Research on the ideal state of suburban cities after the new Corona Machida City Future Development Institute
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Research and study urban functions and public services required after corona.
The "Machida City Future Development Institute" in the Planning and Policy Division of Machida City, Tokyo is a company associated with the new coronavirus infection. → Continue reading
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public service(Public services) is usually政府からCitizenDirectly againstCivil servantbyPublic sectorOr it refers to services provided through investment in private institutions.This definition includes the implication that the service should be provided to all electors in the region, regardless of tax payments.
Public services, whether government-run or government-funded, are subject to regulation in many sectors for social and political reasons.
In the public sector, basically
- Income distributionFairness
- Resource allocationComplementing the private economy in
- Macro economyAdjustment of
It is thought that there are three functions such as.
Providing public servicespublic investmentThe development of social capital is the national governmentMunicipalitiesAre sharing each..The funds needed for that are from the peopletax-Social insuranceIn principle, it is covered by a fee.
The government uses the taxes it collects for the public good.道路-park-damSuch asSocial capitalTo maintainPolicemen-FireTo maintain security by providing public services such asWelfare-Unemployment insurance-Public pensionAnd so on to improve social welfare..In order for the government to supply public services, it collects taxes to secure its financial resources..
The country has no choice but to collect taxes from the people to cover the costs of the services it provides to the people...It is the taxpayer, not the state, who pays for the services provided by the state.
Taxpayers try to convert taxes to others, but even if tax conversions occur, the public will still bear the cost of national services...If the government issues government bonds to cover the costs of services provided by the state, it only postpones tax collection and ultimately has to cover the costs with taxes..
However, the beneficiaries of national services are not necessarily the beneficiaries of the services, and in many cases the beneficiaries of the services do not bear the costs...Alternatively, even if the beneficiary of the service bears it, it may be only a part of the cost of the service...That the beneficiaries of the service bear the costBeneficiary burden principleTo say.
economist OfToshihiro IboriSays that those who desire public services by the government, as well as those who understand that tax collection is essential, are reluctant to increase their tax out-of-pocket costs...The main reason is that the "beneficiary burden principle" cannot be applied to public services.As a result, the benefits and burdens are separated...Even if you do not pay taxes, if others pay, you will benefit, Taxes borne by others are "good taxes" and taxes borne by oneself are "bad taxes"..Ibori is such a free-riding phenomenon (Free rider) Is the most important issue in considering the tax system..
Dissatisfaction and unfairness with respect to public burdens always exist, but this may be perceived as a cross-generational burden...One is the burden between the current and future generations, and the other is the burden between the current and older generations..
- ^ Motoshige Ito, The First Economics (below), Nikkei Publishing, Nikkei Bunko, 2004, p. 13.
- ^ Government at a Glance (Report). OECD. (2015). two:10.1787/22214399.
- ^ a b Daiichi Kangin Research Institute, "The Japanese Economy Starting with Basic Terms", Nikkei Business Journal, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2001, page 142.
- ^ a b c d "Easy Economics" edited by Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc., Nikkei Business Human Bunko, 2001, p. 174.
- ^ a b Norihisa Iwata "Recommendations for Economic Thinking" Chikuma Shobo, 2011, p.100.
- ^ a b c d e Norihisa Iwata "Recommendations for Economic Thinking" Chikuma Shobo, 2011, p.101.
- ^ a b "Easy Economics" edited by Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc., Nikkei Business Human Bunko, 2001, p. 175.
- ^ a b "Easy Economics" edited by Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc., Nikkei Business Human Bunko, 2001, p. 176.
- ^ UFJ Research Institute, Research Department, "The Japanese Economy in 50 Words", Nikkei Business Newspaper, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2005, p. 40.
- ^ UFJ Research Institute, Research Department, "The Japanese Economy in 50 Words", Nikkei Business Newspaper, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2005, p. 41.
