[8/8] New coronavirus, XNUMX new infections confirmed
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In addition, new clusters (groups of infected people) and nosocomial infections have been confirmed at medical institutions.
Regarding the new coronavirus, the prefecture and Nara City announced on the XNUMXth that XNUMX new infections were confirmed.new… → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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Nosocomial infectionWhat is (hospital-acquired infection, nosocomial infection)?hospitalAnd in medical institutionsBacteria,ウ イ ル スSuch asPathogenToinfectionTo do. It is a term that is paired with "community infection," which refers to infection outside the hospital. EspeciallyDrug resistancePathogensOpportunistic infection Refers to (opportunistic infection).
Hospitals, which are places for treating illnesses, on the other hand, are home to a wide variety of pathogens (patients infected with) and are home to many drug-resistant bacteria.InfectionIt can be said that it is a dangerous place whereAlso other diseasesImmunosuppressantBy administration, resistance to infection (Immunology) And many people have weakened physical strength, and there is a risk of pathogens invading the body during medical treatment such as injection and surgery.
For these reasons, the risk of outbreaks of infectious diseases is higher in hospitals than in the general urban environment.In-hospital infections are often different from out-of-hospital infectious diseases in terms of pathogens and countermeasures. Therefore, these infections that occur in hospitals are called nosocomial infections and are treated separately from community-acquired infections in the medical field. ..
Nosocomial infectionsCompromised hostWhen the disease develops or is caused by highly drug-resistant bacteria, it is difficult to treat and seriously damages the life and health of the patient.Therefore, it is important to prevent (prevent) the outbreak.
Thorough environmental hygiene at medical institutionsHand washing,disinfectionThorough implementation of basic infection prevention measures is effective in preventing outbreaks.Many medical institutions have specialized departments and medical teams (Infection control teamEtc.) are set up to prevent the outbreak of nosocomial infections, but when nosocomial infections occur and if any of these measures are found to be inadequate,Medical litigationIn some cases, it becomes a social problem.
Situation / cause
Hospitals and medical institutions are places to treat illnesses, but on the other hand, they are also places where patients infected with various pathogens gather.Antibacterial drug,disinfectantFrom heavy use ofDrug resistanceIt is an environment with many pathogens.
Patients with severe debilitating illness, patients who have undergone high-risk treatment such as surgery, or patients in the hospitalOrgan transplantationPatients whose infection defense ability (so-called immunity) has been artificially reduced by administration of immunosuppressive agents in order to weaken rejection after surgery, and bone marrow function and immunity decreased by administration of anticancer drugs Patients, etc.microorganismThere are many immunocompromised hosts (compromised hosts that can be infected by attenuated bacteria that do not harm healthy people) and have extremely low resistance to infection.Therefore, it depends on harmless bacteria.Opportunistic infectionWill be at high risk.
Since the patient who is the source of infection and the patient who has weakened immunity, resistance, and physical strength are in the same facility, it is easy to get infected. In addition to patient-to-patient transmission, infection can also be transmitted when a doctor, nurse, or healthcare professional such as a cook is a carrier of the pathogen, or when a carrier with high immunity visits the hospital from outside the hospital. May be triggered.
Main in-hospital routes and pathogens
- Contact infection: Infected by touching the skin or mucous membrane of the carrier or indirectly touching tableware or clothing
- Oral infection: Pathogens invade through the mouth through hands and tableware and become infected. EspeciallyFecal mouth infectionIn many cases (the number of pathogens required for infection is extremely small and the infection is high).
- Splash infection: Pathogens are transmitted by sneezing and coughing of carriers
- Airborne: Infected by inhaling pathogens floating in the air
- Blood infection : Needlestick accident,transfusion,Blood productsInfect from
- Infection by surgery or procedure:catheterOr indwell in the body, such as a plastic artificial valveMedical equipmentInfection from or from biologics
Actual conditions of nosocomial infection measures
Japan Society for Environmental InfectionsStarted to grasp the actual situation in 1999. About 20 years ago in the United States and Europe[When?]A research institute for nosocomial infection control has been organized since then, and research and research are progressing.
For example, there is an institution called Study for the Efficacy of Nasocomial Infection Control (SENIC, research on nosocomial infection control), and the survey is continued every year, and the latest methods and technologies are constantly introduced, researched and improved for preventive measures. In Japan, research is progressing rapidly, but countermeasures are not yet sufficient.
Published in June 2006Saitama Medical University HospitalIn nosocomial infections with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) in
- at firstICUThe infection spread and the patient brought MDRP back from the ICU to the general ward, resulting in the spread of the infection.
- Regarding the infection route, unlike other resistant bacteria, it must be propagated and transmitted through bar soap, hand-washing areas, showers, and other humid places, or through urine.
- AntibioticsPseudomonas aeruginosa acquired resistance to drugs due to overuse of (carbapenems, etc.)
Etc. have been clarified.
In hospital architectural design, to prevent nosocomial infectionsFlow lineConsideration is recommended to avoid crossing. It is desirable that the transportation route of waste, etc. that leads to infection or accident is completely separated from the patient flow line. That is, it is designed so that the patient's area of action is separated from the backyard.
Nosocomial infection of new coronavirus (2020)
Besides hospitals and clinicsHealthcare Facility for the ElderlyThe term "medical-associated infection" (English: healthcare-associated infection, abbreviation: HAI) has been proposed, including the spread of infection through home care and home care.
- ^ "1716 medical personnel infected in China Serious nosocomial infection outbreak”. Asahi Shimbun (September 2020, 2). April 2020, 4Browse.
- ^ "99% have been ill for some time ... Many elderly people have nosocomial infections, Italy, why Corona has the highest number of deaths”. 2020-03-24 SANKEI Biz (March 2020, 3). April 2020, 4Browse.
- Opportunistic infection
- Infection control team
- Sexually transmitted disease
- Infectious disease specialist / Infection control doctor(ICD) / Infection control nurse(Infectious disease control nurse) (ICN) / Infection control pharmacist(ICPM) / Infection control certified clinical microbiological technologist(ICMT) / Infection control dental hygienist(Infection control dental hygienist) (ICDH) / Infection control care worker(Infection control care worker) (ICCW) / (Type XNUMX / Type XNUMX) / Medical environment manager/
- Compromised host(Compromised host)
- 2019 New Coronavirus
- Kimberly bergalis --In hospital infectionHIVAffected by. An American woman who died later.
- Infectious Disease Information Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases
- Japanese Society of Infectious Diseases
- Japan Society for Environmental Infections
- Japanese Society for Oral Infections
- Japanese Society of Bacteria
- Japanese Society of Medical and Fungal Sciences
- Japanese Society of Virology
- Japanese Society of Clinical Microbiology
- Japan Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases
- Japan AIDS Society
- Japanese Society of Parasitology
- Clinical Microorganism Rapid Diagnosis Study Group
- ICD System Council
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
- Tokyo Nosocomial Infection Control Promotion Project