchived as of October 2015, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150413145806/http://www.kyoto-np.co.jp/local/article/20150413000022 2020/6/3Browse. 
  107. ^ Column 6 Legend of the era --- Is the post "Taisho" "Kobun"?, Modern Japan in historical materials,National Diet Library
  108. ^ Muromachi Shogunate15nd generationGeneralYoshiaki AshikagaIs an example,BiasThere were also daimyo in various places who used the character "Akira" in their names.aside from thatTokugawa Masaaki,Akio MoritaAlso.
  109. ^ jet lagBecause the date difference is involved due to the convenience of.

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