Exploratory research (British: exploratory research) is "preliminary research, research to clarify the exact nature of the problem to be solved".It is used to ensure that additional research is considered during the experiment, prioritizes research, collects data, and focuses on specific subjects that are difficult to note without exploratory research. To match.The following method is used.
- -Review of literature and data ()
- An informal qualitative approach, including discussions with consumers, employees, management and competitors
- Detailed interview,Focus group, Projection technique,Case study,Pilot studyFormal byQualitative survey
According to Stebbins (2001), "The quest for social science is a broad, purposeful, systematic, pre-prepared project designed to maximize the discovery of generalizations that lead to description and understanding. Is.. His book argues that exploratory research should not use confirmation mechanisms such as hypotheses.It is qualitative and needs to rely on inductive research methods such as grounded theory introduced by Glasser and Strauss. ..Qualitative exploratory studies using the inductive approach do not use prior theorization and are based on previous studies. Casula, Rangarajan and Shields (2020) argue that exploratory research should not be limited to inductive approaches.They are,Working hypothesisSuggests that it is a useful framework for deductive exploratory research and should be part of the social scientist's toolbag..
Exploratory research is essential to research because it allows you to add quality, insightful information to your research.Exploratory research is because researchers can gain the most insight into the subject.CreativeIs.It is also a good opportunity for researchers to know what is effective and what is not a productive method, as research involves information from outsiders.In addition, you will have a better understanding of what the research team should be for the duration of the project.Keeping this information in mind is beneficial to anyone doing research from external sources.
Exploratory research can be used in many areas, regardless of which field research needs to be conducted.However, it is important to recognize how this result will affect the research conducted in different areas.Through focus groups, surveys and case studiesSecondary survey,discussion,Qualitative surveyIt is useful to compare and contrast various methods such as.
To give you the flexibility to tackle the problemApplied researchIs often exploratory.In addition, data is often limited and decisions need to be made in a short period of time.Case studies andField surveyQualitative research techniques such as are often used in exploratory research..
Marketing research projects have three types of purposes:
There are two research methods for investigating the causal relationship between variables.
- ^ Stebbins, R. (2001). Exploratory Research in the Social SciencesThousand Oaks, CA: SAGE (ISBN 0-7619-2398-5) p. 3
- ^ Stebbins, R. (2001). Exploratory Research in the Social SciencesThousand Oaks, CA: SAGE (ISBN 0-7619-2398-5)
- ^ Glaser, BG, Strauss, AL: The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Aldine, Chicago (1967)
- ^ Casula, M., Rangarajan, N. & Shields, P. The potential of working hypotheses for deductive exploratory research. Qual Quant (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-020-01072-9
- ^ Shields Patricia, Tajalli Hassan (2006). “Intermediate Theory: The Missing Link in Successful Student Scholarship”. Journal of Public Affairs Education 12 (3): 313–334. two:10.1080/15236803.2006.12001438.
- ^ and Rangarjan, N. 2013. A Playbook for Research Methods: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Project Management. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press. See Chapter four for an extensive discussion of descriptive research.
- ^ Brains, C., Willnat, L ,, Manheim, J., Rich, R. 2011. Empirical Political Analysis 8th edition. Boston, MA: Longman. P.76.
- ^ Nandan.[Where?]
- Russell K. Schutt, Investigating the Social World, 5th ed, Pine Forge Press.
- Robert A. Stebbins, Exploratory Research in the Social Sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001.
- Exploratory Research: 3 Reasons to Conduct More of It. (2019, September 16). Retrieved from https://www.gutcheckit.com/blog/3-reasons-conduct-exploratory-research/
- Zahl, HA, & Reilley, EM (1958). Exploratory Research. American Institute of Physics, 11 (8). Doi: 10.1063 / 1.3062684
- Gellar, L., Druker, S., Osganian, SK, Gapinski, MA, LaPelle, N., & Pbert, L. (2012). Exploratory Research to Design a School Nurse-Delivered Intervention to Treat Adolescent Overweight and Obesity. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 44 (1), 46–54. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2011.02.00